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A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields
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2nd Edition Robert Mortimer Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics J. 2nd Edition Paul Davidovits Introduction to Relativity John Kogut The Human Genome.Complementary Science Series [m 2000/2001 The Physical Basis of Chemistry.com .E. 2nd Edition Warren S. Warren Physics in Biology and Medicine. House www. 2nd Edition R.harcourt-ap. Scott Hawley I~ Julia Richards I~ Catherine Mori 1999 Chemistry Connections Kerry Karukstis I~ Gerald Van Hecke Mathematics for Physical Chemistry.
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when my father showed me a compass. which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch'). Something deeply hidden had to be behind things. Albert Einstein .A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events. I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me.
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.1 1. . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gilbert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . Maxwell . . . Steady and Changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . Halley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapman 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs . . . .3. . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1.2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faraday Gauss .3. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locating the Fields . . . . .1 1. .2 Finding the Fields 1. . . .3 1. . . . . .3. .3. . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . Water Improvement . . . Double Blind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2. . . .9 . Magnetic Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Frauds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Travel and Exploration . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. Statistical Sampling . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . . . . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration . . . . . . . .3 Pseudoscience. . . . . . . . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .1. . . Water Witching or Divining .1.1. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. . . . 64 65 . . . .8 2. Old Wives' Tales. . . . . . 60 60 . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. . . . . . . . . . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning . . . . .X Molecules . . . . . . . . .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . . Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomagnetism . . . . . . . . . . Establishing Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation .6 2. . . . . . . . . 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . . . . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets .2 2. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . Modeling 2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. .2 3. . . . . . . . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. .2 3. . . . . . . . . .6 Magnetic Poles Galore . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . . .5. . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . .3 121 121 . . . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations . . . . . . . . . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4. . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . . . . 127 . . .1 Field Traces 5. . . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . .1 4.5. . . . . . . . . . . Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 121 . . . . Harvesting the Fields 5. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . Measures of Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two Eccentric Axis Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glamorous Display . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. . . .6 Pulsations . . . . . . . . Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .4 3. .1 5. . . Pole M a r k e r s . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems . . . . . . . .2. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .4 3. 4. . . . . . . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conducting Blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4. . . . . . .1 3. . . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . . . . . IGRF Main Field Poles . . . . . . . 92 93 94 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .5.1 3. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K p Index Ap Index 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . . . . . . . . . .1.1. . . . . . .2. . . . .2 Inside Sources . . .
. . . . . . . Magnetotellurics .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Contents . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. . . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . . . . Index 143 . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . .2 5. . . .2. . . . . . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . . . . . . 128 130 130 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns .4 5. .6 5. . . . . . .3 5. Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii 5. . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . .2.2. . . . . .
It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism. Dr. not just geomagnetism. His recent book. and radio propagation.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review. satellite drag. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. interplanetary. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. satellite operations. including telecommunications. Campbell has authored several well-known books. is one of the most important references in our field. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. yet easy-to-understand way. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. in a way that is state-of-the-science. yet fun to read. In addition. magnetic fields. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. Thus. Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. Dr. Dr. Dr.
simplicity. Dr. Herbert W. Kroehl General Secretary. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment. the magnetic field of the Earth. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy . and he does so with superb clarity. and practicality.xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives. He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields. Dr.
You will have a personal. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics. just start with the second. See Figure C. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour. guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters. To remedy this situation. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism. I have written this book for the interested nonscientist.2. Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age. XV .1. In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter.) See Figure C. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments. Occurring every eleven years. global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period.
Chinese compass. These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand. . a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean. all involved in magnetic navigation. and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones. ready to misinterpret everything. opposing fields. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms.1 I~. magnetic-dip instrument. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation. helical windings.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life.FIGURE C. FIGURE C.
3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles.Preface xvii FIGURE C. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction.3. Both wish to be involved in the trip. the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms. We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained. Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole. . Together. In Chapter 3. See Figure C.
See Figure C.5.4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field. what researched is now in progress. these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users. and indices of such activity. In Chapter 4. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured. We will examine the storm impact at the Earth. See Figure C. . our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun. how field records can be obtained. field appearances on magnetic records.4. and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information.xviii Preface FIGURE C.
waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers. Now. November 2000 .H. A picture of Chapman. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf. Have no fear. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away.5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk.Preface xix FIGURE C. the modern father of space magnetism. let us start the tour. I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend. W.C. is prominently displayed.
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Although most illustrations are of my own creation. Finally. xxi .Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group.C. the Space Environment Center of NOAA. Beth. for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer. I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily. away from household duties. W. the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book.H. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues. the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA. in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA. I thank my wife. Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty.
