up yee sik (shi er shi, twelve forms), sometimes referred to as the sup yee san sao (shi er san

shou, twelve separate hands) or sup yee san sik (shi er san shi, twelve separate forms), descend from the san sik teaching of Cheung Bo and Yuen Kay-San and were integrated and formalized into the system by grandmaster Sum Nung. Compact in structure, yet containing many of the elements essential to a good wing chun foundation, the sup yee sik are ideal for early training. They can be loosely grouped into three broad categories. The first four focus on building body structure through basic punching, stance and step drills. The next four work fundamental arm cycles, firmly ingraining the cardinal tools for interception. The last four include sensitivity training and combination techniques that help bring the art to life. Although perhaps not as detailed as the classical boxing sets proper, these same attributes make them quite valuable as a sort of crash-course in wing chun self-defense. For those who require simple skill, yet do not have the time or desire to delve more deeply into the art of wing chun, the sup yee sik can serve as great starting point. The sup yee sik vary in order and terminology among the students of grandmaster Sum Nung but usually include the meridian punch/three star punch, side punch, single dragon punch, arrow punch, triangle palms, yin & yang palms, inside join/disperse/grasp, outside join/disperse/graps, wing arm, detaining joining arm, flapping wing palms, single sticking bridge, circling arms, and white crane seizes the fox, etc.

however. Sum Nung. including the boy's teacher. before the young boy. Meridian.By Renй Ritchie Marital Arts Illustrated. did his best to avoid the blades' sharpened edges. Cheung Bo approached the young boy. When it was over. The stinging in his arms and wet trickle of blood told him he was not entirely successful. Side. In an instant he attacked swinging the knives savagely. Cheung Bo. he sup yee sik (twelve forms). Cheung Bo and Yuen Kay-San. the kind employed to chop watermelons and the man was obviously skilled in their use. he struck back with lightning speed and thunderous power. using all the skills he had acquired in his short time of Wing Chun training. December 1998 Excerpted from Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen: History & Foundation Corrected April 1999 The man stood. sometimes referred to as the sup yee san sao (twelve separate techniques). and Arrow Punches . were organized by Grandmaster Sum Nung based on the san sik of both his teachers. spinning through the air and forcing the gathered onlookers. threatening. to scatter for safety. Single Dragon. in grave danger. When his chance came. They were large blades. congratulating him on his success. holding his knives tightly. The man's watermelon choppers were sent flying by the skilled attack. The boy.

Sum Nung studied under Yuen Kay-San intensely for many years and achieved a profound understanding of Wing Chun kuen's methods. Sum Nung combined and refined some of the san sik he had learned from Cheung Bo and Yuen Kay-San to help in the early training of his students. Cheung Bo. In Guangzhou. Sum Nung had always been interested in the martial arts and in 1938 had begun training in Wing Chun kuen under Cheung Bo. but continued to visit his teacher until Yuen passed away from illness in 1956. in order to help support his family during the tough times under Japanese occupation. developing in them a powerful foundation. a restaurant off Kuaizi (Chopstick) alley.History Dr. Ngau had learned the art from the renowned Guangzhou marshal Fung Siu-Ching (a disciple of Red Junk Opera performer Painted Face Kam). Later. In the late-1940ss he moved to the nearby provincial capitol of Guangzhou to establish his medical practice. Yuen had completed his studies of advanced application and close-body fighting under Fung Siu-Ching. Triangle Palms on the Wooden Dummy: Dispersing. Seeing great potential in the young boy. Sum Nung (Cen Neng) was born in South America in 1925 but returned to China with his family as an infant. Sum Nung took a job at Tien Hoi. Settling in Foshan. in 1940 Cheung Bo arranged for Sum Nung to continue his studies under his good friend Yuen Kay-San. Supporting. Cheung Bo had learned the art from Nationalist Army doctor Wai Yuk-Sang who had been a student of Ngau Si of the Kuaizi Street Meat Market. & Cultivating . Yuen Kay-San was a highly skilled master who had learned Wing Chun kuen as a youth from the Foshan Imperial constable Fok Bo-Chuen (a student of Red Junk Opera performers Wong Wah-Bo and Painted Face Kam). known as Dai Ngao (Big Bull) Bo was a large and powerful man with a formidable reputation as a fighter who worked as a chef at Tien Hoi restaurant.

