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The material presented in

this pUblication has been


prepared for the general
information of the reader
and should not be used or
relied on for specific
applications without first
securing competent advice.
The Nickel Development
Institute, its members, staff
and consultants do not
represent or warrant its
suitability for any general or
specific use and assume no
liability or responsibility of
any kind in connection with
the information herein.
G. Sorell
is a consultant to the
Nickel Development Institute
PART I
Corrosion-resistant nickel alloys
Aguide for selection and application
C
onlinuing advances in mClallurgical
techniques and manufacturing tech-
nologies have spurTed the develop-
ment of nickel alloys and their broader
utilization in the chemical industry.
Nickel alloys offer a combination of
excellent corrosion resistance. strength,
toughness. metallurgical stability. fabrica-
bility and weldability. Many nickel alloys
additionally possess outstanding heal
resiSllmce. making them ideal choices for
applications requiring chemical resistance
and strength at elevated temperatures.
This survey of wrought nickel-based
alloys (here defined as containing more
than 45% nickel) covers a range of
wrought corrosion-resistant 3110ys com-
monly used in chemical plant applications.
Chemical compositions and Unified
Numbering System (UNS) designations
of these alloys are shown in Table I. To
aid the reader, 3.nd not as an endorsement.
some familiar trade names are identified
in the sidebar.
Properties of alloys
Nickel alloys are more expensive than
stainless steels. However. economic com-
parisons on a first-cost. rather than on a
life-cycle basis. can be: deceiving. For
instance. Ni-Cr-Mo alloys cost roughly
five times as much as ISCr-8Ni stainless
steels and about twice as much as super-
austenitic stainless steels.
Owing to the exceptional corrosion
resistance of nickel alloys. the initial COSt
premium can often be recouped through
long-term savings due to prolonged
equipment life. reduced maintenance and
fewer shutdowns.
Physical properties of nickel alloys are
quite similar to those of the 300 Series
austenitic stainless steels. As a class, nick-
el-based alloys have thermal expansion
rotes about equal to carbon steel. but sig.
Nickel alloys offer a combina-
tion of excellent corrosion resis-
tance, strength, toughness, met-
allurgicaJ stability, fabricability
and weldabilit)'.
nificantly lowcr than 300 series stainless
steels.
Though the thermal conductivity of
pure nickel exceeds that of carbon steel.
most nickel alloys have markedly lower
conductivities. in some instances even
lower than austenitic stainless steels.
Except for pure nickel. the nickel
alloys used in chemical processing are
considerably stronger than the 300 Series
stainless steels. Nickel alloys also have
very good ductility (as illustrated by the
room temperature mechanical properties
listed in Table 2) and toughness.
Maximum allowable design Stresses for
most of the alloys used in chemical plant
equipment are published in Section vm
of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code.
Nickel alloys have fully austenitic
microstructures. Nearly all of the grades
employed in the chemical industry are
solid-solution strengthened. They derive
their enhanced strength properties from
the addition of effective hankners such as
molybdenum and tungsten. rather than
from carbide formation. Like austenitic
stainless steels, solid solution nickel
alloys cannot be strengthened by heat
treatment. only by cold working.
Another broad class of nickelbased
alloys are strengthened by a precipitation-
hardening heat treatment, These are
reserved largely for ultrahigh-strength
applications sllCh as those encountered in
deep oiVgas production and extreme high-
pressure processes.
Except for selected components in
valves and TOtating machinery. precipita-
tion-hardened nickel alloys find limited
application in chemical plants. Included in
this alloy class are heat-resistant superal-
loys employed in gas turbines. combus-
tion chambers and aerospace applications,
Corrosion-resistance
Nickel alloys represent a step up from
conventional slainless steels and super-
austenitic iron-based alloys in resisting
corrosion by a wide spectrum of acids.
alkalis and salts. An outstanding attribute
of nickel alloys is exceptional resistance
10 aqueous solutions containing halide
ions, In that regard, nickel alloys are far
superior 10 auslenitic stainless steels.
which are notoriously prone to attack by
wei chlorides and fluorides.
This superior corrosion behavior of
nickel alloys manifests ilself not only in
terms of lower metal loss. but in the abili-
ty to better withstand localized auack,
notably pining/crevice corrosion, inter-
granular auack and Stress corrosion crack-
ing. These forms of localized allack. more
so than general thinning. account for the
majority of corrosion-induced failures in
the chemical industry,
Nickel alloys owe their corrosion
resistance partly 10 the inherent lower
reactivity of nickel relative to iron. as
measured by its more noble oxidation
potential in the EMF Series. Similar to
stainless steels. chromium-containing
