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D Joyce, Fall 2012 Some series converge, some diverge. Geometric series. Weve already looked at these. We know when a geometric series

n=0

in the interval (1, 1), and, when it does, it converges to the sum

1 diverges to . Even though n n=1 1 its terms 1, 1 , 3 , . . . approach 0, the partial sums Sn approach innity, so the series diverges. 2 The harmonic series. The standard harmonic series The main questions for a series. Question 1: given a series does it converge or diverge? Question 2: if it converges, what does it converge to? There are several tests that help with the rst question and well look at those now. The term test. The only series that can converge are those whose terms approach 0. That

is, if

k=1

ak converges, then ak 0.

n

Heres why. If the series converges, then the limit of the sequence of its partial sums approaches the sum S, that is, Sn S where Sn is the n

th

partial sum Sn =

k=1

ak . Then

n n n

The contrapositive of that statement gives a test which can tell us that some series diverge. Theorem 1 (The term test). If the terms of the series dont converge to 0, then the series diverges. Note, however, the terms converging to 0 doesnt imply the series converges, as the harmonic series gives a counterexample to that. The term test can be used to show that the following series dont converge n n+1 n! n2 1 (1)n n 2n + 1

because their terms do not approach 0. The rest of the tests in this note deal with positive series, that is, a series none of whose terms are negative. Note that the only way a positive series can diverge is if it diverges to innity, that is, its partial sums approach innity. The comparison test. Essentially, a positive series with smaller terms sums to a smaller number than a series with larger terms.

Suppose that

k=1

ak and

k=1

bk are two positive series and every term of the rst is less

n

than or equal to the corresponding term of the second, that is, an bn for all n. If thats the case, well say the second series dominates the rst series. Then each partial sum Sn =

n k=1

ak

of the rst series is less than or equal to the corresponding partial sum Tn =

k=1

bk of the

second series. Furthermore, since these are both positive series, so both sequences {Sn } n=1 and {Tn } of partial sums are increasing sequences. n=1 Suppose the second sequence converges to a number T , that is, Tn T . Then T bounds the sequence {Tn } , so it also bounds the smaller sequence {Sn } . Since an increasing n=1 n=1 bounded sequence has a limit, therefore {Sn } has a limit, S, and S T . n=1 Thus, weve proven the following theorem. The second statement is the contrapositive of the rst, so its also true. Theorem 2 (The comparison test). Suppose that one positive series is dominated by another. If the second converges, then so does the rst. If the rst diverges to innity, then so does the second. You can think of this theorem as simply saying that If an bn for each n, then an bn

Example 3. Any series dominated by a positive convergent geometric series converges. For 1 instance, well show converges since its dominated by the convergent geometric series n! n=4

n=4

1 1 1 . All we need to do is show that n for large n. But for n 4, 2n n!. Thus n 2 n! 2 1 is dominated by a convergent geometric series, and, so, its also a convergent series. n!

n=4

n=0

Note that whether a series converges or diverges doesnt at all depend on the rst few terms. It only depends the rest of them, the tail of the series. For that reason, when were only interested in convergence, well leave usually abbreviate our sigma notation and 1 say converges. n! 2

Example 4. Since

1 diverges, so does n

1 . ln n

The integral test. For many positive series, the question of convergence for the series can be replaced by a question of convergence for a closely related integral. Well illustrate this with an example rst. Example 5. Consider the series

1 + + + +

1 4

1 9

1 n2

+ =

n=1

1 . n2

We cant use the comparison test on this since we dont yet know any divergent series that it dominates, and we dont know any convergent series that it dominates. But we can extend 1 2 2 dx. 1/n to a nice continuous function f (x) = 1/x and look at the integral x2 1 Well draw a gure in class that shows the following inequality

n=2

1 < n2

1 dx < x2

n=1

1 . n2

The rst sum is a rectangular underestimate for the integral, and the second sum is an overestimate. Thus, our series sums to almost the integral, the error being at most the value of the rst term. We can easily evaluate that improper integral.

1

1 1 dx = 2 x x

=1

1

Since the integral converges, so does the series. We also get crude bounds on the sum of the series, namely, it sums to a value between 1 and 2. The exact sum of this series is dicult to nd. We wont nd it in this course, but it turns out to be 2 /6. We can generalize this example to prove the following theorem. The only special property of the function f (x) that we needed was that it was a decreasing function. Theorem 6 (The integral test). If f is a decreasing positive function dened on [1, ), then

the series

n=1

1

dierence between the sum of the series and the value of the integral is at most f (1). Its useful to have a notation to indicate that two series or integrals either both converge or both diverge. Well use a tilde, , for that. Then the integral test can be summarized as If f is positive and decreasing then f (n) f (x) dx

1 p-series Series of the form , where p is a constant power, are called p-series. When np p = 1, the p-series is the harmonic series which we know diverges. When p = 2, we have the convergent series mentioned in the example above. By use of the integral test, you can determine which p-series converge. Theorem 7 (p-series). A p-series 1 converges if and only if p > 1. np

Proof. If p 1, the series diverges by comparing it with the harmonic series which we already know diverges. Now suppose that p > 1. The function f (x) = 1/xp is a decreasing function, so to determine the convergence of the series well detemine the convergence of the corresponding integral.

