Mr. Shylesh B C

Text Book
Computer and Communication Networks By Nader F. Mir Pearson Edition, 2007

Chapters 9.1 to 9.6, 18.1,18.2

Contents – Application-layer overview – Domain Name System (DNS) – Remote login protocols – Electronic mail (e-mail) – File transfer and FTP – World Wide Web (WWW) and HTTP – Overview of IP telephony – VoIP signaling protocols .

Internet radio and telephony. and the Web. and real-time video conferencing. file transfers. . P2P file sharing. streaming stored video clips. as well as streaming video. newsgroups. remote access to computers.Application-layer overview • The application layer is built on the transport layer and provides network services to user applications • The application layer defines and performs such applications as – electronic mail (e-mail). multi user networked games.

Web communication between two end systems .

or even a residence has a DNS server. • DNS is an application-layer protocol. and vice versa. • DNS is a distributed hierarchical and global directory that translates machine or domain names to numerical IP addresses.Domain Name System (DNS) • One of the most important components of the application layer is the Domain Name System (DNS) server. . a university campus. • DNS can be thought as a distributed database system used to map host names to IP addresses. and every Internet service provider whether for an organization.

and domain names .Hierarchy of domain name space. labels.

Hierarchy of DNS domain name servers .

Name/Address Mapping Recursive mapping Iterative mapping .

• Two remote login protocols are – TELNET – SSH.Remote login protocols • A client/server model can create a mechanism that allows a user to establish a session on the remote machine and then run its applications. • This application is known as remote login. .

• TELNET allows a user to log in to a remote machine across the Internet by first making a TCP connection and then pass the detail of the application from the user to the remote machine.TELNET Protocol • TELNET (terminal network) is a TCP/IP standard for establishing a connection to a remote system. .

Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol • Secure Shell (SSH). SSH uses TCP for communications. • It is more powerful and flexible than TELNET and allows the user to more easily execute a single command on a remote client. another remote login protocol. . is based on UNIX programs.

the Web communication protocol. such as limits on the size of e-mail content. and imposes certain restrictions.Electronic mail (e-mail) • It is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and E-mail • The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) plays a major role in transferring Internet electronic mail. . • This protocol transfers electronic mail (e-mail ) from the mail server of a source to the mail servers of destinations. • SMTP is older than the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

Two users exchanging e-mail through SMTP .

File transfer and FTP • File transfer is another computer networking application. • It is always essential that files and information geographically distributed over different locations be shared among the members of a working group. . • Two file transfer protocols are – FTP – SCP.

• Both FTP and TELNET are built on the client/server paradigm. . • However. and both allow a user to establish a remote connection. whereas FTP allows access only to certain files. TELNET provides a broader access to a user.File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is part of the TCP/IP suite and is very similar to TELNET.

• SCP cannot handle file transfer between machines of significantly different architectures. • Incorporated in the SCP structure are a number of encryption and authentication features that are similar to those in SSH. • Also similar is the exchange of commands between local and remote hosts.Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) • The Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) is similar to TELNET but is secure. . • SCP commands automatically prompt the user for the password information when it is time to access a remote machine.

is a global network of servers linked by a common protocol allowing access to all connected hypertext resources. a Web server responds by sending the requested object through browsing tools.World Wide Web (WWW) & HTTP • The World Wide Web (WWW). . • A browser is a user agent displaying the requested Web page. or simply Web. • When a client host requests an object. • The Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) transfers that page at the application layer.

having a client and a server program. both of which can be executed on different end systems. since reliability of delivery is important for Web pages with text. • The communication is carried out through an exchange of HTTP messages. • HTTP is based on the client/server idea. • The TCP connection-establishment delay in HTTP is one of the main contributing delay factors associated with downloading Web documents. .• HTTP uses TCP rather than UDP.

Web Caching (Proxy Server) .

The encoded data is transmitted as packets over packet-switched networks. the data is decoded and converted back to analog form. • Voice over IP (VoIP). • The packet size must be properly chosen to prevent large delays. mapping of phone number to IP address. uses packetswitched networks to carry voice traffic in addition to data traffic.Overview of IP telephony • An IP telephone can be used to make telephone calls over IP networks. . and proper call termination. • The basic scheme of IP telephony starts with pulse code modulation. • The IP telephone system must also be able to handle the signaling function of the call setup. • At a receiver. or IP telephony.

Voice over IP system .

• Signaling is required for call setup. and proper call termination.VoIP signaling protocols • The IP telephone system must be able to handle signaling for call setup. conversion of phone number to IP address mapping. • In the standard telephone network. signaling involves identifying the user's location given a phone number. and handling the issue of call forwarding and other call features. finding a route between a calling and a called party. . and call termination. call management.

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