By Howard Choy Choy Lee Fut kung-fu has always been taught openly, since its conception in the 1830’s. The passage of time has resulted in many derivative new techniques being added onto the original as passed down by Chan Heung, the founder. It is now difficult to differentiate the techniques that were devised by Chan Heung and those that were created by teachers of later generations. The three main branches of the system, namely, Hung Sing (Originally known as Great Sage Hung Sing, later changed to Heroic Victory Hung Sing), Hong Sing (Great Victory), and Buk Sing (Northern Victory, whose lineage can be traced to Tam Salm), feature slight variations in their techniques. This is especially true in the case of the wooden dummies (known as jongs in Cantonese). Since few knew about the techniques in the first place those who practiced the dummy movements did so on their own. This led to personal interpretation and experimentation. This gradual evolution of techniques came about because of geographical separation, difficulty of communication and that each generation had its own comprehension of what went before, especially if their lineage is further away from Chan Heung and the direct teaching of the Chan family. Family Secrets Unleashed Since the migration of Chen Yong-Fa from China to Australia 13 years ago, the original techniques of Chan Heung have been made public. This has introduced to the world knowledge previously kept within the Chan family. Chen Yong Fa is the great, great grandson of Chang Heung and has direct access to family documents, such as the Training Manual of Choy Lee Fut, in which all the fist forms, weaponry, lion dance and wooden dummy techniques were recorded in detail as passed down by Chan Heung. There are 184 recorded forms, in which 48 are single-person fist forms and about 20 are wooden dummy techniques. The wooden jongs are an inherent part of the Choy Lee Fut training system. Practiced along with hand fighting and weapons fighting techniques, jong training in particular emphasises the use of strong/heavy power, while also serving to sharpen the reflexes and developing accuracy in striking pressure points. Jong training originated in the Shaolin temple. Choy Fook, one of Chan Heung’s mentors, survived the sacking of the Fukien temple and passed on this traditional Shaolin training technique to become part of the Choy Lee Fut martial arts system. Power Plus Chan Heung put considerable emphasis on power training, which is essential in jong techniques because one must have a strong and solid stance and tough limbs. It is not an easy task to send a heavy sandbag flying or to smash a solid piece of timber with a heavy weight attached swing from end-to-end like a yo-yo. Chan Heung’s son, Chan Koon-Pak, also made jong techniques one of his specialities and received full instructions from his father. While teaching in Guangzhou, Koon-Pak was approached by Choy Kwai-Yuan and his two sons to teach them the wooden dummy

techniques. They had the space required for installing the various jongs in their home. Chan Koon Pak accepted their request and gave them the specifications to construct the jongs. Once the construction and installation of the jongs was completed, other students of KoonPak also expressed an interest in learning the techniques and would gather at Choy’s house to practice every day. These students included outstanding past Choy Lee Fut Masters such as, Wong Fook, Ngan Yiu Ting, and Tam Salm. Koon Pak’s son, Chan Yiu Chi also helped his father teach and train many of the third generation practitioners. On Chan Koon Pak’s retirement, Chan Yiu-Chi became the third generation grandmaster of the system. He enjoyed a tremendous following and was the first to commit to chronicling the techniques of the wooden dummies. Chen Yong Fa started his training at the age of four under the tutelage of his grandfather Chan Yiu-Chi, and his father Chan Wan-Han. After over 40 years with Choy Lee Fut, he has a deep understanding of his family system and wants to pass down and propagate these techniques, especially the wooden dummy. Choy Lee Fut jongs are divided into three levels of training, each level more advanced then the last. The ching jong (balance dummy) is usually taught first. The rest of the jongs include: sar bow jong (sand bag dummy); chuin lung jong (penetrating dragon dummy); sui sau jong (breaking hand dummy); and ma jong (horse dummy). Ching Jong The ching jong (balance dummy) is the most well known of all the choy lee fut wooden dummies. Its chief purpose is to strengthen the kiu sau (the bridge hand) – the part of the arm used for blocking. The ching jong is made of a large, heavy post fixed to the ground. It has three arms and a leg protruding from the front. These arms are used to train blocking, while pads located around the post train the strength and accuracy of striking. The distinguishing feature of the ching jong is the large moveable arm at the top that can be used to practice the well-known swinging punches of Choy Lee Fut, such as the sow chui and dat chui, along with grappling techniques. The leg fixture is used for various Choy Lee Fut leg sweeps and toughening the shins at the same time. Apart from training the kiu sau, the ching jong also helps improve the mobility of the student’s horse stance, with the arms and leg serving as obstacles that the practitioner must manoeuvre. The name “balance dummy” can be derived from the idea that the dummy trains the student to move from side to side, in and out. Movements alternate between high and low strikes and from long to short-distance techniques in line with the flux of yin and yang. A balance between yin and yang, soft and hard, slow and fast is essential for good kung-fu. Sar Bow Jong The sar bow jong is a heavy, top hung swinging bag that requires strong energy to move. Full-force strikes can be used against the dummy, which cannot be done when training with a live partner. The movement of the bag requires the student to focus on timing and rhythm. When the bag is hit and made to swing, subsequent strikes must be made not only at the right moment, but also with a strong horse stance. Since the bag often is heavier than the student is, undisciplined moves will be met with the practitioner landing on the floor.

The conditioning of the arm and leg muscles and ligaments as well as the student’s fist is also a result of training with the sar bow jong. The sand and the swing of the bag absorb full-power strikes to the sandbag. This works the muscles and ligaments and allows the student to improve his strength by striking the bag harder each time. Rubbing Chinese medicine (dit da jow) on the forearms hardens the bones and muscles. Sui Sau Jong The sui sau jong (breaking hand dummy) is another of the Choy Lee Fut primary-level dummies. It features a swinging arm at the front of the dummy, as well as a helicopter-like arm at the top. These arms move in such a way that requires quick reactions from the student, alternating between striking and blocking as the dummy counterattacks. The arms are coordinated so that striking the swinging arm causes the rotation of the helicopter arm, which is located at head height so the student must avoid or block this arm or receive a blow to the head. The emphasis is on training speed and lightning reactions to your opponent’s counterstrikes. As you strike the dummy harder and faster so too will the dummy counterattack harder and faster. A formidable opponent, the mastery of the sui sau jong requires not only speed and accuracy, but also a high level of concentration and awareness, as any break in concentration usually results in a painful blow from the dummy’s arm. Chuin Lung Jong The chuin lung jong is designed to develop the strength of the student’s horse stance. Strong internal energy and muscles are used to generate power in every move. Two heavy sand bags are strapped to the student’s ankles to ensure that strong footwork is used at all times. Otherwise, the player will be uplifted by the weight of the sandbags. While strapped to these heavy bags the student must move – changing between horses and kicking the side bags as well as the large centre bag. Punching must also be done with heavy power because it ensures that the horse stance is strong and firmly grounded. The chuin lung jong thus combines both hard chi kung as well as external kung fu, to sharpen the student’s internal strength (jing) through working with the jongs.

Ma Jong The ma jong is one of the most advanced dummies taught to date by Master Chen Yong-Fa to his wing sing tong instructors, although it is still relatively simple when compared with the complex tertiary-level dummies of the Choy Lee Fut dummy system. Unique to this dummy is the heavy spring-loaded horizontal log shaped in the form of a horse. The log is mounted on wheels and springs in such a way that when pushed back the horse charges forward, forcing the practitioner to defend and control the dummy.

Power and a flexible horse stance are used to avoid and redirect the energy generated by the heavy log. The use of two interlocking spinning arms also requires a quick eye, together with fast and accurate hands to hit the targets between the rotations of the arms. The dummy is designed to train a combination of speed, accuracy and power. With the dummy’s unique moving parts, the harder and faster the practitioner attacks the dummy the harder and faster the dummy will counterattack. This ensures the dummy will be a challenge to even the strongest of students. Agility and awareness are essential in the use of this dynamic training tool and make this dummy effective for both offensive and defensive training. The variety and uniqueness of Choy Lee Fut wooden dummies will always have an edge over other mechanical methods of training. Once the jongs are made and set up they will provide a convenient and safe way to practice. The aim of all training is to improve power, speed and accuracy. The jongs will give you all this and more.

By Dr. Leung Ting

The correct stance can make you fast and versatile. Footwork in WingTsun Kung Fu includes stances, steps and kicks. A stance means the way a practitioner stands. A step means the way a practitioner moves his legs to advance, retreat or go sideways. A kick means a move of the lower limb to attack or defense. Training in footwork is of prime importance, though Western martial artists do not pay much attention to the training. Just imagine what happens to a practitioner who has strong upper limbs but a weak stance. He is just like "Hercules standing on a piece of floating wood;" he can never make use of his strength. Even if a practitioner has a stable stance, he will still be taken in by his opponent who has fast steps and versatile movements. One who is slow in his steps is like a powerful cannon which cannot change direction. It would be easily destroyed by the enemy if he changes the direction of his attacking power. Thus the use of fast and versatile steps is the best tactic against your enemy. Fast and versatile steps will enable you to change your position, and will allow you to vary your movements before your enemy varies his, so that you can evade his strong attacks and

aim at his weak points. Besides, the application of kicks in collaboration with arm movements means increasing your attacks at your enemy. It is a superb technique of the WingTsun practitioner that he can apply both arms and one of his legs to launch attacks at three different positions at the same time, giving his enemy no chance of defense or escape. That exemplifies the importance of kicks. The stance adopted in the WingTsun system is called the "character two-adduction stance," which includes three poses, namely, the frontal stance, the sideling stance and the advancing stance.

The frontal stance The frontal stance is posed in such a way that the feet, which are placed slightly apart, are turned inward so that the soles of the feet and the imaginary line joining the heels form an equilateral triangle. In this pose, the head, the trunk and the knee are on the same straight line if seen from the side, and form a right angle with the sole of the foot. If seen from the front, the trunk and the two legs form a structure which resembles the Eiffel Tower. The stance looks high, but because of the knees, and ralxation of the body, it results in stability of the lower body and agility of the upper body, and gives the practitioner an advantage over his opponent who is posing a low stance. The inward turning of the knees gives rise to another effect, that is, it forms a linked force between the knees known as the "linkage effect". It is as if the knees are linked by a spring, which not only enables the knees to support the weight of the body, but also prevents losing balance or falling when any of the legs is being attacked with a roundhouse or hooking kick. In short, the stance allows any of the legs to resume the original position when being attacked.

The turning stance The turning stance is a technique of the WingTsun system for nullifying a forceful attack from an opponent. There are many Wing Chun practitioners who do not understand the concept of the turning stance, nor do theyrealize the effect of changing from the frontal stance to the sideling stance. Some others misunderstand the theory of applying collaboration between hand techniques and stance techniques to "evade" an attacking force from the opponent, and have the wrong idea of countering a force with a force. This is far from being correct in theory of the WingTsun system. In fact all hand techniques of the WingTsun system aim at "nullifying the opponent's force to strengthen the practitioner's counterattack." To succeed in doing this, the hand

" If the opponent's punching arm keeps coming forward toward the practitioner even though the practitioner has adopted the sideling stance. now knowing the real effect of the sideling stance. thus neglecting the force or speed of the coming attack! Have you ever taken notice of the turnstile at the entrance of a bank? It has no power of itself. but with an iron ball. on the other hand. the practitioner therefore stands at an angle of 45 degrees toward his opponent. If the shot is not made with a football. for while posing this stance. and the power comes from you! The sideling stance (diagonal stance) The sideling stance is also known as the diagonal stance.techniques must closely collaborate with a set of footwork which is deliberately planned for this purpose. This is the reason why the bodyweight of the practitioner is being shifted to the rear leg. In this position. the practitioner can still keep turning until he is at a right angle with the opponent. At this position. mix up theories of similar stances of other martial art systems with that of the sideling stance of the WingTsun system and thus have the wrong idea of keeping 30 percent of the bodyweight on the front leg and 70 percent of the bodyweight on the rear leg. is being evaded. It is just like a goalkeeper trying to block a shot with his own force and speed . whether or not it is made of iron. or even 40 percent on the front and 60 percent on the rear. If he were the goalkeeper. Today. the opponent's centerline points at the practitioner's left turns in the direction you push it.the defense is not sure. can the goalkeeper block it? A practitioner of the WingTsun system will therefore employ a different method of dealing which such a problem. And since the feet are placed at an angle of 45 degrees away from the front direction. He would. It is you who turns it . thus conforming to the theory of "while trunk being turned. Otherwise the hand techniques will be just like a small sports car fitted with four oversized wheels. while the practitioner's centerline points at the opponent's right shoulder. in the same way as a charging bull is being evaded by a bullfighter. the centerline lies on the shoulder. But any martial artist who has experience of real fights will realize that the above method of countering a fast and heavy attack will not bring a good result. the opponent's force. the soles of the feet are placed on the diagonal line of two squares. there are too many Wing Chun practitioners who. no matter how powerful. he would not block or catch the ball. remove the goal to one side to evade the shot. The concept of the turning stance can be explained as follows: Practitioners of most martial art systems would try to block or deflect a coming straight punch with their hands and arms. .

