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I. TELEVISION Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome (black-and-white) or colored, with or without accompanying sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming, or television transmission. The etymology of the word has a mixed Latin and Greek origin, meaning "far sight": Greek tele (), far, and Latin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person). Commercially available since the late 1920s, the television set has become commonplace in homes, businesses and institutions, particularly as a vehicle for advertising, a source of entertainment, and news. Since the 1950s, television has been the main medium for molding public opinion. Since the 1970s the availability of video cassettes, laserdiscs, DVDs and now Blu-ray Discs, have resulted in the television set frequently being used for viewing recorded as well as broadcast material. In recent years Internet television has seen the rise of television available via the Internet, e.g. iPlayer and Hulu. Although other forms such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) are in use, the most common usage of the medium is for broadcast television, which was modeled on the existing radio broadcasting systems developed in the 1920s, and uses high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the television signal to individual TV receivers. The broadcast television system is typically disseminated via radio transmissions on designated channels in the 54890 MHz frequency band. Signals are now often transmitted with stereo or surround sound in many countries. Until the 2000s broadcast TV programs were generally transmitted as an analog television signal, but during the decade several countries went almost exclusively digital. A standard television set comprises multiple internal electronic circuits, including those for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is properly called a video monitor, rather than a television. A television system may use different technical standards such as digital television (DTV) and high-definition television (HDTV). Television systems are also used for surveillance, industrial process control, and guiding of weapons, in places where a. Positive Effects of Television Here are some positive effects of television: Television can entertain educate and give us information.

There are shows which fit all generations and could make people happy watching it When members of the family watch the shows, they laugh, and a comforting atmosphere is created. This happens to tighten the emotional relation between each member of the family. The educative use of television brings parents nearer with their children, the children could learn from the television and at the same time their parents teach them. This quality time is very expensive, and this could be created by watching the television. Other advantage of television is people could build a good and complementing relationship. The information people get from television is very fast, and the spreading information could start conversations that build relationships between people.

b. Negative Effects of Television Almost all TV shows are fiction, based on the author imagination, causing some stories are the opposite of the reality. Children and teenagers might learn inappropriate things by watching television, thinking that it is the best and ideal condition of life. Children might learn dangerous activities while teenagers might practice them. So many programs on television do contain a lot of violence and porn. If children watch those programs, it leads to them becoming violent and aggressive. The television does make a lot of people lazy with their lives. It makes them not want to do anything except be a couch potato. II. INTERNET The Internet (or internet) is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders.

Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United States government to build robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of June 2012, more than 2.4 billion peoplenearly a third of the world's human populationhave used the services of the Internet. a. The Positive Effects of Internet It's an easy and effective way of communicating to work, school or amongst friends and family (msn, email). You can meet people from all around the world and learn about their customs, lifestyle and what their society is like. You can also get a lot of enjoyment from playing online games such as checkers etc or MMORPG (massive multi online role playing games) It's a simple and great tool for researching information for assignments or learning about anything in general. Internet as a medium of communication, is a function of the Internets most widely used in which every Internet user can communicate with other users from around the world. Media data exchange, using email, newsgroups, ftp and www (World Wide Web network web sites) of Internet users worldwide can exchange information quickly and cheaply. Media to seek information or data, the Internets rapid growth, making the www as one important source of information and accurate. Ease of obtaining information on the internet so people know what happened. Can be used as land information for education, culture, etc. Ease of transacting and doing business in the field of trade, so no need to go to the place bid / sale.

b. The negative Effects of Internet If over used it can limit real life interaction with other people (although i consider this to be relatively unimportant anyway). I It also cuts of the phone line in cases of using dial up. There is also the added cost of using the internet which can be quite hefty depending on the quality of performance you want.

Sometimes it can be indirect when you want to look something specific up making it extremely annoying. There are also phishing sites (which try to obtain details from your credit card numbers) and viruses that are primarily gained from the internet and without protection software in some cases your whole computer will malfunction. There are also a lot of scams out there that people do not realize exist. Pornography. Assumption which says that the Internet is identical to pornography, it is not wrong. We can easily access porn material by internet. Violence and Gore. Cruelty and sadism are also many. Because the business side and fill in the Internet world is not limited to, the site owners use all sorts of ways to sell their site. One of them is by showing things that are taboo. Fraud. This is indeed rampant in any field. Internet was not spared from attacks by fraudsters. The best way is to ignore it or confirm the information you find on the provider of such information. Carding. Because of its real time (immediately), how to shop using credit cards is probably the most common ways that the internet world. Internet criminals even the most committed crimes in this field. With an open nature, the criminals could detect the existence of a transaction (using Credit Card) on-line and record the code card is used. To further their use of the data they get for the interests of their crimes. Gambling. Another effect is the expansion of gambling. With the available networks, the gamblers do not need to go to a special place to fulfill her desire. You only need to avoid sites like this, because the gambling sites are generally not aggressive and require a lot of approval from the visitors. Reducing the social nature of human beings because they tend to prefer to connect via the Internet rather than to meet directly (face to face). From the social nature of change can lead to changing patterns in society interaction.