nickel alloys have the capability to passi-
vate (i,e.. to spontaneously form an ultra-
thin but tenacious surface oxide that func-
tions as an effective corrosion barrier).
An added advantage of nickel over iron
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HIGH PERFORMANCE METALS & ALLOYS
Table 1 Nommal composihon 01 corrosion-resIstant nickel allovs (wi %).
Alloy UNS no. Ni Cr M. F. W Cu Other
200 N02200 99.6
400 N044QO 66.5 1.0 31.5 1.0 Mn
600 N06600 75.0 15.5 8.0
625 N06625 62.0 21.5 9.0 2.5 3.8(Nb+Ta)
690 N06690 61.0 29.0 9.0
825 N08825 42.0 21.5 3.0 29.5 2.3 1.0 Ti
G-3 N06985 44.0 22.0 7.0 19.5 1.5' 2.0' 2.1 Nb
G-30 N06030 43.0 29.8 5.0 15.0 2.8 1.7 1.0INb+Ta)
C-276 N10276 57.0 15.5 16.0 5_5 3.8
C-22 N06022 56.0 22_0 13.0 3.0 3.0
C2QOO Nl0200 59.0 23.0 16.0 1_5 1.6
622 N06022 58.0 20.5 14.2 2.3 3_2
686 N06686 60.0 21.0 16.0 5.0' 3_7
59 N06059 60.0 23.0 15.8 1.5'
8-2 Nl0665 69.0 1.0' 28_0 2.0'
8-3 Nl0675 68.5 1.5 28.5 1.5 3.0'
8-4 Nl0629 66.0 1.0 28.0 3.5
Maximum
is the ..bilit)' to accept large fractions of
alloying elements wilhout fonning briule
phases. Common alloying additions for
enhanced corrosion resistance are chromi-
um. molybdenum and copper. Their roles
are addressed in the brief chamcterizations
of nickel alloy syStems thaI follow.
Comparative resistance ratings of nick-
el alloys in common chemical planl cov;-
ronlTl('nlS are shown in Table 3. These gen-
eral guidelines are nOi intended for specifi-
calion purposes but only as a starting point
in the materials selection process.
Welding guidelines
The majority of nickel alloy welds are per-
formed by shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW). gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW) and gas metal arc welding
(GMAW). Nickel alloy weldmcnts are
very ductile. and their low thennal expan-
sion characteristics reduee residual stresses
and warpage. Post weld heat treaunent is
generally required only for precipitation-
hardcnablc grades. Specifications issued
by the American Welding Society (AWS)
for nickel alloy welding electrodes and
filler metals are liSlOO in Table 4.
Welding procedures for nickel alloys
are fairly similar to those used for
austenitic stainless steels. Howevcr. due to
the greater sluggishness of Ni-rich weld
puddles and the lower penetration charac-
teristics of nickel alloys. the production
of full penctration welds may require
modification of joint configurations and
welding techniques. Nickel alloys are
less tolerant than ferrous materials to con-
tamination that could cause weld embril-
tlemenl.
The combinatioo of high ductility, low
thennal expansion and the ability to toler-
ate dilution by numerous metallic ele-
ments h:ts made nickel-rich welding coo-
sumables universally 3CCepied for joining
dissimilar metals. This includes not only
welds of nickel-based alloys to iron-based
alloys. but also for welds of stainlcss
steels to carbon and alloy steels.
Similarly. nickel alloys can be weld-
deposited on carbon steel without the risk
of crocking.
Types of nickel alloys
Nickel alloys are commercially available
in a broad variety of product forms
including plate. sheet. strip. tubes. pipe.
fittings and forgings. Selected ASTM
specifications for some of these are noted
in Table 5. Some nickel alloys arc also
produced as castings. These generally
have different charactcristics from their
wrought counterparts.
Nickel alloys are generally classified
according to their principal alloying con-
stilUents. The families of nickel alloys
extensively utilized in chemical plant
equipment are briefly characterized
below;
Pure nickel. Pure nickel (Alloy 200)
has very good resistance to a wide ronge
of reducing acids and salts. but is not a
suiw.bte choice for strongly oxidizing
environments such as nitric acid. The
most significant allribute of pure nickel is
unexcelled resistance to caustic alkalis,
even when molten. Though outstanding in
its resistance to dry halogen environ-
ments, nickel is not adequately resistant
below the water dewpoint. For applica-
tions m ~ than 600"F. a lowcarbon vari-
ant, designated Nickel 201 (UNS
N02201), is the preferred choice.
NiCu Alloy 400. The corrosion
behavior of nickel-copper Alloy 400. like
that of nickel. is best under reducing con-
ditions and can be compromised by aera-
tion and oxidizing chemicals. Alloy 400
possesses very good resislance to halogen
acids and compounds. particUlarly hydro-
fluoric acid and hot gases rich in fluorine
or hydrogen fluoride.
The alloy is used widely for handling
Ell Rt!prillttdfrom Cl1l.'mjrnl Proussing Maga:jnt! NOI'emINr 1997
HIGHPERFORMANCE METALS & ALLOYS
Table 2 MInimum room temperature mechamcal properlies of nickel alloy.
Alloy Ultimale tensile Yield strength Elongation
lIeslgnalion slrenglh llesl) 0.2% olfs.l(lesi) (%)
200 55 15 40
400 70 28 35
600 80 35 30
625 110 55 30
690 85 35 30
825 85 35 30
G-3 90 35 45
G-30 85 35 30
C-276 100 41 40
C-22 100 45 45
C-2000 100 41 45
622 100 45 45
59 100 45 45
B-2 110 51 40
B-3 110 51 40
B-4 110 51 40
Table 3. General guidelines lor corrOSion resistance.
Alloy Sulfuric Phosphoric Hydrochloric Hydrofluoric Nitric Organic Strong Reducing Oxidizing
acid acid acid acid acid acids alkalis salts salts
200 .. .. ..

