You are on page 1of 14

F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o

PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to
2006

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

An Alternative Approach For


Addressing Green House Effect

Ritesh Bhusari
BNCE Pusad
4/7/2006
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

An alternative approach for addressing Green house effect.

Abstract
Through the history of mankind, there exist several example of creation by man
vitiating the atmosphere either knowingly or unknowingly. The effects of the same are
realized later affecting the creator as well as nature.
Chlorine in CFCs molecules causes depletion of ozone. As CFCs molecules
reach stratosphere, they are dissociated by the sunlight into active chlorine compounds,
which in turn, attack ozone, generating a chain reaction one molecule of CFC is thus
sufficient to destroy many hundreds of ozone molecules.
Many international / National bodies have expressed their concern leading to this
critical issue “Montreal protocol” is an important step in this direction.
Refrigerant 134a is one of the leading candidates to replace R-12 in many of the
application. This paper describes R-134a and case study of automobile vehicle

Key words :-
Ozone deletions àGreen House à HFC 134a – (Tetra Fluoro ethane)

Introduction
Early years of the member of the mobile and air conditioning society (MACS) get
together and discuss a wide range of topics that are of interest to those who make their
living serving automotive A/C system. This year’s event was held Feb. 18-21 in Las
Vegas.
For the past several years, many of the technical session that were offered were
focused on retrofitting older vehicles with R-12 A/c system to the new “Ozone-safe” R-
134 refrigerant. But this year, these were hardly any discussion of retrofit at all the
reason of retrofit has become a non-issue.
R-12 has almost disappeared from the market except for the residual refrigerant
that can still be recovered and recycled from older vehicles, and that which is still being
mugged into the U.S. from off shore sources when an older R-12 system loses its charge
or needs major repairs, most shops are going ahead and converting there system to R-134
a which is creating a new problem for the environment.

2
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

Retrofitting
R-12 OR CFC’S AND OZONE HOLE – A GLOBAL PROBLEM.

Function of Ozone Layer :


Fig. Shows various atmospheric A/c layer with approximate thickness. The
stratosphere layer varies from 4-8 km (at –40oC) at the poles to about 16-18 km (at –
80oC) at the equator. In this layer the temperature decreases with altitude at a rate of
1c/165 m of distance, known as normal lapse rate. After this layer there is stratosphere
upto 50 km. In the stratosphere up 40 km. The concentration of ozone layer as of three
atom of oxygen’s is more this layer is called ozonosphere or Mesosphere.
It absorbs ultra-violet (U.V.) rays coming from the sun and only the beneficial
light and heat rays are allowed to reach the earth surface. Thus this layer forms a
protective cover for all life on the earth i.e. It is an “Anchal” of a mother to protect her
children.
The prevention of UV rays from reaching the earth saves inhabitance on the earth
surface from many types of cancer diseases. Hence a great importance is attached to the
ozonosphere especially due to the existence of life only on this planet.

3
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

· Causes of Ozone Hole


Though there are several causes or way to hole the ozone layer and some of these are
as explained below.
1) The main criteria was found after surveying to all over world is that manufacture
of automobiles and locomotives as well as their use installation and operation of
thermal and nuclear owner plant and chemical and refrigeration plant, yielding
tremendous amount of polluting gases.
2) India criminate felling of trees, mining, big barrages etc. leading to eco-
imbalance.
3) Modernization of agriculture for large output and cities for better living causing
several problem.
4) Refrigeration & A/c for increased productivity and better quality of life.

Through the above developed were brought by engineers, techno craters and
industrialists for better product and services, developers has not been guiltless of creating
continuously polluting environment over past 50 years. Several govt. and international
bodies have shown their keen interest in protecting and finding the best solution of these
problem. In addition to pollution and eco-balance the Ozone hole has attracted rather
bigger attention of the leading international bodies. The above hole has developed at the
South Pole.
The disappearance of ozone on a localized region is called as “Ozone Hole”. The
ozone hole causes the two major causes
1) Green house effect.
2) Ozone hole problem.

Chlorine in CFC’s molecules causes depletion of ozone. As CFC’s molecules


reach stratosphere they are dissociated by the sunlight into active chlorine compound
which, in turn, attach ozone generating a chain reaction one molecule of CFS is thus
sufficient to destroy many hundred of ozone molecule.