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Fortunately. this is not an unusual route to understanding. Along the way. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together.I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways. Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head. In contrast. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction. . acting as your guide. In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths. indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour.1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly. But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house. I1. I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place.
point toward the North Star. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC. . the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction.2. Chu Yu. Written records show that a Chinese compass. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions. opposite the handle of the Big Dipper. FIGURE 1. Similarly. a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia. had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces. the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1. The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape.2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11.1). Si Nan. corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major). Then. a Cantonese author of 1117.1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia.21 Historical Tour Markers 1.1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction.
For our Western culture. A Frenchman.2). at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen. Peregrinus described the pole locations.Section 1. and how similar poles repel (Figure 1.2. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole. Loadstone (or lodestone). The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star.2 Historical Tour Markers 1. But if it were given that name. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus). how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips. there would be even greater confusion. an early word for "leading stone. He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges. for which the negative and positive charges can be separated). In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone. By the early fifteenth century. .2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners. This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole." was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses. had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles.
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.
declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about
Historical Tour Markers
FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.
the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.
1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.
science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.
In 1838. In 1821. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman.6). but spent much of his productive life in the United States. .7). he developed the first electric motor. In addition. Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges.10). in a time of significant English maritime expansion.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. Germany. Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. and fields.9). He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1. Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1. currents. Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes. =. who originally worked in England.Section 1. In 1893. He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. the original design for our present public electric power plants. mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes. a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution.8) of Goettingen. Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth. In 1831. the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation. Chapman Finally. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances.
Geomagnetism. who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name. Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms. .in 1940. With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany.6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley.8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1. The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage. Chapman became the father of space magnetism.
Section 1. . FIGURE 1. devised the first electric motor and electric current generator.7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867). who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields.2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1.8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth.
. FIGURE 1.10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies.9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today.10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.
The prefix gee.11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle. 11. when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our planet. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet.3. Steady and Changing Now.Section 1.5). as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts. Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism. to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1. popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism. as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth). to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject. the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1.31 Local Language Dictionary 1. the natural fields within and around the Earth.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour. This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent .is used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism. However.1 Earth Fields.11). out of or into the Earth. points at different angles.
the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example. The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field. but more dramatic appearance. which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time.13). Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. As we shall see in our tour. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. . This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation. Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances. In contrast.and 24-hour periods are shown. The prefix paleo. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter. The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation. the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period. For example. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. The inverse of the period is the frequency. In addition. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago.12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1.12). we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second. Examples of 12. the weaker the effect of that field becomes. meaning ancient.12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion. is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times. is rapidly changing.
13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks. At the place where a field exists. iron. The effectiveness of this field. 1. having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action. there are many different sources of magnetic fields.3. at 2 inches from a magnet. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. that can move another magnet. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface. For example. The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1. . of course. also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size.14). The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch. this control is measured by the force. Of course. Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current. Alaska. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil.2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current.3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1. magnetic observatory. or iron-rich rocks.Section 1.
14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet... probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1. The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones.00 4.. > .0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0. By gently flicking the paper. slowing it to a stop.4 n- 0. The field . When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate. What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized.8 e. c !.50 5.00 2. I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home. 0. 1.0 . When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights.6 "o It. heavy iron bars. Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience.15)._ *. To my dismay. strong attracting magnetic field.14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1.50 2.00 1. 0. A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding. Somehow. he discovered that magnetism was the problem..00 3.1 1.50 4. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet.. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby.50 3. the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum. the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down.2 0..00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1.
Giant.15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet.3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1.3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources. 1. the equivalent name. Nevertheless. we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source. The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material. it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine.3. and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities. from electric current sources deep within the Earth. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss). Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT).Section 1. In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older. similar to that of the bar magnet. is the proper unit officially . nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma). current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine. and from currents in the region of space above our planet.
The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma. EARTH MAIN FIELD 10.000 gammas). . called SI Units. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system.16 100. The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude.000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator.16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources. occur during a geomagnetic storm. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below). 100. Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size.01 0.16. t~ 0.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1.000. 1.000. 1. Another unit. and lasting from hours to a full day or more. The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1.001 0.0001 0.000.0 . the Gauss (1 Gauss =100.1 0. with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second. The Earth's main field varies from about 60. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour.
Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields
Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.
FIGURE 1.17 I~
Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.
18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles
Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism
To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell
Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary
FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.
becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two
For example.20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1.19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. to form sodium chloride.19). hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule. which has just seven electrons in its third shell. carbon dioxide. The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away. Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1. leaving a positive ion. the molecule of table salt. Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule. There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon. These parts are called ions. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions. the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1. A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17). neon.18). Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral. That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1.20). . and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe.
the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water.Section 1. called its conductivity. How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule. By convention. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source. producing other characteristic auroral colors. For example. In that gaseous region.21). The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet. the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these. the flow is called an electric current. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current. This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. . This is because the moving charges. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules.3 Local Language Dictionary 21 .p e" e" FIGURE 1.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere. produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1. We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere.. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. ions or electrons that compose the current. then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current. with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current.~. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth. An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction. described earlier. If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow. +.