400

.. ..

600 .. ..

.. ..

..
625

690 ..

..

825

..

..

..
G3

..

C276

..

..

B2

Excellent 10 good;
... Good to satisfactory;
Not recommended.
Chtmical Processing Maga:int. NQI,t'm/)er /997 ..
HIGHPERFORMANCE METALS & ALLOYS
sulfuric acid solutions. sea water and
brines. For applications requiring higher
strength. such as thaI demanded for valve
and pump components, use is made of
Alloy K-500 (N05500), a precipitation-
hardenable variant of Alloy 400.
.NiCrFe Alloy 600. The addition of
chromium to the nickel matrix extends the
suitability of Alloy 600 imo the oxidizing
range. Though only mediocre for mil'leral
acids. Alloy 600 has cltccllcnt resislallCe 10
organic acids and is used e:uensively in
fatty acid processing. It is also employed
widely in the production and handling of
caustic and alkali chemicals.
Alloy 600 also qualifies as an excellent
m:lleriaJ for high-temperature applications
requiring a combination of heat and COfTO-
sion resistance. The alloy's excellent perfor-
mance in hol halogen environments makes
it a favorite choice for organic chlorination
processes. Other elevated temperature
degradation processes against which Alloy
600 has demonslrated excellenl resistance
are oltidation. carburizalion and nitridation.
NiCrMo Alloy 625. The addition of
molybdenum to the Ni-Cr systems broad-
ens resistance to mineral acids and salts.
both oxidalion and reducing. Molybdenum
additionally confers resistance to pilling
and crevice corrosion by wet chlorides.
Alloy 625 is a very strong material with
excellent resistance to fatigue. Alloy
625LCF. a bellows.quality version of
Alloy 625. lays claim to exceptionally
good resistance to low.cycle and thermal
fatigue.
Like Alloy 600. Alloy 625 serves
effectively both as a corrosion-resislant
and heat-resistant material. The combina-
tion of eltcellenl high.temperature
strength and resistance to halogen attack,
oxidation and carburization has made
Alloy 625 a favored choice for chemical
and petrochemical process equipment
exposed to hoslile, high-temperalllre envi
ronments.
Ni-Cr Alloy 690. Alloy 690 has the
highest chromium content among nickel
alloys suilable for fabrication of pressure
equipment. which confers eltceptional
resistance to oxidizing media. It is effec-
tively used for hot concentrated sulfuric
acid, nitric acid and nitric,1lydrofluoric acid
mixtures, as well as for oxidizing salts.
The high chromium content also improves
resislance in hot sulfidizing environments.
NiCrFe Alloy 825. Because of its
near 30% iron content. Alloy 825 is s0me-
times included in the family of super-
austenitic stainless steels. The alloy excels
in sulfuric and phosphoric applicalions
thai. as with Alloy 20, were major devel-
opment targets. Though reasonably resis-
tantto hydrochloric acid, Alloy 825 is sub-
ject to chloride pitting and crevice corro-
sion. panicularly in stagnant. unaerated
solutions. Its high iron content makes
Alloy 825 less resistant than higher nickel
containing alloys to alkalis and halogens.
.Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo "G" alloys. Alloy G-3
offers improved corrosion resistance over
alloys 400, 600 and 825 in a wide range of
applications. The: alloy is especially resis-
tant to sulfuric acid and contaminated
phosphoric acid. and can withstand both
reducing and oltidizing conditions. The
more recently developed Alloy G-30 has
better weldability and offers improved a11-
round corrosion resistance. TlOtably in weld
heat-affected zones.
Ni-CrMo ''C'' alloys. Alloy C-276
is considered [he preeminent alloy
employed in the chemical industry for
exceptionally corrosive environments that
are beyond the capability of stainless
steels. It has outstanding resistance to
acids. acid salts and a wide spectrum of
other aggressive substances encountered in
chemical processing.
Alloy C276 is particularly effective in
such punishing environments as wet chlo-
rine and hypochlorites. Owing to its
Table 4. AWS specifications for welding materials.
Alloy Welding electrode (AS.ll) Filler metal (A5.l4)
200 ENi-l ERNi-1
400 ENiCu-7 ERNiCu-7
600 ENiCrFe-3 ERNiCrFe-3
625 ENiCrMo-3 ERNiCrMo-3
G-3 ENiCrMo-9 ERNiCrMo-9
G-30 ENiCrMo-11 ERNiCrMo-l1
C-276 ENiCrMo-4 ERNiCrMo-4
C-22 ENiCrMo-10 ERNiCrMo-l0
622 ENiCrMo-l0 ERNiCrMo-l0
686 ENiCrMo-14 ERNiCrMo-14
59 ENiCrMo-13 ERNiCrMo-13
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HIGH PERFORMANCE METALS & ALLOYS
Table 5 ASTM speciflcatlOns lor selected product forms.
Alloy Plato! Seamless Welded Seamless W,ld,d
sbeet pip, pip, tubes lubes
200 B162 B161 B725 B161 B730
400 B127 B165 B725 B165 B730
600 B16B B167 B517 B167 B516
625 8443 B444 B705 8444 8704
690 8168 8167 B167
825 8409 8407 8407 8515
G-3 B582 8622 8619 8622 8626
G-30 B582 8622 8619 8622 B626
C-276 8575 8622 8619 8622 8626
C-22 B575 8622 8619 8622 8626
C-2000 8575 8622 B619 8622 B626
622 8575 8622 8619 8622 8626
686 8575 8622 8619 8622 8626
59 8575 8622 8619 8622 8626
8-2 8333 8622 8366 8622 8626
8-3 B333 8622 8366 B622 8626
8-4 8333 8622 8366 8622 8626
Rt'prinredfrom Chemical Processing Moga:illt. NO\'embn 1997
molybdenum content, Alloy C-276 is high-
ly resislant 10 chloride-induced pitting and
crevice corrosion.
The quest for materials possessing bet-
lcr metallurgical propenies and corrosion
resistance than Alloy C-276 has spurred
the development and commercialization of
several proprietary (.type alloys. repre-
sented by alloys C-22. 622, 59. 686 and C-
2000.
All have roughly comparable molybde-
num content but significantly higher