also known as the meridian stance. As the story goes. The front leg of the practitioner. and can thus freely and swiftly execute a kick at the opponent or perform other movements to cope with the opponent's attacks. "WingTsun practitioners never counter force with force. To accomplish this. Lees's main complaint was that while plenty of his punches landed." Source: 'Inside Kung Fu' (Sept. he might not have needed to look elsewhere for answers to his fighting questions. whether he is posing the advancing stance or the sideling stance. the techniques "nullify" the opponent's force. with both being over the meridian line. does not carry any bodyweight. while strengthening the practitioner's counterattack. he entered his experimental stage which eventually led to the creation of jeet kune do. '89) RARE PUNCHES YIP MAN FORGOT TO TEACH Had Bruce Lee been taught several rare wing chun punching techniques. The advancing stance can be converted from the frontal stance or the sideline stance by advancing the front leg forward while posing these two stances. Subsequently. he might not have needed to create jeet kune do. is a stance being posed in such a way that one of the legs of the practitioner is placed in front of the other. By Dave Carter If Bruce Lee had known that there are actually two more ways of punching in the wing chun kung-fu system. as he called it.The advancing stance (meridian stance) The advancing stance. Instead. Lee was a young upstart in San Francisco when he was challenged by an established master. Lee used his 'wing chun gung-fu'. but found it was too limiting to do the job. few . the hand and foot techniques must work in perfect harmony.

he would not . "You know." Dr. "In his way of thinking." "Also. discrepancies occurred over time. No was else was taught what I know. Leung Ting noted." Leaving out something This method worked fine in another era when wing chun teachers accepted only a few disciples who remained with them a minimum of ten years. grandmaster Yip Man was a very traditional kung-fu instructor. Because of the "free" way of teaching. "Further we cannot exclude the possibility that the late grandmaster even forgot to explain to most of his students the application of the rare punching techniques. some students were taught complete sets while others only received portions of the complete curriculum. Most traditional wing chun instructors either adopted a personal method or one that was accepted by their students. This explains why so many top Yip Man students maintain. since grandmaster Yip Man became the first wing chun instructor to ever formally try to make a living from teaching martial arts. Leung Ting's WingTsun theories. as many continue to believe "The problem is that during the lifetime of grandmaster Yip Man. he would not even explain to them the meaning or various functions of certain special movements. Therefore. but it is not the only punch in the system. Subsequently. even though they always have been part of the system's sets as Chum Kiu and Bil Tze. "I am the only one who had even learned this secret technique." "If the student did not measure up to a certain standard to make (Yip Man) feel they should be taught more about the application." Dr." One of those students was Bruce Lee. More than one According to grandmaster Dr. However.connected with the kind of force necessary to quickly end a fight. if the students did not measure up to a certain standart to make him feel that they should be taught more about the application. "The late grandmaster hardly provided explanation to his students that there was more than one way of punching. Leung related." he added. the straight punch in WingTsun (wing chun) is the most popular attacking movement among all attacking strikes. he rarely gave deep explanations to his students in the common classes. wing chun instructors normally did not advocate a systematic way of teaching their students. who contended since he was only taught one straight punch that the wing chun system did not contain more. it was not uncommon for those with bigger classes to forget what techniques already had been covered. the traditional wing chun concepts stressed a free-form approach to learning and free use of the techniques so the practitioner could adapt to myriad attacks.

even explain to them the meaning of certain special movements. It is unique in the exertion of force compared to the straight punches of other martial arts. while the other is connected to the base (shoulder)." "Due to this bad experience. the straight punch in all the three kung-fu sets and the lifting punch in the middle section of the Chum Kiu set). To make a powerful straight punch.. I also thought there were only two punches in the wing chun system (e. In launching a WingTsun straight punch. I did not change the traditional wing chun fighting concept. "Not tighten up the muscles while you're punching.) to differentiate my system from the traditional varieties. it appears in all three kung-fu sets and is the system's most useful punching method. (Note:Before wing chun was introduced to the Western world. There is a motto for the correct way of launching a WingTsun straight punch: "Keep the elbow at the centreline while you are launching a straight punch. the lifting punch. you should also.(The character "sun" thrusting punch) The "yat gi chung kuen" or character "sun" thrusting punch is the most important attacking movement in WingTsun. Three methods WingTsun consists of three different punching methods: the straight punch. and the hooking punch. when I started to teach in 1967." he added.g." "Even before I learned from grandmaster Yip Man. I called it 'WingTsun'. it is just an illusion. The straight punch . a powerful punch is "a punch that lands on the opponent and causes him strong damage"." The first is pushed outward by a kind of special force called "explosive force". And most importantly. According to the WingTsun theory. Leung explained. I felt that I had to change some of the traditional ideas or I would not be great in the future." Dr. The fist is the cannon ball. I only modified the teaching method and created a brand new grading system. its purpose was to face those who practised only kung-fu. Although it may feel like tighter means of power. A good comparison is the firing of a cannon." Tightening up the muscles is a big mistake for anyone seeking power." "I have also improved a few techniques so they could be applied not only against Chinese kung-fu opponents. I have enriched some of the techniques in the teaching courses to include the "missing" or "secret" techniques once through only to be known by a few men. and the arm is like a rope with one end tied to the cannon ball. "Actually. but also for practitioners of any system. It was not until I became his personal student that I discovered an additional hooking punch in the Bil Tze set. so it is the opponent who feels the power . the main source of power is the elbow. Since the straight punch is applied all the time.

g. ready to fire again.) which are responsible for giving a straight punch its power. There are two different types of double-punch.and not the attacker. the doublepunch is applied at the same time with hands together landing separately on two different positions." There are three ways to use a straight punch. the right fist is held several inches in front of a WingTsun practitioner's chest waiting in an "on-guard" or ready position. which favour a "one-shot" pistol approach in which you have to load a new bullet everytime. the biceps). Different from the alternating chain punches. "We cannot exclude the possibility that the late grandmaster even forgot to explain to most of his students the application of the rare punching techniques. At the same time the left hand withdraws and is placed in the original position in front of the chest to fill the gap..g. The chain punch is regarded as the most practical and best attacking technique in the WingTsun system. Therefore. many WingTsun techniques are set to either use two hands to defend and counterattack simultaneously. Scientifically. When the left punch is straight. A chain punch is a combination of a series of continuous alternating single punches.g. not the "contractors" (e. first use one hand to block and then change to another hand to counterattack)... Therefore. or apply one continuous movement which normally takes a practitioner of other styles more than one movement to complete (e. it's like someone who tries to accelerate a car by putting on foot on the gas paddle and the other on the brake. At the end of the Chum Kiu set. etc. This is different from the single-punching way used by other martial styles. This kind of alternate punching movements can be applied non-stop until the opponent is felled. According to WingTsun theories. the triceps. the right punch immediately darts out to the same position. • The double-punch The double-punch is another modified punching method of the straight punch in WingTsun. "one movement is faster than two movements". there is a modified punching method which is a continuous movement combined with a "Gum-Sao" (pinning hand) and a straight punch. • The chain punch. Once the left punch is launched. The most common is the "vertical double-punch" in which a WingTsun man separately punches toward the upper and . • The bouncing punch. The action follows the downward Gum-Sao movement. which is supposed to nullify a frontal kick from an opponent. it is the "extensors" (e. no matter how fast you move. if a man tightens up his muscles while launching a punch. The chain punches in WingTsun can be compared to a "machine gun" with a non-stop attack. The defending hand then bounces up to form a half-arc and half-straight-line thrusting punch onto the opponent's face.

.) or the higher position (e. while the attacker's fist is landing on the opponent's body..g.g. It is difficult and ineffective for the WingTsun man to use the straight punch to continue attacking his opponent. It is the "hooking punch" of the WingTsun system. a double-punch using two fists close together which land on the same position (e. Unlike the uppercut. for instance the "nail punch". a lifting punch combined with a "neck-pulling hand" technique will become the best technique to overcome the opponent. The lifting punch can be applied when the opponent's head is bent forward or at the side of a WingTsun practitioner (e.g. there is another rare attacking technique found in the Bil Tze set.. It is quite similar in shape to the uppercut in Western boxing.middle.g. stomach. The lifting up of the whole upperbody weight with the quick turning action is a main factor that forms a very powerful smashing force to crash up against the lower jaw position.. pit of the chest. etc. The attack can be fatal. . The hooking punch Other than the lifting punch.). when the opponent is dodging a straight punch). It is the turning of the stance plus the swinging movement of the arm that combine to create a powerful smash to the ear. the pit of stomach). The main source of the force comes from the turning stance combined with the twisting and lifting-up movement of the spine which adds in the elbow movement to "push" the fist along a small arc from down to up toward the lower jaw. abdomen. At this moment. it is different in application of force.g. The "nail punch" is a special punching technique which features the first joint of the first finger springing out to stab into the weakest and softest positions (e. Although the hooking punch looks similar to a "hook" in Western boxing.. which moves from a lower position to the middle part (e. considered one of the weakest body points. abdomen. There are also other variations of WingTsun punching techniques. The lifting punch Found in the middle section of the Chum Kiu set right after the three sideling BongSao is a rare attacking movement called the "lifting punch". the lifting punch moves out along a smaller arc from the middle level (e. etc. or the middle and lower positions of his opponent at the same vertical midline of the front part of his opponent. The force of the lifting punch is also quite different from that of the uppercut.g. chest) to the lower jaw position. lower jaw) of the opponent along a larger arc.. The double-punch is a modified attacking technique converted from the double Gaan-Sao movement in the Bil Tze set. throat. This is different than the "combined double-punch".