wooden dummy. and practicing with a partner in both san sao (loose hands) and chi sao (sticking hands). turning. rattan ring. Closing the center with the Inside Joining arm and countering The Twelve Forms The twelve forms sometimes vary slightly from branch to branch. and the concepts of the art (meridian line. flexibility. etc. these same attributes make them quite valuable as a sort of crash-course in Wing Chun kuen selfdefense. locking. etc. drilling with equipment (including the sandbag. body alignment.). and stepping drills. Although perhaps not as detailed as the techniques of in the three classical Wing Chun Kuen boxing sets proper. Each point in the system helps attribute development (building relaxation. although the essence remains the same. The list below represents the . For those who require simple skill. offense (striking. The next four work fundamental arm cycles and changes. firmly ingraining the cardinal tools for interception and adaptation.). throwing. standing. The first four focus on building body structure through basic punching. The last four include sensitivity training and combination techniques. etc.). the sup yee sik are ideal for early training. the sup yee sik can serve as great starting point. to be used in application as circumstances dictate. refined muscle use. yet do not have the time or desire to delve more deeply into the art of Wing Chun.). etc. yet containing many of the elements essential to good Wing Chun kuen development. defense (reducing possible an opponent's possible angles from the outset. etc. with all parts of the body). Training is accomplished through the solo forms. intercepting bridge in motion. They can be loosely grouped into three broad categories. flanking.The Nature of the Sup Yee Sik Compact in structure. restricting extended bridges. Each point is trained individually and in combination.

etc.version learned and practiced by the author. 6. 1. 3. and gaun sao (cultivating arm) movements that cover basic interception inside. chang jeung (supporting palm). In addition. also called gwai ma choi (kneeling horse punch). The jee ng choi (meridian punch) trains the fundamental yee jee 2. which pounds explosively along the jee ng sien (meridian line).) and offense (striking. 4. The meridian punch teaches alignment on the meridian line. kim yeung ma (trapezoid shaped groin clamping horse) and introduces the primary chung choi (thrusting punch) of the style. also known as tan fook sao (dispersing & controlling arms). Jin choi (arrow punch) adds linear front and side stepping to the pattern of the single dragon punch. This also trains the lower body in both defense (quick rooting.) Sam pan jeung (triangle palms) drills tan sao (dispersing arm). integrating footwork with body structure. Concentrating on the smooth changing of the . completing the four directions of basic training. Duk lung choi (single dragon punch) combines elements of the previous forms training them in a complementary manner. controlling. changing the meridian line. The side punch also trains the facing posture and side body or flanking methods of Wing Chun kuen. It also integrates the linked chain punch and introduces the fundamental bong sao (wing arm) movement. It alternates a side projecting punch from the front stance and a front projecting punch from the side stance. 5. and the domination of the mutual meridian line. outside. Loi lim yum yeung jeung (inside/outside yin & yang palms). etc. Its extensions include the kwai dei pien choi (kneeling side punch). Its extensions include the concussive lien wan choi (linked chain) punches and the sam sing choi (three star punches). and downward. the single dragon punch helps train the reflexes to intercept and counter attacks from the side and back. also known as pien san choi (side body punch) adds pien ma (side horse) turning to the thrusting punch and works on developing the connected power of the body. It also helps illustrate the triangular structure behind Wing Chun kuen bridges. weaves two of the primary Wing Chun intercepting tools into a short but densely packed set. attacking the opponent's meridian line. This set is usually matched in application with a partner performing linked high and low punches. organized to help their presentation in written form. Pien choi (side punch). uprooting.