4
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

· Green house effect :


Green house gases are those gases in earth atmosphere, which retain a part of sun
energy reflected back from earth surface. This affect along with energy absorbed by the
earth surface affect the long term energy balance of earth and its atmosphere where
fundamentally controls the earth’s climate. Incoming radiation from the sun mainly in
the form of visible life, is absorbed at the earth surface and in the atmosphere above. On
average, absorbed radiation is balanced by the amount of energy return to space in the
form of infrared heat radiation. Green house gases such as water vapours and carbon
dioxide as well as clouds and small articles known as a erosols, trap same heat in the
layer art of the atmosphere. This is called the green house effect if these were no natural
green house effect, the average surface temperature would be colder than what it is
today?
Natural event cause changes in climate over longer time span, thousand of year
shifted climate from ice age to relatively warmer period of today.
A human activity also changes the climate. Due to more power generation need
more carbon dioxide is released in atmosphere and due to carrying of forest percentage of
carbon dioxide continuously increasing. Apart from this methane, nitrous oxide, Hydro
Fluro Carbon (HFC’s) per Fluoro Carbon (FFG) and Sulpher Hexafluoride (Sfo) also
released into earth’s atmosphere. This enhance the natural green house effect; leading an
increasing earth’s average surface temperature.
The green house effect is a warming of the earth surface and lower atmosphere
that tends to intensify with an increate in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
The atmosphere allows a large percentage of the rays of visible light from the sun
to reach the earth surface and heat it. A part of this energy is radiated by earth surface in
the form of long wave infrad radiation much of which molecules of carbon dioxide and
water vapour in the atmosphere absorb & which is reflected back to the surface as heat.
This is roughly analysis to the effect produced by the glass panel of the green house,
which transmit sunlight in the visible range but hold in heat. The trapping of this infrared
radiation causes the earth’s surface & lower atmospheric layer to warm to the higher
temperature. Apart from this leakage of CFC’s also help in depletion of ozone layer.
Global warming has increased ocean levels by more than 1mm a year in part
century out since 1960 ocean level is increasing 1.3 mm annually.

5
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

Ozone Hole Formation


The chlorine or CFC molecules take about 25-30 years (27) in reaching from the
earth surface to ozonosphere. It means the ozone hole problem is due to release of such
molecules around 1960’s.
Since release of these molecules have some to around 10-20 folds. It means the
problem is expected to the rather more serious in the future. Fortunately, the nature is
very kind to human being to the original state as can be seen in fig.
Many national / international bodies have expressed their concern leading to
several meeting of a large no. of representative of various countries. The Montreal
protocol in 1987 is an important step in this direction.
The Montreal protocol vision consist of the following.
1) Production & consumption of full halogenated CFCs will be from to 1986
levels as of 1st Jan. 1989.
2) The first reeducation would take affect in 1993.
3) Reducing producing & consumption to 0% of the 1986 levels.
4) The next reduction would occur in 1998 with 30% reduction.

Refrigerant ODF/RODP GWP

R-11 1.00 1.00

R-12 1.00 3.05 -ODF – Ozone depletion factor

R-113 0.80 1.30

R-114 1.00 4.15 RODP – Relative ozone depletion


potential.

R-22 0.05 0.37

R-134a 0.00 0.29

R-152a 0.00 0.10 GWP – Global Warming Potential

6
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

· Various Measures for Ozone Conservation :

1) Direct Measures :-
To meet the challenges faced by the planet the suggested method are
1) Use of radio wave to produce negative chlorine ions in the
stratosphere.
2) Plugging ozone holes with balloons.
In the first method the chlorine do not destroy the ozone layer. Thus by sending
powerful radio waves from the ground to upper atmosphere surplus electrons may be
created. These electrons when combine with neutral chlorine atoms the latter becomes
ionized and thus becomes harmless to ozone. To have reasonably cost effective method,
the solar energy may be utilized for this purpose.
The second method is proposed by British org., Ozone Help (OH). It proposes to
produce ozone in the upper atmosphere. The system is known as “ozonater”. Consist of
a solar powered machine attached to a big balloon. The Machine is carried to high
altitude by balloons over Antarctica where the ozone depletion has reached it’s highest.
The machine is about the size of a large microphone and generates a charge of more than
15000 volts. When this charge is emitted into atmosphere, it produces significant amount
of ozone by converting oxygen of the air. The proposed method envisages to carry 100
such ozonaters powered 300 small solar panels per balloons.

2) Indirect Measures :
This method proposes various measures to redue the ozone depleting sources. They
are :
1) Development of new refrigerant suitable for substitution of common
CFS.
2) Use of CFC’s with relatively low. ODP.
3) Use of Ammonia & water as a refrigerant wherever possible.
4) Use of non-azeotrapic mixtures.