I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment. The sources of such fields . Rather. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong. Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space.41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories.g. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules. nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current. 11.. generally linearly directed magnetic field.21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire.22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1. causing them to glow (e. The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire.
We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. and electricity transmission lines. the main field at the Earth's surface. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. . Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field. In subsequent chapters. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist. Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet). from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface. Natural currents. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks.Section 1. magnetized materials. We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives. and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. and natural current systems above the Earth. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution. Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface.4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth. liquid outer core of the Earth. We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep. due to currents flowing in our space environment. However. in large measure. Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. pipelines.
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The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames.1). The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects. which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger. 25 .1. knives. an oscillating field is generated. If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected. Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious. watches. At concourse entrances. an alarm is sounded. guns. for example. etc. coins.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6).7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials. Within the security passageway. Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications. from rings. keys.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices. IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1.12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. called magnetometers. airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2. We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1.
is also important for the traveler.1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger. and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass. the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage. from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships. In addition to the magnetic northward direction.26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.2). Ships at sea. On the modern vessels. Hikers. the map date. have a compass as part of their navigation system. By universal convention. most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display. Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2. printed nearby. forest rangers.3). back-country travelers.) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2. (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top.satellite-dependent .
..... .5 -- 14. o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~... .tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922.L .. I"85.I In q) Q) 01 13.. 1980 1940 FIGURE 2.. is always displayed on the best maps.3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson...2 I~ Magnetic declination.~.0 - % ~.... .. i .. II|iIY(H(..5 - o o o o 12. . I" . 5 ... ..~ ..Section 2..-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN... . I . ..S.~" ... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.... 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~.i ~ .. .. 65 W i s~ii=E.' ' 1'..5 A 4.. 66 W.1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~. " .~ . f "' .. ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W .5--W 10437... from 1910 to 1986. ~ ' R . |g'22'30" 104o37..0 - 13. I k 45' R. .. OR RESTON. I I .0 -- % o C2 e 12.. Arizona.. .....5X48 FOR SALE BY U. along with the date.5/37. .~ ... 14... DENVER.~... Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS.. . I . y t l l l G i N J & . ~ ~ .i-dC--~:-L~....* In m U. ~ . i . . .... . I 1990 1 1 .. COLORADO 80225.. ~... ~ t ". .. I iN~EIII~iI~-. " ' ' -... ~ i " .. ~ ...~ J. '2200000 FEET'~ q..~oIr._~..VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2..30- "1" I ' ' I .1 1960 1970 .
.28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ . used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2. For years.4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea.9.1.D Q t _ t~ r-.. p. . so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service. It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude. Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere. longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed. where the North Star cannot be seen.4). Nevertheless. In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2. global positioning systems (see Section 2. 49) have replaced the older navigational aids. cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r . modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail.=.
as well as many freighters and passenger ships. 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock.5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757. In later years. navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean. in an age of modern electronic navigation systems. England.5). a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only. so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2. small airplanes.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2.6).Section 2. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea. on the voyage. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. For example. In this example. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position. By international agreement. Between star sightings and in overcast conditions. . longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses. Today.
Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age. In the beginning years of space exploration.2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents.1. 2. scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere.30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface. On a microscopic scale. For many years. 87~ east of geographic north. satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor. such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which . Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite. Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment.6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position.7). magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2.
1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2. If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis.Section 2. all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction. the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2.7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems. Paleomag- . the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does. Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing. When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment.8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization.8). the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization. Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2. For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit).
As this liquid rock material cools into igneous .32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2. who study these rocks.2.3. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle). Although geophysicists. Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized. By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field. 14). Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains. Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer. Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains. and 3. continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature. Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1. By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass. Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1. p. 2. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation.8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises.
Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma. When .Section 2. (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens. Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes. many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2. at first. The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone. The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock. the overall alignment of the many particles is. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction. While moving with the water.9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2. Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago.9). Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation. scrambled by the water currents.10) or road cuts.
At high baking kiln temperatures. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples. the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position.11).34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Studies of this type are called .10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction. The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea. archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2. Utah. Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed. Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery. Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization. silt-. Upon cooling and hardening. and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation.
2.5). the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe.Section 2.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay. Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern. Now.1. archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures. rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- . After allowing for continental drift. armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior. the geomagnetic main field has. on many occasions. completely reversed its direction.1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2. the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1. In addition. the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years.
ancient flora.0 inches) a year. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern. Antarctica. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating. Australia. special crustal regions. and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified. Africa is pushing into . The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle. forming the Himalayan Mountains. India is pushing up against Asia. The cooled magma.12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples. In those two matched continental regions. often toward the middle of our major oceans. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. but are continuing to separate.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom. The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift. As this material cools. and India were also once connected.12). The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2. with its field identification.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10.13). it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence. similar geology. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder. have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge. spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom. In recent years. activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2.
