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Feedback mechanisms (thermostat control)

Introduction Homeostasis helps maintain a balance between the coordinating systems as it can never be controlled by the internal environment completely. The homeostasis can control many factors in mammals such as the control of temperature, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and blood pressure. The stimulus-response pathway includes the stimulus such as light or temperature, receptor, control centre, effector and the response all working together to achieve a goal. When the original stimulus gets affected by the stimulus-response model is then called a feedback mechanism. A feedback mechanism can have both a negative and positive feedback system. A negative feedback system helps our body to stay stable for example when we have a high blood level of testosterone a type of hormone would give a signal to the hypothalamus in-order to stop the production and return it to its normal position. While a positive feedback system could cause harm to the body as whenever theres an initial change this change will bring another additional change going in the same direction. An example of both a negative and positive feedback system is shown below:

Aim: Design and develop a comprehensive model of a feedback mechanism. Materials: Biology text book Reference books and journals

Discussion: The coordinating centre for temperature control in mammals is the hypothalamus. When temperature changes in the external environment, these changes will be detected the nervous system. The human nerves then act quickly by sending a fast message to the hypothalamus with is located in your brain at the back. There is also some receptors such as misalignment detectors in the brain in which they look after the temperature of the blood as its circulating around your body. Any change in the body temperature weather above or lower than 37 the receptors would easily receive it. Normally the way that the hypothalamus would respond in-order to return the temperature if it is high to its normal state is by initiating responses such as sweating, skin capillaries dilate and decrease in metabolic rate. Though when the body is low in temperature the hypothalamus initiates heating mechanisms such as shivering, sweating inhibited and skin capillaries constricted. As shown in figure 1.9 below we see that whenever theres an increase or decrease in temperature it is easily detected by the thermostat and then sent to the hypothalamus so it can act and change the body state to a normal state of degree.

(fig.1.9) Conclusion: The thermostat is located in the hypothalamus in which where it indicated changes in temperature within the body. This type of modal is quiet accurate as it easily detects any changes in temperature when it goes above or below the normal rate. When using this as a model you would be surely to get the right temperature range within the body.