teaching only those he felt were trustworthy. White crane seizes the fox also helps develop the use of three bridges at once. 10. It consists of a cycle of interior controlling arm and outside circling arm. . The ngoi tan (outside dispersing) and ngoi lop (outside grasp) are variations of the outside join. Pok yik jeung (flapping wing palms) combines turning power with horizontal palm attacks to strike or uproot an opponent. Bak hok kum wu (white crane seizes the fox) uses chasing steps to maintain control of an opponent and saat kiu (killing bridge) and gok ma (angle stance) like scissors to cut them down. both inside and outside. this technique can also be expanded into the jao da (run and hit). Due to his tireless efforts. and those of his students and descendants. 12. 7.bridges. Na dan kiu (sticking single bridge) cycles a chum kiu (sinking bridge) technique with a horizontally controlling punch in a set typically trained with a partner to develop the dissolving of heavy force. This form can also be extended into the kao lop sao (detaining & grasping arm). the complement of the inside join. Kao dap sao (detaining joining arm) utilizes a Cheung Bo style wide detaining arm along with a vertically dominating kwa choi (hanging punch) and suffocating structure. Noi dap (inside join) also sometimes referred to as noi lim sao (inside sickle arm). & White Crane Seizes the Fox Conclusion Over the last 50 years. Some branches practice the seung huen sao (double circling arms) instead. Flapping Wing Palms. combines a basic exterior controlling arm movement with the inside circling arm. Ngoi dap (outside join). 11. 8. trains the reflexes to close the meridian line from the outside in. the first of two related sets. 9. poon tan bong (half-dispersing-half-wing). Grandmaster Sum Nung has gone on to train many outstanding students. It is trained in a variety of manners. Inside Joining. etc. also sometimes referred to as ngoi lim sao (outside sickle arm). Detaining Joining Arm. Its variations include the noi tan (inside dispersing) and noi lop (inside grasp). and while stationary or in conjunction with yee ma (moving horse).

This article is excerpted. Sum Nung to Ngo Lui-Kay and his many classmates (with apologies. Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen History & Foundations. and the teachings of Grandmaster Sum Nung for future generations. and from Dr. Renй Ritchie is also co-author. It is hoped that by introducing these techniques in the west. Martial Arts Illustrated. Sum Nung. far to many to list here). along with Robert Chu and Y. As the twelve forms were passed from Cheung Bo to Dr. South America. .Com website. from his book. so has Ngo Lui-Kay employed them to train his own students. it will help preserve the rare and unique style of Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun kuen. Canada. South East Asia. Among those fortunate enough to learn from Grandmaster Sum Nung is a man named Ngo Lui-Kay (Ao Leiqi) who followed him from the mid 1960s until he relocated to Canada in 1982. Australia. and Martial Arts Legends magazines and the Wing Chun Today newsletter. of the book Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to the Historical Traditions of Wing Chun Kung-Fu and has written articles for Martial Arts Masters. White Crane Seizes the Fox followed up with Kneeling Side Punch About the Author Renй Ritchie has been studying the Yuen Kay-San style of Wing Chun under the guidance of Ngo Lui-Kay since 1990.Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen has gained a great reputation in China and has spread to Hong Kong. Wu. the United States. he works and practices in Eastern Canada. in part. Creator of the Internet WingChunKuen. and around the world.