MOBILE PHONE A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station. In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography. Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smart phones. The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing around 2.2 pounds (1 kg). In 1983, the Dynastic 8000x was the first to be commercially available. From 1990 to 2011, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 6 billion,

penetrating about 87% of the global population and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid.

a. The Positive Effects of Mobile phone There is no doubt that mobile telephony offers numerous advantages: It facilitates communication, is very useful in emergencies and allows direct access to services, leisure generally, but also Internet. We can easily communicate with others whenever wherever as long as there is signal. We can reach other people far away by the communication by calling, SMS, etc. We can easily get information by mobile internet that provide by the mobile connection.

b. The negative effects of Mobile Phone The problems of physical health are still being determined. Numerous studies have correlated an increased incidence of diseases (like cancer) with the proliferation of antennas in areas Studies that show the danger of mobile phone use in girls and boys less than 18 years by the possibility of developing disorders neurological studies to establish risk of infertility and birth defects when the phone is worn near the genital area, etc. While it is true that studies commissioned by the phone companies do not refute these data and found no relationships, what is clear is that we still do not know the long-term effects it can have the use of mobile telephony, especially in organisms developing. Problems for personal safety and privacy. Displayed many problems of irrational use of telephone and mobile phones. One is the issue of personal safety. On the one hand there are problems of road safety (for both drivers and pedestrians), increased risk of accidents (tripping), increased thefts and robberies with and without use of force and on the other side of personal privacy is unprotected (anyone can listen to our telephone conversation, or give us a picture or record our image or our voice).


FACEBOOK Facebook is a hugely popular social networking site that allows you to make connections, share interests, and join groups. As you may have heard, Facebook is becoming more open and social and impacting our experience of the web in ways we had not dreamed of.

Facebook is a social networking service launched in February 2004, owned and operated by Facebook, Inc. As of September 2012, Facebook has over one billion active users, more than half of them using Facebook on a mobile device. Users must register before using the site, after which they may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics, and categorize their friends into lists such as "People from Work" or "Close Friends". a. Positive Effects on Society

It is very beneficial for the ones who are far away from their loved ones and want to keep in touch, specially,it is found to be a great source of association for armed force personals when they are far away from their homes. Families settled abroad want to have strong communication with their homeland and its inhabitants. It is very helpful for people who feel shyness in social interaction. It is a useful source to make friends and share your thoughts easily. Persons who are restricted to their homes due to any sort of disability or environmental factors find a way to deal with their isolation. You are able to get connected with old friends and refresh your bond. It also helps people to find online friends with common interests living in different locations and then make this virtual friendship a real world friendship. When you are caught up in a tiring task and want a quick refreshing break, Facebook proves to be highly favorable. Keeping in touch with family and friends- Facebook is a great way to keep in touch with your family and friends that live far away. With instant messaging and even video chat, Facebook is the perfect environment to stay connected. With the status updates, photos, and profile information, it can keep you up to date on the happenings of all of your close ones. Making new friends- Facebook makes meeting new people extremely easy due to the fact that it allows you to add up to thousands of friends, and acts as a social melting pot of the internet. If you comment on a friends status, and one of their friends comments on it, maybe you two will strike up your own conversation. This can lead to a great friendship down the road. Most people find it a lot easier to start a conversation with someone over Facebook than in real life, so a lot of high-school relationships tend to start there. It's as simple as a "You should text me some time." Expressing yourself- Facebook makes expressing yourself very simple with status updates. Between showing off your favorite song lyrics, to posting pictures of your new outfit, Facebook is the most common way that people express themselves these days. It is a lot harder to feel embarrassment over the internet than in person, so people find it easier to "vent" their feelings on Facebook.

