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Bluetooth is a way of connecting machines to each other without cables or any other physical medium. It uses radio waves to transfer information, so it is very easily affected by attacks. In this let me first give some background information about Bluetooth system and security issues in ad hoc networks, a security framework is introduced for the description of the Bluetooth security layout. Then both link-level and service-level security schemes are discussed in detail on the basis of the framework and then it concentrates on specific security measures in Bluetooth, mainly authentication, encryption, key management and ad hoc aspects. Corresponding countermeasures are also proposed in order to improve the Bluetooth security.

Chapter I

From the beginning of the computer era, cables are being used to connect computers to each other and to special devices. For safe traveling of information security measures have been developed to secure the cable connections. Now, as the time has change, cables are not of that much use, thus the Bluetooth is develop to provide cable-free environment. Bluetooth is a new technology named after the 10th century Danish king Harald Bluetooth. It is accepted as proposed standard for local wireless communication and is becoming more and more popular day by day. Now it is extended to support both the applications of voice/data access and personal ad hoc networks. This report gives information about the security measures of Bluetooth, where we examine the Bluetooth security architecture in detail, how they should be different from the old security measures of the cable-connected world and are they sufficient enough, so that Bluetooth can be used for everyday communications. I have examined the Bluetooth security in two parts according to the framework proposed, including the build-in link-level Bluetooth security as the main part, and the service level Bluetooth security architecture as the practice part, respectively. And what possible uses it has.



The Bluetooth works for the wide range of applications. These range from straightforward cable replacement to sophisticated networking applications. Examples:

_ Wireless headsets for cell phones for hands-free, wire-free phone calls. _ Wireless PC Mouse connection to the PC using Bluetooth. _ Wireless printing between a PC or handheld and a Bluetooth enabled printer. _ Wireless barcode scanner input for retail and warehousing. _ Automated synchronization of Personal Digital Assistant (PDAs) and PCs Bluetooth. _ Ad hoc networking and file sharing between PCs, PDAs & laptops in a activity on the laptop. _ Internet access for Bluetooth used devices via the Bluetooth enabled device Internet. _ Synchronize contact information between a cell phone, PDA, notebook, and desktop wirelessly. _ With automatic synchronization enabled, material on his or her own computer. everyone can see changes to the shared on the meeting. _ Automated cell phone dialing from a laptops contact database with logging of the using

The most basic benefit from Bluetooth is of simple cable replacement between two devices. For many situations were the physical elimination of inconvenient cables that take space and limit device placement. In industrial and commercial applications, the presence of wires creates problems and task interference issues. The wide range of device types and standard interface make by Bluetooth. Which allows selection of devices optimized each for their particular functions. The multi-point capabilities of Bluetooth communications allows one interface to support communications a set of wired and
wireless devices are Bluetooth connectable, including office appliances, e.g. desktop PCs, printers, projectors, laptops, and PDAs; communication appliances, e.g. speakers, handsets, pagers, and mobile phones; home appliances, e.g. DVD players, digital cameras, cooking ovens, washing machines, refrigerators, and thermostats. Bluetooth is suitable for a wide range of

applications, e.g. wireless office and meeting room, smart home and vehicle, intelligent parking, electrical paying and banking. printers, scanners, scales, PDAs, other PCs, etc.

Bluetooth wireless networking, in general, provides a simple and fast path to networks with minimal equipment and overhead.

ad hoc

Chapter II

2. Security Framework
The Bluetooth technology provides security at both the application layer and the link layer. In this there are two kinds of features that make attacks more difficult. A hop selection mechanism of up to 1600 hops/sec is used to avoid the interference from external or other piconets. An automatic output power adaptation scheme is also included in the standard for the low power consumption of light-weight mobile devices, which can reduce the radio spread range for data transmission exactly according to requirements based on the detected intensity.

2.1 Basic Definitions

A total of three different information security objectives are to be reached one or all. Confidentiality means that the data can only be used by authorized users and/or parties. Integrity means that the data cannot be modified during transfer and stored by adversaries. Availability means that the data is always available for authorized use. Bluetooth gives three main techniques to achieve security features: Encryption: The process of transforming data into a form that it cannot be understood without a key. Both data and control information can be encrypted. Authentication: means the ensuring of the identity of another user, so that he knows to whom is communicating with. In which to verify who is at the other end of the link. Authentication is performed for both devices and users. Authorization: The process of deciding, if a device is allowed to have access to a service. Authorization always includes authentication.

2.2 Security Modes

Each Bluetooth device can work on one of the three security modes. Depending on whether a device uses a semi link key or a master key, there are several encryption modes available. If a unit key or a combination key is used, broadcast traffic is not encrypted. Individually addressed traffic can be either encrypted or not. If a master key is used, there are three possible modes. In mode 1, is a non-secure mode, in which a Bluetooth device never initiates any security procedure, nothing is encrypted. In mode 2, is service-level security where a device does not initiate security function before channel establishment and whether to initiate or not depends on the security requirements of the requested channel or service. Broadcast traffic is not encrypted, but the individually addressed traffic is encrypted with the master key. In mode 3, is a link-level security in which a Bluetooth device shall initiate security function before the link set-up. All traffic is encrypted with the master key. The above two levels of Bluetooth security scheme can be defined, as follows: Link-level security, The Bluetooth device initiates security functions before the channel is established. This is the in-built security mechanism. Service-level security, The Bluetooth device initiates security functions after the channel is established, i.e. at the higher layers.