chromium content than Alloy C-276. Some
grades also contain tungsten and copper.
The effect of these minor alloying con-
SlilUents on metallurgical propenies and
corrosion resislance is complex and
beyond the scope of this anicte.
NiMo "B" alloys. Alloy B-2 has
exceptional resistance 10 sulfuric. phos-
phoric and hydrochloric acids under reduc-
ing conditions. It is panicularly suited for
equipment handling hydrochloric acid at
all concentrations and temperatures up to
the boiling point.
Oxidizing chemicals adversely affect its
corrosion resistance. notably such strong
oxidizers as ferric and cupric salts thai may
be present as contaminants.
Recently introduced alloys 8-3 and 8-4
offer improved properties over Alloy B-2.
A practical advantage of these new grades
is minimized formation of undesirable
microstructures during fabrication that can
cause embritllemenl.
By G. Sorell. president ofG. Sorell
Consiliting St'rvius. North Calm.,t'll. NJ.
Sorell is a mott'rialS/CQrrosion engineer with
more toon 40 years of/lIdlUlrial experience.
Preparation oftlJis artielt' ...as sllpported by
(ht' Nickel DeI'tlopmt'rtI Institute.
..
HIGHPERFORMANCE METALS & ALLOYS
Evolution of nickel alloys
Trademartl: holder
Haynes International, Inc.
Haynes International, Inc.
Haynes International, Inc.
Haynes International, Inc.
Inca family of companies
Inco family of companies
Inco family of companies
Krupp VDM GmbH
Krupp VDM GmbH
Trade name
HASTEllOV<>
HASTEllDY<> C-22"
HASTEllOV<> C-2000>
HASTEllDV<> G-31l"
INCDNEL<> 622
INCDNEl<> 625lCf
INCONEl<> 666
Nicrofere 6629
Nicrofe.e 5923hMo
Alloy
63
C-22
C-2000
G-30
622
625
666
6-4
59
Table A. AlloV trade names.
Uke iron and copper, nickel has been used in alloys since the dawn of civilization. However, in contrast to steels, brasses and
bronzes, nickel alloys are recent newcomers to the chemical industry.
The first nickel alloy of signHicant commercial importance was Alloy 400, developed and marketed by the International Nickel
Co. (now Inco Alloys Interll3lionaJ) in 1905 under the MONEL trademart. The next important milestone was the emergence around
1930 of Ni-Mo Alloy Band Ni-CrMo-W Alloy C. Their developer, the Haynes Stellite Co. (now Haynes International Inc.), trade
marKed both of these materials as HASTElLOY. The next important rung in the evolutionary ladder of nickelbased alloys came
from Inca, with the advent of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 in 1931 and Ni-FeCr in 1949, respectively named INCONEL and INCOLOY.
capitalizing on the familiari1y and reputation of these original trademarts, Inca and Haynes are now marketing acombined total
of about 50 corrosion- and heat-resistant alloys in the MONEL, INCONEL, lNCOLOY and HASTELLOY families.
The German company Krupp VDM GmbH, amore recent entrant as aprominent developer and producer of abroad line of nick-
el-based alloys, uses the trade names Nicrofer, Nimofer and Nicorros.
These three leading companies continue to develop improved and new nickel alloys of interest to the chemical industry. Their
proprietary alloys mentioned in this article are listed in Table A.
All of the early proprietary alloys have long ago lost their patent protection and are now available worldwide from many other
producers. either under their own trade
names or simply as generic alloys con-
forming to recognized standards or
specifications. As with pharmaceuticals,
there is an ongoing debate as to the
equivalence of generic versus propri-
etary products.
Familiar specifications such as ASTM
and DIN may have less restrictive
requirements that those self-imposed by
prominent alloy developers and produc-
ers. Such in-house requirements may
involve tighter limits on alloy composi-
tion and metallurgical parameters aimed
L ---'at properties enhancement.
Reprintedfrom Chemica! Processing Maga:ine. 1997
PART II
Picking nickel-base alloys
to resist heat and corrosion
Here's aguide to selecting and using the alloy that's right for the job
Table 1. Nommal composillOn of wroughl heal-reSistant nickel alloys. wt %
Alloy UNINo. NI Cr Mo Fe W Co Other
600 N06600 7S.0 15.0 8.0
601 N06601 60.5 23.0 14.4 1.4 AI
617 NIl6617 52.0 22.0 9.0 1.5 12.5 1.2 AI
625 NIl6625 61.0 21.5 9.0 2.5 3.8
(Nb +Ta)
X NIl6OO2 47.0 21.8 90 18.5 1.5 1.4 AI
2141 N07214 75.0 16.0 3.0 4.5 AI
230' N1l6230 57.0 22.0 2.0 1.5 14.0 2.5
242
1
65.0 8.0 25.0 2.0' 2.5'
333 NIl6333 46.0 25.5 3.30 17.0 3.3 3.3 1.1 Si
45TM' N06045 46.0 27.5 23.0 2.8 Si
602CA' NIl6025 63.0 25.0 9.5 2.1 AI
"Maximum
1. Haynes8Alloys 214
ftl
230", 242
ftl
(Haynes international, Inc.)
2. Nicrofe,e AllOy 45
ftl
, Nicrofer 6025tfTaIIoy 602CA (Krupp VDM GmbH)
.. Rrprilltedjrom Chrmicul Processing Maga:ille October /998
T
he ability to withstand the combined
onslaught of heat and corrosion
makes nickel-base alloys a good
choice for aggressive high-temperature
environments. Nickel alloys find extensive
application for chemical plant equipment
c;.;posed 10 corrosive process streams at
elevated temperatures. commonly defined
as more: than about 1./XllYF.
In many instances, high suength, chem-
ical-resistant nickel alloys are the favored.
if not the only. practical material for hos-
tile environments beyond the capability of
austenitic and superaustenitic stainless
steels. Though more expensive than iron-
base alloys. the excellent performance
characteristics of heal- and corrosion-resis-
tant nickel alloys often makes them the
most economicallong-tenn choice.
Alloy cDmposltions
The chemical composi-
tion of heal- and-eorro-