b. Negative Effects on Society

The biggest drawback of Facebook is that it has a very narrow border line between favorite pass time and addiction. One starts using it initially to catch friends and ultimately ends up with a lot of lavish time in taking playful quizzes and exploring various Facebook applications. It is quite distracting if not used within limits, for instance, a student may adopt the habit of updating his online status twice an hour. This is the reason that you will find many adults stick to their mobile phones and laptops to check social networking websites frequently. People busy in their lives feel easy to communicate through Facebook but at times it becomes very annoying when virtual communication takes place of real life meetings. Being a part of your family members life is good, but knowing about each and every moment of others personal lives can prove to be very dangerous at times. Involving others even in your small decisions or forcing your ideas in others decisions is hazardous for personal liberty. Facebook has given rise to gossiping as well, as people have found an easy way to get updates about others personal lives. Cyber-bullying- On Facebook it is very easy for cyber bullies to thrive. They can harass and/or gang up on one person even easier than they could in a school environment. There aren't moderators that go around monitoring what people say to each other. Anything can be said. There are also a relatively small amount of parents that have Facebook accounts and keep up with their children's. More than once I've witnessed this form of bullying, whether it be about race, appearance, intelligence, etc. Ruined relationships- Facebook is notorious for causing couples to break up. Let's face it, no one wants to see their girlfriend/boyfriend telling other people that they look cute, or liking their pictures, or instant messaging them constantly. It builds up jealousy, which causes quite a bit of tension in a relationship. The fact that many people try to hook up with others over Facebook while not realizing that these people are in a relationship doesn't help the issue. Distraction- At the end of the day you may have seen your cousin's new outfit or talked to your sister who is in college, but you still haven't really accomplished anything in the hours that you were on. Critics of Facebook claim that it is a worldwide distraction and even obsession that amounts to nothing except for significant amounts of time wasted. There is even a group that is trying to stunt the influence of Facebook called "Facebook Detox." Insecurity- Facebook is a cause for insecurities due to the fact that it makes people compare themselves to others. How can you not when all you see is pictures of your friends and acquaintances on your newsfeed? Stalker friendly- Facebook is a very stalker friendly website. Theoretically, someone that you don't even know can say that they go to your school, add you, and get all of your information. This may include your phone number, house address, and locations you visit frequently. Not to mention the fact that they will be able to go through all of

your pictures and get to know you completely without you ever knowing. This is a scary thought, but it is a real issue.

V. ONLINE GAMES An online game is a video game played over some form of computer network, using a personal computer or video game console. This network is usually the internet or equivalent technology, but games have always used whatever technology was current: modems before the Internet, and hard wired terminals before modems. The expansion of online gaming has reflected the overall expansion of computer networks from small local networks to the internet and the growth of internet access itself. Online games can range from simple text based environments to games incorporating complex graphics and virtual worlds populated by many players simultaneously. Many online games have associated online communities, making online games a form of social activity beyond single player games.
a. The Positive Effects of Online Games

Psychologists, child expert and scientists believe online games actually beneficial to growing children. They are essential in making children smarter and teach him high level of thinking skills that he may need in future. Online games also provide a good exercise for the children brain. They need to abstract the games and thinks a way to complete the games. Skills of problem solving and logic, following instruction, hand-eye coordination, math skills, and spatial abilities are needed to win a high level games. Online games also teach children resource management and logistics, multitasking, and quick thinking. This game is a great mind exercise and help kids explore many new things. Research show the children who played more games were active and had sharper minds than their other counterparts. Online games enable children to make fast analysis and quick decision. His sense must be well-coordinated in order to control his character and do multiple movements in the games. They also help children to develop in better reading and math skills; as well as, perseverance, better memory, logistics, and strategy-making. Certain games are very beneficial because it give informal training and background of games. For example, in games such as flight simulation. The children became familiar with the part and control of airplane. This is because the parts are modeled to the real part in the airplane.