Siu refers to “little or small”. or drilling”. follows the siu lien tao in the curriculum. this set integrates the basic motions with .iu lien tao (xiao lian tou. it can be theorized that the siu lien tao begins the practitioners training with the little elements. conceptual points).the yiu dim (yao dian. meaning “beginning. short power). or head”. little first training) is the first linked long form of wing chun kuen. it concentrates on training stability and balance. hum kiu (chen qiao. and the development of duen ging (duan jing. and the linking of the two. linking the structure. To this is added tao. practice. trapezoid shaped clamping groin horse) throughout. the mental development of intention. sinking bridges). continuing this concept. first. the set is also commonly referred to as siu nim tao (little idea). Thus. A stationary exercise practiced in the yee jee kim yeung ma (er zi qian yang ma. Lien encompasses “training. basic arm movements. In modern times. This includes both the physical work the body must go through. Similar to side punch and arrow punch that follow the meridian punch of the sup yee sik.

. both sweeping and throwing. darting fingers). It also contains several different versions of the wing arm. like a compass. among others. and other techniques. and saving body. in that it works to develop a penetrating. in other words. as well as versions of the barring arm. or. middle. and low levels. It can also be taken as “pointing” in that. As with the siu lien tao. performed at high. exacting force. it always returns to the center even when in tricky situations. killing bridges. Footwork in the biu jee includes the moving horse. The chum kiu form itself introduces kicking techniques such as heart piercing kick and side nailing kick. develops more advanced tactics. the third and final fist form. and major sections consist of covering elbows. seeking bridges). neck detaining arm.turning and stepping and works on developing attack and defense in all four directions. this set is also commonly known by the name chum kiu (xun qiao. destroying their structure. iu jee (biao zhi. While the name of the form can refer to “sinking (rooting)”and “bridging (joining)”. cultivating arms. it is also relates to the concept of “sinking the (opponent’s) bridge”. Biu jee can be interpreted as “darting with fingers”.

and aid in the development of short-range. build precision and accuracy in movements. As apartments grew more common. half-dispersing-half-wing. Drilling on the wooden dummy helps to develop the bridges and body structure. this arrangement became impractical.uk yan jong (mu ren zhuang. Grandmaster Sum Nung is said to have combined elements of Cheung Bo's dummy into the first half of the set. The rest contains movements from the three forms and introduces motions such as butterfly palms. the dummy was buried quite deeply in the ground and surrounded by loose earth. Although a set form is taught at more advanced levels. It is constructed to match the size of its intended user and is composed of a body post. When originally developed. and rising knee. . wooden dummy) is perhaps the most famous of the wing chun training aids. and a low-level leg. two high-level arms. explosive energy. if not impossible (especially if one lived above ground level). a wing chun practitioner can use the wooden dummy right from the beginning to train almost any motion. so the wooden dummy was redesigned to incorporate a solid metal base with heavy-duty springs. tiger tail kick. a single mid-level arm.

among others. breathing work) like movements. This is simply the dummy form practiced on its own. expanding chest. kidney breathing returns to source) were passed down to grandmaster Sum Nung by Cheung Bo's teacher. air dummy). who late in life converted to Taoism. . They are typically practiced both before and after training to reenergize and revitalize the body. and dropping power. side-to-side waist. Wai Yuk-Sang. without the actual physical dummy construct. The kidney breathing sets include exercises like yielding breath. single hoof. The exercises consist of a sequence of hei gung.The form itself is also practiced as hong jong (kong zhuang. an hei gwai yuen (shen qi gui yuan. and to make sure healing prefaces and follows martial activity.(qigong.