(Shaolin Temple)." HISTORY. as well as the highest level of Wing Chun training. as the reader is no doubt by this time fully aware. the Woo Deep Doh are used in many one. Only after years of diligent study can only the most dedicated of trainees be taught the use of this weapon. It is also highly probable that Master NG Mui herself. was commonly used. there are three main reasons for the form's name. As has been consistently noted in this series of books. is that the form consists of eight "sets" within a set. or "Butterfly Knives". at times. "Bot Foang" .and two. and is seen in fig. 478. in the Shaolin School as well as many other Chinese systems that have their roots in Shaolin.Although the origins of the "Bot" Jom Doh are a bit obscure and. where a very similar weapon called "Woo Deep Doh".END OF THE INSIDE KUNG-FU COVER STORY AUGUST 1994 "BOT" JOM DOH The "Bot" Jom Doh. it is generally accepted that the knife skills were bestowed upon the system by or through Master Miu Heen. In the case of "Bot" Jom Doh. although in a different way than the "Bot" Jom Doh are used in Wing Chun. Instead. is that . was well versed in the use of the short broadswords. . each form is named for specific reasons which inspire the trainee to perform the sets with the correct "idea" in mind. one of the Five Elders from the Shaolin Temple. Even today. The third reason for this name has to do with the many directions of weapons forms. is the second weapons form of the system. the Knives are whipped upward or downward along a diagonally angled path that resembles the shape of the Chinese character "Bot".is taken to mean: "All directions.literally "Eight areas".contrary to names and appearences . as will be seen in the pages that follow. which stands for the number wight. Another very practical reason for the name. slashing and thrusting that are possible. debated by various Wing Chun masters. I myself did not learn this form until I had spent over fifteen years perfecting the empty hand system know as "Wing Chun Kuen". The first reason. having been trained in the Siu Lum Jee.the slashing and chopping motions of the Knives are never completely vertical or horizontal. the originator of WING CHUN KUEN. It can be called "The Final Reward" given to the student by a proud master of the art. This comparison to a Chinese character for visual reference is common to many motions of the system. An old Chinese idiom. or "Eight" Slash Broadswords.

club. It is important to use Knives made sepcifically for Wing Chun training as Woo Deep Doh cannot be safely circled inward past the upper arm and near the body due to its extra length. both inside and outside. or "Twisting Knife Lock". In order to facilitate the holding of both Knives in one hand. At the base of the blade is a strong hilt with a hand guard for protection as well as close rnage punching techniques. or "Hammering Knife".The Wing Chun "Bot" Jom Doh has a short. which in actuality is sharpened . but are symmetrically shaped. while the front part can be used in a brutal punching technique that strikes the opponent's nose and mouth with the handguard used like brass knuckles while the sharpened edge of the blade strikes the forehead with a splitting action that can fracture the skull. knife or rock. also provides a better grip on a single Knife as the half-round handle conforms to the natural shape of the trainee's hand. however. This is due to the substitution of the wrist joint in Knife techniques for the elbow in empty hand motions seen in Figure 4. stout blade that ranges from 12" to 14" in length. or "Palm of the Knife". This form of Weapon Trapping is known as "Lau Doh Soh". The broad. each Knife hilt has one flat side. The hook can also be used to jab the eye at close range after a chopping block. where this substitution is clearly seen by comparing the Boang Doh and Boang Sau positions. for backward-snapping cuts. Because the hand serves the same function of the elbow in empty hand Techniques. The bottom portion of the handguard can be used in a downward striking motion known as "Chuo Doh". The unsharpened edge of the Knife. flat inner surfaces of the blade that correspond with the flat sides of the hilt are also frequently used in slapping or pressing Knife motions based on Pock Sau and Gum Sau. 8. pole. or sword can be applied using the short hooking extension on the hilt. As can be seen closeup in fig. that flat surfaces. or "Elbow of the Knife". many of the "Bot Jom Doh movements are executed with "Long Bridge" Structure. Because of this similiarity in application.KINFE STRUCTURE. besides allowing the blades to be held together for concealment or to be used together in one hand. The blades themselves are not flattened on one only side. and a short hook on the unsharpened edge which is used for striking or trapping the opponent's weapons with a twisting lock. as is seen in the Hoy Sick and Sau Sick sequences of the "Bot" Jom Doh 108. Against an opponent armed with a throwing weapon such as a dart. The flattened side of the hilt. The semicircular handguard portion of the hilt is sometimes referred to as "Do Jahng". Twisting locks of an opponent's knife. these surfaces of the blade referred to as "Doh Jyeung". can be used as shields to deflect the projectile or to bat at object down in an action similiar to swinging a short racket. the sharpened side of the blade extends up and around the back edge so that the first three inches of that side is also sharp.

a diagonal cut is much harder to block. slash or chop. throat. The sharpened edge of the blade is used in many forms of slashing Jom Doh techniques and chopping Chahung Doh and Fun Doh motions. Have a partner stand firm as you swing the stick horizontally without angulation. No "Bot" Jom Doh block or strike is ever completely level in its sweeping path. He will find it easy to duck under or jump over most of your swings other than at hip-level. which is not ordinarily a prime target of "Bot" Jom Doh attack. Secondly.Most "Bot" Jom Soh thrusts. Next. as will be explained shortly. cutting upward or downward enables the blades to "latch onto the Motherline" by taking advantage of principles of gravity and physics. The reason for having a small portion of the rear edge sharpened is to facilitate withdrawl of the blade after penetration or to cut backwards with an upward snap of the wrist that enlarges the vertical slit made by a direct forward thrust with the Knife tip.As mentioned earlier. The reason for this angular cutting swath is twofold. as is simulated by Movements 20 and 21 of the "Bot" Jom Doh form. a simple experiment can be performed using a lightweight stick or baton. CUTTING PRINCIPLES NO REVERSE GRIP . use a diagonal upward or downward swing in place of the horizontal movement used . The sharpening of both edges at the tip also enables the point of the Knife to penetrate through clothing and skin in Biu Doh techniques. These piercing attacks can be directed to the eyes. Firstly. as well as numerous blocking motions that are designed to deflect the opponent's weapon off the line while simultaneously attacking his weapon hand or caroming off his weapon into a thrust. ANGULAR CUTTING. one reason for the name " 'Bot Jom Doh" is the resemblance of the path taken by the blades when slashing upward or downward to the Chinese character "Eight". heart or other vital the last three inches near the tip can be used in backward-jerking or other blocking motions. which allows transfer of wrist power into the blades and provides a stronger Structure in blocking techniques without allowing any openings in the defense that would be created by retracting the tips of the blades toward the body and away from the opponent. and slashes are executed with a straight grip on the weapon. To understand the logic of the diagonal cut more clearly. chops. as well as to hook the opponent's neck with a movement based on the Pon Geng Sau of the Wooden Dummy form. The tip of the "Bot" Jom Doh is used in various thrusting and piercing motions such as Biu Doh (Movement 20). This is one of the main contrasts between the Wing Chun "Bot" Jom Doh and the Woo Deep Doh Butterfly Knives of other Gung Fu styles in which the reverse grip is commonly used.

Ngoy Seen Wai (Outside Facing) and Hau Huen Juen Ma (Back Circle Stepthrough) are formally introduced. As the old Wing Chun proverb says. the blade penetrates its surface. For example. tire iron or any of a number of implements. which means: "The Techniques of the 'Eight Slash Knives have no match". is the additional hand wrist strength developed through whipping. Another one of the main benefits of "Bot" Jom Doh training. as it is hard to conceal and therefore inconvenient to carry.earlier. If instead an upward or downward 45 degree angular chop is used. that tree will simply snap backward due to its resilience and flexibility. the advantage of the 45 degree angle will become obvious as your partner will be unable to evade the strike without stepping backward or sideward . Take for example. Within the first few attempts. Also within the text of the "Bot" Jom Doh 108. The principles of Knife training benefit the student in a number of ways and can be applied to nearly any sharp-edged or pointed weapon he might be able to pick up in a fight situation. who will find it much more difficule to evade an angualr action which leaves him "set up" for a quick follow-up and traps him in the sense that he is too busy evading to pose any counterthreat. as are many subtle variations on the five basic Moving Stances that are used in the transitions form one motion to another. screwdriver. If a completely horizontal sweep of the blade is used to chop the tree. aside from the obvious self-defense application of the weapon. more powerful cut. In an upward cut. the tree is pulled and straightened to its limit. the case of trying to chop down a very supple sapling tree using a slightly dull blade. . this weapon might seem a bit outdated or impractical. depending ont he location. the blade will penetrate the tree's surface. Thus. "Bot Jom Doh Fot Sai Moh Syeung". or to "roll" with that strike as it uses gravity and his own bone Structure to "latch onto the Motherline" for a deeper. The second and perhaps most importnat reason for diagonal slashing of the "Bot" Jom Doh has to do with the knives' ability to cut more deeply into a target when that target has less margin to "give" or "go with the flow". BENEIFTS OF "BOT" JOM DOH TRAINING Although to the modern-day Wing Chun practitioner. This is because in a downward cut. which in turn gives the tree stability to withstand the force of the blow without collapsing or bending too far in any direction. by "latching on to the tree to the ground. circling and snapping the Knives at close range. These same principles apply to the body of an opponent. the Wing Chun fighter could execute "Bot" Jom Doh techniques witha standard knife. broken bottle. the combination Moving Stances Cheen Chong Ma (Front Bracing). and the tree is felled. straightrazor. this is not completely true. where its roots prevent it from raising any further to defray the upward power of the cut.

however. "Som Jiu Chai Doh" "Execute three motions at one time". spears and other Wing Chun Kuen.The 80-20 "Ding" Jee Ma ("J" Stance). An old Wing Chun proverb says. Another feature of the Knife set similiar to the Pole form is the frequent use of retreating footwork is designed to enable the Wing Chun Knife fighter to quickly evade a weapon strike by "giving ground" and then to quickly take back the ground he has given as he launches the counterstrike while advancing. In "Look Deem Boon" training. also known as the "Cat Stance". Also like all the other forms. In this way. the student is taught attacking and defending motions with the weapon. knives. or "Line-Crashing Stance". The additional weight and momentum of the weapon also help to accentuate the torque in all "Bot" Jom Doh footwork. he will generally continued to "flow" in with two more attacking motions. two ancestors of Wing Chun lineage who were performers in the Chinese opera and were proficient in the use of many types of swords. the weapons forms contain a series of 108 motions. the student's all-around footwork skills are "whipped into shape" and refined through Knife training. as the trainee's bodyweight is pulled around by the centrifugal force created by circular whips and slashes of the blades. These two weapons were introduced into the system by Wong Chun Lineage who were performers in the Chinese opera and were introduced into the system by Wong Wah Co and Leung Yee Tai. once again appears in Movement 46 of the "Bot" Jom Doh form in a slightly lower version. the student is ready to progress to weapons training. WEAPONS After reaching a substantial level of development in the Biu Jee form and all of the additional knowledge described above. the weapons sets contain short sequences within the total sequence designed to aid flowing from one motion to the next and to suggest possible combinations of techniques from which combinations of principles can be determined. The Wing Chun system has only two weapons forms . using a form of chasing footwork known as "Bick Ma". there is certain footwork in the weapons sets that is unique to those sets and is rarely seen in empty hand combat. as this is the number of "flowing" in the system. first seen in the "Look Deem Boon" set. Stances and footwork in the Pole form to compensate for the added weight and momentum of the weapon and to strengthen the legs while the upper arms and body are strengthen the legs while the upper arms and body are strengthened by the swing and . Most such fragments are made up of three motions. This "flow" is developed and improved through forms practice.the "Look Deem Boon" Gwun ("Six and A Half Point" Pole) and the "Bot" Jom ("Eight" Slash Butterfly Swords). Once a Wing Chun fighter has attacked. Some of these motions are combined with footwork that the student is already familiar with by this time.

A variety of disarming techniques are also studied. The strong hand wields a stick or long blade and serves as the primary offense. The training starts with defense techniques against different knife attacks. forearm and finger grip strength while training the basic attacking and defending motions of the Knives. More elaborate defence techniques contain locks. Hence the highly developed knife fighting because it is always safer to use a weapon in one's defense when a fight occurs uexpectedly. The advanced training consists of knife-to-knife techniques taught through a variety of drills containing practical offense-. checking and countering in each of the three ranges. The long range is the most frequently used range in this type of fighting because of the variety of checking techniques available in that range. angling. Basic defenses are followed by transitions to the outside. double and multiple sliding and slicing. Finally the complicated espada y daga locks and takedowns are added. Espada y Daga: Stick and Knife Espada y daga (also known as "punta y daga" or "olisi y bara") is one of the most complicated and sophisticated parts of Eskrima. The corto range (also referred to as "hubad" range) emphasizes curving attacks and continuous re-angling of the strikes around the opponent's defense. The weak hand holds the knife and is used for both offense (thrusting and sliding) and defense (blocking. Solo Olisi: Single Stick Eskrima training always begins with the use of the single stick.snap of the Pole Certain motions of the "Look Deem Boon" form require the student to snap the Pole up and down or across the body vertically. usually made of rattan) and serves as the primary offense. Drills then progress to those involving multiple attacks (usually the long weapon followed by the short weapon). Most (but not all) of these techniques are similar to "espada" (sword) techniques. the highly sophisticated system of trapping and checking is taught to develop these skills. After that footwork and body angling are added.s weapon hand wth simultaneous counterattacking. Several drills with partner are also taght to develop these assets. the seven levels of which are designed to develop movement. combinations of solo olisi striking and checking and stick and knife ("espada y daga"). The medya range (also refeered to as "sumbrada" range) utilizes sophisticated checking of the opponent. The largo range (also referred to as "largo mano" range) is characterized by evasive footwork and angling. The snapping action in the wrists and arms developed by such motions is called "Ngahn Ging" "Elastic Energy" and can be applied to empty hand techniques as well. checking and locking). Doble Olisi: Double Stick Both hands wield a stick. Similarly. working with the heavy "Bot" Jom Doh develops the wrist. . Even if that weapon is a knife. horizontally or diagonally. This has a logical explanation. Baraw: Knife Knife fighting is strongly developed in the Philippino martial arts and a particular great variety of styles can be found. fast continuous strikes to the opponent's weapon hand. The skills acquired through double stick training also come into play in other types of fighting such as empty hand striking ("mano mano"). that way avoiding remaining between the opponent's weapons. a comprehensive defense/counter-strike drill. Training starts with drills teaching coordination of the two weapons in striking and checking patterns. focusing on controlling the opponent's weapon hand. Counterattacks are performed simultaneously. The sticks are used for a combination of offense and defense. One of the most fundamental solo olisi drills is the abesedario. Many blocking and defense techniques are taught in four ways: single. medium ("medya") and short ("corto") ranges. The strong hand wields a stick (approximately 30" in length and 3/4" in diameter. dirarms and checking and redirecting the opponent's weapon. Solo olisi techniques are practiced in long ("largo"). which facilitates the ability to generate power and re-angle the wrist evasively at short range. Eskrima was originally developed on the battlefield and contains some very realistic aspects because of that.and countertechniques in different combinations with continuous checking and re-directing of the opponent's weapon hand. A wide variety of striking and twirling techniques is taught to develop power and coordination. "Tapi Tapi". Twirling techniques ("amarra") are taught to develop wrist strength and coordination. known as "pinky-pinky" or "siniwali". The empty hand is used mainly for defense. defense.

