MEDIA AND THE EFFECTS

I. TELEVISION Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome (black-and-white) or colored, with or without accompanying sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming, or television transmission. The etymology of the word has a mixed Latin and Greek origin, meaning "far sight": Greek tele (τῆλε), far, and Latin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person). Commercially available since the late 1920s, the television set has become commonplace in homes, businesses and institutions, particularly as a vehicle for advertising, a source of entertainment, and news. Since the 1950s, television has been the main medium for molding public opinion. Since the 1970s the availability of video cassettes, laserdiscs, DVDs and now Blu-ray Discs, have resulted in the television set frequently being used for viewing recorded as well as broadcast material. In recent years Internet television has seen the rise of television available via the Internet, e.g. iPlayer and Hulu. Although other forms such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) are in use, the most common usage of the medium is for broadcast television, which was modeled on the existing radio broadcasting systems developed in the 1920s, and uses high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the television signal to individual TV receivers. The broadcast television system is typically disseminated via radio transmissions on designated channels in the 54–890 MHz frequency band. Signals are now often transmitted with stereo or surround sound in many countries. Until the 2000s broadcast TV programs were generally transmitted as an analog television signal, but during the decade several countries went almost exclusively digital. A standard television set comprises multiple internal electronic circuits, including those for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is properly called a video monitor, rather than a television. A television system may use different technical standards such as digital television (DTV) and high-definition television (HDTV). Television systems are also used for surveillance, industrial process control, and guiding of weapons, in places where a. Positive Effects of Television Here are some positive effects of television:  Television can entertain educate and give us information.

music. Negative Effects of Television  Almost all TV shows are fiction. causing some stories are the opposite of the reality. Most traditional communications media including telephone. The information people get from television is very fast. book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology. Children and teenagers might learn inappropriate things by watching television. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Internet forums. and government networks. they laugh. film. INTERNET The Internet (or internet) is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP. wireless and optical networking technologies. The educative use of television brings parents nearer with their children.  So many programs on television do contain a lot of violence and porn. or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services. academic. it leads to them becoming violent and aggressive. thinking that it is the best and ideal condition of life. and the spreading information could start conversations that build relationships between people. that are linked by a broad array of electronic.  Children might learn dangerous activities while teenagers might practice them. It makes them not want to do anything except be a couch potato.    There are shows which fit all generations and could make people happy watching it When members of the family watch the shows. and a comforting atmosphere is created. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging. Newspaper. This quality time is very expensive. of local to global scope. and this could be created by watching the television. based on the author imagination. b. .  II.  The television does make a lot of people lazy with their lives. public. and social networking. Other advantage of television is people could build a good and complementing relationship. such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email. This happens to tighten the emotional relation between each member of the family. the children could learn from the television and at the same time their parents teach them. giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet. although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide. business. If children watch those programs.

The Positive Effects of Internet           It's an easy and effective way of communicating to work. a. The negative Effects of Internet    If over used it can limit real life interaction with other people (although i consider this to be relatively unimportant anyway). Media data exchange. commissioned by the United States government to build robust. Media to seek information or data. Ease of obtaining information on the internet so people know what happened. . email). and the merger of many networks. as well as private funding for other commercial backbones. more than 2. etc. b. I It also cuts of the phone line in cases of using dial up. school or amongst friends and family (msn. The funding of a new U. making the www as one important source of information and accurate. ftp and www (World Wide Web – network web sites) of Internet users worldwide can exchange information quickly and cheaply. is a function of the Internet’s most widely used in which every Internet user can communicate with other users from around the world. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies. You can meet people from all around the world and learn about their customs. using email. culture. lifestyle and what their society is like.Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.4 billion people—nearly a third of the world's human population—have used the services of the Internet. Ease of transacting and doing business in the field of trade. and distributed computer networks. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s. There is also the added cost of using the internet which can be quite hefty depending on the quality of performance you want. newsgroups. fault-tolerant. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s. the Internet’s rapid growth. Internet as a medium of communication. You can also get a lot of enjoyment from playing online games such as checkers etc or MMORPG (massive multi online role playing games) It's a simple and great tool for researching information for assignments or learning about anything in general. As of June 2012. Can be used as land information for education.S. so no need to go to the place bid / sale.