a change of life. 1999 Sum Nung had already been learning wing chun kuen for many years when Dr. That was then. the old man had had a change of heart. Wai had been in service of the Nationalist Army. Wai knew he could not unteach what he had already taught. Yuen Kay-San. He had shed his former existance. nor would he ever. Dr. had taught the art to the young man's first teacher. Hei (qi/chi) is a deep character covering breathing and intrinsic . Sun refers to the kidneys. Dr. and had taught medicine to the young man personally. April 1999 Excerpted. he found his martial grand-teacher deeply concerned. Sum Nung tried to reasure his grandteacher. Dr. let alone kill anyone. Wai knew this and took a measure of comfort in it. gravely injure. Wai's call. it became impossible to know what may eventually happen. from Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen: History & Practice Corrected May. Wai had come to regret having taught the martial arts. Hence. Dr. Although Dr. especially his amazing talent with the gold coin darts. Cheung Bo. Wai Yuk-Sang called him. saying he had never. so that the art of fighting would always be contained by the art of healing. and become a priest. un hei gwai yuen (shen qi gui yuan). embraced the teachings of the Tao. but pointed out that as his art was passed down and more and more people learned it. in part. He had been famed for his skills as a doctor and his skills as a fighter. When Sum Nung answered Dr. He had learned wing chun kuen from the classmate of the young man's current teacher. he did think that perhaps he could help balance the scales. Now. are a seldom seen part of the wing chun kuen passed down by grandmaster Sum Nung. He felt that what he had passed on may be used to harm or even kill others and that thought his new-found faith could not bear. Wai taught Sum Nung the kidney breathing returns to source set and instructed him to perform it both before and after his wing chun kuen practice.By Renй Ritchie Martial Arts Legends Presents Chi Power.

and weapons sets to train hei gung. Wai became a Taoist priest and passed along the kidney breathing exercises to his grand-student. who had previously learned the separate form (san sik) based wing chun kuen of Tien Hoi restaurant chef Cheung Bo. dummy. Wing Chun Hei Gung It is said in wing chun kuen that one must "eat well and moderate lust. a student of Fung Siu-Ching. Some. as may be expected. Late in life. and the first three are pretty selfexplanatory. returning to the source. like the Sum Nung branch have forms in addition to the usual boxing. quiet the heart and conserve the hei ". through Imperial constables Fok Bo-Chuen and Fung Siu-Ching. . Origins The origins of the Sum Nung system proper are well known. Gwai yuen can be translated as invigoration. Sum Nung. Known as Yuen the Fifth (Yuen Lo Jia). Dr. breathing/intrinsic energy work) is not a singular phenomenon. they were passed down by Dr. Different branches of wing chun kuen. Wai Yuk-Sang. practitioners can make up their own mind. Wai learned wing chun kuen from Ngau Shi of the Kuaizi Street Meat Market. Dr. Ng Mui). The kidney breathing exercises are rumored to have come originally from the Emei mountain temples of Sichuan province (where fables also link back the system as a whole to the legendary White Crane nun. Neither approach is in and of itself better then the other. Formerly a doctor in the service of the Nationalist Army. or recharging the source. It was handed down from Fine Jade Flower Union (King Fa Wui Goon) Opera performers Wong Wah-Bo and Painted Face Kam (Dai Fa Min Kam). Wai Yuk-Sang. a student of Dr. based on their own needs. but by knowing the differences. he in turn passed his knowledge on to Sum Nung (Cen Neng). one may wonder how does wing chun kuen specifically go about working hei? Wing chun hei gung (qigong. While these ideals are all fairly typical in the Chinese martial world. to Yuen Kay-San of Foshan.energy. view hei gung and its training in different ways. Others prefer to focus exclusively on the sets and see no need for separate hei gung forms. In modern times.