A variety of locks. utilizing the very effective "kaw-it" technqiues. Locks and throws are also applied.modified and expanded through further study. Close. a comprehensive.all knife defense and drill techniques Abesedario .all the popular 12 form of Doce Pares Baraw (Knife) . progressive and tournament type Pingki-Pingki (Sinawali) Doble Olisi Sayaw (Form) . Dumog: Philippino Grappling Grappling is also an important part of Eskrima training and is called Dumog. Many empty hand techniques come from espada y daga. Many parts of the body can serve as a weapon so empty hand fighting involves punching. research. headbutts etc. Suntok-Patid/Sikaran is part of this subject The highly sophisticated form of trapping and checking (tapi-tapi) with all its accompanying energy drills. throws and submission holds are taught that can be applied both with or without a weapon.Mano Mano: Empty Hand It is told that in the Fillipino martial arts the weapon is mainly a substitute for the empty hand.00 knife class LEVEL 2 Requirements After 6 months to 1 year take this test. some salient features of the program are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Various types of Striking techniques Twirling ( Amarra ) -Single and Double Olisi Footwork and Stances in all ranges of Eskrima and Espada y Daga Disarming with or without olisi Sparring in traditional. defense/ counter strike drill. Many techniques remain practically the same with or without a weapon being used. elbows. with emphasis of open palm blocks and counter strikes. In the traditional Filipino martial arts grappling wasn't as developed as it is today because knives were very often used. Doce Pares Mano Mano contains a special tapi tapi-drill called kaw-it. These controling techniques can be applied in armed or unarmed fighting and are also used to break the opponent's rhythm. which incorporate all the basic Principles of the various ranges of Eskrima Espada Y Daga -emphasis of footwork and body angling in coordination with Olisi and dagger and easily connect to locks and takedown Locks and Takedowns ( Eskrido with the use of Olisi ( Stick) techniques to lock and takedown/throw (whether the attacker is unarmed or wields a blade or olisi ) Mano y Mano using the same patterns of olisi technques. Medium and Long range styles.the ultimate in training methods Lessons schedule Frans Stroeven's time-table for Eskrima. knees. Program of instruction Doce Pares' 5 year-training curriculum covers all the aspects and phases of the Filipino Martial Arts. Knife and Blade and Mano y Mano ( Empty Hands) as originally advocated and introduced by the founding masters and subsequently expounded. In those cases the fight ususally didn't continue on the ground for obvious reasons. Nowadays this has changed and dumog is a highly developed and sophisticated part of eskrima training.00 to 22. kicking. Espada y Daga. (Revised 11/30/98 ND) . experiment and creativeness. This involves trapping and checking the opponent's attacking hand with only a few fingers or even one finger and simultaeniously counterattacking. Jeet Kune Do and knife fighting classes: • • • • • • Saturday from 10:00 to 11:00 Eskrima Saturday from 11:00 to 12:00 Pangamot (empty hands eskrima) Tuesday from 19:30 to 20:30 Jeet Kune Do Tuesday from 20:30 to 21:30 full contact sparring eskrima Thursday from 20:00 to 21:00 Eskrima Thursday from 21.the five types of abesedario.

salute 7. Includes down /up/ sunside/ moonside/ horizontal/ horizontal -diagonals.EMPTY HANDS 1. libot. pull/push. Advanced mitt drill 5. overhand. Butong. Able to disarm with solo stick and empty hands. Angles 6-12 disarms. 4. 5. shoulder stop. slash.double knee L/R. strip. reverse.about 6-8 combinations off Thai Pads/Mitts: Recommended a) foot jab. Saggang. Advanced muay thai drills . sampal. uppercut. Entries-guntings. 3. ala contra. moving backward. hit the floor. squat. Hampak. 4. shoulder roll. 3..basic trapping. moving forward. saludo. 3-1-2 sumbrada. Example: forward triangle. duck. pasunod. Full sumbrada. 8 count. saggang sagawas. hambak. salute.snake. walis. push. Defensive moves-bob. weave. double kick c) pull. Tiklod. roll. jab takedown drills. and one-for-one. catch. double kick d) left parry off a left jab. 2. 2. palusut. dakop. Sungob 3. . pitik. slip.both sides 4 count-both sides upward 6 count All footwork with stick. Figure 8 counters for angles 6-12. Trapping . defense moves back left leg & delivers left double kick/Feed right cut kick to outside of left leg. cover. parry. defense double parries left attack with a left right then delivers right upward knee. dagdag. double kick e) Feed left cut kick to inside of left leg. 6. etc. Any kick with a 1-2-3 hand combination 2. f) Feed a left tap to chest. hambak (forearm roll). pull.. Largo mano 1-5. meet & follow. ordabis. defense shuffles back right rear leg and left leg slides back & right leg delivers double kick to pads. close spacing DOUBLE STICK 1. double knee left/right. down right elbow. push then double kick. roof/1/drop/1/insidesweep/4 sumbrada. pass. 5 silat takedowns & 1 finishing technique SINGLE STICK 1. 3. double kick b) block a hit. vine. swim blocks. 4. Stationary. palusot.

arm bar.. chicken step. Knife to knife tapping-single 4. Pass level I & II tests Own equipment for training (Thai pads. From The Basics To Intermediate (11/30/98) Duration: About Two-3 Years Requirements Red Shirt. to do defensive moves with offensive moves shadow box. etc. 2.. Example: wrist lock. horseshoe.. pipes) Prepayment of Classes Open Hands Western boxing/Panantukan Combinations . IE: six count versus solo baston. Basic echikite. 4. dagger sticks. 5. staff. eskala pattern. roof six vs solo baston. Single & double knife tapping 2. 3. heel down sidestep. PRINCIPLES 1. Hubad Lubad with Knife. tiger block to punching range . 2 man attack (mass) Coordination of hands & feet Familiarity of vital points Knowledge of FMA history Level Three. lateral. Instructor's discretion. Attached/disattached 3. Double stick versus single stick.head gear. with mitts.. sticks. focus mitts.male/female. -able to open with tadyak. and with live partners. full-contact stickfighting equipment. 6. cut kick. Double stick dummy KNIFE 1. boxing gloves. 5. puter kapala. jeet kick. sempok/dempok. return to sender. figure 4. sidestep. 6 finishing moves out of knife tapping. Fraile 1-5 counters 7. arm drag.

Forward shuffle attack to a double kick. daga. Four Corners. In southern China. hook kick. Shuffle step Switch Leads Cross Step Clock System."Bart Jarm Dao" Predominately a southern Chinese weapon due to its short length and uses. inverted cut kick. (from foil like weapons or whip stick)lunging. horseshoe footwork.. shuffle sidestep.-able to transition from trap to box.fake takeoff. & empty hands: able to do switches. transitions. espada y daga. eskala footwork pattern. rolling tiger (from Harimau) Traditional Wing Chun Weapons Butterfly Swords . back shuffle. etc. Muay Thai half shuffle. ballestra. Movement on the ground.. riposte. groin flick kick. takedowns. . kicking techniques are employed with the sword. In the north. from trapping to locking Walking forward/backward/stationary Chut Chun Choi Hubad Lubad with solo stick. disarms. knees. Footwork Kali triangle Footwork Muay Thai Box Stepping. from boxing to trappping. Walking Tiger (from Harimau). Silat front and back sweep. Four-Stepping (from Pusaka-Dwipantara). Kicks/Sikaran From Level I: Thai Roundhouse Push Kick/Foot Jab Tadyak/Oblique Thai Knee Low Side Kick/Dongab Plus: back kick. Movement on your knees. It will differ from the butterfly swords of northern China. zoning footwork. elbows.

It is considered to be the oldest military weapon in China. where the saber became synonymous with many victories across Europe. a specialized set of techniques was developed that strongly resembled the single-headed staff techniques. With the discovery of bronze and iron. The pole descended through 3 generations of Jee Shin's family to Wong Wa Bo and was then reunited back to the Wing Chun system. The weapon used by General Lien Po. the most famous being Mo Chong. thus it was tailored to meet the individual needs of each warrior. was a big bronze Saber. Ma Dao . Therefore.Chinese Spear The spear is as ancient as China. When the Manchus inveded China in 1644. (403-222 BC). you may use the cutting edge against a pole but not against a sword due to the risk of blade damage. was the most efficient of all. As Wong was not interested in learning Wing Chun. Ch'iang/Qiang . In Japan. The blood splashing hand broadsword techniques created by Mo Chong are still exercised today. blocking and close-quarter fighting. employed by soldiers on foot.close range double handed coordination is stressed. the use of the Butterfly sword changed dramatically. Ma Teng. In ancient China. deals with the defence against of many types of weapons. knee and ankle. The legend of this weapon spread to the West. their main weapon was the dragoon. Jee Shin Wing Chun Weapons Broadswords The principle of the broadsword is the foundation of all sharp edged weapons. Wong Wa type was used by mounted soldiers. training of the eyes. but the most feared and efficient was the "six and half point dragon pole form" originated by Abbott Jee Shin. (960-1279 AD). since the swords originated from the Shaolin temple and most attacks occurred when the monks travelled around China promoting their philosophies. but towards the end of the Ching dynasty the saber was replaced by gun powder and firearms. Dragon Pole . Leung Bok Bo. The pole was no match for the swords and as a consequence Wong Wa Bo was defeated and then eagerly became a Wing Chun practitioner thus introducing the dragon pole into the Wing Chun Kung Fu System. the saber broadsword was passed down from generation to generation to eventually become the weapon of the Japanese Samurai. Instead. These weapons combined a thrusting point with a hooking or slicing blade. The construction of the swords allows rotation from the inside of the body from close range. In the period of the 3 kingdoms. formed a cavalry of strong and courageous men who were adept in the use of the Saber. Defences may vary due to the type of weapon you are countering. It originated in China around the Warring State period. There are no less than 40 kinds of broadsword and the Butterfly swords. a hero of the Sung Dynasty. Dai Dao . (900-1279AD). There were 2 types of broadsword . Butterfly swords against dragon pole. The Butterfly Swords or knives are employed in a similar fashion to empty hand techniques. There were many forms of staff and pole. supporting armies such as Genghis Khan. His victories made the saber a very practical weapon and many tribes adopted this weapon into their own environment. the other. due to their emphasis on coordinating 2 swords. many advanced warriors knew that this pointed weapon. chose to find a disciple to pass on his knowledge of Wing Chun system and chose his nephew.The hand Broadsword In ancient China. Abbott Jee Shin created Wing Chun Kung Fu to defend the lands from the invaders. wrists and footwork and utilizing the efficiency of Wing Chun footwork. Yim Wing Chun's husband. The staff was very popular among the monks at Shaolin. The spear was originally developed as a horse soldier weapons. In 1644 when the Manchus invaded China. Before 400BC. so is the distance with Butterfly Swords. the staff and pole were modified into weapons such as spears and choppers. Just as the distance in Wing Chun's empty hand training is very close. the hand broadsword was the most suited to the Foot Soldier. the Chinese spear was never meant to be thrown. being one type. and were used in hunting as well as fighting. under the usage of a proficient player was usually both lethal and formidable.Saber broadsword This was the main weapon of the Cavalry. The length and weight of this sword varied. The guards prevent your fingers or knuckles from injury and the hook assists in capture and trapping of your opponent's weapons. most martial artist fought on foot. Butterfly swords and Dart knives were the main weapons employed by the monks in their endeavour to repel the invaders. stabbing. chopping. lunging."Louk Dim Book Kwun" The pole dates back as far as 3000 BC. foot soldiers used either a nine feet spear or an eighteen feet spear. There have been many masters of the broadsword in China. The hand broadsword can be used for slashing. Bart Jarm Dao or eight-slash sword form. The attacks of the short butterfly swords were predominately to the wrist. Leung Bok Bo challenged him to a fight. The monks used the pole to help emperor Sung establish the Sung Dynasty. For instance. Mo Chong was reputed to have killed a fierce tiger with his bare hands. elbow. Later the saber was subject to improvement and refinement. The reason for this was mainly to maim the opponent rather than kill. well rehearsed in saber techniques. dependant on the size of the user. the monks also used them to defend themselves against the Manchu's siege on the Shaolin temple. During the Ching Dynasty (1644-1911). They became the most effective and deadly weapon of all. Two of the top spear proponents were the famous General . Unlike the spear that is used in other parts of the world.

