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A National Level Paper Presentation

Paper on

“Total Quality Management”

Submitted by

Mr.Ritesh T.Bhusari Mr.Ankit M.Shah


4th Yr.Mech. Engg. 4th Yr. Mech. Engg.
Email:btritesh@yahoo.com Email:ankcool199@yahoo.com

B.N. College of Engineering, Pusad,


Dist: Yavatmal (M.S.) 445215

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ABSTRACT

The past decade has witnessed the reemergence of quality as a key factor. If quality is
not maintained then certainly survival would be difficult. Good business means good quality
of the product and way to maintain quality is management. To fulfill customer’s expectation.
It is important to upgrade the quality standards by doing continuous inspection, concentrating
on prevention rather than correction and maintaining customer goodwill. The responsibility
and managing quality rests with management and the enhancement to the traditional way of
doing business is Total Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is an effective one.
QFD is a disciplined approach to product design, engineering and production. It
provides in depth evaluation of the product. This tool provides a historic reference to
enhance future technology and to prevent design errors there by spending less time on
redesign and modifications. In this paper the relationship between QFD and TQM has been
discussed.

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Quality Function Deployment:


An Effective Tool for Total Quality Management

1. INTRODUCTION
Quality itself has been defined as fundamentally relational: “quality is the ongoing
process of building and sustaining relationships by assessing, anticipating and fulfilling stated
and implied needs”.
In other words “Quality is a momentary perception that occurs when something in our
environment interacts with us in the pre intellectual awareness that comes before rational
thought takes over and begins establishing orders. Judgment of the resulting order then
reported as good or bad quality value”.
Indian industries are facing challenges of survival due to liberation, privatization and
globalization because of World Trade Organization (WTO). Many reputed Indian business
house are either closed down or on verge of closing down to such competition. Indian
products are facing challenges of quality, reduction in production cost and customer
satisfaction in view of easy availability of imported goods. The situation has changed very
fast and with multiple choices available to customers, economy is now converted into a
buyers market.
Now, the way to maintain quality is management and hence the responsibility for
introducing and managing quality rests with management. However, a prevailing but
erroneous assumption is that quality originates in the quality department and that quality
professionals and responsible for goods and services offered. A corollary of this view is that
quality can be improved through tighter controls and increased level of inspection i.e. quality
is inspected in and not built in but in fact the quality problems are really the problems of
those function and processes in the organization, whether t hey occurs in design, engineering,
planning, manufacturing etc. The solution of which is clearly the responsibility of
management. Therefore the emphasizing solution for up grading the quality standard and
survival of Indian industries is “Total Quality Management”.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing
business. It is proven technique to guarantee survival in world class competition. TQM is for
the most part common sense. Analyzing the three words we have:
Total = Quality involves everyone and all activities in the company.

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Quality = Degree of excellence of product or service provides.


Management = Quality can and must be managed with Act, Art, or manner of handling,
controlling, directing etc.
Hence, TQM = A process for managing quality; it must be continuous way of life; a
philosophy of perpetual improvement in everything we do.
2. THE STEPS TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)
1. Pursue New Strategic Thinking
2. Know your Customers.
3. Set True Customer Requirements.
4. Concentrate on Prevention, Not Correction.
5. Reduce Chronic Waste.
6. Pursue a Continuous improvement Strategy.
7. Use Structural Methodology for Process Improvement.
8. Reduce Variation
9. Use a Balanced Approach.
10. Apply to All Functions
3. DIFFERENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUE FOR TQM
3.1 STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)
One of the best technical tools for improving product and service quality is SPC.
There are some basic techniques for SPC. The word statistical is somewhat misnomer since
the first few techniques are not really statistical. Further more, this technical tool not only
controls the process but has the capability to improve it as well.
3.2 QUALITY SYSTEM
This is a two party system results in both the supplier and customer to participate in
multiple audits, which can be extremely costly. This practice is replaced by a third party
registration system. A quality system registration involves the assessment and periodic
surveillance audit of the adequacy of a supplier’s quality system by third party, who is a
registrar. When a system conforms to the registrar interpretation of the standard, the
registrar issues a certificate of registration to supplier. This registration ensures customers or
potential customers that a supplier has a quality system in place and it is being monitored and
t here by eliminating the need of multiple audits.