and protecting (wu). martial art. that even an iron hammer.In the boxing sets. it could be said that all movements of all forms provide some benefit in this area. tendon changing). They are the gate of ming (vitality) and the source of the original qi and fire of all the internal organs. would wear down and the body was far more valuable than a hammer. struck repeatedly. the already effective fighting concepts of . while present. Kidney Breathing In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). nourish the brain. then. An example would be the little first training's (siu lien tao) three prayers to Buddha (saam bai faat) section which focuses on the slow extension and retraction of bridges through dispersing (tan). it is know that when Sum Nung trained the exercises. to achieve its great results as a between the boxing and hei gung positionings. the kidneys are important for several reasons. The kidney breathing exercises give the practitioner a way to step outside this model and perform movements not contained in the forms. however. In terms of martial benefit. and development. Yuen Kay-San pointed out. They produce marrow. In the end. They govern water passage and receive the qi (as in breathing). manifest in the hair and house zhi (will power). It is this importance that leads to exercises like the kidney breathing. A form of yit gan (yi jin. and harmonizing sexual function. are there separate hei gung forms in some branches? Simply Protecting arm from siu lien tao and expanding chest from sun hei gwai yuen shows the difference because. he achieved a form of body resilience. Thus. controlling (fook). It also means a practitioner does not have to alter the structure nor sacrifice the reflexes they develop within the forms simply to gain some extra hei gung benefit. They open into the ears. the kidney breathing exercises put a practitioner through a good range of motion in order to improve health. and control the bones. but desirable from a hei gung standpoint. Why. growth. wing chun makes use of certain specific body structure ideas and methods of motion. governing birth. it is often thought that the slow movements are especially good for hei gung. however. They store the body's jing (prenatal qi). warming the lower burner.

Dropping power is also seen in the hei gung of other arts. Following this. it takes the practitioner . works the entire body and end the series with the practitioner feeling fully invigorated. With that in mind. The kidney breathing exercises are composed of a sequence of a halfdozen or so short forms intended to be performed both before and after wing chun kuen training. Expanding chest serves to fortify the chest which is often "sunken" in wing chun kuen boxing. is almost identical to the threading exercises seen in systems like baguazhang. This helps work the flexibility of the bridges and the balance in conjunction with the backwards and forwards movement of the waist. Single Hoof Exercise The single hoof is one of the most interesting of the kidney breathing exercises. This form is often used to link the others together when practiced in sequence. from toes to fingers. stretching through the pectorals and shoulders. working the waist (an important component trained for power in the boxing system) in a horizontal manner. Others prefer to link the exercises into one long form and practice them together in that manner. works the waist and also involves stretching the intercostal muscles (used heavily in the sinking and rising methods of wing chun kuen).wing chun kuen as a whole lend the health aspects of the kidney breathing a greater import than any martial benefits. there are some variations in transmission of the kidney breathing exercises. combined with a complete squatting and rising of the legs. Side-to-side waist turns the hips and torso of a practitioner. and continues the whole body work of the yielding breath. bending the wrists backwars. reaching out and over in the horizontal plane. Some perform all of the exercises separately. to replenish and re-vitalize the practitioner. The skyward reaching of the arms. the author and his classmates learned them following the wooden dummy and prior to weapons. Single hoof. In terms of their place in the system as a whole. Names and orders also sometimes vary from time to time and teacher to teacher. As with most things in wing chun kuen. Primarily involving the arms and waist. Rising arms begins by expanding the whole body vertically. Side diaphram bends. the following is a list of the sun hei gwai yuen as the author remembers learning them. Overturning arms completes the body of the exercises. Yielding breath works on stretching the whole body in a slightly different way. so named because it focuses on one hand at a time. both the back and the dan tian are usually stimulated.

twisting. The arm completes its journey by circling through to resume its initial position. The eyes begin with. stretching. and revitalizing the area. The arm keeps twisting. The exercise is repeated with the alternate (in this case left) hand. and the breathing natural. The bowl should be allowed to rest on one extended hand (in his case the right). The feet should be connecting the horse firmly into the ground through the kidney-1 point (approximately 1/3 of the way down from the toes). 1. The body stays rooted. Breathing is deep but natural Although not vital to the exercise. Balance should be kept throughout. 2. Begin with the feet shoulder width apart. The anus should be tucked in and the tongue lightly pressed against the roof of the mouth to complete the body's hei connection. typically an item like a teacup or small bowl full of liquid can be used to aid in keeping the palm level and the eyes focused. The hand then rotates inward toward the waist. extended from the waist. 4. arms down at the sides. The hand continues its path around the body. 3. The waist turns slightly with the motion and the other hand remains at the waist. moving backward. while the other arm stays retracted to the waist. keeping the palm in position. moving forward and outside again. free from tension. bringing the fingers in at hip level. this time with the elbow inverted. 5. and the body and mind relaxed and centered. The waist bends back to keep the eyes focused on the hand and the palm remains level (so as not to drop the item resting upon it. and maintain their gaze on the bowl (or the hand if no bowl or cup is used). if one is used).through an extensive range of motion. . The arm is bent both at the elbow and the wrist. To begin the exercise. with the toes slightly gripping the ground. Breathing remains steady and the eyes focused. The joints bend naturally. the right hand moves forward and outward in a smooth circle.