the criminals could detect the existence of a transaction (using Credit Card) on-line and record the code card is used. There are also a lot of scams out there that people do not realize exist. You only need to avoid sites like this. III. cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. Assumption which says that the Internet is identical to pornography. With an open nature. a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single. In addition to telephony. From the social nature of change can lead to changing patterns in society interaction. Cruelty and sadism are also many. modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging. In 1983. worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12. Internet access. Internet criminals even the most committed crimes in this field. Internet was not spared from attacks by fraudsters. Gambling. To further their use of the data they get for the interests of their crimes. Fraud. private base station. business applications. the gamblers do not need to go to a special place to fulfill her desire. Mitchell and Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator. email. Bluetooth). the Dynastic 8000x was the first to be commercially available. short-range wireless communications (infrared.2 pounds (1 kg). MMS. There are also phishing sites (which try to obtain details from your credit card numbers) and viruses that are primarily gained from the internet and without protection software in some cases your whole computer will malfunction. With the available networks. MOBILE PHONE A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone. it is not wrong. One of them is by showing things that are taboo. The best way is to ignore it or confirm the information you find on the provider of such information. gaming and photography. how to shop using credit cards is probably the most common ways that the internet world. Pornography. because the gambling sites are generally not aggressive and require a lot of approval from the visitors. From 1990 to 2011. Because the business side and fill in the Internet world is not limited to. the site owners use all sorts of ways to ‘sell’ their site. using a handset weighing around 2. Carding. allowing access to the public telephone network. Because of its ‘real time’ (immediately). Reducing the social nature of human beings because they tend to prefer to connect via the Internet rather than to meet directly (face to face). Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smart phones.         Sometimes it can be indirect when you want to look something specific up making it extremely annoying. We can easily access porn material by internet.4 million to over 6 billion. Another effect is the expansion of gambling. Violence and Gore. By contrast. This is indeed rampant in any field. The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. .

what is clear is that we still do not know the long-term effects it can have the use of mobile telephony. b. Facebook is becoming more open and social and impacting our experience of the web in ways we had not dreamed of. and join groups. increased thefts and robberies with and without use of force … and on the other side of personal privacy is unprotected (anyone can listen to our telephone conversation. Displayed many problems of irrational use of telephone and mobile phones. . The negative effects of Mobile Phone    The problems of physical health are still being determined.penetrating about 87% of the global population and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid. While it is true that studies commissioned by the phone companies do not refute these data and found no relationships. leisure generally. Problems for personal safety and privacy. share interests. We can easily communicate with others whenever wherever as long as there is signal. especially in organisms developing. is very useful in emergencies and allows direct access to services. We can easily get information by mobile internet that provide by the mobile connection. but also Internet. One is the issue of personal safety. The Positive Effects of Mobile phone     There is no doubt that mobile telephony offers numerous advantages: It facilitates communication.    IV. As you may have heard. Numerous studies have correlated an increased incidence of diseases (like cancer) with the proliferation of antennas in areas Studies that show the danger of mobile phone use in girls and boys less than 18 years by the possibility of developing disorders neurological studies to establish risk of infertility and birth defects when the phone is worn near the genital area. etc. FACEBOOK Facebook is a hugely popular social networking site that allows you to make connections. SMS. On the one hand there are problems of road safety (for both drivers and pedestrians). We can reach other people far away by the communication by calling. etc. or give us a picture or record our image or our voice). increased risk of accidents (tripping). a.