These games are instrument to introduce children to computer technology and internet. This high gadget is needed to keep up with the fast development of the world. Online games make the learning more fun and are the way for children to release their stress.

b. The Negative Effects of Online Games

Online games are beneficial but they also have its bad side. This is mainly because most video games are addictive and typically about violence and fighting. Majority parents think this game rot the children mind and promote violence among them. This game also is blamed for the anti-social, weird, rude and drastic behavior of some children. Today, the day are gone when children loved to involved in outdoor activities, rather running and playing outside children mostly spend most of their time playing online games. Online games also receive much negative critics because often coined with issue such as mindless entertainment, enhanced social recluse, sexism, and consumerism. Research show that, kids play violent video games have an increase in emotional arousal and corresponding decrease of activity in brain areas involving selfcontrol, inhibition and attention. From the research, the brain scan showed a negative effect on the brain of the kids who played ultra-violent games for 30 minutes. Some of video games also lead to aggressive behavior others lead to aggressive thoughts. There also correlation between depression and playing computer games. Some psychologists and parents have criticized video games because the believe games cause their children sit alone in front of computer for many hour and interacting with a machine. They also claim that video games are more addictive to children than TV and therefore more likely to isolate them socially in this way.

VI. COMPUTER A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or "data." It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You can use a computer to type documents, send email,

and browse the internet. You can also use it to handle spreadsheets, accounting, database management, presentations, games, and more. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945 in the United Kingdom and United States. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). In this era mechanical analog computers were used for military applications. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from mp3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous. a. The Positive Effects of Computer Easy access to info: For homework, cooking, help, questions and daily life stuff. This is why i LOVE Google. Networking: Keeping in touch with people you dont see everyday. And other people. Managing money: Stocks and bank accounts. I do neither but many people electronically take care of bills and stuff. School: Online classes for working students or students that cant make it to a campus. Shopping/Trading: Very useful in our country and other countries. Sometimes better than buying it in stores. Games: Tired of your boring ps3 or Nintendo DS? Computers have MANY games. Not only games made for windows but games on the internet. Faster than writing: Yes!! I'd much rather type than write. Music: Way better than collecting a bunch of CD clutter.. Electronically store your favorite Metallica and Slayer albums. Travel/Tickets: A lot of people book airfare/train/cruise tickets online. Same with buying concert tickets. Usually done via computer. Waste Time: Good to do when you need to hurry up and wait.

b. The Negative Effects of Computer Laziness: People get WAY to wrap up in games and internet now-a-days. People become lazy and stare at the computer for HOURS and lose friends, jobs and family. Addiction: Yes people can become addicted to internet just as well as anything else. People can become addicted to ridiculous games like World of War craft ("Wow") or Run escape. Some people get addicted to porn..Resulting in these. BAD habits: Some people can become obsesses with porn resulting in a lost love life or loneliness. Sometimes this leads to awful habits like child porn or bestiality. The first disadvantage is the regression on the schoolwork, wasting too much time and being addicted to the online games are the main reasons that lead to this negative effect. Besides the influence on schoolwork, computers are also harmful to our body. Research shows that computers are the killers of peoples eyesight. Watching the computer screen everyday makes serious eyes problems, nearsighted and myopic astigmatism are two of the symptoms. According to the medical comments, keep sitting in front of the computers may results in poor blood circulation. And your neck, arms and legs might become numb if you keep sitting in the same pose for a long time. At last, the third disadvantage is to form estranged relationship. There are so many websites that can help us to make contact with others through computers. For example, we can send and receive e-mails from our friends or chat with people by MSN and Skype. In this case, theres no need for us to meet each other face to face because everything can be discussed through the computers. Nowadays, people seldom visit their friends in person, and most of them think that writing a letter is too troublesome. Due to the above reasons, many people are bad at communication skills, and they may become unfamiliar with the social interaction.

VII. PLAYSTATION The PlayStation (Japanese: Hepburn:, officially abbreviated PS) is a series of video game consoles created and developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. With consoles in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth generation, the brand was first introduced on December 3, 1994 in Japan.[1] The brand consists of a total of three home consoles, a media center, and an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines. a. The positive effects of Play station.

Playing the PS could increase the level of socialization of children with the surrounding environment. PS is generally played together or rollicking, this has a good impact on the association. PS also can stimulate imagination and creativity of children. In some of his game, PS often make the players must think fast to make decisions and think about how to finish the game. This is very good for brain development of children.

b. The Negative Effects of Play Station

There are little PlayStation game show scenes of violence, such as fights or shootings. When the game is presented on a small child who is really innocent and did not understand about the violence, he could imitate in the real world. The effect is also very bad PlayStation is the kids can be addicted, so be sure to leave time and other work that is more useful. For example, a lazy learning, this is sure to hurt the children. Although PS could increase socialization, often the children who would rather be alone to play PS. They are usually the children who indifferent and unconcerned with the surrounding environment. Influence PlayStation also include health. PS adverse effects on health can vary. Children may develop vision problems due to prolonged exposure to light game. Bone growth could also not good because children will often sit down and usually tend to bend. Hands and fingers can also be affected by pain because it always moves while playing PS.