and the teachings of grandmaster Sum Nung for future generations. . Leung Dai-Chiu. Kwok Wan-Ping. It is hoped that by introducing these exercises in the west. The single headed pole used in wing chun is 7'2" in Chinese measure. and is thinner at the striking end. Preserving the Legacy Among the better known individuals fortunate enough to have learned from grandmaster Sum Nung (with apologies. single ended weapon.Typically. Lee Chi-Yiu. When training is completed. and many others. and into the target. Wong Wah (Tom Wong). and from grandmaster Sum Nung to Ngo Lui-Kay and his many classmates. Ngo Lui-Kay followed grandmaster Sum Nung from the mid-1960s until he relocated to Canada in 1982. through the wood. It is held with the hands shoulder-width apart and is never spun nor twirled but employs motions that require the practitioner to send power from their structure. sixand-a-half-point-pole) teaches the concepts of a long handled. so have Ngo Lui-Kay and his classmates begun to share them with their own students and descendants. As the kidney breathing exercises were passed from Yuen Kay-San to grandmaster Sum Nung. 7 repetitions are done for each exercise. Ngo Lui-Kay (Ao Leiqi). far too many to list here completely) are Sum Jee. uk dim boon gwun (liu dian ban gun. it will help to preserve the rare and unique system of Sum Nung Wing Chun Kuen. the hands are again lowered to the sides. out the striking point.

These are trained in form. Wing chun knives are distinguished by their simplicity. barring. stealing & leaking. using training devices such as balls suspended on string. water-dripping. or the longer yee jee kim yeung dit ming do ("yee" character yang clamping life-taking knives). When applied. Subsequent motions introduce slicing. dispersing. spearing. cross shape. protecting. “blind-man-walks-alley”. small objects scattered on the floor and later with partners in drills. elegant. the hands work like knives and the knives like hands. both structured and free-style. and barring. wing. yet frighteningly effective techniques. then move quickly to finish an opponent. This finality of usage has also led them to be called by the more brutal name of dit ming do (life-taking knives). Their name is derived from the fact that they alternate in a yin & yang manner. and change the two knives economically and efficiently while stationary and while moving in all directions. that cover all basic angles for both offense and defense. . two-motion. parallel shape double knives) train the use of twin short weapons. the wing chun knives intercept or bar and cut the first available target. never crossing near a practitioner’s own arm (a dangerous practice in application). pole training incorporates horses like the quadrilateral level horse and “T” shaped horse. etc. Pole techniques include six-and-a-half simple points like dispelling. In wing chun.Rather then the standard wing chun postures. They are never twirled. fanning. a practitioner learns to wield. control. and other simple. and several extrapolations such as side-to-side. With the fundamental drill of cultivating knives. ee jee seung do (er zi shuang dao. nor spun about and are always held with the blades extended out towards the opponent rather then folded backwards across the forearm. circling & pointing. whipping. stabbing.

Sum Nung of Guangzhou (who had previously learned from Cheung Bo). beyond the early legends. . and passed down from constables Fok Bo-Chuen and Fung Siu-Ching to their disciple Yuen Kay-San of Foshan. who taught it to the modern day grandmaster. dates back to Red Junk opera performers and anti-Qing rebels Wong Wah-Bo and Painted Face Kam. the history) of the system.ik si (li shi. Dr.

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