Whisking Arm/Sideward hands. Gok Ma.Controlling Arm. Fa Mu Lan. Both warriors were considered invincible. No current listings. (name sometimes used for turning stance from Chum Kiu form) Chum Kiu -Searching for the bridge Chum Ma.Sinking Arm. the British. Chi Sao .Pole Stance. Gum Sao .Outward down block Fack Sao-Neck chopping G Gaun Sao . The spear is considered to be the next most difficult of all Chinese weapons to master. D Dao Jong .Knife Dummy Dan Chi Sao-Single hands Chi Sao Dai Jeung-Downward Palm strike Ding Jarn-Butting elbow E F No current listings. in the mid 19th century. due to their proficiency with the spear in combat.Push block/Pinning hands/Prohibiting Arm.Eight Chopping Knives (knife form of Yip style).Angle Stance.Ajabbing motion with the fingers/Darting Fingers .Cultivating Arm/Splitting hands.Seeking Bridge Horse (name sometimes used for stepping stance from Chum Kiu form) Chum Sao. Fuk Sao -Hooking on top position Fut Sao.Shovel Arm.Circling Stance. Gam Sam-Outward palm block H I Huen Ma. B Bat jaam do . Under the guise of warfare. Gwun Ma . Bong sau . Bik ma .Sitting Stance.Yueh Fei and the first woman warrior.Pole Dummy.Crossing hands=arm clinging exercise/Sticky hands Cho Ma . While the Chinese straight sword is considered to be the most difficult to learn. Terminology Terminology A No current listings.Circular motion/Circling Arm. Gwun Jong. .fingers in) C Chang Sao. (name sometimes used for circular advancing version of footwork from Biu Jee form) Huen Sao.Wing Arm/Elbow-up position Bil Sao-Finger thrust block(wrist out. (name sometimes used for stepping stance from Chum Kiu form) Bui jee . concluded that the chinese spear was far superior to their bayonets.Pressing Stance. Fak Sao. Fook Sao.

Hooking Stance.Detaining Arm.Palm.J Juen Ma. Kuen.Fist. Pak Sao .Double Circling Arms. Pie jarn-Elbow hacking Q R S Quan Sao-Rotating hands No current listings. Boxing.Slapping Hand/Slapping motion.Triangle Stance.Chopping Arm. Pien San Ma . Muk Yan Jong .Side Body Stance. Lan Sao. Kao Sao . Jam Sao . Jut Sao-Sharping jerking motion K L Kao Ma . Juk San Ma. Sao .Praise Spring Boxing (name used by Yuen. W Wing Chun Kuen . No current listings. Lop Sao .Palm-up position/Dispersing Arm Tok Sao-Lifting hands U V No current listings. and a few other branches) . Arm.Deflecting arm/Grappling arm/Grasping Arm. Sil Lum Tao.Side Body Stance. Yip.Six and a Half Point Pole (pole form of Yip Man Wing Chun) Luk Sao-Rolling hands M N P Ma .Wooden Dummy. Mun Sao-Asking hands/Leading hands position(Inquistive arm/hand) No current listings. Seung Huen Sao.Bar Arm. Sam Gok Ma. Luk Dim Boon Gwun. Jueng. Stance.Horse.Turning Stance.Small Imagination(First form of Yip Man Wing Chun) T Tan Sao . O No current listings.Hand.

Trapezoid Shape Clamping Goat Stance (name of center stance used in most Wing Chun branches). As any eskrimador will tell you the footwork is the primary means of evasion to an attack. Male and Female footwork is based around two triangles placed on the floor in the shape of an X. To those who have some knowledge of the arts they know that it contains a large section of empty hand fighting skills. The Empty Hands of the Filipino Martial Arts To most people and martial artists. Knives and Edged weapons. Footwork Footwork is one of the key things which bind all the various fighting areas together. If you keep one foot in the centre and step out into a boxing stance to one of the points or backwards keeping your lead foot in the centre you will gain the basic footwork. If you stand in the centre point. Yee Jee Kim Yeung Ma . This is basically around a boxing format with the notable addition of the triangular footwork patterns. the Filipino Martial Arts purely concentrate on the use of Sticks. Z No current listings.(Fig 1) Female Triangle . For instance.Guarding hand/Rear hand position/Protecting Arm(Vertical palm block) Wung Jeung-Sideward palm strike Woy Moon Choie-Vertical punch X Y No current listings. These empty hand skills are derived from the movements with the weapons and are taught within the framework of weapons techniques.Wu Sao. the triangle growing away from you is the female triangle and the triangle going behind you is the male triangle. the footwork and arm positioning used in a snake disarm would also be used in delivering an uppercut or hook punch to the ribs.

I prefer the latter method because you can use different coloured tapes for the triangles and the square which makes it easier for you to pick them out if you only want to practice one particular form of footwork. such as a right cross. If you add a large square around the X pattern you can then practice your step and slide around the X then go through the X and make your own patterns up. If you imagine a straight line attack towards you.Male Triangle fig 1. is the shaft of an arrow you can step down either side of arrowhead to avoid the attack. Another important piece of footwork is that of the arrow.(fig 3) Direction of Attack .(fig 2) The shapes can either be made up from sticks placed on the floor or you can use tape to mark the pattern out with on the floor.

Application of Female Triangle Empty Hands(Panantukan) The empty hand skills taught are essentially a modified boxing format with one key difference. Common methods in which the elbow is employed is by using the point of the elbow on the fingers of the fist. In Western Boxing the fighting range is from the end of the punching hand to your opponents chin. For example. the only problem is unless you are attacking the hand you have to close the gap to employ it. "Defanging the Snake". For Example : . these being the hand and the elbow.e. the Filipino styles however have their fighting measure from the end of the punching hand to a distance where you can attack the attacking limb. the fighting range.fig 3. Limb destruction is commonly performed with 2 tools at the upper body range. i. This limb destruction is also due to the fact that by applying forward pressure to your opponent you are preventing him from hitting you as effectively and you are closing your opponents attacking tools down. or driving into the bicep or pectoral. This is where one hand parries an attack and your other hand attacks the limb which attacked you. where you can elbow strike your opponents cross to prevent him from punching you again. A lot of these movements are tied in to the use of the knife. Against a side kick the point of the elbow can also be dropped onto the side of the calf. Of these the elbow is by far the more potent weapon in terms of destructive power. where evasive footwork and parries followed by an attack to the weapon hand is often preferred. The major hand attacking method used in Limb Destruction is Gunting(Scissor type motion).

It must be stressed however that these are desparate measures when all other options such as getting away from the area are not . Empty hand skills are also taught against the stick and the knife. these are often used with a limb destruction as described above. This can be applied against you if you are attacking from the outside line or if you are attacking vertically upwards. The Gunting can be delivered either horizontally. knife hand. moving from one obstacle to the next. The major striking tools are the fist (In the major boxing punches). This may well be due to the fact that most fights in the Phillipines involved weapons and you could not afford to let your opponent gain the advantage over you. knuckles and elbow. it can be the knuckles. If you step forwards as you do this it can also be used as a strike to the pectoral or shoulder joint of your opponent. backfist or knife hand. you must be like water. wrench the attacking arm back as you deliver a left hand elbow strike to the bicep. Remember the art revolves around the flow. Flowing attacks are commonplace where once you close the gap you hit and hit until your opponent is incapacitated.Your opponent attacks with a Right Cross. Twisiting of the body is stressed to move your vital organs out of the line of attack and to present as small a target as possible. To see a sample technique click here : Technique Illustrations Your stick striking patterns can also be applied into your empty hands. hammerfist. The choice of tool you use is up to you. then grab the head and leg sweep your attacker to the floor and finish. There are no blocks per se but rather parry's and evasions as used in boxing. This is where your opponent either drops or bends his elbow as you attack. in terms of a street attack in the USA or Europe your are probably more likely to face the knife and Eskrima has plenty or parries. up or down. you either go through it or around it. then eye jab your opponent with your right hand. One important thing to note with the use of the Gunting is that in certain situations you are open to very subtle counters which will probably destroy your own limb. you step to the outside of the punch. parry to your right with your left hand and you hit the nerve between the bicep and tricep with the knuckles of your right hand. The elbow can be brought up to cover the side of the face whilst the arm covers the side of the head. For instance : You counter with the gunting as desribed above. evasions and tie ups for facing a knife attacker following up with strikes or disarms. These include slapping blocks and jams to hinder your opponent whilst you setup your own counter. such as Heaven 6 by replacing the sticks with hammer fists or knife hands. vertically and in either direction.

This technique is effective no matter how big your opponent is. Kicking (Pananjakman/Sikaran) The Filipino arts do not kick very high. elbow. Locks are usually taught in a flow during Dumog this is done to help you flow from one technique to another as mentioned above and if your opponent is wriggling out of a lock teach you to quickly change to a different one. knee. The flow I was taught begins with a basic one handed wrist lock and finishes with a figure four armlock. like Silat they often involve twisting and turning the opponents body during the throw the aim being to cause as much damage as possible. One main characteristic of Dumog throws is that they are not very easy to fall from. Dumog Dumog is the Filipino form of wrestling involving Joint locks and Off balancing techniques. Remember that there are no mats out there on the street just good old tarmac and concrete so the harder your opponent falls the worse off they are going to be when they land. this is because at this distance you will be trying to counter your opponents attack and the kicking techniques are used to distract your assailant. You may be asking yourself "Why from Punching Range?". the primary targets being the thigh. there may also be a time when locking somebody is preferable. this is because if the head is moving the rest of the body will follow. A favourite technique is to use your forearm to wrench the bicep of an opponent down this will drag your opponents upper body down enabling you to headbutt. instead they prefer to kick at waist level and below.available options. take down or lock. e. Locks are generally not sought after but if there is an opening to use them you should know how to apply them. destroy his mobility and if possible take them to the floor. You should be able to put these low level kicks in whilst punching or locking. if a friend or relative is drunk and behaves irresponsibly you may not want to take their head off. and shin. if they happen to be a bit of a Goliath then step back slightly as you perform it. A lot of the locks tend to dominate the head. working up the arm from wrist to elbow to shoulder. Striking Tools .g. The kicks are not very pretty to watch but are delivered with body weight behind them and usually from punching range. It is basically designed to keep your opponent from hitting you whilst you hit them. I recommend you see a qualified instructor if you wish to learn these techniques.