1

1 1 = p x (p 1)xp1

= 0 +

1

1 p1 q.e.d.

Since the integral converges, so does the series. Some example divergent p-series are 1 , and n n 1 n1.001 . 1 and n 1 . Some convergent ones are n

1 , n2

The limit comparison test. This test is an improvement on the comparison test. It incorporates the fact that a series converges if and only if a constant multiple of it converges (provided that constant is not 0, of course). So long as you can compare a multiple of one series to another, thats enough to do a comparison. Theorem 8 (Limit comparison test). Given two positive series an and bn where the ratio of their terms an /bn approaches a positive number, then they either both converge or diverge, that is, an bn . Proof. Suppose that an /bn L, a positive number. Let = L/2. Then for large n, |an /bn an converges, then by the comparison test, so L| < L/2. Hence, L bn an 3L bn . Now, if 2 2 L does b converge, hence bn converges. On the other hand, if bn , converges, so does 2 n 3L bn , and again by the comparison test, an converges. q.e.d. 2 One of the applications of the limit comparison test is that it allows us to ignore small 3n2 + 2n + 1 terms. Consider the series an = . We can replace this series by bn = n3 + 1 2 n 1 = because n3 n an 3n2 + 2n + 1 = bn n3 + 1 n2 3n2 + 2n + 1 n3 = 31=3 n3 n2 n3 + 1 an also

But bn is the harmonic series, which diverges. Therefore our original series diverges.

The root test. The root test doesnt have a lot of applications, but Im including it here since its one of the standard tests. For the root test, you look at the limit of the nth root of the nth term. Theorem 9 (The root test). If lim a1/n = L, and if L < 1 then the series converges, but if n n L > 1 the series diverges. For the root test, if L = 1, then the test is inconclusive, so you have to use some other test. Example 10. The root test is especially useful when the nth term already has a nth power 1/n 1 1 1 1/n in it. Consider the series = 0. So that series . Here, an = n n (ln n) (ln n) ln n converges. Heres the proof for the root test in the case that L < 1. The case L > 1 is analogous. Well show an converges by comparing it to a larger convergent geometric series. Let r be 1/n 1/n a number between L and 1. Since an L, therefore for suciently large n, an < r, so an < rn . But the geometric series rn converges, so an also converges. q.e.d. The ratio test. We wont use the root test a lot, but the ratio test is very important, and well use a version of it soon on every power series we analyze. The statement of it is similar an+1 to that of the root test. For the ratio test, you look at the limit of the ratio of adjacent an terms. ak+1 Theorem 11 (The ratio test). If lim = L, and if L < 1 then the series converges, but n ak if L > 1 the series diverges. For the ratio test, as it was for the root test, if L = 1, then the test is inconclusive, so you have to use some other test. 7n 7n . The nth term is an = so the next term is Example 12. Consider the series n! n! n+1 7 an+1 an+1 = . For this ratio test, well examine the ratio and nd its limit. (n + 1)! an an+1 an = 7n+1 (n + 1)! 7n 7n+1 n! 7 = n = 0. n! 7 (n + 1)! n+1

Since the limit L = 0 is less than 1, this series converges. The proof of the rst case of the ratio test depends on comparing it to a larger convergent geometric series like we did for the root test. Again, well do just the case L < 1 here since the case L > 1 has an analogous proof. an+1 Let r be a number between L and 1. Since , therefore for suciently large n, say an an+1 n N , we have < r, and so an+1 < an r. A quick inductive argument shows that an an < aN rnN . That says the tail of our series is dominated by a convergent geometric

series, converges.

n=N

an <

n=N

aN rnN . Therefore, by the comparison test, the original series also q.e.d. 5

What test to use? Weve got several example series and several convergence tests. When youre looking at a positive series, whats the best way to determine whether it converges or diverges? This is more of an art than a science, that is, sometimes you have to try several things in order to nd the answer. Here are a few pointers you can use. If you recogize it as a geometric series arn , you know if it converges or not. It converges when the ratio r is in the interval (1, 1). 1 If its a p-series , you know if it converges or not. It converges when p > 1. np If the terms dont approach 0, you know it diverges. If you can dominate a known divergent series with the series, it diverges. If you know a convergent series that dominates it, it converges. The limit comparison test can be used to simplify the problem of convergence because it allows you to ignore small terms. If its got factorials or powers, you can usually use the ratio test. The root test also works on many of these. The integral test works on many series, but youll have to evaluate or bound the integral to make the determination. Math 122 Home Page at http://math.clarku.edu/~djoyce/ma122/

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