Meiosis occurs in humans, giving rise to the haploid gametes, the sperm and egg cells.

In males, the process of gamete production is known as spermatogenesis, where each dividing cell in the testes produces four functional sperm cells, all approximately the same size. Each is propelled by a primitive but highly efficient flagellum (tail). In contrast, in females, oogenesis produces only one surviving egg cell from each original parent cell. During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm and organelles are concentrated into only one of the four daughter cells—the one which will eventually become the female ovum or egg. The other three smaller cells, called polar bodies, die and are reabsorbed shortly after formation. The process of oogenesis may seem inefficient, but by donating all the cytoplasm and organelles to only one of the four gametes, the female increases the egg's chance for survival, should it become fertilized. Read more: Meiosis - Human Gamete Formation - Egg, Cell, Cells, Gametes, Process, and Female http://science.jrank.org/pages/4196/Meiosis-Human-gamete-formation.html#ixzz1S3tOjQVC Meiosis I is preceded by an interphase period in which the DNA replicates (makes an exact duplicate of itself), resulting in two exact copies of each chromosome that are firmly attached at one point, the centromere. Each copy is a sister chromatid, and the pair are still considered as only one chromosome. The first phase of meiosis I, prophase I, begins as the chromosomes come together in homologous pairs in a process known as synapsis. Homologous chromosomes, or homologues, consist of two chromosomes that carry genetic information for the same traits, although that information may hold different messages (e.g., when two chromosomes carry a message for eye color, but one codes for blue eyes while the other codes for brown). The fertilized eggs (zygotes) of all sexually reproducing organisms receive their chromosomes in pairs, one from the mother and one from the father. During synapsis, adjacent chromatids from homologous chromosomes "cross over" one another at random points and join at spots called chiasmata. These connections hold the pair together as a tetrad (a set of four chromatids, two from each homologue). At the chiasmata, the connected chromatids randomly exchange bits of genetic information so that each contains a mixture of maternal and paternal genes. This "shuffling" of the DNA produces a tetrad, in which each of the chromatids is different from the others, and a gamete that is different from others produced by the same parent. Crossing over does, in fact, explain why each person is a unique individual, different even from those in the immediate family. Prophase I is also marked by the appearance of spindle fibers (strands of micro-tubules) extending from the poles or ends of the cell as the nuclear membrane disappears. These spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes during metaphase I as the tetrads line up along the middle or equator of the cell. A spindle fiber from one pole attaches to one chromosome while a fiber from the opposite pole attaches to its homologue. Anaphase I is characterized by the separation of the homologues, as chromosomes are drawn to the opposite poles. The sister chromatids are still intact, but the homologous chromosomes are pulled apart at the chiasmata. Telophase I begins as the chromosomes reach the poles and a nuclear membrane forms around each set. Cytokinesis occurs as the cytoplasm and organelles are divided in half and the one parent cell is split into two new daughter cells. Each daughter cell is now haploid (n), meaning it has half the number of chromosomes of the original parent cell (which is diploid-2n). These chromosomes in the daughter cells still exist as sister chromatids, but there is only one chromosome from each original homologous pair. Read more: Meiosis - Meiosis I - Chromosomes, Chromatids, Cell, Homologous, Chromosome, and Chiasmata http://science.jrank.org/pages/4193/Meiosis-Meiosis-I.html#ixzz1S3tZSHwL Meiosis I is preceded by an interphase period in which the DNA replicates (makes an exact duplicate of itself), resulting in two exact copies of each chromosome that are firmly attached at one point, the centromere. Each copy is a sister chromatid, and the pair are still considered as only one chromosome. The first phase of meiosis I, prophase I, begins as the chromosomes come together in homologous pairs in a process known as synapsis. Homologous chromosomes, or homologues, consist of two