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3.3 BNECH MARKING


Bench marking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure
themselves against the best industries practices. It promotes superior performance by
providing an organized frame work through which organizations learn how the “best in class”
do things, understand these best practices differ from their own, and implement change to
close the gap. Bench marking is increasingly a popular tool. It used extensively by both
manufacturing and service organizations, including Xerox, AT & T, Motorola, Ford and
Toyota.
3.4 QUALITY BY DESIGN
Quality by Design principles is changing the way U.S. managers think and conduct
business. Loosely defined, quality by design is the practice of using a multi disciplinary team
to conduct conceptual thinking. Product design and production planning all at one time.
3.5 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Experimental design is one of the most powerful techniques for improving quality and
increasing productivity. Through experimentation, changes are intentionally introduced into
the process or system in order to observe their effect on the performance characteristics or
response of the system or process. Any experiment that has the flexibility to make desired
changes in the input variables of a process to observe the output response is known as
experimental design.
3.6 PRODUCT LIABILITY
Unproved technology creates hazards that are unknown prior to product use. Highly
diverse and technically complicated product design has also increased the severity and
frequency of injuries. The number of product accidents is roughly estimated at 50 million per
year, at an annual cost to the nation $50 billion. Thus, there is a need to reduce the rest of
injury and to compensate injured consumers. These accidents and injuries are reasons why
the manufacture’s liability for product has increased. Manufacturers are in the best position
to know what are the safest design of products, construction methods and modes of use.
3.7 FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA)
FMEA is an analytical technique (paper test) that combines the technology and
experience of people in identifying foreseeable failure modes of a product or process and
planning for its elimination. In other words FMEA can be explained as a group of activities
intended to. Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product or process and its
effects, Identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the chance of potential failure

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occurring, document the process. FMEA is a “before-the-event” action requiring a team


effort to alleviate most easily and inexpensively changes in design and production.
3.8 QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)
Quality function deployment (QFD) is a planning tool used to fulfill customer’s
expectations. It is a disciplined approach to product design, engineering, and production and
provides in depth evaluation of a product. An organization that correctly implements QFD
can improve engineering knowledge, productivity, and quality and reduces cost, product
development time and engineering changes. Quality function deployment focuses on
customer’s expectation and requirements, often referred to as the voice of the customer. It is
employed to translate customer expectations, in terms of specific requirements, into
directions and actions, in terms of engineering characteristics, that can be deployed through
Product planning, Part development, Process planning, Production planning and Service.
Quality function is a team based management tool in which customer expectations are
used to drive the product development process. Conflicting characteristic of requirements are
identified early in the QFD process and can be resolved before production. Organizations
today use market research to decide what to produce to satisfy customer requirement. Some
customer’s requirement adversely affects others, and customer often cannot explain their
expectations. Confusion and misinterpretation are also a problem while a product moves
from marketing to design to engineering to manufacturing. This activity is where the voice of
the customer becomes lost and the voice of the organization adversely enters the product
design. Instead of working what the customer expects, work is concentrated on fixing what
the customer does not want.
Quality function deployment helps identify new quality technology and job functions
to carry out operations. This tool provides a historic reference to enhance future technology
and prevent design errors QFD is primarily a set of graphically oriented planning materials
that are used as basis for decision affecting any phase of product development cycle. Results
of QFD are measured based on the number of design and engineering changes, to market,
cost, and quality. It is considered by many experts to be a perfect blueprint for quality by
design.
Quality Function Deployment enables the design phase to concentrate on the
customer requirement, there by spending less time on redesign and modification. The saved
time is estimated a one-third to one-half of the time taken for redesign and modification using
traditional means. This saving means reduced development cost and also additional income
because the product enters the market sooner.