2. closing the Mediterranean Sea. Europe.1.13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields . The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust.14). or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf. Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents.1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7). Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2.Section 2.
The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys. During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances. wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1.14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology.38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers. (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area.13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings. National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- . p. Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves.3. To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist. 128). All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements.2. an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5. magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites.
Shading indicates contours of similar field strength. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2. Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament.15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast. The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys.15). We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4).1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2. In 1991. cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods.Section 2. iron nails. aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a . Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping. just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico.
1. This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. after adjusting for geological site differences. at least two measurement sites are used. As a result.40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process. 2. Unfortunately. Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days. Today. requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist.16). In early North American land exploration and development. For example. 2. field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other. For their detection. Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause . Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1. Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone. a local effect is verified. a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials.1 gamma. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field. This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles). or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2. For example.
At the time of earthquakes. For example. this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material. Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal. but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2.Section 2.3. and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event.1. 66).6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions. apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers.16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption. changes in magnetization.2. 2. p. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed .1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2.
42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons. These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction. In other studies. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the . Inside these pond bacteria. Biological researchers.17).7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms. using a large loop antenna.1. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2. mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue. blue marlins. Blakemore. dolphins. The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation. the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1. spinning in random orientation. The well-known sea travelers whales. Approximately 0. Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense. green turtles. artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern. Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions. magnetic material in their stomachs.0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior. and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism.13). 2.17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R. The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields.
and analyzed by computers.1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2. With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals. pulse. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because. A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r. Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging. . detected by magnetometers. occasionally. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice.f. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity.18).f.Section 2. pull of a gravitational field). live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2. A brief radio frequency (r. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response. The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms.) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field.
allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike.19). NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles.1. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. For now. electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves. . 2. or maglev for short. at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away. Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move.1. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region. However. Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr).9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2. For propulsion. maglev trains have been developed.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1. In recent years. The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. In March 2000. This suspension is called magnetic levitation. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement. using these field techniques. The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields. We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. consider the fact that during major magnetic storms. Wire resistance limits the current flow.
1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2. for example). The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions. Everest use oxygen masks. . Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt. On occasions following a great magnetic storm. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position. Following magnetic storms.Section 2. the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit. Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground.19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions. More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost.
Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. During geomagnetic storm periods. such . when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency.K. A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. Surrey Space Center.20).46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field. Energetic charged particles. U. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage.20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2. Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. During major geomagnetic storms. Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites. captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms. upsetting program memory control. the increased number of particles in space. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms. A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite. Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region. astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood.
Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly. Particle impacts (Figure 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2. engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas. and its electronic configuration. To lessen the damage to its systems. manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region.21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000.Section 2. principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles). The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation. Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields. To avoid unhealthy exposure. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions.20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. During a mag- .21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth. Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean. the orbit and speed of the satellite.
At such times.48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. netic storm. and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. . and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2. also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver. Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm. The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere). higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere. the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered. In recent years. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms.22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere.22). Worldwide telephone. the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. These signals. and then degraded or lost. fax.
hunters. together with the ground receivers. longitude. radiowave-signal transmitter satellites.625 mi) above the Earth. latitude. constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS). The GPS allows users to find their time. the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20.23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20.200 km (about 12. Defense Department which funded the system. For navigation purposes. ship captains.23).1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2. Soon U. fisherman. commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites.Section 2.S. The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists.S.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2. and the U.200 km (12. These clock-synchronized. hikers. Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth. Such .
the greater the induced fields. With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field. such as northern Europe. magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. causing extensive electric power failures .50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. or em) fields. Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times. In general. The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. A pair of electric field probes. the nearer to the region of auroras.1. 128). 127). At high-latitude locations. during major magnetic storms. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems. researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period.1. high energy-demand occasions. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor. and the northern United States. naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations. Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5.2. scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2. Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques.10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor. by nature. such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather. The science of physics tells us that.24).3. p. such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field. p. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material. At the surface of the conducting Earth.3.m. show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5.25). can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters. in some situations. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth. 2. Canada. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. We call the pair electromagnetic (e.
24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth. Canada. and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter. static. long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted.2 . and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States. Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms. at great inconvenience and expense to the public. laboratory testing.3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I .1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 . .- 500 600 700 0 - 0 . some messages have been reduced to whispers.1 . Using this conductivity information together with seismic records.:Section 2.5 FIGURE 2.- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . At such times.4 I I I I . An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province. Six million people were affected by that power outage. Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system. geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way. or complete blackout.
. improper FIGURE 2.25). corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents. telephone lines. where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2. and long oil. and water pipelines. gas.52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil.26). the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating. These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions. and water (Figure 2. The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits. At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest. gas.25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. At low latitudes.
which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow.Section 2. Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion. alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour.2J Tour to the Boundaries 2. The central section of the pipeline. We k n o w that two happenings can be related if . To avoid such problems.2.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena. and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o .'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2. is particularly susceptible.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms. Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~. J2.