This is usually delivered to help bend your opponent over. or to the front of the thigh which has to be felt to be believed. Kneeing the front of the thigh is usually done to stop your opponent moving forwards. the back of the thigh (Hamstring) and the front of the thigh.The knee is primarily used to attack the thigh. This gives more penetration to the kick. Calf or Ankle. The knee is also used in pushing attacks to off balance your opponent. Front / Point Kick . As said before this is usually done in conjuction with another form of attack to keep your opponent off balance and confused. This is not to say that obvious targets such as the groin are not taken advantage of. This is sometimes done in conjunction with a foot trap to provide a lever. The kick to the front of the thigh is delivered from the side and is done in conjunction with a trapping move to the arm. similar to a Muay Thai kick. the sensitivity drill of the FMA is called Hubad Lubad.The feet are also used to apply trips and sweeps to the lower leg to put and opponent down. Shin . Oblique Kick(Sipa) . This kick will also keep pressure on the opponent whilst allowing yourself time to manouver into a better position. .The Eskrima front kick is generally delivered with the ball of the foot or the toes. The knee if pushed from either side is very easy to collapse and will result in your opponent taking a tumble. Feet . The kick can either be used as a straight attacking tool or as a counter attacking tool. this would be to the Knee. This type of attack will cause instant pain and is intended to stop the forward motion of the attacker. The shin is very easy to contact and can cause a lot of pain if contacted with boots or shoes. Knee .The shin is usually delivered in a roundhouse fashion. I have never seen the instep used this possibly being due to the fact that the instep does not give you as much penetration of power.This is delivered with the sole of the foot. Sensitivity Drills Filipino Martial Arts are one of only two arts that I know of which contain sensitivity drills. The heel is also used in a hooking type of kick to attack the rear of a opponents leg.The most common Kicking tools are the Knee and sole of the foot. Hubad as it is commonly called is used to train sensitvity in your limbs so you feel how your opponent is moving. this will help you to keep contact and flow from one technique to another. this is done by pushing your opponents knee either to the outside of his body or by pushing the knee straight back. The preferred targets are the knee and the shin. The points to attack are the Sciatic Nerve ("Dead Leg"). occasionally the ball of the foot is used. the other being Wing Chun. Stamping is also another viable form of attack. either to the side of the thigh. usually from the rear leg to the knee or the shin.

This is only a basic Hubad but at even a slightly higher level it includes changeovers from right arm to left arm and also changing from the outside of the arm to the inside. Punch towards him with your right fist. Slap his arm down with your left palm. 2. 3. You parry his wrist with your left palm. The easiest method is probably 4 count.Broadswords Techniques BIK-MA : Pressing Stance BIU-JEE : Thrusting Fingers Form BIN-BO : Circle Step BIU-JEE-SAU : Thrusting-fingers BONG-SAU : Wing-arm C: CHAAN-SAU : Shovel-hand CHANG-SAU: Spade-hand CHAT-GENG-SAU: Throat-cutting-hand CHI-DAB-SAU : Single Hand-clinging CHI-DAN-SAU : single hand sticking . 1. This should be in front of your left hand.Hubad can be practiced in many forms and in any number of counts. This is difficult to explain in words but I will do my best. 4. WING CHUN TERMS (Yale phonetic) A-B: BAAT-JAM-DAO : Eight-Cutting. Now scoop his wrist to his inside zone with the back of your right hand. The sequence now reverses and your partner has his turn. 5. Your partner throws a straight right punch at you. If you want to learn Hubad I suggest you do so from a qualified instructor.

CHI-KWUN : Pole-clinging CHONG : Prefighting Posture CHONG-SAU : Guard-hands CHI-SAU : Sticking Hands CHOH-BO : side sitting step CHOH-MA : sitting horse step. strike punch CHUNG-LO : Mid-level CHUNG-SIN : Median Line CHUNG-SUM-SIN : Center Line D-E: DAI-JEONG : Lower palm strike DAO-JONG : Knife Dummy DING-JARN : Butting-elbow DIU-KOK-MA : Diagonal Stance F-G: FAK-SAU : Whisking-hand FUT-SAU : Buddha-hand . basic turning stance CHUEN-KIU : Fist over Bridge/Piercing Fist CHUM-KIU : Sinking Bridge Form CHUM-KIU : Seeking Bridge Form CHUM-SAU : Sinking-hand CHUN GING : One Inch Punch CHUNG-KUEN : Center line punch.

FUK-SAU : Bridge-on Controlling Hand GAM-KIU : killing bridge GAM-SAU : Press down GAAN-SAU : Splitting-block/Cultivating-hand GAN-SAU : cutting down GEE-NG-DIU-TIE-MA : Meridian Half-hanging Stance GEE-NG-MA : Meridian Stance GENG : neck GEUK : foot CHI-GEUK : sticking leg GOK-MA : Angle Stance GWAN-SAU : Inward Bong-Sau/Tan-Sau combination GUM-SAU : Pinning-hand GUNG-LIK : forward elbow energy GWAI-JAANG : horizontal elbow strike GWUN-JONG : Pole Dummy GWUN-MA : Pole Stance H: HAAN-KIU : press bridge. strike with fist HAU-JEONG : Rear Palm Strike HAR-LO : Lower Level HAU-GUM-SAU : Back Pinning-hand HEUN-SAU : Circling hands HOI-MA : Setting up of Stance .

HOI-MOON : Outdoor Area HUEN-BO : Circling Steps HUEN-GOT-SAU : Circling Cut HUEN-SAU : Circling-hand I-J: JANG-JEONG : Sideways Palm JEUN-MA : Turning Stance JEONG : Palm JU-JEUNG : Sideward Palm JU-GUM-SAU : Back Pinning-hand JIN-BO : Attacking forward step JIK-JEUNG : Palm outward Strike. Front Vertical Palm JIK-JENG-KUEN : attacking center punch JUM-SAU : Hacking-hand JUM-SAU : Sinking-hand JU-SUN-KUEN : Sideline Punch JU-SUN-MA : Sideline Stance/Diagonal Stance JUT-SAU : Jerk-hand K: KAU-MA : Hooking Stance KAU-BO : Puking Steps KAU-SAU : Circle-block-hand KIU-SAU : Bridge-arm .

Boxing KUEN-TO : Boxing Form KUO-SAU : Fighting Hands KUP-JANNG : downward elbow strike KWAI-JAANG : Downward Elbow Strike KWAN-SAU : Outward Bong-Sau/Tan-Sau combination.KUEN : Fist. Inside/Outside hand KWAN : elastic power L: LAN-BO : turning step used with lan-sau LAN-SAU : Bar-arm LAT-SAU : freeing hand LAU-SAU : Scooping-hand LIN-WAN-KUEN : Alternate-thrusting Punches LOK-SAU : Rolling Arms LAHP-SAU : Grasping-hand LUHK-DIM-BOON-GWUN : Six and a Half Point Pole M: MANG-GENG-SAU : Neck-pulling-hand MAN-SAU : Inquisive-hand (3rd form) MUK-YAN-JONG : Wooden Dummy MUK-YAN-JONG-FA : Wooden Dummy Techniques N: .

diagonal elbow strike PIEN-SUN-MA : Side Body Stance PO-BAI-JEONG : Double Palm strike Q-R-S: SAAT-KIU : Killing Bridge SAAT-JEONG : Killing Palm SAAM-KOK-BO : Three Side Forward Steps SAAM-SING-JONG : Three Stars Dummy SAAM-PAI-FUT : Praying Thrice to the Buddha SAN-SAU : Free Hands SAU-BEI : arm SEI-PING-MA : Four Side Level Stance SEUNG-CHI-SAU : Double Sticking Hands SEUNG-HUEN-SAU : Double Circling Hands .NOI-MOON : Indoor Area NUK-SAU : Free Hand Fighting Practice O: ONG-JEONG : Palm Strike P: PAAK-SAU : Slapping-hand PAU-SAU : TOK-SAU PEK-JEONG : Chopping throat palm PIE-JAANG : Elbow-hacking.

. I am updating it as I find new words and terms in my readings and studies.SEUNG-KUEN : Double Punches SEUNG-LO : Upper-level SIU-LIM-TAO : Little Idea SUM-GOK-MA : Angle Stance T: TAN-SAU : Dispersing-hand TAT-SAU : Cutting-down-hand TIE-SAU : Lifting-hands TOK-SAU : Elbow-lifting-hand TUT-SAU : freeing-hand. contact with little finger side downward U-V-W: WAN-JEONG : Palm down Strike WING CHUN KUEN : Always Spring Boxing WU-SAU : Protective-hand X-Y-Z: YAN-JEONG : Stamping-palm YAN-JEE-DAO : Converging Knives YEE-CHI-SEUNG-DAO : Parallel Double Knives YEE-CHI-KIM-YEUNG-MA : stationary front stance (pinching goat stance) Wing Chun Glossary and Terms Here I have included a list of Wing Chun terminology. Most of it came from elsewhere on the Internet as well as terms from literature given by Dai-Sifu Goldberg to his class.

Double Sticky Hands Chum Kiu .Front Pinning Hand Chin Jeung .Mid Level Single Sticky Hands ."Wrong" Bong (inside gate) Bong Gerk .Eight Cutting Broadswords (Final Weapons form in Wing Chun) Bil Jee .Sticky Legs Chi Kwan .Pressing Arm Bok Jeung .Wing Arm Block Bui Do . some terms may be spelled differently in different places.*****Please note that because of the diffculty in transliterating and translating from Chinese to English.***** B Baht Cham Do .Thrusting Knives Bui Ma .Sticky Pole Chin Tek .Thrusting Arm C Chang Sao .Thrusting Fingers Bik Sao ."Thrusting Fingers" (3rd Wing Chun hand form) Bil Jee Sao .Thrusting Stance Bui Sao . or translated slightly differently.Front Palm Chi Sao (Sheung Chi Sao) .Shoulder Butt (palm pushes down) Bong Chor Sao .Spade hand Chi Dan Sao (dan chi) Chi Gerk .Wing Leg Block Bong Sao .Front Kick Chin Gum Sao ."Seeking the Bridge (Arm)" Form (2nd hand form in Wing Chun) Chung Lo .

Chung Si .Back Pinning Hand .Center Line (Mother Line) Cup Jarn .Diagonal Stance F Fak Sao .Butting Elbow Dip Sao .Grandmaster of A Style Chung Sin .Downward Elbow D Ding Jarn .Downward/Kneeling Elbow H Har Lo .Mid Line Chung Sum Sin .Bridge On Arm Fung Gerk .Splitting Block/Low Block Simultaneous Punch Gee Ng Dui Tie Ma .Leg Gnoi Moon .Lower Level Hau Gum Sao .Stomp Foot Block G Garn Sao .Whisking Arm/Side Chop Fook Sao .Outside Gate Gum Sao .Forward Energy Dui Kok Ma .Butterfly Hand Doy Ying .Half Hanging Stance (Pole) Gerk .Pinning Hand Gwai Jarn .

Sinking Block Ju Cheung .Prefighting Posture Kau Bo .Fist/Fist Fighting Kuen To .Circling Knife Heun Got Sao .Left Stance Jum Sao .Back Stance Hoi Ma .Circling Block Kuen .Hau Ma .Plucking Steps/Circle Steps Kau Gerk .Opening Of Stance Heun Bo .Side Palm Ju Tek .Turning of Stance Jut Sao .Forms .Side Pinning Hand Ju Sun Kuen .Side Kick Ju Gum Sao .Palm Jik Chung ."Sun Punch" (Vertical Fist Punch) Jong .Circling Hand J Jeung .Dummy/Stake Jor Ma .Half Moon Kick Kau Sao .Circle Steps Heun Do .Turning Punch Ju Sun Ma .Jerking or Cutting Hand K Kar Sik .Circling cut Heun Sao .

Hacking Elbow .Scooping Arm Lin Wan Kuen .Bridge Arm Kuo Sao .Inside Gate Nuk Sao .Sparring/Fighting Practice Kwun Ma .Chain Punches Lok Ma .Stance/Horse Mang Geng Sao .Pole Stance Kwun Sao .Neck Pulling Hand Man Sao .Bar Arm Laap Sao .Dummy Form N Noi Moon .Kui Sao .Six & Half Point Pole M Ma .Retreating Stance Luk Dim Boon Kwan .Rolling/Rotating Block L Laan Sao .Slap Block Pai Jarn .Wooden Dummy Mook Yan Jong Fa .Freehand Fighting Practice P Pak Sao .Inquisitive Hand Mook Yan Jong .Deflecting Arm Lau Sao .