7
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

1) Development of New Refrigerant :-


There are tremendous efforts put forth in this direction. Du Point Company has
started up a small lot production facility to produce compeno that replace CFS for use in
refrigeration application. The plant located at the company’s chambers works in deep
water. New Jery, USA is producing HCF-134a.
As it has no ozone depleting potential this is earmarked to replace CFC-12 current
used for blowing agent and refrigerant in a large no of application such as household
refrigerator, window and air conditioners etc.
An environmentally acceptable fluorocarbon is under development for replacement of
R-12 in sterilant gas for use in sterilization of surgical & health care equipment. The
outcome is very encouraging similarly to reduce R-113 emissions a flux removal solvent
is under development.

2) Use of low ODD value Refrigerants.


The refrigerant like 124 (CF3CHFcl) & R-142 (b) (CH3CC1F2) & 134a contain
chlorine but their ozone depletion potential (ODP) is low. They can better tried and used
as refrigerant or as substitute for high ODP CFC’s application.

3) Use of ammonia, Mixture of refrigerant & water.


In the light of gravity of problem due to ozone hole, ammonia has been suggested
to be a “an excellent alternative” If possesses almost all desirable properties such as high
enthalpy of vaporization, COP high refrigeration, efficiency, large gauge of operating
temperature, low cost available in abundance, its leakage detection is very easy. It is not
miscible in oil.
Water is an excellent refrigerant for substitute. It’s main advantage that
1) Thermal, stable at high temperature.
2) Neither toxic non flammable
3) Chemically inert at high temperature.
4) High COP & Outstandingly very high enthalpy of vapourization.
5) No cost of refrigerant, no leakage problem.
6) Very low system renders light components except to take care about
compressor.

8
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

4) Mixed Refrigerant (Non-Azeotrophic Mixture)


It’s use reduces the ozone depletion potential. As an example in lace of R-12 a
mixture of 70% R-22 & 30% R-12 renders the ODP from 1 to about 0.34 even this
technique has got potential scope. In hybrid air conditioning operation. This mixture has
been tried. The performance of the system gave encouraging response.

* R-134 a on Glance
The chemical name of 134a is (Tetrafluro ethane)
- HFC (Hydro Fluro Carbon) HFC 134a is considered to be the most suitable
substitute for higher pressure system using R-12 and R-22 & R500.
- For retrofitting R-134a is replacement of R-12.
- R-134a is retrofitting to be easier because a greatest change is not require. The
cost to do a retrofitting will varying depending on need, age control up grade
location. Performance requirement it’s cost 26% new chiller.
- A direct conversion of R-12 into R-134a will result in 8 to 10% capacity loss & 1
to 2% loss in efficiency.
- R-134a offers the best ?& perhaps the only long term choice for applications such
as transport refrigeration, Car air conditioning household refrigerator, Positive
displacement machine such as scroll & screw compressor & large centrifugal
water cooled chiller.

* Advantages :
1) It has positive pressure both evaporator & condenser. Hence, no necessity of
purged unit.
2) It is declared as non-toxic refrigerant by testing for alternative Fluoro carbon
Toxicity testing & has an allowable explosure & has an allowable explosure limit
(ALE) of 1000 (PPM) (Part per micron) the highest level given it is given group
(A) safety classification due to non-toxicity & non-flammability.
3) It has a 0% ODP (Ozone depletion potential)
4) It has a low GWP (Global warm potential) (0.1%)
5) It has good system efficiency.
6) It has good availability because of this wide application.

9
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

Current status of A Vehicle using R-134a.


- R-134a is non toxic, non flammable contains no chlorine & it does not breakdown
the earth’s ozone layer that helps block’s sun’s harmful (UV) radiation. It is a
“Green house” gas that contributes to global warming. The U.S. Environmental
protection agency rays 134a has a global warming potential that is 1,300 times
greater than carbon dioxide (CO2)
- CO2 is a major issue with environmental because the rising level of CO2 is the
atmosphere over the past century is causing a gradual rise in average world wide
temperature & adverse changes in world climate patterns. The problem they ray
is that CO2 retains heat. This creates “Green house” effect has traps heat in the
atmosphere & allows it to build up over time. The rise CO2 is directly linked to
the increased use of fossil fuels in industrialized countries & the increase in the
world’s vehicle population. Motor vehicles account for about 20% of the overall
CO2 problem. But a much larger portion (perhaps 50% or more) of global CO2
problem is due to deforestation & “ slash & burn agricultural articles in many.
Third world nations. Even so the role played by motor vehicles is significant.
- We now 738 millions cars & light trucks on the world’s load plus another 200
million commercial vehicles. By the year 2010 or sooner the world’s vehicle
population of cars & light trucks is expected to number more than 1 billion of
these, 84% will have factory equipped air conditioning multiply the number of
vehicle times the amount of refrigerant each contains & it adds u to a lot of green
house gas.
- As long as 134a or nay other refrigerant remains sealed inside an A/c system. It
posses no environmental hazard. But if it leaks out, it remains in the atmosphere
a long, long time & contributes to the global worming problem. According new
research that has been conducted by the environmental protection agency,
measurable amount of 134a are now being detected that indicate roughly 40
million pounds of R-134a a year is some how finding its way into the atmosphere.
Forty million pounds of refrigerant is the equivalent of 53 million 12 – ozone
cans. That is a huge amount of refrigerant.