Users must register before using the site. Facebook is the perfect environment to stay connected. after which they may create a personal profile. Positive Effects on Society           It is very beneficial for the ones who are far away from their loved ones and want to keep in touch. Facebook proves to be highly favorable. owned and operated by Facebook." Expressing yourself. As of September 2012. school or college. and exchange messages. It is very helpful for people who feel shyness in social interaction. a. Persons who are restricted to their homes due to any sort of disability or environmental factors find a way to deal with their isolation. Making new friends. and acts as a social melting pot of the internet.Facebook makes meeting new people extremely easy due to the fact that it allows you to add up to thousands of friends.it is found to be a great source of association for armed force personals when they are far away from their homes.Facebook is a social networking service launched in February 2004. add other users as friends. When you are caught up in a tiring task and want a quick refreshing break. Inc. It is a lot harder to feel embarrassment over the internet than in person. so a lot of high-school relationships tend to start there. You are able to get connected with old friends and refresh your bond. more than half of them using Facebook on a mobile device. users may join common-interest user groups.Facebook makes expressing yourself very simple with status updates. This can lead to a great friendship down the road. . and categorize their friends into lists such as "People from Work" or "Close Friends". maybe you two will strike up your own conversation. Most people find it a lot easier to start a conversation with someone over Facebook than in real life. Additionally. so people find it easier to "vent" their feelings on Facebook. specially.Facebook is a great way to keep in touch with your family and friends that live far away. With instant messaging and even video chat. or other characteristics. Keeping in touch with family and friends. photos. including automatic notifications when they update their profile. With the status updates. and one of their friend’s comments on it. and profile information. it can keep you up to date on the happenings of all of your close ones. It also helps people to find online friends with common interests living in different locations and then make this virtual friendship a real world friendship. If you comment on a friend’s status. to posting pictures of your new outfit. Facebook has over one billion active users. It is a useful source to make friends and share your thoughts easily. It's as simple as a "You should text me some time. Between showing off your favorite song lyrics. Families settled abroad want to have strong communication with their homeland and its inhabitants. organized by workplace. Facebook is the most common way that people express themselves these days.

appearance. There is even a group that is trying to stunt the influence of Facebook called "Facebook Detox. This is the reason that you will find many adults stick to their mobile phones and laptops to check social networking websites frequently.  Facebook has given rise to gossiping as well. etc.On Facebook it is very easy for cyber bullies to thrive. This may include your phone number. The fact that many people try to hook up with others over Facebook while not realizing that these people are in a relationship doesn't help the issue." Insecurity. Ruined relationships.b.Facebook is a very stalker friendly website. add you. and get all of your information. More than once I've witnessed this form of bullying. Negative Effects on Society      The biggest drawback of Facebook is that it has a very narrow border line between favorite pass time and addiction. for instance. but knowing about each and every moment of others personal lives can prove to be very dangerous at times. There are also a relatively small amount of parents that have Facebook accounts and keep up with their children's. Critics of Facebook claim that it is a worldwide distraction and even obsession that amounts to nothing except for significant amounts of time wasted.  Being a part of your family members’ life is good. intelligence. no one wants to see their girlfriend/boyfriend telling other people that they look cute.  Cyber-bullying. Not to mention the fact that they will be able to go through all of . but you still haven't really accomplished anything in the hours that you were on. someone that you don't even know can say that they go to your school.  It is quite distracting if not used within limits. There aren't moderators that go around monitoring what people say to each other. house address.Facebook is a cause for insecurities due to the fact that it makes people compare themselves to others.At the end of the day you may have seen your cousin's new outfit or talked to your sister who is in college. whether it be about race.  People busy in their lives feel easy to communicate through Facebook but at times it becomes very annoying when virtual communication takes place of real life meetings. and locations you visit frequently. Distraction. They can harass and/or gang up on one person even easier than they could in a school environment. Anything can be said. Let's face it. as people have found an easy way to get updates about others personal lives. which causes quite a bit of tension in a relationship. How can you not when all you see is pictures of your friends and acquaintances on your newsfeed? Stalker friendly. One starts using it initially to catch friends and ultimately ends up with a lot of lavish time in taking playful quizzes and exploring various Facebook applications. It builds up jealousy. or instant messaging them constantly. Involving others even in your small decisions or forcing your ideas in others decisions is hazardous for personal liberty. or liking their pictures. Theoretically. a student may adopt the habit of updating his online status twice an hour.Facebook is notorious for causing couples to break up.