sion-resistant nickel
alloys (here defined as
containing more than
45% nickel) that find
extensive application in
chemical processing are
listed in Table I. The
alloys are identified by
their common designa-
tion and by the Unified
Numbering System
(UNS). Although Ihe
long-established alloys
have lost their patent
protections. lhey're still
commonly known by
their original trade
names.
For example. generic
Alloys 600. 601 and 625 are commonly
associated with the INCQNEL. rrademark
held by the Inco family of companies.
Similarly. Alloy X is best known under the
HASTELLOY. trademark owned by
Haynes International Inc. More recently
developed alloys are still proprielaJ)' male-
rials available only from their developen,
as fOOhloted in Table I.
The types of alloys surveyed are
wrought materials, strengthened principal-
ly by solid solution hardeners. Not covered
AII,5000F nickel allnys relain
40% to 75% of their room tem-
perature yield strength.
are nickel-base alloys strengthened by pre-
cipitation hardening, nor oxide dispersion
strengthened (ODS) alloys produced by
powder metallurgy techniques. Those
superalloys. used principally in gas turbine
and aerospace applications. are rarely used
in chemical processing. Also excluded
from this article are cast versions of alloys
listed in Table I.
PhysIcal and mechanical prof)8f1les
1be physical properties of nickel alloys are
similar to those of the 300 Series Cr-Ni
stainless steels. Depending on the individ-
ual alloy. lhermal conductivity and expan-
sion characteristics may differ significanlly
and need to be considered in equipment
design.
The mechanical properties of nickel
alloys as a class are excellent. both in
strength and ductile properties. Minimum
room temperature strength and duclility
values are listed in Table 2. Except for
HIGH-PERFORMANCE METALS & ALLOYS
Alloy 601. minimum yield strengths are
considerably higher than 30 ksi, which is
the value for the common austenitic stain-
Jesses.
The greater strength of nickel-base.
compared with iron-base materials,
increases prqgressively with temperature,
as shown in Table 3. N()(c thaI at 1,5(l(FF.
the nickel alloys relain 40% to 75% of
their room temperature yield strength,
compared to only 20% to 35% for siain-
less steels.
The superiority of nickel alloys extends
to creep rupture. as illustrated in Table 4.
While stainless steels essentially lose any
Some nickel alloys, like 600 and
601, show virtual immunity to
age embrittlement.
Table 2. Minimum room temperature mechamcal properties
Alloy UIU..... I...n. Y1.ld ItrInglb, Elongation,
.........,al O,2%oftIIl,al %
600 80 35 30
601 80 30 30
617 95 35 30
625 100 40 30
X 95 35 35
214 110' 65' 25'
230 110 45 40
242 184' 113' 38'
333 80 35 30
45TM 90 35 35
602CA 94 43 30
'Typical properties
Table 3. Typical hot yield strength, 0.2% olfset, ksi
Alloy Amblotd 1,0lIII'f 1,2OO'f 1,6OO'F 1,BOD'F
30455 42 18 16 10
30955 45 26 23 18
310 SS 45 25 21 IS
600H 29 17 15 13 9
600 50 40 37 20 9
601 40 32 28 20 7
617 45 32 34 35 18
625 48 32 35 38 18
X 49 33 30 26 18
214 82 72 76 81 8
230 57 40 39 21
242 113 70 76 50 28
333 43 25 25 24 10
45TM 53 36 34 28
602CA 50 38 37 31 13
useful srrengm at temperatures of 2,()()()IlF
and above. nickel alloys can still function
effectively for moderately stressed compo-
nents. For example. the I.QOO-hr rupture
strength at 2,ooooF is about 1.0 ksi for
Alloys 600. 601. 214. 230 and 333. and 1.4
ksi for Alloys 617 and 602CA.
The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code contains allowable stresses for the
alloys surveyed. except for Alloys 214,
242 aod 45TM.
MetallUfJ1cai stability
Al10Iher important property in alloy selec-
tion for high-temperature applications is
metallurgical stability, which is also
known as thennal stability. The tenn refers
to the resistance to fonn brinle micr05U\1c-
tural phases or precipitates upon aging. i.e.,
after prolonged ellposure 8t elevated tem-
peratures. That so-called "age embrittle-
ment" manifests principally as reduced
ductility and toughness. and may also
impair corrosion resistance.
While some alloys. such as 600 and
601. are vinually immune to age embrittle
ment. most undergo varying degrees of
impairment. Among those adversel)'
affected is Alloy 625, which may suffer a
marked drop in ductility and impact
strength when exposed in the range of
about 1.2000F to 1,4()(pF. At higher tem-
peratures, those properties are partly
restored because brittle precipitates tend to
redissolve. Equipment failures attributable
to reduced ductility and toughness are
infrequent. which can be ascribed 10 the
very high starting properlies typical of
unaged nickel alloys.
Chemical resistance
The most prevalent form of attack in high
temperature chemical processing environ-
ments is gaseous corrosion. principally
oxidation, sulfidation and halogenation
(chloridation and fluoridation). Other
fonns of deterioration encountered in hos-
tile elevated-temperature environments are
carburization, nitridation and hydrogen
attack. Those are not classed as corrosion
in the conventional sense of the word.
because there is no metal loss or surface
recession. Rather. damage manifests as
metallurgical/mechanical impairment-
most often in the fonn of embrittlemenl.
.. Rl!printedfrom Chl!mica/ PrQussing Maga:inl! Ocwber /998
HIOHPERFORMANCE METALS & ALLOYS
Table 4. Typical creep rupture strength. ksi
Table 5. Ellecl 01 alloying additions In nickel alloys on high-temperalure allack
M...... .- MI'
F'
Cr Ma Ca W Cb 51
Oxidation

