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Ritesh Bhusari
btritesh@yahoo.com

[THE FUEL OF FUTURE]

This paper gives you idea about how we can wisely manage energy resources to sustain it for long way

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1. INTRODUCTION
The focus of this seminar is to explore some of the direction that have been taken to develops less emission and nonexhaustable fuels for personal transportation vehicles to be used in next generation. Today, millions of people use the automobile as their main source of transportation. Automobiles are the most efficient and convenient way to travel compared to walking or running. Unfortunately, most of the automobiles use fossil fuel such as oil. After the internal combustion engine consumes the gasoline it releases carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen carbons, and carbon dioxide. The chemicals cause air pollution, acid rain and the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been considered out of which the use of hydrogen as fuel did resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emissions of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, the combustion of hydrogen originating from regeneration processes (e.g., from natural gas) implies the permanent removal of oxygen from our atmosphere in a directly usable form, creating a serious environmental problem called Oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns hydrogen and oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen balance is prohibitive due to cost. We then show that a conceivable global use of hydrogen from the indicated regeneration origin in complete replacement of fossil fuels would imply the permanent removal of 2.8875 x 107 metric tons of O2 /day from our atmosphere, with consequential termination of all life forms in our planet in a few years. To resolve these problems, we propose the upgrading of hydrogen into the new combustible fuel called Magnegas, which is essentially a magnetically upgraded form of hydrogen into new clusters called Magnecules. The new Magnegas technology permits the processing of crude oil in the reactors, by producing a fuel dramatically cleaner than gasoline, at a cost visibly smaller than that due to refineries.

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2. VARIOUS METHODS OF USING & STORING HYDROGEN FUEL 2.1 Fuel Cell
The very first way of suggested for using H2 as a fuel was Fuel Cell Technology which has its history since 1830’s by Sir William Grove and have been used on space craft since 1965. In this, the hydrogen is exposed to the anode. The anode then draws the electron from the hydrogen leaving a proton (H+). On the opposite side of the cell, the cathode absorbs oxygen from the air. The oxygen receives two electron and becomes negatively charged (O2-). And the following reaction occurs. Cathode Reaction O2 + 4H+ + 4eAnode Reaction H2 2H+ + 2eTherefore, the bonding of the oxygen ion and the proton (H+) form water. 2H2O

2.2 Direct Use
The other method of using H2 as a fuel in an automobile is to modify the traditional engine so that it can burn Hydrogen instead of Gasoline. In this path, researches could only achieve 80% of the power of a comparable Gasoline engine.

3 VARIOUS STORING TECHNIQUES 3.1 Conventional
Most conventional one being the filling Hydrogen at -273ºC under pressure into a very well insulated metal hydride tank. This keeps the H2 in liquid form.

3.2 Glass Microspheres
Glass microshperes are glass ranging in size from 25 to 500 microns in diameter, with a thickness of about 1 micron. When the spheres are heated to temperatures of 200 degrees Celsius, the glass becomes very permeable, allowing them to be filled with hydrogen gas. When the temperature is lowered, the spheres trap the hydrogen inside. When reheated, the hydrogen can escape for use. This process can store hydrogen well, but it has not yet been implemented.

3.3 Carbon Nanotubes
Carbon nanotubes are also a new method for the storage of hydrogen. One way carbon can arrange itself is in a sheet pattern like a honeycomb. This is the graphite form of carbon. The sheets are not bound tightly together, but if they are wrapped on top of each other, a very strong carbon nanotube is formed. A consistent property of the nanofibers is that the distance between each platelet is identical. They are able to store 30 liters of hydrogen in one gram of carbon. At this rate a 25 liter tank which is half the size of gasoline tank and weighs 87 kg can power a car for 5,000 miles. It was suggested that absorption and adsorption play a role in the storage. The nanotubes have uniform pores. The hydrogen would attach to the surface of the carbon and fill the pores. 3
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3.4 Graphite Nanofibers
Another approach utilizes graphite nanofibers which hydrogen-powered cars could travel up to 8000 kilometers on a single tank. Graphite nanofibers can store up to three times their own weight in hydrogen under pressure at room temperature.

The graphite nanofibers work by using fuel cells combined with hydrogen and oxygen and oxygen to produce an electric current. The graphite nanofibers are packed closely together. They consist of stacks of graphite platelets and vary from 5 to 100 millimeters in length and from 5 to 100 nanometers in diameter. The high storage capacity is due to several layers of hydrogen molecules condensing inside the pores between the platelets. The nanofibers can be refilled to the same capacity to at least 4 to 5 times. Graphite is not expensive to produce since it will cost less than S1 per kilogram. Nanofibres are continuing to be researched as an alternative method to store hydrogen. Another alternative in the same direction came up as forcing the hydrogen into a metal, such as magnesium. The hydrogen is forced into the spaces between the magnesium atoms.