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3.8.a LITERATURE SURVEY ONE QFD


In 1986, the ford and rank Xerox Company has introduced QFD in the western world
while it was famously referred as quality tables in Japan since 1972. Chang (1989) has
discussed the importance of using QFD to become competitive in the market. The QFD have
changed dramatically from providing defect free products to customer driven or desired
products.
Denton (1990) has elaborately discussed the use of QFD to enhance competitiveness
and customer satisfaction.
Maddux (1991) has analyzed the QFD as a strategic planning tool in organization.
Hales (1994) has attempted to stress the need for using QFD as a powerful tool to implement
simultaneous engineering philosophy. Herzwurm and Schockert (2003) have presented the
state-of the are of QFD in software development.
3.8.b BENEFITS OF QFD
1. Customer Driven
· Creates focus on customer requirements.
· Uses competitive information effectively
· Prioritizes resources.
· Identifies items that can be acted upon.
2. Reduces Implementation Time
· Decreases mid stream design changes.
· Limits post introduction problem
· Avoids future developments redundancies.
3. Promotes Team Work
· Creates communication at interfaces
· Identifies actions at interfaces.
· Creates global view out of details.
4.Provides Documentation
· Documents rationale for design
· Is easy to assimilate
· Adds structure to the information

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3.8.c THE VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER


Because QFD concentrates on customer expectation and needs, a considerable
amount of effort is put in to research to determine costumer expectations. Words used by
customer to describe their expectations are often refereed to as the voice of the customer.
Sources for determining customer expectation are focus group, surveys, complaints,
consultants, standards, and federal regulations. Quality function deployment begins with
what exactly the customer desire from a product. During the collection of information, the
QFD team must continually ask and answer numerous questions, such as
What does the customer really want?
Are the customer expectation used to drive the design process?
What can the design team do to achieve customer satisfaction?

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Solicited
Unsolicited

Quantitative Qualitative

Structured Random

Focus Groups
Trade visits
Complaint Report Customer
Organizations standards Visits
Government regulations
Lawsuits

Sales force
Hot lines Training programs
Surveys Conventions
Customer tests Trade journals
Trade trials Vendors
Preferred customers Suppliers
OM testing Academic
Product Purchase Employees
Survey
Customer audits

Lagging Leading

Fig: Types of Customer Information and How to collect it.

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3.8.d HOUSE OF QUALITY


The primary planning tool used in QFD is the house of quality. The house of quality
translates the voice of the customers into design requirements that meet specific target values
and matches those against how organizations will meet those requirements. Many managers
and engineers consider the house of quality to be the primary chart in quality planning. The
structure of QFD can be though of as a frame work of a house, as shown in figure.

Interrelationship between
Technical descriptors

Requirements
Prioritized Customer
Technical Descriptors
(Voice of the Customers)
Customer’s requirements

(Voice of the organization)

Relationships between requirements and


Descriptions

Prioritized technical descriptors

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4. CONCLUSION
From the above discussion. It can be concluded that:
“ Quality is not achieved by doing different things. If is achieved by doing things
differently”. Total quality management implies an organizational obsession that will meet or
exceed customer expectations to the point that are delighted. Understanding the customer’s
needs and expectations is essential for wining new business and keeping the existing
business. To attain this level, the organization continually needs to examine the quality
system to see that it is responsive to ever changing customer requirements and expectations.
The most successful TQM program finds its basis in clearly defining quality viewed from the
customer’s perspective.
The tool to fulfill customer’s expectations is Quality Function Deployment. Hence it
is clear that QFD is an effective tool for TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT.

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5. REFERENCES
1. Total Quality Management, D.H.Besterfield and G.H.Besterfield, Pearson Education
Asia, Second Edition.
2. Motor India, May 2004 “Quality the Deeming Philosophy-An Analysis” pp 86-89.
3. S.C.Minochi “Profit through Quality and Productivity: RCF experience “ I.E.Journal
vol XXXIII no. 5 pp 15-18.
4. Dr.V.P.Arunachalam and Prof. N.Gunasekaran “A Software Based Quality Function
Deployment Model for Continuous Improvement” I.E.Journal vol XXXIV no.7.
5. Chang. C (1989) Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Processes In An Integrated
Quality Information System. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference In
Computers & Industrial Engineering Vol 17 No.s 1-4, pp 311-316.

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