making online games a form of social activity beyond single player games. child expert and scientists believe online games actually beneficial to growing children. Online games can range from simple text based environments to games incorporating complex graphics and virtual worlds populated by many players simultaneously. and spatial abilities are needed to win a high level games. Many online games have associated online communities. Online games also provide a good exercise for the children brain. a. and quick thinking. in games such as flight simulation. Certain games are very beneficial because it give informal training and background of games. V. For example. This game is a great mind exercise and help kids explore many new things. Online games enable children to make fast analysis and quick decision. They need to abstract the games and thinks a way to complete the games. logistics. using a personal computer or video game console. but games have always used whatever technology was current: modems before the Internet. better memory. . and strategy-making. following instruction. This is a scary thought.your pictures and get to know you completely without you ever knowing. but it is a real issue. Online games also teach children resource management and logistics. and hard wired terminals before modems. They also help children to develop in better reading and math skills. The Positive Effects of Online Games          Psychologists. math skills. This is because the parts are modeled to the real part in the airplane. Skills of problem solving and logic. Research show the children who played more games were active and had sharper minds than their other counterparts. ONLINE GAMES An online game is a video game played over some form of computer network. as well as. The children became familiar with the part and control of airplane. This network is usually the internet or equivalent technology. The expansion of online gaming has reflected the overall expansion of computer networks from small local networks to the internet and the growth of internet access itself. hand-eye coordination. multitasking. perseverance. His sense must be well-coordinated in order to control his character and do multiple movements in the games. They are essential in making children smarter and teach him high level of thinking skills that he may need in future.

Majority parents think this game rot the children mind and promote violence among them. This is mainly because most video games are addictive and typically about violence and fighting. or "data. kids play violent video games have an increase in emotional arousal and corresponding decrease of activity in brain areas involving selfcontrol. Online games also receive much negative critics because often coined with issue such as mindless entertainment. COMPUTER A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information. weird. This game also is blamed for the anti-social. There also correlation between depression and playing computer games. the day are gone when children loved to involved in outdoor activities. You can use a computer to type documents. sexism. enhanced social recluse. From the research. and consumerism. VI. Research show that. Today. and process data. Some of video games also lead to aggressive behavior others lead to aggressive thoughts. inhibition and attention. rather running and playing outside children mostly spend most of their time playing online games. b. retrieve. The Negative Effects of Online Games             Online games are beneficial but they also have its bad side. the brain scan showed a negative effect on the brain of the kids who played ultra-violent games for 30 minutes. . rude and drastic behavior of some children. send email. Some psychologists and parents have criticized video games because the believe games cause their children sit alone in front of computer for many hour and interacting with a machine. Online games make the learning more fun and are the way for children to release their stress." It has the ability to store.  These games are instrument to introduce children to computer technology and internet. They also claim that video games are more addictive to children than TV and therefore more likely to isolate them socially in this way. This high gadget is needed to keep up with the fast development of the world.

. and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. and the result of operations saved and retrieved. a computer consists of at least one processing element. Not only games made for windows but games on the internet. Games: Tired of your boring ps3 or Nintendo DS? Computers have MANY games. Travel/Tickets: A lot of people book airfare/train/cruise tickets online. typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. the embedded computers found in many devices from mp3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous. presentations. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source. help. Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices. Originally they were the size of a large room. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". Networking: Keeping in touch with people you don’t see everyday. However. School: Online classes for working students or students that cant make it to a campus. In this era mechanical analog computers were used for military applications. and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Electronically store your favorite Metallica and Slayer albums. and occupy a fraction of the space. questions and daily life stuff. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations.. Sometimes better than buying it in stores. Waste Time: Good to do when you need to hurry up and wait. cooking. database management. consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). Music: Way better than collecting a bunch of CD clutter. Faster than writing: Yes!! I'd much rather type than write. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines. The Positive Effects of Computer           Easy access to info: For homework. games. Usually done via computer. And other people. a. Managing money: Stocks and bank accounts. The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945 in the United Kingdom and United States. This is why i LOVE Google. You can also use it to handle spreadsheets.and browse the internet. Same with buying concert tickets. Shopping/Trading: Very useful in our country and other countries. I do neither but many people electronically take care of bills and stuff. Conventionally. accounting. and more.