A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile. Further study would probably show . as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena. For example. Sometimes. The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events. Correlation values greater (less) than 0.54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event. D. the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes. High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs.1 ) . D. there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile. not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second. Statistical Sampling First.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship. A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics. This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to . Correlation Second. the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous). specific mathematical test techniques need to be used.0 .8 (-0. The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method. Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes. On other occasions. for the paired events. Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. Just because Mr. values 0.4 ( . Cause and Effect Third. it has five important features: D. it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds. 4 ) encourage further study. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions.
cooler or hotter. scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and. when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation. and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar latitudes. Modeling Fifth. for ingested chemicals.Section 2. and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. giving off less radiation than the average solar surface. For example. for unknown reasons. the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle.5.to l l. Sunspot regions are cooler.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather. Statistical significance is then required of the true item. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. However. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses. known from a secret list. 2. when a true relationship is found. physical.2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2. Studies have shown that. Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause. the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of . special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study. Models of the biological. For convenience. The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation.2 Magnetic Correlations =. During the Sun's cycle. whether there are attending unwanted side effects). when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active. the number of sunspots increase and then decrease. Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation. Double Blind Fourth.27).2. in tune with the 11-year cycle.
27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation. They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum. some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring. A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions. the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens. Greece. However. Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum. Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle. .56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.
beginning in 1276. near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle. preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado. there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate. Geomagnetic storms. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand. result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere.2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection.28). Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's .Section 2. recorded at world magnetic observatories. These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. We shall see.28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles. Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States.
containing ferric iron deposits. Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design. In addition. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4. have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2. Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated. . Originating in the auroral region. p. Sensitive magnetometers.29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger. 111). Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields.29).1. Figure adapted from Williamson. FIGURE 2. Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations. Kaufman. and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic.4. measuring the magnetic fields from the brain.
although a significant (0. 3. and 6. although unrelated. Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays. the number of heart attacks. Random associations can occur. will show a significant value. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. 4. There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist. But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum.10). Also. when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period). the number of publications by active scientists. the number of convulsive seizures. However. seasonal. For example. or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes. scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields. 2. there are certainly well-known. Also. variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. A famous and prolific space scientist. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. the number of admissions to mental hospitals. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima.2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior. Nevertheless.Section 2.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. . The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. the two can display a false correlation. the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2. an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. 5.
l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2.-~ !. at Arnhem Land. ~ . A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community. Old Wives' Tales. and Frauds I. Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD .. Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north. The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers.~'. Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields.lll ~ '. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall. and at the Cape York peninsula. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year. . %. it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense. therefore. 2. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes.I ~. Also.2.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite .3 Pseudoscience. One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin. magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects. in its yearly orbit about the Sun.ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q. As another example.' I. it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad. India. oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2. is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year.31). the Earth. t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ .
Section 2. mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season. In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds. constructions. For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J. B.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2. increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun. The word mesmerize originated in that period. these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature. Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. P.31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- . All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains. allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night. about the time of the American Revolution. the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis. not because of the magnetic field direction. A then-popular Viennese physician.
g." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy. p.29). suppress coughing. cure insomnia. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets. with the promise that "strong. 1996). newlyweds could spend their nuptial night. bracelets. shoe innersoles. stop headaches. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten. It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process. beautiful. knee braces. cervical collars. sleeping pads. and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public.7. for a princely sum. That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where. direct-marketing outlets.. There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e. Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2. reduce food cravings. . Some department stores. alleviate arthritis. the MRI described in Section 2. 42). creating heat that soothes pain and swelling.1. pillows. The magnets are said to be a time-honored. such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen. vard University Press.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2." Magnetic finger rings. long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation. However.32).32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. health-food stores. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2. revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin)." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense.
or reference to a medical journal article. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. A similar add-on system for water pipes.33). who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater. allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices. Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because." Some witches. untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories. called a divining rod.Section 2. when examined. describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests. shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L". Berkeley. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff. "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. The advertisements feed on the fear. and desperation of the gullible public. Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. statistically significant. When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. suffering. trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California. The responsible American Medical Association requires careful. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod. advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies. Held tightly in the hands of the witch. under tightly controlled field . is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger). using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home. In their Health News Letter of May 1999. the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect)." =. which." Tests of the method. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. say. by itself. In his hands.
. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local geology. has nothing to do with rock magnetism. with a statistically significant number of examples. 1See the website http://www.64 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2. The procedure is successful only by random luck. The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography. when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths.33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful. in truth.com/dousing. Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material.skeptic. "The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well known. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks. predominant weather front directions. recurring surface heating. have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense. Magnetism has no role in the divining. During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak.html. and local prevailing winds." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. but magnetism is not the responsible agent. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said. conditions. While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water.