Upper Level Siong Ma .Horse Stance Shat Geng Sao .Elbow lifting Hand/Supporting Tong Tek .Po Pai Jeung .Pushing Horse Stance Tut Sao . which have become part of the formal curriculum. San Sik are not really very formal.WingChunKuen.Diagonal Kick Tui Ma .Triangular Stance (advancing) Saam Bat Fut .com) Sei Ping Ma .typically short sequences containing one or two concepts and/or techniques."The Little Idea" Form (1st hand form in Wing Chun) Sut .Freeing Arm W .Advancing Stance Sil Lum Tao . In some Wing Chun systems there are a few.Rising Arms Tek .“Separate Form” .Kick Tok Sao .Double Punches Sheung Lo .Knee T Tan Gerk .Double Palms S Saam Kok Bo/Ma . (source .Three Bows To Buddha (alternate name for Sil Lum Tao) San Sik .Leg Block Tan Sao .Throat Cutting Hand Sheung Kuen .Palm Up Block Tei Sao . usually set into a specific grouping or ordered sequence. In some cases. however. and may vary with almost every practice.

Right Stance Yee Chi Kim Yeung Ma .Fellow Student Numbers Yat .Wife of Kung Fu Teacher Si Mui .Elder Kung Fu Brother Of Si fu Si Bak Gung .Guarding Hand (Protective Arm/Rear Guard) Y Yau Ma ."Clamping the Sheep" Stance Family Structure and Relationships Chung Si .Wu Sao .Kung Fu Nephew (student of younger kung Fu Brother) Si Mo .One .Teacher Of Kung Fu Grandfather Si Jook .Elder Kung Fu Sister (trained longer time) Si Jo .Younger Kung Fu Sister (trained less time than you) To Dai .Elder Kung Fu Brother Of Si Gung Si Dai .Founder Of Style (Ng Mui) Si Bak .Kung Fu Grandfather (Teacher of Teacher) Si Hing .Student To Suen .Younger Kung Fu Brother (trained less time) Si Fu .Teacher/Parent Figure Si Gung .Grandmaster Of Style Jor Si .Elder Kung Fu Brother (trained longer time) Si Je .Kung Fu Grandson (student of student) Tung Moon .

.Thirty Yat Baak .July.Eight Gau .”.Nine Sup . because no one really knows what is fact or fiction of Wing Tsun's beginnings.Twelve Yee Sup .Eleven Sup Yee .Twenty Saam Sup .Hundred Wing Tsun Techniques Using Muk-Yan-Chong Tranining Device Presented by: Master Debbie Hintopoulos Master Instructor and Director Karate Camp ..Three Say .Four Ng .Yee . 2001 American Kang Duk Won Association Wing Tsun – An Abbreviated History This probably should begin with. and when the fire occured. There are two different tales of this event. “Once upon a time.Two Saam .Seven Baat .Six Chat .. who escaped the fire.Five Look . They vary in who set the fire. The story of Wing Tsun begins with a fire at the Siu Lam Monastery.Ten Sup Yat .

D. Although Ng Mui found a seemingly safe haven in the White Crane Temple she still worried that the Manchu government or the Siu Lam defectors would find her. Bruce Lee. (The Manchu government most certainly hired the burning of Siu Lam and most certainly the Siu Lam defectors were involved. This new system utilized chasing steps and infighting techniques. 1733 A. Ng Mui was still at the White Crane Temple and frequented the market place. but Wing Tsun defeated him. The new system she created consisted of simple basic movements incorporated into three boxing forms and a set of wooden dummy techniques (Muk-Yan-Chong Fa) for practicing purposes. where Ng Mui used the back stance. Between 1970 and 1971.D. The Siu Lam Kung-Fu system that she had trained in emphasized fixed patterns of regular movements. for the burning of the monastery set a chain of events in motion that led to the birth of Wing Tsun. It is believed that the first . Ng Mui emphasized defeating an enemy with “method” rather than “strength”. One day Ng Mui observed a fight between a fox and a large wild crane. down the mountain. The bully was convinced he would have a wife.. This allowed for the executing of front thrusting kicks and also quick retreats. The fox. Wing Tsun challenged him to a fight. After three years of training at the White Crane Temple. Wing Tsun was especially popular with the Hong Kong police force. There were stories that the Siu Lam monastery had a “wooden dummy alley”. After being taught in secret to select heirs over the years. named Wing Tsun. Wing Tsun or Muk-Yan-Chong. She became acquainted with a stall owner and his teen age daughter. and 1734 A. for supplies. Buddhist Mistress Ng Mui was one of the skilled martial artists that escaped the fire. are all dates for when the Siu Lam Monastery was to have burned. It would problably be safe to say that Wing Tsun is 200 to 300 years old. Wing Tsun surfaces in 1949.. Wing Tsun had attained competence. Ng Mui learned that the local bully threatened to force Wing Tsun to marry him and Wing Tsun's father was too old to protect her. using its speed.D. She was ready to return home and when she did the bully was there to confront her. It is not known which came first. This also brought to the world's attention the Muk-YanChong (Wooden Dummy) training device. one of Yip Man's students brought Wing Tsun to the attention of the world. ran around the crane trying to make surprise attacks with its paws. The crane turned with the fox and blocked the fox with its wings and counter-attacked with its beak. This inspired Ng Mui with an idea for a new fighting system. The man who brought it out of secret was Yip Man. The Sui Lam system used the front stance most often. In the most popular version.) She felt the only way to protect herself was to devise a fighting system that was different from the Siu Lam system. Ng Mui decided she would train Wing Tsun in the new system of kung-fu.1674 A. She felt these were too complicated.

It corresponds to a special set of stars. this diverts A's arm) Simultaneously step to left side w/left to do left low palm strike to ribs 2. He then regrouped the techniques into 116 movements as it still is today.wooden dummy was an erected wood stake to take the place of a trainee's opponent. Indoor Area Pak-Sau (slap hand) • • D: Right lead A: Right punch . palms facing one another) Double palm strike to ribs 3. there were 140 Muk-Yan-Chong techniques. These were divided into ten sections for reasons of practice. Originally. pared it down to 108 techniques. Grandmaster Yip Man feeling the 140 techniques were too numerous and complicated. Later Wing Tsun practitioners improved the training device. (108 is a number liked by the Chinese people.) After years of experience. Double Tan-Sau/Double Upper Lying-Palm • • • D: Left lead A: Double lapel grab attempt D: Double Tan-Sau (similar to spread middle block to inside of opponent's double grab attempt) Double palm strike to face 4. when Wing Tsun was first developing. palms up) Huen-Sau (immediately make a circular movement to the inside. Bong-Saulran-Sau & Lower Lying-Palm • • • D: Right lead A: Right punch D: Right Bong-Sau (wing arm) Right Tan-Sau (rotate palm up as in reverse knife hand position. Double Tan-Sau/Huen-SaulDouble Lower Palm Strike • • • D: Left lead A: Attempt at double lapel grab D: Double Tan-Sau (double outside blocks. Later. THE TECHNIQUES YOU WILL BE WORKING ON D: Defender A: Attacker 1. he determined some of the essential parts of the Muk-Yan-Chong were not included.

Man-Sau is derived from the lower Bong-Sau. which is bending down in the form of Bong-Sau. When attacking arm of opponent is weakening in force or about to retreat. Lower Bong-Sau/Sideward Slap-Palm & Man-Sau • • • • • D: Left lead A: Right low punch D: Left low Bong-Sau A: Left high punch D: Right palm slap Left palm strike to left arm pit Note: Lower Bong-Sau gets better results if you co-ordinate with turning the body to maximize its 'evasive effect'. Bong-Sau/Grappling Hand & Throat-Cutting Hand/Pak-Sau & Spade-Hand • • • D: Left lead A: Right punch D: Left Bong-Sau Circular movement to grab inside of arm Right knife hand strike to throat Right Pak-Sau (downward palm press) Left palm strike to chin 7. 6.• • • D: Right Pak-Sau (right palm slap to inside of right arm) A: Left punch D: Left Pak-Sau (left palm slap to inside of left arm) Immediately going into downward press followed by right vertical punch to face 5. Bong-Sau/Elbow break/Reverse Bong-Sau/Palm strike/Elbow strike • • • D: Left lead A: Right push D: Left Bong-Sau . Bong-Sau/Grappling Hand & Sweep-Kick • • • D: Right lead A: Right punch D: Right Bong-Sau Circle into a right grab of attacker's right arm followed by a left grab Forcefully pull 'A' forward into a sweep-kick to right knee of 'A' Continue to pull 'A' forward 8. now turns up to form Man-Sau. the defender's arm.

If done on the left side. While each individual motion will have its own unique characteristics. This skeletal alignment also naturally disperses incoming force. Lower Body The ha san (lower body) is often referred to as ma. Although frequently translated as "stance". it can be done on the right side. special equipment for Huen-Sau: Circling-hand Man-Sau: Inquisitive arm Muk-Yan-Chong: Wooden dummy Muk-Yan-Chong Fa: Wooden dummy techniques Pak-Sau: Slap block Tan-Sau: Palm-up arm Body Structure by Rene Ritchie (Excerpted. reducing the need for muscle movement (making responses faster and less tiring). It works off simple. This reveals a dynamic rather then static nature. there are several overall structural principles that can generally be applied to most movements. from Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen) Wing Chun kuen san ying (body structure) strives to achieve several important goals. Utilizing the concepts of the meridian line. the body is positioned so that it closes off direct access. It is the connection between the ground (the source of power in Chinese martial arts) and the upper-body. In Wing Chun kuen the horse should actively clamp like flexible steel and move like the wheels of a cart. These enable the practitioner to work as little as possible while forcing the opponent to work as much as possible. ma is actually the word for "horse". It should be remembered that positions are always relative and depend on the build of the individual involved. piles. If he or she pulls. obstructing the opponent before they begin (increasing the effort and time it takes for attacks). he or she . When standing it serves to root the practitioner to the ground. geometrical shapes that can be reflexively assumed and easily maintained. in part. SOME WING TSUN VOCABULARY • • • • • • • • Bong-Sau: Wing arm Chong: Wooden dummy. natural. he or she pushes the ground.Right grab Left elbow break Left reverse Bong-Sau Right palm strike to jaw Right elbow strike to side of head Note: All of these techniques can be done on the other side. If an opponent pushes. even during stressful situations like combat (where more complicated mechanics can break down).

and send off an opponent. Clamping the knees involves rotating them inward and closing them to one-fist distance. power will not be able to flow freely. Lower the posture and clamp the knees.pulls the ground. the feet are the ultimate connection between the body and the ground. This neutral posture is in keeping with Wing Chun kuen's concept of the center. leaning neither forward nor backward. Drawing in the anus helps to connect both the ren and du mai points. Straighten the head. Upper Body The seung san (upper body) forms the link between the bridge arms and the horse. Tuck the hips under. Straighten the back. If it becomes tense. When in contact. Relax the chest and abdomen. expanding and contracting when expressing or receiving power. 2. This means that in most situations. 1. completing the microcosmic orbit. the lower body functions like a spatula or a cow-pusher to disrupt. it works with the rest of the torso.) 1. the elbows are kept down and in near the body. or to jam or . Wing Chun kuen does not flare the elbows but keeps them closed towards the meridian line. The shoulders should remain relaxed.) also works to generate and disperse certain forms of power. While standing. 3. like swimming dragons. sometimes shortened to simply kiu (bridges) or sao (hands or arms) are so named in Southern Chinese martial arts because they are the most common tools used to contact the opponent. Tense shoulders will stop the transfer of power from the ground and cause the body to rely on local arm power alone. the expansion and contraction of the torso (intercostals. however. Hang the shoulders. Drawn the anus in. as the knees are brought close together not so much by horizontally pressing them in as by sinking the posture to adduct them. In general the back is kept vertical. Bridge Arms Kiu sao (bridge arms). The exact placement will vary (depending on the situation. etc. The two work in concert. Thus. Point the feet inward and grab with the toes. The converging nature of the feet creates an internal rotation in the horse and aids in stability. the bridges are relaxed and adaptable (moving. 1. having it droop forward or back can affect balance. Since the head can weigh a fair amount. uproot. 4. When still it is said to be neutral like a standing crane. This provides a solid. 2. uniformity of structure is maintained allowing for proper alignment when standing and moving. In application. Like the torso. pyramid-like structure for training and can help in the channeling of power from the ground. It should be sunken and relaxed. the arms form the bridge between the practitioner and their target. the relaxed body can react more quickly and the sunken posture can provide a slight advantage in reach (keeping the body a little further back). This is important in order to create the connection between the ground and the torso and to project power through that connection. chest. Close the elbows. Lowering the posture aids stability and helps ensure a rooted horse.) Keeping the elbow joint pointing down ensures a straight punch that is more difficult for an opponent to turn with or deflect from the outside. The grabbing action of the toes helps with rooting. With the head in line with the upper and lower body. it is sometimes said. 3. joining the upper and lower bodies together. 2. When moving. The stomach and chest are not tensed but naturally relaxed and sunken. As Wing Chun kuen can boil down to a game of seconds and inches. The hips tuck under.