Sulfidation
Chloridation
'. '.
'.
Auoridation

Carburization

Nitndation

6 "Improves resistance;
" Lowers resistance;
6. :: Dependent on specific conditions;
"Effect 01 increased nicksl content.
Stmslo rupture in 1.000 hr
Alia, Condition 1,4OO'F 1,60O'F 1,800'F
30455 A 7.4 3.0 1.2
30955 A 7.2 2.7 1.0
31055 A 7.4 3.0 1.2
800H SA 10.0 4.9 2.0
600 5T 8.1 3.5 1.8
&01 5T 9.8 4.4 2.2
617 SA 22.0 8.4 3.6
625 5T 22.0 7.5 2.7
X 5T 16.0 6.5 2.1
214 SA 24.0 7.8 1.7
230 SA 19.0 9.0 2.8
242 AA 15.0
333 5T 14.0 5.2 2.1
45TM 5T 6.1 2.9 1.5
&02CA 5T 8.0 4.5 2.4
A:: Annealed:
All:: Annealed and aged;
SA" Solution anoealed;
ST '" Solution treated.
.
Ti AI
Forms of IIttaek
The common fOMs of high-temperature
chemical attack are brieny characterized
below. Hydrogen attack is omitted because
nickel alloys are highly resistant.
Oxidation. Oxidation, the most com-
mon fonn of corrosion at elevated temper-
atures, is characterized by the formation of
metal oxide corrosion products. 1lIose se-
called scales are usually quite dense and
tenacious and thus able to retard further
attack. However. in severely hostile envi
ronments oxide scales can be penelra!ed or
spall off.
Chromium is by far the most important
element for conferring oxidation resistance.
As with stainless steels. small additions of
aluminum. silicon and rare earth elements
further enhance oxide stability and tenacity.
especially under thermal cycling conditions.
Stable oxide scales nO( only retard further
oxidation bot also act as an effective barrier
against other fonns of attack.
Sulfidalion. Sulfidation produces
scales rich in metal sulfides that offer lit-
tle. if any. protection against further
attack. Reducing-sulfidizing environ-
ments are usually more aggressive than
oxidizing-sulfidizing atmospheres. Nickel
alloys. as a class. are more susceptible to
sulfidation than stainless steels largely
because of the formation of low melting-
point nickel sulfide. As with oxidation.
alloying with chromium progressively
improves resistance.
Chloridation. High-temperature
exposure to chlorine and its compounds
rapidly corrodes stainless
steels. Because iron chlo-
rides and oxychlorides are
quite volatile, severe chlo-
ridation may proceed
without appreciable scal-
ing. Nickel-base alloys are
far more resistant than
iron-base alloys. making
them the materials-of-
choice for environments
containing chlorine or
chlorides.
Carburization. In
high carbon activity
atmosphere, carbon tends
to diffuse into the metal
' .
lion modes may occur simullafleOUsly. For
example. many industrial environments c0n-
tain both oxygen and chlorine. subjecting
exposed mcIaIs to ol(ychlorination, a highly
virulent fonn of corrosion. Exceptionally
s e ~ COITOSion can also be caused by liquid
phases. such as molten salts, ash Of metals.
1llose aggressive species are rarely encoun-
tered in chemical processing and hence faJ!
beyond the scope of this article.
The directional effect of alloying con-
SlilUents on either retarding or exacerbating
high-tempernture chemical altack of nick-
el-base alloys is shown in Table 5.
The effect of Cr. Mo, Co. w. 5i and AI
may be either favorable or detrimental,
depending on the specific exposure condi-
lions. notably lempernture and reducing
versus oxidizing atmosphere.
In practice. several material degrada-
r
ReprimMfromChemical Proressing Magodne Oc/obf!r /998
HIGH-PERFORMANCE METAU & ALLOYS
ea versus corrosion-resistani a o's
AkJy pmdUC81S and spec/fication writefs sometimes find it convenient to classify alloys as either heat-resistant or corrosion-resis-
tant. ThaI somewhat arbitrary dlstinctioo centers on whether the alloy composition and microstructure is optimized for aqueous
corrosion resistance or for eIeYat8d temperature service. Heatresistant alloys ca11 be further subdivided according 10 whether they
designed prirrrarily for chemical resistance in hot aggressive environments or for optimum strength and metallurgical stability.
In practice, there Is considerable overlap and some versatile nickel alloys are capable of serving effectively in multiple capacities.
ANovember 1997 Chemical Processing article (p.54) discussed corrosion-resistant nickel alloys for applications in aggres-