10
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

* 134a Retrofitting
According to the American automobile manufacture Association (AAMA) the
current vehicle population of cars and light trucks build from 1991 to 1994 with R-12 air
conditioning system is about 50 million add in the all A/c equipped vehicles from earlier
year and it add upto a huge potential market for retrofit.
The question is owners of older vehicle having their vehicles retrofitted to R-
134a. When their A/c system needs work? The older a vehicle gets the more it
depreciates by the time it is 10 to 12 years old. It may only be worth a couple thousand
dollars. Many owners won’t put any more money into an older vehicle. Unless the
repairs are absolutely necessary to keep it running, even then, it may less expensive to get
rid of the vehicle or junk it than fix up. Air conditioning unfortunately is usually
regarded as a luxury. It’s nice to have but you can drive without it unless you live in
Arizona, Florida or another hot sport where not summer temperature high humidity make
city traffic unbearable.
The answer to far is that yes. People are having older vehicles are retrofitted to R-
134a and other refrigerant.

* Techniques of Retrofitting
The retrofit can done in two ways. The first is to follow the vehicle manufacturer
recommended retrofit procedure. This generally involves removing all the old mineral
oil from the system, replacing the accumulator with one that contains X – 7 desiccant,
replacing O-rings (if required) installing or replacing a high pressure cutout switch
(which may shops seem to forget) changing the orifice tube or expansion valve (if
required), then adding a specified. PAG oil and recharging the system with R-134a on
same application, installing a more efficient condenser may be recommended for
improved cooling performance after the modification are made, the system is recharged
to about 85 to 90% of it’s original capacity with R-134a.
Federal law also requires the permanent installing of R-134a fittings on the high
& low service parts to reduce the change of refrigerant. Cross contamination the next
time the vehicle is serviced. Labels must also be installed to identify the system has been
converted to R-134a.

11
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

The other approach to retrofit. Is the “quick and cheap” one. On many 1989 the
rough 1993 vintage vehicle R-12 A/c system can be converted by simply recovering any
refrigerant that is still in the system, adding pot oil (which is compatible will both types
of refrigerant) and recharging to 5 to 90% capacity with R-134a.
A customer may only have to pay $150 (Rs. 7500) to $200 (10,000) for a simple
retrofit provided no major components have to be replaced. But simple law cost retrofits
may net give the best cooling performance and may not even be possible on some
vehicle.

Comparative Refrigerant performance per kW of Refrigeration

Refrigerant
Ammonia R-22 R-134 a
Properties

Evaporator Pressure, Mpa 0.236 0.296 0.16

Condenser Pressure, Mpa 1.164 1.192 0.77

Compression Ratio 4.94 4.03 4.81

Refrigerating effect KJ/kg 1102.23 162.46 150.71

Refrigerant
Flaw rate kg/s 0.00001 0.00616 0.00664

S vol. Of Suction gas m3/kg 0.5106 0.0774 0.1224

Compressor Displacement L/s 0.463 0.476 0.812

Compressor Power kw 0.207 0.210 0.226

COP 4.84 4.75 4.42

Compressor Discharge Temp. k 371 326 316

12
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

* Conclusion

Use of eco-friendly refrigerant make’s it possible to neglect the effect of GWP as


well as ODP. One of the major application of refrigerant is used in automobile A/c.
Retrofitting is one of the solution to replace conventional refrigerant with eco-friendly
refrigerant. Now it is individual responsibility to become ozone friendly citizen by taking
actions against to reduce and eliminates on the stratospheric ozone layer caused by the
appliances and equipments. This is toward implementing the “Montreal Protocol”. In
near future this technique can be applied to all related Refrigeration & Air Conditioning.

13
F T ra n sf o F T ra n sf o
PD rm PD rm
Y Y
Y

Y
er

er
ABB

ABB
y

y
bu

bu
2.0

2.0
to

to
re

re
he

he
k

k
lic

lic
C

C
w om An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. w om
w

w
w. w.
A B B Y Y.c A B B Y Y.c

Reference

1. Emission and Environmental impact from Air Conditioning System


By - James M. Calm P.E.

2. ISHARE Handbook
- Refrigeration – 1999 edition.
Page No. 2.5

3. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning


By - Manoher Prasad (IInd Edition-2002)
- New Age International Publisher
Page No. 18-26

14