this is both the simplest and most direct route to the opponent and allows the body's full structure to be behind the hand. Keeping the elbows in minimizes exposed areas. Wing Chun kuen is not a technical style. The wrists tend to maintain a position along the meridian line. "Foshan" Wing Chun by Rene Ritchie Many systems have used the name Foshan Wing Chun Kuen in their marketing. 4. The elbow should usually form an obtuse angle (greater then 90°). a flared elbow requires local arm muscle to maintain its structure. and can be more easily jammed and locked. yet integral part of this. Rather then forcing a practitioner to spend vast amounts of time repeating large numbers of fixed patterns it allows them to economically practice a few root points that can be applied in almost limitless ways. it is a conceptual system.lock. however. relaxing and naturally bending again immediately thereafter. the arms extend for only the instant in which power is applied. This maximizes training time and means that the art is not bound to material but can develop and grow as far as the practitioner's intelligence and devotion allows. Later. Even with motions like the thrusting punch or darting fingers. the bridge loses structural integrity and can be collapsed by an opponent. This is done both to increase the structural integrity of the arms and to prevent an opponent from using the bridges to lever the body. Oftentimes. How did Foshan come to be home to so many Wing Chun masters? The answer lies with the art's origin aboard the Hung Suen Hei Ban (Red Junk Opera Company). Zhaoqing (Siu Hing). however. the fingers will also be placed on the mutual meridian line. The ideas are what are important since from them come the many individual applications and implications. 5. on the other hand. More then a set combination of poetic movements it is an ingenious index and guide to the core principles of Southern Chinese martial arts. pointing intently towards the opponent. Closed elbows. The angle should not be so great. When the bridges go out the elbows are not restrained against the torso but move to a position roughly one-fist distance in front of the body. and Foshan. in Cantonese) is the modern birthplace of Wing Chun Kuen. properly serve to illustrate their diversity of Wing Chun Kuen. that the arm begins to straighten. Body structure is a simple. Bend the elbows. Extend the elbows. Since the Junks had relative freedom of travel and the performers routinely wore elaborate make-up and costumes that could disguise their identities. With a lesser angle. they were an ideal hiding place for wanted revolutionaries. The Red Junk performers were secretly members of revolutionary societies who's goal was to overthrow the occupying Ching dynasty of the Manchurians and restore the Ming dynasty of the native Han people. put the entire body mass directly behind the punch. 3. None of these geographical names. This allows the arm to remain relaxed and yet move with even greater power. Furthermore. they organized in support of the Taipin Rebellion and paid the price for the movement's failure. Center the wrists. This has come about in large part due to the popularity of Yip Man's Wing Chun Kuen and its sometimes classification as "Hong Kong Wing Chun Kuen". The Ching destroyed the operan and the members who survived were . Foshan (Fushan or variously Futsan. etc. almost all modern Wing Chun Kuen can be traced back to this town in China's Guangdong province. In fact. Fatshan. reducing the opponent's chance of stealing a strike. A straight arm can be slipped under or around. As with the elbow. This serves to both create a threatening presence (like a snake about to strike) and to ensure proper dominance of the position. Their route would often take them through town like Guangzhou (Kwang Chow).

to the version of Yip Man's art practiced by Yip Man's students in his native town to be called Foshan Wing Chun Kuen. gaining a firm foundation under several teachers. in fact. It should be pointed out that geographical names used to distinguish the branches of Wing Chun are not unique. thanks primarily to the international attention brought on by his student Bruce Lee (Lee Jun-Fan/Lee Siu-Lung). etc. These students included such individuals as Kwok Fu (Guo Fu) and Lun Gai (Lun Jie). Lai Hip-Chi and further refined his Wing Chun Kuen. for many years. . Over the years. due to the hardship he suffered under the Japanese occupation. Yip Man learned his art in Foshan from Chan Wah-Shun and Chan's senior students. Yip Man did not teach in Foshan. he returned to his native village. lead to the worldwide renown of Wing Chun Kuen. did Yip Man's art become in the colony. Yiu Kai. Lai Hip-Chi had begun his Wing Chun training with Chan Wah-Shun shortly before the Moneychanger retired back to Chen (Chan) village in Shunde (San Dak) and passed away. In this village. Of course. alongside his brother. that it came to be known as Hong Kong Wing Chun. the most widely known and practiced branch of the Wing Chun family. This fame. Pan Nam began his martial career in the Southern Siu Lam and Hung Ga Kuen traditions. Often referred to as Foshan Siu Lam Wing Chun. for example. Otherwise it. Yiu Choi passed this art on to several students. following an interest in the Wing Chun of Cheung Bo under Sum Nung. Yip Man later left the rise of Communism in China to for Hong Kong where he gained far greater fame as a Wing Chun Kuen teacher. is just one piece of the Foshan Wing Chun Kuen pie. fortified by the hard work and dissemination of his many other students. and taught another version of Wing Chun Kuen for a few years before passing away. and his own encounters with people like Yip Man and Pak Cheung (a grand-student of Fung SiuChing). is the art of Yip Man. and others. There he had students such as Chan Wah-Shun (Moneychanger Wah). especially when a famed teacher had students in different cities or brought the art to a new location. like the others.Gulao (Koo Lo) Wing Chun. taught Wing Chun Kuen first in Foshan where he worked. So popular. the system of Pan Nam remained in its place of birth long after many others had spread to other cities. of course. however. Among the famous masters of Wing Chun who learned their skills in the Foshan area were Leung Jan (student of Wong Wah-Bo and Leung Yee-Tai). Fung Siu-Ching (student of Painted Face Kam). Siu La-Cheung (student of Tall Man Chung). Fok Bo-Chuen (student of Wong Wah-Bo and Painted Face Kam).driven into hiding. Pan Nam later met Chan Wah-Shun's secondto-last student. as stated previously. Lai Ying. and others. Ng Jung-So and Lui Yiu-Chai. Jiu Wan (who later moved to Hong Kong and followed Yip Man) learned the art from Chan WahShun's son. Lok Lan-Goon (student of Painted Face Kam). Pan Nam was also skilled in the Ng Jee Mui Fa Hei Gong (Five Petal Plum Blossom Qigong) of Ng Man-Long. he shortly gained tuition under Jiu Chao. Later. this diversity of masters and methods lead to several distinct branches of Wing Chun Kuen. Leung Jan. This lead. Lo Kwai (Butcher Kwai). From these myriad sources. Eventually however. Yiu Choi. this distinction only works inside the Yip Man branch. He brought this with him when he began studying Wing Chun in the 1940s. Perhaps the most well known example of this. Yiu Choi was a large and powerful student of both Yuen Chai-Wan and Ng Jung-So. Lai had also trained under senior classmate Lui Yiu-Chai and later met the elderly nephew of Lok Lan-Goon (a student of Painted Face Kam's) and learned more about Wing Chun. including his own son. Pan Nam forged his own unique interpretation of Wing Chun Kuen. his students included Wong Wah-Sum. a short distance away. and continents. countries. Jiu Chao. Chan Yiu-Min. Many took Foshan as their new home base. Leung Bak-Cheung. despite the fact that many other branches of Wing Chun Kuen were also established there. To mark the difference. Yip Man took a few students in order to repay the kindness of a man from Yongan (Wing On). each legitimately a part of Foshan Wing Chun Kuen. Another branch commonly refered to as Foshan Wing Chun Kuen can be traced to Yip Man's classmate. the San Sao (Separate Hands) art of this second group of students came to be called after the village.

Although better known as the Pao Fa Lien system Chu Chong brought to Macao. The Wing Chun of Yuen Kay-San is also sometimes referred to as Foshan Wing Chun. as did Lun Gai. such as the Gulao derived Pien San (Side Body) Wing Chun of the Fung family later also came to Guangzhou. In the 1940s. and under Yuen Kay-San). etc) and Yuen Kay-San systems. Gwok-Leung and Gwok-Cheung. since Yuen Kay-San learned and taught the art in his city of birth. Studying under different remaining teachers. is not entirely distinctive either as other branches. It should also be noted that following the departure of teachers such as Yip Man for Hong Kong and Sum Nung for Guangzhou. While Chu Chong passed on the art in Macao. Branches from the Yuen Kay-San/Sum Nung tradition that have also gained such geographical monikers include Ng Mui Pai and the Wing Chun of Mai Gei Wong. also sometimes integrating village Hung or Weng Chun (Always Spring) elements. Lai Ying. much of the Wing Chun in Foshan began to be integrated by the next generation of practitioners. the forms and methods began to resemble a blend of the Chan Wah-Shun (Chan Yiu-Min. Ng Jung-So. Mai Gei Wong furthered his knowledge with Sum Nung and some of Sum's students including Pan Chao. TERMS: Bart-cham-dao Biu-tze Bong-sau Chi-sau Chi-kwun Chong-sau Chong Chuen-Kiu Chum-kiu Chung-sien Dan-chi-sau Fak-sau Gaun-sau Gum-sau Huen-bo Huen-sau Jum-sau Jud-cheung Jud-sun-ma Jut-sau Kau-sau Kiu-sau Kwai-jarn Kwun-ma Eight-cutting Broadswords Techniques Thrusting-fingers form Wing-like arm Sticking hand Pole-sticking technique Pre-fighting posture Wooden dummy Piercing arm Arm-seeking form Median line/center line Single sticking hand excercize Flipping hand Splitting-block Pressing hand Circling step Circling hand Chopping hand Sideward palm Sideling stance Jerking hand Circling block Bridge-arm Downward elbow strike pole stance . the Wing Chun of Lao Dat-Sang also hails from Foshan and has been classified in that manner in the past. This has led the branch to become far better known as Guangzhou Wing Chun. Yuen learned the system from Fok Bo-Chuen and Fung Siu-Ching and combined his two teachers' knowledge into his own system. This represents yet another art that can be referred to as Foshan Wing Chun. this branch of Wing Chun. with its larger then average curriculum. like Foshan or Hong Kong Wing Chun. Originally a student of Wong Jing (who had studied under Leung Jan's student. his classmates like Kwok Gai remained in Foshan. refined and integrated his knowledge. Sum Nung had previously learned the San Sao Wing Chun of Cheung Bo and like Yuen Kay-San. He passed this system on to a young man named Sum Nung in the late 1930s. Sum Nung moved to the nearby provincial capitol of Guangzhou to practice medicine. Yip Man. is also said to integrate Siu Lam and perhaps Taijiquan methods. This name. Said to descend from the Tse brothers.

Kwun-sau Lan-sau Lap-sau Lau-sau Lok-sau Luk-Dim-Boon-Kwun Man-sau Muk-Yan-Chong Mung-geng-sau Nuk-sau Pak-sau Pie-jarn Po-pai-cheung Saam-kok-bo Sei-ping-ma Shat-geng-sau Siu-Nim-Tau Tan-sau Tie-sau Tut-sau Wu-sau Yan-cheung Yee-chi-chung-kuen Yee-chi-kim-yeung-ma Rotating arms Bar arm Grabbing hand Scooping arm Rolling arms Six and One Half Piont Long Pole form Asking arm Wooden dummy Neck-pulling hand Arm freeing techniques Slap block Elbow hacking Double palm strike Triangular step Quadrilateral level stance Throat-cutting hand Little Idea form Palm-up arm Lifting arm Freeing arm Protective arm Stamping palm Character "Sun" Thrusting punch Character "Two" Adduction stance .

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