sive aqueous-environments. Complementing that ear1ier article, this one is focused on nickel alloys targeted for corrosion resis-
itance in high-temperature gaseous environments. Both stories include Alloys 600 and 625 because of their excellent performance
over abroad temperature SjlOCIrum.
Table 6. AWS speCifications for recommended weldmg materials
1. These consumables are not exact matches to the loose metal composnions and the result-
ing weld deposits may not have the same high-lemperature corrosion resistance as the base
metal.
2. Matching filler metals are available but are not Included in AWS specifications.
Alloy Welding electrode (AS.11) Filler m.lal (A5.14)
600 ENiCrFe-3 ERNiCrFe3
601 ENiCrFe3
'
ERNiCrFe3
1
,2
617 ENiCrt:oMo-1 ERNiCrt:oMo-1
625 ENiCrMo3 ERNiCrMo3
X ENiCrMo-2 ERNiCrMo-2
214 ENiCrMo2\ ERNiCrMo-2\.2
230 ENiCrWMo-1
1
ERNiCrWMol
1
,2
242 ENiMo-3\ ERNiMo-3
1
,2
602CA ENiCrCoMo-1
1
ERNiCrCoMol
l
,2
SlImlns tube Welded tube
8167 8516
8167
B444 8704
8622 8626
8622 8626
8722 8726
8167 8516
8167 8516
(GMAW). Nickel alloy weldmenlS typical-
ly exhibit excellent duclility. and their low
thermal expansion characteristics tend to
reduce residual slresses and diSlortion.
Woldedplp. SUml.. plp.
ly welded by Ihe common welding
processes. inclUding shielded metal arc
welding (SMAW). gas tungsten arc weld-
ing (GTAW) and gas melal arc welding
8168 8167 8517
8168 8167
8168 854li
8443 B444 8705
8435 8622 8619
843S 8622 8619
8718 8722 8723
8168 8167 8517
8168 8167 8517
Table 7. ASTM specifications for selected llroducl forms
matrix IlI1d ronn metal carbides. ThaI form
of lIt1ack, called carburizlIlion. can cause
severe impainnent of me<:hllnical proper-
ties. notably duclility and impact strength.
Nickel alloys exhibit good carburization
resistance because nickel. unlike iron. is
no! a strong carbide fonner.
Nitridation. Nitridation. orten called
nilriding. refers to nitrogen diffusion into
the metal lanice to form metal nilrides. In
the chemical industry. it is encountered
primarily in high-temperature ammonia-
rich atmospheres. As in carburization.
damage manifeslS no! as metal loss but as
embrittlement. Nickel does not form
nitrides. which accounlS for the excellent
nilridalion resislance of nickel-rich alloys.
Inlernal attack. Carburizalion and
nilridation are by no means the only high-
temperature degradation modes character-
ized by inlemal damage. Vinually all high
temperature corrosion is diffusion driven
and characterized by substantial subsurface
attack. predominanlly along grain bound-
aries. That applies to oxi-
dation. sulfidation. and
especially 10 halogenation.
In many instances. internal
attack penetrales deeper Alloy PI.......
into the metal than surfoce
melal loss. Evaluation of
high temperature corrosion
should therefore be based
not solely on thickness or
weight loss. but additional
lyon metallographic
examination.
BOO
601
617
625
X
230
333
45TM
Welding guidelines 602CA
Nickel alloys can be: readi- L. J
Rtprillledfrom Chemical Processing Maga:ine O C f ~ r 1998
HIGH.PERFORMANCE METALS & ALLOYS
PostweJd heal treatment is generally not
required for solution strengthened alloys.
RCl:ommended welding consumables
for the alloys surveyed. as covered by
American Welding Society (AWS) specifi.
cations AS.II and A5.14. are listed in
Table 6. Although not included in AW$
AS.II and A5.14, matching filler melals
for Alloys 601, 214. 230. 242 and 602CA
are commercially available. Matching filler
melals are the preferred choice for welds
exposed to aggressive high-temperalUre
environments because they provide greater
assurance that the weld metal will have the
same corrosion resistance as the base
metal. Nickel-rich weld materials are wide
Iy used also for dissimilar metal weld
joints between nickel-base and iron-base
alloys and for depositing weld overlays on
fenuus subslrJles.
Welding procedures for nickel alloys are
broadly similar to those for stainless steels.
However. modifications of joint designs and
Welding procedures are broad-
Iy similar for nickel alloys and
stainless steel.
welding techniques may be indicated to