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4. MAJOR DRAWBACKS OF USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL
Ø The use of hydrogen does avoid the release carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide in the exhaust, but causes an alarming oxygen depletion which is considerably bigger than that caused by fossil fuel combustion under the same energy output. This depletion is due to the fact that gasoline combustion turns atmospheric oxygen into CO2 part of which is recycled by plants into O2, while hydrogen combustion turns as atmospheric oxygen into H2O. This process permanently removes oxygen from our atmosphere in a directly usable form due to the excessive cost of water separation to restore the original oxygen balance. Further, H2O produced is certainly a greenhouse gas. Ø Also Hydrogen fuel typically takes up about four times as much space as gasoline to deliver the same energy content and to keep the fuel at -273ºC requires expensive tanks made of 70 layers of fiberglass and aluminum. Another major problem faced was that hydrogen tends to leak more than petroleum, and hydrogen can embrittle some metals. Ø Therefore, in short problems faced using H2 as fuel can be summarized as 1 Production 2. Transportation 3. Storage of liquid hydrogen. 4. Oxygen depletion. .

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5. LATEST INNOVATIONS GONE IN VAIN
The world’s public filling station for liquefied and gaseous hydrogen has already opened at the Munich Airport. Featuring revolutionary, fully automatic technology, this filling station suppliers cars and buses with hydrogen fuel in liquid form. BMW and Mazda developed an engine that works with H2 as fuel, but at the present stage of development, it only delivers about 80% of the power of a comparable gasoline engine. General Motors came up with HydroGen1 car whose tests showed unsuccessful results. BMW has also launched BMW 750 hl which takes water as its initial fuel and then use solar energy to electrolyzed it to H2.

Safety Tests
Safety issues are a major concern for a fuel that’s often perceived as more dangerous that others. BMW conducted numerous crash tests to see what would happen if the hydrogen tank was punctured or damaged. Their engineers report the liquid hydrogen dissipated harmlessly into the air. In another test a glowing splint was introduced into pure hydrogen got extinguished, reason being though hydrogen is very flammable, but it order to burn, it must come in contact with oxygen and also as hydrogen alone does not support combustion.

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6. A REVOLUTIONARY MAGNEGAS 6.1 What is Magnegas

BREAKTHROUGH:

CREATION

OF

Upgrading hydrogen into a new combustible gas called as Magnegas. It is named so because of its unique property of inducing atomic polarization between the atoms and molecules which bond together like magnets, resulting in clusters which are stable at ordinary conditions. These clusters are called magnecules because of the dominance of magnetic over the other effects in their creation.

6.2 Method of Production
The information unveiled till now by the researchers show that magnegas is produced as a by product in the recycling of liquid waste such as automotive antifreeze oil and waste, city and farms sewage etc or from the processing of carbon rich liquids (such as crude oil).

A new kind of reactors called Hardonic Reactor, are used for processing crude oil and liquid wastes into Magnegas and giving heat as byproduct. These reactors are called Hardonic because they are based on concept of Hardonic Chemistry rather than Quantum Chemistry. In these reactors Magnegas is produced by Plasma Arc Flow process in which an electric arc is passed through the liquid at about 7000ºF which decomposes molecules into plasma state and the H, C and O recombine to form the clusters of individual atoms of H, C and O plus ordinary molecules H2, CO and O2. Figure below shown is US Magnegas Total Recycler whose all operations are computer controlled. It uses ¾ inch electrodes for producing arc. The extensive tests have established that the reactor uses in average 100W of electricity for an average hourly production of 500m3 of Magnegas plus heat. The reactor has been certified for total recycling of any type of non-radioactive liquid waste, including: antifreeze and engine oil waste, etc. The biggest efficiency is obtained by using crude oil which is converted into a fuel cleaner and less expensive than gasoline when compared to the cost of current refineries. Hardronic reactors with 1”, 2” and 5” coal rods, which produce up to three 7
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millions units of the clean burning Magnegas per hour suitable for the large scale automotive uses.

6.3 Composition
These new chemical species i.e. Mangecules are currently under tests and exact composition is yet to be known. Basically the main constitutional elements are H, C and O. the estimated conventional composition of Magnegas produced from antifreeze waste consists of about 40% - 45% Hydrogen, 55% - 60% of Carbon Monoxide, the rest being composed of traces of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. The percentage of H2 in Magnegas depends upon the liquid used for production, the highest percentage being expected from crude oil.

