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History, Poetry and Religion in Early Colonial Literature (17th--early 18th c.) 17th c.: Puritan Lit.

and New England Lit. The Founding: The South - Sir Walter Raleigh: North Carolina - Captain John Smith: Jamestown, Virginia (1608) - they left England for gold The North - Puritans: religious reasons - law, government and justice were the law - William Bradford - John Winthrop: Massachusettes Bay Colony - they left England for God 1. Accounts of the founding of America historical narratives - John Smith, The True relation of .. Virginia (1608) [Jamestown was founded in 1608)] - John Smith, A Description of New England (1616) - John Smith, The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England and the Summer Isles (1624) From the Puritans: - William Bradford, Of Plimouth Plantation (written between 1630-1646) The Mayflower Compact (=egyezsg) is included in the text. Often uses Pl/3 in narrative. It seems to be an impersonal and objective account. Its purpose is to document. He writes about the starving time as well: which was the most sad was that in the 2. and 3. months, the half of the company died because of the winter and diseases, or the long voyage. - John Winthrop, The History of New England from 1630 to 1649 2. Religious texts (discourses, sermons (=prdikci) and debates on belief) Puritanism contributed to the shaping of modern America by an intellectual approach to religion Calvin's theology: few are predestined to eternal life; man is saved to virtue rather than by virtue. 1. total depravity (=istentelensg, romlottsg) 2. unconditional election 3. limited atonement (=vezekls) 4. irresistible grace 5. perseverance of the saints (=szentek igazultsgban val kitarts) +1: conversion: complete conviction in being 1 of the elects Puritans: Most of them intolerant concerning religious pluralism. Most of them were literate and hard-working people. - Thomas Shepard "Covenant of Grace" - Increase Mather "What Sinners can do towards their own Conversion" (=megtrs) - Roger Williams (founder of Rhode Island): protesting against the treatment of Indians - Anne Hutchinson: inner light, faith leads to salvation - Jonathan Edwards (18th c.) "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" 3. Diaries and Journals - the diaries and journals of mainly Puritan gentlemen (and women) - Diaries (inward) Michael Wigglesworth,Cotton Mather,Jonathan Edwards,Samuel Sewall,William Byrd (a southern plantation aristocrat- not a Puritan!)

- Journals (public): John Winthrop,William Bradford,Mary Rowlandson,Sarah Kemble Knight A diary is more personal, a journal has a wider perspective. 4. Poetry -the only traditional imaginative genre a. Anne Bradstreet (The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, 1650, Several Poems 1678- after her death) She is the first American poet. She was reflecting the situation of women. She could be a kind of rebel, because there was a tension btw the religious and the worldly. But her poetry was basically religious. b. Michael Wigglesworth (The Day of Doom,1662) His purpose was to teach Puritan doctrines for children. It was the bestseller of the century. The children were probably terrified by it due to its harsh images. c. Edward Taylor (Preparatory Meditations 1882-1725) He wrote many poems and used many metaphores and imageries. d. Ebenezer Cooke (The Sot-Weed Factor) - from the South(not a New England Puritan) Puritan warning to writers: senses are unreliable, imagination is dangerous, and symbolic language and imagistic&figurative style are equal to idolatry (=blvnyozs). There were no dramas, no fiction, no romances or theatres, only poetry! Because of rational, hard-working people.

Genres in Puritan Lit.: Narratives of the founding, historical texts (jeremiads), religious texts, diaries and journals, poetry, captivity narratives Jeremiad - a rhetorical structure employed in Puritan writing applied to Puritan biographies, historical narratives, sermons and letters which were written at the time. It usually has a tripartite structure: 1) praising the piety and courageousness of the founders 2) lamenting and detailing the reason for the present troubles 3) offering a solution: returning to the original pious conduct of the founders. King Philip's War (1675-1676)- Metacornet (=King Philip) leader of the allied Indian tribes who fought against the New England settlers. 3000 Indians (natives), 600 colonists were killed by the end of the war. 5. Captivity narratives Mary Rowlandson, Hannah Dustin, Anna Eliza Bleeker captivity narrative - a narrative (17th, 18th, 19th century) usually written by a woman in which the captured victim represents the whole of Christian colonial society and patiently awaits her fate. The captive is ultimately redeemed by the grace of Christ and is released. A promise of similar salvation could be offered to devout readers. Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711) -A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mary Rowlandson pays homage to the jeremiad form. The first captivity narrative is the longest piece of prose written by a woman in the 17th century. Captured on Feb 10, 1676. A party of Wampanoags raided Lancaster killing a dozen citizens and taking 24 persons as hostages. Released in May 1676 for ransome. (=jvttel $-ben).

Samuel Sewall (1652-1730) - The Selling of Joseph (1700). The first anti-slavery tract. He is best known for his diary which reflects the life of a devout Puritan who was at the same time a leading figure of his community. Publicly apologized for his role in the witchcraft trials. William Byrd (1674-1744) -A southern landowner. The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover reflects the life and thoughts of a southern gentleman. Different from Puritan lifestyle and convictions, much more worldly. Published only in the 20th century after it was decoded. Cotton Mather (1663-1728) - the most famous Puritan. Author of 444 works. Best remembered as author of Wonders of the Invisible World (1693), which relates the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692, and Magnalia Christi Americana (1702), the ecclesiastical history of New England. A jeremiad in structure. Defended the Salem trials throughout his life.

The Great Awakening - a religious revival in the 1730s and 40s in New England
focusing on the importance of conversion, and personal religious experience. Jonathan Edwards was the most famous representative. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) In mental, he belongs to the 1600s. Minister for 24 years in Northampton Mass. Combined the rational and intuitive faculties in his writing: "A Divine and Supernatural Light" (1734); "A Narrative of the Surprising Conversions"(1736); "Sinners in the Hands ofan Angry God" (1741). Wrote very passionate sermons that were in a great deal responsible for the wave of conversions in his congregation, launching the "Great Awakening". Conclusion: New Eng Lit.: not outstanding, but significant poetry from an artistic point of view Puritans: literate ppl: merchants, tradesmen, businessmen Their circumstances were very harsh, however, plain style was recommended. Problems and conflicts in New England: Puritans were religiously intolerant. Natural disasters happened. There were witchcraft, conflicts with the Indians, and increasing secularism and materialism.