The end result of meiosis II is that by the end of telophase II. Cytokinesis occurs as the cytoplasm and organelles are divided in half and the one parent cell is split into two new daughter cells. No crossing over occurs in prophase II because there are no homologues to synapse.Control Of Meiosis The events of meiosis are controlled by a protein enzyme complex known collectively as maturation promoting factor (MPF).org/pages/4193/Meiosis-Meiosis-I. the formation of the spindle fibers. These spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes during metaphase I as the tetrads line up along the middle or equator of the cell. The time between the two nuclear divisions (interphase II) lacks replication of DNA (as in interphase I). adjacent chromatids from homologous chromosomes "cross over" one another at random points and join at spots called chiasmata.html#ixzz1S3tZSHwL The phases of meiosis II are similar to those of meiosis I. The sister chromatids are still intact.Meiosis I . This "shuffling" of the DNA produces a tetrad. meaning it has half the number of chromosomes of the original parent cell (which is diploid-2n). two from each homologue).chromosomes that carry genetic information for the same traits. in which each of the chromatids is different from the others.Chromosomes. the rate of . A spindle fiber from one pole attaches to one chromosome while a fiber from the opposite pole attaches to its homologue. Homologous. although that information may hold different messages (e.g. there are four haploid daughter cells (in the sperm or ova) with each chromosome now represented by a single copy. as chromosomes are drawn to the opposite poles. At the chiasmata. During synapsis. Sister. their chromosomes are in the form of sister chromatids. and Opposite http://science. Single. Chromosomes. Cell. with the proteins slowly accumulating during interphase. These chromosomes in the daughter cells still exist as sister chromatids. in fact.Meiosis Ii . Interphase. Telophase I begins as the chromosomes reach the poles and a nuclear membrane forms around each set. The distribution of chromatids during meiosis is a matter of chance. but the homologous chromosomes are pulled apart at the chiasmata.. when two chromosomes carry a message for eye color. but one codes for blue eyes while the other codes for brown).html#ixzz1S3tsR6IL Meiosis . explain why each person is a unique individual. During metaphase II. and then rapidly degrading during the later stages of meiosis. the two single chromosomes are drawn to the opposite poles. and Chiasmata http://science. These enzymes interact with one another and with cell organelles to cause the breakdown and reconstruction of the nuclear membrane. Read more: Meiosis . the connected chromatids randomly exchange bits of genetic information so that each contains a mixture of maternal and paternal genes. Chromatids. As the two daughter cells produced in meiosis I enter meiosis II.org/pages/4194/Meiosis-Meiosis-II. These connections hold the pair together as a tetrad (a set of four chromatids. In effect. The chromatids are then pulled apart during anaphase II. The fertilized eggs (zygotes) of all sexually reproducing organisms receive their chromosomes in pairs. the spindle fibers from the opposite poles attach to the sister chromatids (instead of the homologues as before). one from the mother and one from the father. different even from those in the immediate family. and a gamete that is different from others produced by the same parent. but there are some important differences. MPF appears to work in a cycle. Prophase I is also marked by the appearance of spindle fibers (strands of micro-tubules) extending from the poles or ends of the cell as the nuclear membrane disappears.Chromatids. and the final division of the cell itself. but there is only one chromosome from each original homologous pair. Read more: Meiosis . which results in the concept of the law of independent assortment in genetics. Each daughter cell is now haploid (n). Anaphase I is characterized by the separation of the homologues. Chromosome.jrank.jrank. As the centromeres separate. Crossing over does.

giving rise to the haploid gametes. and Syndrome http://science. resulting in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome or Turner syndrome. Cell.Chromosome. the four chromatids of a tetrad will separate completely. XY) do not divide properly. In a disorder known as nondis-junction. and Female http://science.Egg. and deletion. chromatids do not separate and one of the resulting gametes receives an extra copy of the same chromosome. called polar bodies. where each dividing cell in the testes produces four functional sperm cells. During cytokinesis. but by donating all the cytoplasm and organelles to only one of the four gametes. Gametes.Human Gamete Formation Meiosis occurs in humans. Genetic. The most common example of this mistake in meiosis is the genetic defect known as Down syndrome. Modern technology can detect these genetic abnormalities early in the development of the fetus. Read more: Meiosis .html#ixzz1S3w9b24D Meiosis .synthesis of these proteins controls the frequency and rate of meiosis in all sexually reproducing organisms from the simplest to the most complex. in which part of one chromosome becomes attached to another. the female increases the egg's chance for survival. but at present. and Mpf http://science. Each is propelled by a primitive but highly efficient flagellum (tail).Human Gamete Formation . in females. Another fairly common form of nondisjunction occurs when the sex chromosomes (XX. die and are reabsorbed shortly after formation.Mistakes During Meiosis The process of meiosis does not work perfectly every time. The severity of the effects of these disorders depends entirely on the size of the chromosome fragment involved and the genetic information contained in it.jrank. The process of oogenesis may seem inefficient. in which a person receives an extra copy of chromosome 21 from one of the parents. with one chromatid going into each of the four daughter cells.Mistakes During Meiosis . Under normal conditions. the sperm and egg cells. Process.org/pages/4195/Meiosis-Control-meiosis. little can be done to correct or even treat the diseases resulting from them. all approximately the same size. and mistakes in the formation of gametes are a major cause of genetic disease in humans. Chromatids. the cytoplasm and organelles are concentrated into only one of the four daughter cells—the one which will eventually become the female ovum or egg. in which part of one chromosome is lost entirely. Read more: Meiosis .Control Of Meiosis . Rate. Other mistakes that can occur during meiosis include translocation. The other three smaller cells. Cells. Cells.org/pages/4197/Meiosis-Mistakes-duringmeiosis. the process of gamete production is known as spermatogenesis.jrank.html#ixzz1S3wFUdhj Meiosis .html#ixzz1S3wOcsVQ .org/pages/4196/Meiosis-Human-gamete-formation. Read more: Meiosis .jrank. oogenesis produces only one surviving egg cell from each original parent cell. In males. should it become fertilized. In contrast. Cell.Proteins.

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