VIII. MASS MEDIA The mass media are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. Broadcast media (also known as electronic media) transmit their information electronically and comprise television, radio, film, movies, CDs, DVDs, and other devices such as cameras and video consoles. Alternatively, print media use a physical object as a means of sending their information, such as a newspaper, magazines, comics, books, brochures, newsletters, leaflets, and pamphlets. The organizations that control these technologies, such as television stations or publishing companies, are also known as the mass media. Internet media is able to achieve mass media status in its own right, due to the many mass media services it provides, such as email, websites, blogging, Internet and television. For this reason, many mass media outlets have a presence on the web, by such things as

having TV ads that link to a website, or having games in their sites to entice gamers to visit their website. In this way, they can utilize the easy accessibility that the Internet has, and the outreach that Internet affords, as information can easily be broadcast to many different regions of the world simultaneously and cost-efficiently. Outdoor media is a form of mass media that comprises billboards, signs, placards placed inside and outside of commercial buildings and objects like shops and buses, flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes), blimps, and skywriting. Public speaking and event organizing can also be considered as forms of mass media.

In present era of globalization, majority of people in the society depends on information and communication to remain connected with the world and do our daily activities like work, entertainment, health care, education, socialization, travelling and anything else that we have to do. A common urban person usually wakes up in the morning checks the TV news or newspaper, goes to work, makes a few phone calls, eats with their family or peers when possible and makes his decisions based on the information that he has either from their co workers, TV news, friends, family, financial reports, etc. we need to be conscious of the reality that most of our decisions, beliefs and values are based on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience. In our work we usually know what we have to do, base on our experience and studies, however on our routine life and house hold chores we mostly rely on the mass media to get the current news and facts about what is important and what we should be aware of. We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news, entertainment and education. However, the influence of mass media on our kids, teenagers and society is so big that we should know how it really works. The media makes billions of dollars with the advertising they sell and that we are exposed to, every single moment. We buy what we are told to buy by the media. After seeing thousands of advertisings we make our buying decisions based on what we saw on TV, newspapers or magazines. These are the effects of mass media especially in teenagers, they buy what they see on TV, what their favorite celebrity advertise and what is acceptable by society based on the fashion that the media has imposed on them. a. The positive Effects of Mass Media There are some positive and negative influences in young people of our society due to these ad campaigns in the media. Here is a positive influence example, if there is a quiz show on education that is getting a lot of attention by the media and gains popularity among your

friends and society, you will more likely want to actively participate and watch these quiz shows. These activities are good for the society and will promote literary activities in the youth.

b. The Negative Effects of Mass Media However a negative influence in teenagers is the use of guns and ammunition by celebrity movie stars, the constant exposure of which would seduce the teen to replicate the same behavior in the real life. When we watch TV or an action movie we usually see many images of violence and people hurting others. The problem with this is that it can become traumatic especially in our children as they see it more and more. Our kids that are starting to grow and are shaping their personality values and beliefs can become aggressive or they can lose a sense of distinction between reality and fiction. Another problem is that real war is used as a form of entertainment by the media, we should make our kids and teen aware that war is not a form of entertainment and that there is no win or lose like in video games, in real war everyone lose. Teens, youngsters are in a stage of life where they want to be accepted by their peers, they want to be loved and be successful. The media creates the ideal image of beautiful men and women with all the ingredients of a successful person, you can see it in movies and tv. Its a subliminal way to persuade the masses that if you want to be successful and look like them then you have to buy that particular brand or product. Another negative influence in teenagers, especially in the USA, that has grown over the last years is obesity. There are millions of adolescents fighting obesity, but at the same time they are exposed to thousands of advertisements of junk food, while the ideal image of a successful person is told to be thin and wealthy. The media has a huge impact on society in shaping the public opinion of the masses. They can form or modify the public opinion in different ways depending of what is the objective. For example, Pakistani media influenced the public opinion against the Taliban in Swat by repeated telecast of a video clip showing whipping of a woman by a Taliban. Before that the public opinion over the military action against the Taliban in Swat was divided, but repeated telecast of this short video clip changed the public opinion over night in the favor of the government to take action. Other ways to influence are with polls and trends, especially in political campaigns. The candidates that can pay for more TV and media exposure have more influence on public opinion and thus can receive more votes.