2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness. Given the weather and traffic.34). and Puerto Rico (Figure 2.2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2. usually magnetic. the number of lost ships and planes in that area is. . Florida.34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda Triangle. 2See the website http://skepdic. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces. in fact. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region.com/bermuda. Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept. not unusual. given the weather and traffic. following Columbus's voyage of discovery.Section 2. Serious researchers have proved that.html. To create even more mystery. ~. hazily defined by Bermuda. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual.
Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2. Unfortunately. Nicaragua earthquake photo by J. ~. . Dewey of the USGS. although the island's name remains. Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. Most likely. Australia. some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem. Earthquake Predictions In recent years. Captain James Cook. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices. their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville. who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes. They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region.35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes.
Union 78. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs. The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience.35). Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. 1997. although a clearly random coincidence. Of course. The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods. *Geller. citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. the occasional fortuitous prediction success. but the many failures are rarely mentioned. 63-67. R. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences.m. . Am. J. Occasionally.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast. Geophys. Therefore.Section 2. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable. signals that forecast earthquakes. almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief. For these. is published and touted in the news media. Eos Trans. the Chinese blame numerous causes.
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Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing. every day of the year. changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth. We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields. 69 . the magnetosphere. so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent. Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere. Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive. Generated by dynamic processes. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior.
Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust.3.1. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept. but not solid material. 3. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth.5). A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area. There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth. Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. Fluids could cause this.2.2 and Plate 8). a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself. Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. but the absence . 31) is reached for iron and magnetite. the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region. Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region.1). between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles). 5. 35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. p. the Curie Temperature (see Section 2. They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape. 4. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep.1. there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1. The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3. is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3. 2. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field. An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field. p.
Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field. Although Mars has no such field now. Ganymede. Uranus. The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying. Disruptive eddy currents within that region can. destroy the organized loop current. Saturn. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes. Jupiter.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. in time. Planets Mercury. with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions. a moon of Jupiter. Using the more recent main field evidence. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions. and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres.Section 3. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism.1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). However. seems to display such a field. scientists have found that. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. Venus also has no permanent main field. in cycles averag- .
which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth.2. possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years. ing 200 to 250 thousand years. 13.1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps. but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds. For example. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3. There are many magnetic poles used by different groups.3). We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3. .2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth. If we don't stop at the first chart viewing.72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. we see a problem immediately.
2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3.Section 3.. those by National Geographic. Most commercial world maps (e. Rand McNally. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross. To further confuse this situation. One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3.g. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground. it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are. not the important .5).3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland. The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1." a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time. The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point. and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions.4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3. most certainly.
As part of a special IAGA working group.. Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas. let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth. pole locations "to which all world compasses point. This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values . a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3.4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands. 3. pronounced "eye-yah-gah").74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole .2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II. scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). Hammond Inc.." So that we can better understand this universal misconception.2.
Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site. and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. Also. called Gauss coefficients. Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes. E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. To prepare the model fields. The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF).2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3. the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) .6). which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth. G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles. called the analysis epoch. The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior. spherical harmonic analysis (SHA).8) of Germany. intelligently adjusted to a common date.Section 3. that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections. the scientists use a special mathematical technique. when additional recovered data become available. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions).5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles.
6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field.7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients. Display program from P. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field . g and h. McFadden of AGSO. when all are added together. the Earth. a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that. The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices. The IGRF table (Figure 3. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed. External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. n and m.
Section 3.6). a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space.21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values. With this table and special formulae.0 -18.5 2. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w .8 1. scientists can compute.1 -12.3 -13.6 13. n o a a .1 0. These poles are determined from a global field.7 -15.0 -0. The numbers (Gauss coefficients).2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17. n g d c . but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T . are indexed as types g and h. Internal field models have been established back to 1945.8 0.5 -6. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years. From a full IGRF or DGRF table. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics.2 3. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600.2 2. m and n.8 -8.2 0.1 -0. less accurate.9 1.html.4 4. for the given epoch.9 1. We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles".8 -6.6 -1.0 FIGURE 3. depicted in Figure 3.2 -8. Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here. g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag. scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3. The total field map shown in Figure 2.7 -4.6.7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years.
The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3.? N N 1 I''~. but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles. The symmetrically S 17. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole.w // S octupole N FIGURE 3.2. The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~. the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling.8).78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part. quadrupole.. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3.8. Earth-centered coordinates. is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center. This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements. S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S . and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic. and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF.9).3). octupole. The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center. a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe.8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole.7) define the centered dipole terms. . shown in Figure 3. This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern. As we shall see below. 3.O I N v . The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3. Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns. quadrupole.
p. 128). All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5. We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles".2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3.2.3). located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner . However. on average. Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays. Davis of NGDC/NOAA.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600. Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that.Section 3.2. on average. Figure from M. interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth. it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model. All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that. about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms. drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields. Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field.