achieve full penetration welds, conditioned
by the sluggish flow characteristics of high-
nickel weld puddles. Nickel alloys are
inherently more sensitive than iron-base
metals to weld embriulemeOl by contami-
nants. Exercise special care to shield the
wcld zone from foreign substances.
Wrought heat- and corrosion-resistant
nickel alloys come in a wide range of prod-
uct forms. including plate/sheet and both
seamless and welded tubular goods.
ASTM specifications covering those are
listed in Table 7. Most of the alloys in
Table I can also be produced as castings.
albeit with minor chemistry modifications.
Alloy characlerlstics
This brief rundown highlights the attributes
of each of the alloys discussed that affect
their suitability for corrosive high tempera-
ture environments in chemical plants.
Alloy 600 has excellent resistance to
oxidation. chloridation. carburiz.ation and
nitridation, but poor resistance to sulfida-
tion. Alloy 600 is widely used for hOI chlo-
rine/hydrogen chloride and for ammonia
atmospheres.
Alloy 601 has excellent resistance to
carburization and cyclic oxidation. It has
moderate strength but excellent thennal
stability. Alloy 601 is widely used in cont-
aminated combustion environments.
Alloy 617 has an exceptional combi-
nation of high-temperature strength, ther-
mal stability and resistance to oxidation
and carburization. The alloy is used in
nitric acid and petrochemicals production.
Alloy 625 has the favoroble combina-
tion of high strength and good all-around
corrosion resistance. including aqueous
environments. II has excellent fatigue
resistance but only moderate thennal sta-
bility. Alloy 625 is used extensively in
chemicaVpetrochemical plant services.
Alloy X has an outstanding combina
tion of strength. fabricability and resistance
to oxidizing. carburizing and nitriding
g l l s e ~ . It is a popular alloy for stressed
componems in aggressive combustion
environments.
Alloy 214 has superb resistance to
oxidation (up to 2.2WF), chloridation.
carburiZlition and nitridation. It has
mediocre thermal stability, fllbricability
and welJability. Alloy 214 is a niche alloy
for ex.ceptionally cOfTOsh'e environments.
There is limited availability of product
fonns and quantity.
Alloy 230 has the beSt balance of
strength. thermal stability and fatigue resis-
tastce, oxidation resistance and fabricability
among major high-temperature alloys. It is
favored for high-strength components in
punishing combustion environments.
Alloy 242 is the best among nickel
alloys for fluorine and fluoride resistance.
It has very high strength and good !hennal
stability. Alloy 242 is nOt TC<:ommended
for applications above 1.5WF. It is used in
fluoropolymers production.
.Alloy 333 has ex.cellent oxidation and
carburization resistance. as well as good
sulfidation resistance and mechanical prop-
enies. It is used in diverse chemical/petro-
chemical plant applications.
Alloy 45TM is the optimum choice
for combined chloridationloxidation,lsulfi
dationjcarburization resistance. The alloy
excels in incineration and gasification
proo=.
Alloy 602CA has ex.ceptional resis-
tance to cyclic oxidation (up to 2.2CJ01'F)
and carburization and also provides good
resistance to oxidizinglsulfidizing gases.
It offers high creep strength at extreme
tcmperatures.
Cost fa<tors
The alloys surveyed are about two times to
five times costlier than Type 310 stainless
steel. The cost differentials are consider-
ably lower on an installed--equipment basis.
largely because the cost of fabrication does
not vary greatly between nickel alloys and
stainless steels.
Another imponant consideration in ec0-
nomic analysis is the greater capabilities,
lower maintenance and looger life of high-
perfomlance materials. On the basis of life-
cycle cost. nickel alloys often prove the
best economic choice.
By G. Sorell, prtsidel1l ofG. Sorell
Conslliting Sn-,,icts. NOrlh Call"'n!!l. NJ.
Sorell is a materials/carrosiOrl erlgirleer ....ilh
mort Ihan 40 years ofintlllSlrial experimce.
Preporo/iOrl of/his Or/ide ....as s/lPporiedby
/lie Nickel Derefopmem IIlS/i/llte.
Reprimedfrom C/lemical Procusing Maga:irle' October 1998 m