6.4 Properties and Tests Results
Many tests and researches are being done till now which brought to light the following characteristics of Magnegas. 1. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) and Infra Red Detectors showed that it consists of large cluster which cannot be all symmetric and having unconventional type of bonding which does not give conventional signature.

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2. Magnegas has three different energy storage levels: magnecules, molecules and new internal molecular bonds and thus its combustion may referred as burning of a multistage rocket. 3. In Magnegas under a sufficient magnetic polarization, hydrogen acquires the necessary energy density to avoid liquefaction as fuel and when tested it gave energy output equivalent to that of gasoline (proved by us Magnegas Inc) 4. Combustion of Magnegas has positive balance i.e. the oxygen produced in the exhaust is bigger than that used in combustion. 5. The exhaust emission of an Automobile converted to run on magnegas had following composition. Water vapour – 65 – 70% O2 – 10% CO2 - 6% - 8% CO - 0.00% - 0.01% And that data collected of from above preliminary test is as below. Hydrocarbons 0.026 gram/mile = 93.6% reduction of the EPA standard of 0.41 gram/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.262 gram/mile = 92.6% reduction of the EPA standard of 3.40 gram/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.281 gram/mile = 29.7% reduction of the EPA standard of 0.4 gram/mile Carbon Dioxide 235 grams/mile = there is no EPA standard on CO2 at this moment; On the contrary, when a similar Honda car running on indolene (a version of gasoline) was tested in the same laboratory with the same EPA procedure, the following data were obtained: Hydrocarbons 0.234 gram/mile = 900% Magnegas emission Carbon Monoxide 1.965 gram/mile = 750% Magnegas emission Nitrogen Oxides 0.247 gram/mile = 86% Magnegas emission Carbon Dioxide 458.655 gram/mile = 195% Magnegas emission which illustrates the environmental superiority of Magnegas over gasoline. This car was converted by USMagnegas, Inc., Largo, Florida, to operate on Compressed Magnegas (CMG) via: 1. The replacement of CNG with CMG; 2. The disabling of the oxygen sensor (because Magnegas has 20 times more oxygen in the exhaust than natural gas); and 3. Installing a multiple spark system (to improve combustion); while; leaving the rest of the car unchanged. These results do not refer to the best possible performance but only to the combustion of Magnegas in a vehicle whose carburetion was developed for natural gas. Alternatively, the test was primarily intended to prove the interchangeability of Magnegas

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with natural gas without any major automotive changes, while keeping essentially the same performance and consumption.

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7. ADVANTAGES
Ø Magnegas is cost competitiveness with respect to fossil fuel as its production is cheaper than other fuels. Ø During its production, Hardonic Reactors produce a large amount of heat as a byproduct which can be used for desalting sea water via evaporation thereby obtaining drinking water as a useful byproduct. Ø Magnegas increases the energy content (due to the new means of energy storage); Ø Magnegas is more readily available anywhere desired (since easily transportable Plasma Arc Flow reactors as big as desk produce up to 1,500cf of Magnegas per hour, i.e. a production in one hour sufficient for about three hours city travel by a compact car); Ø Magnegas admits easier liquefaction (due to attraction between magnecules). Ø Magnegas can be used for any conventional fuel application including metal cutting, cooking, automotive use, etc. Ø Magnegas can be used in fuel cells, by preserving its environmental advantages.

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7. CONCLUSION
The State Department of Environment Protection (DEP) has announced nearly $1.2 million in grants to nine organizations in six countries to purchase and promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles and to develop new alternative –fuel technology namely this Magnegas. This above statement further strengthens my use of using Magnegas as fuel of future. Magnegas exhaust has no toxic substance , a positive oxygen balance and about 1/3rd carbon dioxide as compared to gasoline exhaust and at the same time ,it requires cheaper production method .All these features make this alternative fuel to satisfy “Three big E’s of transportation” Energy ,Efficiency ,and the Environment . As the infrastructure for alternative fuel vehicle grows, so will the public’s acceptance and the use of these environmentally sound and sometimes cheaper alternatives. Whether the Magnegas eventually replaces the conventional fuel remains to be seen. But don’t be surprised if it does in your lifetime.

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REFERENCES
1. Page no 7 to 9 of “hydrogen For Future Cars”. BMW, May 2000. 2. Franhofer, “Hydrogen: Safety Technology for Tomorrow’s Fuel”, ICT, August 2000. 3. Fuel Cells: Cutting Edge Research”, Michigan State University, December 2000. 4. Scott Memmer, “fuel cells: pipedream or promise”, January 2001. 5. “Research on Magnegas”, US MagnegasTM Inc., March 2001. 6. Dr Ruggero Maria Santilli, latest MagneGas News” US MagnegasTM Inc.,June 2001.

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