2.3 Security Levels

Service-level security, The Bluetooth device initiates security functions after the channel is established, i.e. at the higher layers. Bluetooth allows different security levels to be used for devices and various services. To secure devices two security levels can be defined. An authorized device has unrestricted access to all or some specific services. Basically this means that the device has been previously authenticated is marked as trusted. An unauthorized device has restricted access to services. Usually the device has been previously authenticated but has not been marked as trusted. An unknown device is also an untrusted device. Three levels of service security are used to be defined so that the requirements for authorization, authentication, and encryption can be set independently, including services that require authorization and authentication, services that require authentication only, and services open to all devices. These three security levels can be described by using the following attributes: Authorization: The access services are granted only after an authorization procedure. Only authorized devices will get automatic access. Authentication: The remote device must be authenticated before being able to connect to the application being access. Encryption: the link between the two devices must be encrypted before the application can be accessed.

Chapter III

3. Link-level Security
Link-level security, The Bluetooth device initiates security functions before the channel is established. This is the in-built security mechanism. Figure 1 illustrates the link-level security framework of Bluetooth. In the figure, the Bluetooth devices (the claimant) try to communicate the other device (the verifier) [1]. Generally the whole scheme is divided in four levels as shown below in the figure.

3.1 Key Management Scheme

Key management scheme[2] is used to generate, store, and distribute keys, which is included in the first step of each of the four parts in Figure 1. Bluetooth uses a private key called link key is shared between two or more parties. A semi-permanent key can be used after the current process is terminated, while a temporary key is valid only until the current process is over. The initialization key is used only during the initialization process. The unit key is generated once at the installation of the unit. The combination key is derived by both units for services that require more security. The master key, generated by the master device, is used when the master wants to send messages. Bluetooth Personal Identification Number (PIN) is used for authentication and to generate the initialization key before exchanging link keys. The unit key is generated in a single device when it is installed.

3.2 Authentication Scheme

The Bluetooth authentication scheme uses a challenge-response strategy in which a 2-move protocol is used to check whether the other party knows the secret key. The protocol uses similar keys, so a successful authentication is based on the fact that both participants share the same key. First, the verifier sends the claimant a random number for authention. Then both participants use the authentication function E1 with the random number, the claimants Bluetooth Device Address and the current link key to get a response. The claimant sends the response to the verifier, who then makes sure the responses match. The used application indicates who is to be authenticated. So the verifier may not necessarily be the master, where both parties are authenticated in turn. If the authentication fails, there is a period of time that must pass until a new attempt at authentication can be made. The period of time doubles for each subsequent failed attempt from the same address reached. The waiting time decreases exponentially to a minimum when no failed authentication are made during a time period.

3.3 Encryption Scheme

Figure 4 shows the encryption procedure. The encryption key (KC) is generated from the current link key. The Bluetooth encryption system encrypts the payloads of the packets. This is done with a stream cipher E0, which is re-synchronized for every payload. The E0 stream cipher consists of the payload key generator, the key stream generator and the encryption/decryption part. The payload key generator combines the input bits in an appropriate order and shifts them to the four Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LSFR) of the key stream generator. In each device, there is a parameter defining the maximum allowed key length, the size of the encryption key used between two devices must be negotiated. In the key size negotiation, the master sends its suggestion for the encryption key size to the slave. The slave can either accept and acknowledge it, or send another suggestion. This is continued, until a consensus is reached or one of the devices aborts the negotiation.

Chapter IV

4. Service-level Security
This section gives basic issues involved in the implementation of security mechanisms; this is an approach for a flexible security architecture built on top of the link-level security features of Bluetooth. Figure 5 gives the general security architecture. The key component in the architecture is a security manager, with the following functions: Store security-related information on both services and devices into corresponding service and device databases. Permit or refuse access requested by protocol implementations or applications. Command the link manager to enforce authentication and/or encryption before connecting to the application, using the HCI. Query Personal Identification Number (PIN) entry to set-up trusted device relationship. Such a centralized security manager is flexible to implement different access strategy policies and easy to add new strategy without affecting other parts. The security manager acts as a bridge to join application level and link level security controls together and thus helps in providing end-to-end security. Authentication should be performed after determining what the security level of the requested service is. That is to say, the authentication can only be performed when a connection request to a service (SCO link) is submitted. Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP). This protocol connection-oriented and connectionless data services to the upper layer protocols, with protocol multiplexing capability. Host Controller Interface (HCI), i.e. the boundary between hardware and software, provides a uniform command interface to access capabilities of hardware, e.g. link manager, link control and event registers. Cable Replacement Protocol, i.e. RFCOMM protocol, is based on the ETSI TS 07.10 that matches serial line control and data signals over Bluetooth Base band to provide transport provides

capabilities for upper level services. The Device database stores information about the device type, the trust level (whether trusted or untrusted) and about the link key (used for encryption) length.[3] The Service database stores information regarding the authentication, authorization and encryption requirements for the services. It also stores other routing information for the services. [3]

We have now examined Bluetooth in general, some of the Bluetooth security mechanisms. As was seen, the Bluetooth's security seemed to be adequate only for small ad hoc networks, such as a network of the participants in a meeting. Connecting a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to a mobile phone using Bluetooth may also be secure enough, but is Bluetooth secure enough for larger networks, money transfers and transferring other sensitive information. In the light of this study, it seems that the security of Bluetooth is still not suitable for any serious, security sensitive work; the more sophisticated security methods may be implemented. Since the Bluetooth security scheme is reasonably useful to the applications with less security requirements. Based on the original design goal of cable replacement, Bluetooth is more suitable to short-range and small-size wireless personal area networks than for connecting with outside public networks, comparing.