Research shows that computers are the killers of people’s eyesight. PLAYSTATION The PlayStation (Japanese: Hepburn:. With consoles in the fifth. a media center. The Negative Effects of Computer     Laziness: People get WAY to wrap up in games and internet now-a-days.. Sometimes this leads to awful habits like child porn or bestiality. there’s no need for us to meet each other face to face because everything can be discussed through the computers. the third disadvantage is to form estranged relationship. a line of controllers. and they may become unfamiliar with the social interaction. People become lazy and stare at the computer for HOURS and lose friends. two handhelds and a phone. . and an online service. arms and legs might become numb if you keep sitting in the same pose for a long time.[1] The brand consists of a total of three home consoles. The first disadvantage is the regression on the schoolwork. and most of them think that writing a letter is too troublesome. In this case. a. According to the medical comments. Addiction: Yes people can become addicted to internet just as well as anything else. sixth.    VII. people seldom visit their friends in person.b. Watching the computer screen everyday makes serious eyes problems. jobs and family. There are so many websites that can help us to make contact with others through computers. computers are also harmful to our body. nearsighted and myopic astigmatism are two of the symptoms. wasting too much time and being addicted to the online games are the main reasons that lead to this negative effect. The positive effects of Play station. the brand was first introduced on December 3. Due to the above reasons. keep sitting in front of the computers may results in poor blood circulation.Resulting in these. Some people get addicted to porn. as well as multiple magazines. For example. many people are bad at communication skills. Nowadays. People can become addicted to ridiculous games like World of War craft ("Wow") or Run escape. officially abbreviated PS) is a series of video game consoles created and developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. we can send and receive e-mails from our friends or chat with people by MSN and Skype. BAD habits: Some people can become obsesses with porn resulting in a lost love life or loneliness. At last. And your neck. seventh and eighth generation. Besides the influence on schoolwork. 1994 in Japan.

VIII. such as email. They are usually the children who indifferent and unconcerned with the surrounding environment. movies. magazines. blogging. The effect is also very bad PlayStation is the kids can be addicted. This is very good for brain development of children. many mass media outlets have a presence on the web. and other devices such as cameras and video consoles. such as television stations or publishing companies. are also known as the mass media. When the game is presented on a small child who is really innocent and did not understand about the violence. print media use a physical object as a means of sending their information. CDs. such as fights or shootings. Although PS could increase socialization. often the children who would rather be alone to play PS. film. books. Internet and television. and pamphlets. this is sure to hurt the children. PS also can stimulate imagination and creativity of children. radio. Internet media is able to achieve mass media status in its own right. a lazy learning.  Playing the PS could increase the level of socialization of children with the surrounding environment. Children may develop vision problems due to prolonged exposure to light game. b. Influence PlayStation also include health. this has a good impact on the association. In some of his game. so be sure to leave time and other work that is more useful. DVDs. due to the many mass media services it provides. PS often make the players must think fast to make decisions and think about how to finish the game. brochures. Hands and fingers can also be affected by pain because it always moves while playing PS. Broadcast media (also known as electronic media) transmit their information electronically and comprise television. The organizations that control these technologies. comics. such as a newspaper. Alternatively. newsletters. MASS MEDIA The mass media are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. by such things as . leaflets. For example. For this reason. websites. The Negative Effects of Play Station        There are little PlayStation game show scenes of violence. PS adverse effects on health can vary. PS is generally played together or rollicking. he could imitate in the real world. Bone growth could also not good because children will often sit down and usually tend to bend.

they buy what they see on TV. Public speaking and event organizing can also be considered as forms of mass media. We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news. Outdoor media is a form of mass media that comprises billboards. goes to work. the influence of mass media on our kids. what their favorite celebrity advertise and what is acceptable by society based on the fashion that the media has imposed on them. a. we need to be conscious of the reality that most of our decisions. etc. placards placed inside and outside of commercial buildings and objects like shops and buses. however on our routine life and house hold chores we mostly rely on the mass media to get the current news and facts about what is important and what we should be aware of. In present era of globalization. travelling and anything else that we have to do.having TV ads that link to a website. our assumptions and our own experience. health care. every single moment. A common urban person usually wakes up in the morning checks the TV news or newspaper. newspapers or magazines. eats with their family or peers when possible and makes his decisions based on the information that he has either from their co workers. they can utilize the easy accessibility that the Internet has. After seeing thousands of advertisings we make our buying decisions based on what we saw on TV. makes a few phone calls. entertainment and education. beliefs and values are based on what we know for a fact. In our work we usually know what we have to do. flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes). TV news. teenagers and society is so big that we should know how it really works. These are the effects of mass media especially in teenagers. socialization. or having games in their sites to entice gamers to visit their website. and skywriting. blimps. However. if there is a quiz show on education that is getting a lot of attention by the media and gains popularity among your . family. financial reports. Here is a positive influence example. The media makes billions of dollars with the advertising they sell and that we are exposed to. base on our experience and studies. majority of people in the society depends on information and communication to remain connected with the world and do our daily activities like work. as information can easily be broadcast to many different regions of the world simultaneously and cost-efficiently. entertainment. and the outreach that Internet affords. education. signs. The positive Effects of Mass Media   There are some positive and negative influences in young people of our society due to these ad campaigns in the media. We buy what we are told to buy by the media. friends. In this way.

b. especially in the USA. It’s a subliminal way to persuade the masses that if you want to be successful and look like them then you have to buy that particular brand or product. Other ways to influence are with polls and trends. There are millions of adolescents fighting obesity. The problem with this is that it can become traumatic especially in our children as they see it more and more. The Negative Effects of Mass Media    However a negative influence in teenagers is the use of guns and ammunition by celebrity movie stars. while the ideal image of a successful person is told to be thin and wealthy. Our kids that are starting to grow and are shaping their personality values and beliefs can become aggressive or they can lose a sense of distinction between reality and fiction. The media has a huge impact on society in shaping the public opinion of the masses. Teens. you will more likely want to actively participate and watch these quiz shows. that has grown over the last years is obesity. Before that the public opinion over the military action against the Taliban in Swat was divided. Another problem is that real war is used as a form of entertainment by the media. in real war everyone lose. we should make our kids and teen aware that war is not a form of entertainment and that there is no win or lose like in video games. When we watch TV or an action movie we usually see many images of violence and people hurting others. These activities are good for the society and will promote literary activities in the youth. For example. The candidates that can pay for more TV and media exposure have more influence on public opinion and thus can receive more votes. youngsters are in a stage of life where they want to be accepted by their peers.      . they want to be loved and be successful. especially in political campaigns. you can see it in movies and tv. They can form or modify the public opinion in different ways depending of what is the objective. but at the same time they are exposed to thousands of advertisements of junk food. the constant exposure of which would seduce the teen to replicate the same behavior in the real life. friends and society. The media creates the ideal image of beautiful men and women with all the ingredients of a successful person. but repeated telecast of this short video clip changed the public opinion over night in the favor of the government to take action. Pakistani media influenced the public opinion against the Taliban in Swat by repeated telecast of a video clip showing whipping of a woman by a Taliban. Another negative influence in teenagers.

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