If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center). Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location. simpler analysis method is now typically used. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one. the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data. Thus. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem.2. on average. The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization.80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core. the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center. The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials. That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. 3. Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth.10). In one. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others. Because of their short spacial dimensions. and radioactive heating. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis. Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group.4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted. a slightly different. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our . This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that. introduced by the researcher. To understand this fact. it was offset from the Earth's geographic center.
and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis. The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry.Section 3. from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific.2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center. the tilt of the eccentric dipole. Were it not for some other difficulties. .10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. The main geomagnetic field changes with time. Since the 1800s. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles".11). its distance from the geographic Earth center. That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit. "Magnetic Poles" definition. not the Earth's surface. Similarly. the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal.
Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point. Figure adapted from A. Fraser-Smith.5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface.11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region. For example. aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska. C. The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below . Also. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon). There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth. 3.4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.2.12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields.
1 .8ol 14. Rand McNally & Company. the Earth's surface. the arrival of . what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field. and sector-effect (Section 3. New Zealand. As we shall see shortly. In addition.2 Pole Markers 83 . p. diurnal (24-hr cycle). Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents. 94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements. ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3.Section 3. whereas. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole.4.5. there are seasonal.12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica.
p. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. Greenland. Nevertheless. in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station. Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms.84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3. fully quiet.2. the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location. not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter. The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data. With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations. the ionospheric currents (see Section 3. . Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii.13). arriving from the Sun. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement. it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts.4. 3. seasonal.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole.) Also. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. for some strange reason. and day-night distortions.14 and Plate 4). When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3. Charged particles. just northwest of Thule. solar-terrestrial conditions. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location. Thus. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora. Antarctica.
The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2.Section 3. induced currents in the Earth. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents.13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. This anomalous region (Figure 2. in the Southern Hemisphere. auroral region (ionospheric) currents.21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- .20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3. These are the pole locations with significant meaning. and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field).
31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left. 13. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation. Figure from NASA. The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure.14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole. . Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance. Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space.1 gamma.86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.
15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance.3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3. The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. In the space around the Earth.Section 3. Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate. On the day side. that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3. Thus. This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. opposite to the apparent seasonal . In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind. During major blasts of the solar wind. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole. away from the Sun. The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. from our viewpoint on Earth. two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re). the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward. out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius. Downwind. which defines the ecliptic plane. depending on the compression by the solar wind. but. primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. However. Re.15). called the solar wind. in times of extreme quiet. = 6371 km or 3959 miles). the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. antisolar direction. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. on average.
0 Re and 4. Principally at the two distances of approximately 1. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak.20). 13. to about 90 km (56 miles). This shift.2 Re to 4. there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation. which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and . From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles). during strong solar winds. a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth. This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3. Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes. the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind. The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field. the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge. Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen. the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles. The shorter the wavelength of light.0 Re.5 to 6.88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. Curiously. Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation. Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes. that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy. toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes. scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect).41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet.21). In addition. At higher altitudes. the higher the radiation energy.15). verified by satellite measurements. called galactic cosmic rays. Far above the Earth.
4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3. but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate. Therefore. In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons. The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles). the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles). upper-atmosphere composition.16). Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions. The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . above 900 km (560 miles). Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth. summertime. the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher. which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3. although.16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. at mid-latitudes.Section 3. The electron density values shown here are for midday.
1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur. there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance.16). In this way. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town. the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient). 13. That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large. The water moves a .5. and 3. Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears. summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3. For example. not all the ionosphere goes away at night. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2.90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features.51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3. As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. Of course. the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region. 2. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. such as: 1. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization. how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow.22). One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface. Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground. However.
Commercial.Section 3. When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field. They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field. This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field.17). . or the conductor is stationary and the field moves. The daily heating and FIGURE 3. and the conducting properties of that wire. through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet. as far as the current flow is concerned. electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3. fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth. the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves. Of course. The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo. This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here.
where the ionospheric conductivity is large. Also. causing a current to flow near 100 km (62.5. a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. Use Figure 1. surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. 3. where the main field is horizontal. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories. The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size. typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet). At lower altitudes. However.18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction. the direction and strength of the Earth's main field.21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex.92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction. The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. the two motions cancel out the current. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another. due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans). where collisions are rare. the wind system within the ionosphere.5 miles) in altitude. and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. As you might guess. there are global winds. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory. . changing with solar activity and season.2 S o l a r Q u i e t . At much higher altitudes. Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq). This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents.
All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter. Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset. magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external . 3. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator.Section 3. and 3. flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. or sudden heating by auroral-related currents. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse. jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions.18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system. 2. atmospheric atomic explosions.3 Induction At the Earth's surface. Such events include" 1.5. on the Sun side of the Earth.
Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns. surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth. a special daily solar sector effect is found. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior.4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected. The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3. toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun. Geomagneticians use the separated.19). .19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth. for the conductivity determinations. from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2. The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth. The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity. a corresponding field change occurs. Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3. there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind.24).5. Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind. 3.
Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5.5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule. Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3. a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3.20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station. .Section 3. p.2.4. Greenland.20). There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve). 130. Thule.
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Umbrella for Magnetic Storms
Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.
Disturbances in Sight
4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in
Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms
FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.
the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):
1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.
which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4. The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle.3). The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth. The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. 5. .2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages. That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions.1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4. The solar corona.4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas. Photo from SEC/NOAA. filaments. prominences. and arches of solar gases.Section 4.
showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles. Although each particle of water is shot out radially. . The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower. Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR.2 In the W i n d In the solar wind. CME. the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4. determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4. The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral.100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon. 4. The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun. more constant plasma stream.1. the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves. The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection.3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec).4). Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler.
The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components. The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun). determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm.1. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances.4. At differing solar longitudes. which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3.5. creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3.4). p. Its interaction with the Earth's main field.4. 4. which has the opposite direction. in both quiet and active times. The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field. The .5. 94). In this chapter. either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane. The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane. slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator. The outward flow of solar plasma.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball. p.Section 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4.3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle. carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself. high-latitude fields are mostly open. Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface. so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles). 94).
The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle.1).5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions.5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm. The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4. with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances.102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. Using measurements from special satellites. The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum. The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause. When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect . seem to be responsible for this delay. The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4. Earth responds to this activity.
This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the tube.3. their energy. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with red. In addition to the auroras. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic storm. green.5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. p. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms. During the equinoxes. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types. powerful field-aligned currents. Figure 4. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere. thermospheric pressure waves. When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size. and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4. charged particles (primarily solar electrons. and induced currents in the Earth. other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. 88). photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth.6 and 4. near the 100. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods. Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights).to 300-km-high (63.7). where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere. During the magnetic storm. protons. . Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. intense ionospheric currents. growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents. Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3. and the shape of the Earth's field. strong partial ring currents. yellow.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. releasing energy.Section 4.to 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes.
6 I~ Electrons. . arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current.104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Figure adapted from L. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center. Combs and R. which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers. nm).
5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase .13). Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth. there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component.1. On the records. Overmyer of NASA.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4. Photo by R. Then there typically follows a slower. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary.Section 4. 4.4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms.7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger.9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field. The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours. Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1. at the onset of a geomagnetic storm. H-component increase (called the initial phase.8). Figure 4. with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4.
with a considerably intense internal sheet current. During the storm development.5.8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30.1. in response to the solar wind direction. A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination. After this compression. north or south of the magnetic equator. the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. and forms the north and south tail lobes. p.and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149. a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail.9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created. producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface. at the Earth's surface. it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3. see Section 4. constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories. This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4.10). a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4. Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time). In these displays. the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location. The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display. Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites.5).106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4. 116). The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary. =.15). Of course. The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source .
The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part. 19. For convenience in representation. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec. The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record. a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere.lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase . Because of the ionospheric conductivity. 20.12). A concentration of these currents . spaced in longitude around the Earth.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~.5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region. Field-aligned current (Figure 4. Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4. all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere. 1980 FIGURE 4. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J.5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones. 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~.Section 4.11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes.9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left). but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region. Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4. current patterns. In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re. i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec.
northward) with the antisolar location. The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. As the air molecules are split apart. measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules. strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4. Figure 4.5). Instruments on highaltitude balloons. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June. December. Because of the solar wind flow. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere. southward.13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena. . typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet. away from the spin axis. The cross-tail currents move similarly. In the auroral region. during the geomagnetic storm. That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies.10 I~ During a magnetic storm. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth. a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously. count the electrons that are arriving. An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis.
Section 4. .11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes.1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4. Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth. Therefore. negative).14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox. fields from the partial ring currents. the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed. Figure 4. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself. At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment. During a magnetic storm. Local time is indicated around the circumference. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. field-aligned currents. only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time.
110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. This wave disrupts the high ionosphere. Another stronger pressure wave.12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates. Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating.15). pro- . A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman. at just under sonic speed. This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters. travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones. The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects. =.
the field from the westward auroral electrojet current.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks. . the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves. Alaska. illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons.Section 4. the traces. top to bottom.1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4. and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations.
! 12 I .. Canada. and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located. Some phenomena. !. eastward (D). . Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles . Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces. Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event. Byrd ! _! 10 I. which are not traceable to solar sources.14 I~ During a magnetic storm day. ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents. N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 . auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW). can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields. Antarctica. these are the field changes in the northward (H).112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. 14 UT FIGURE 4. and Byrd Station.
.and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction... . / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T. The pressure waves. were detected at Fort Yukon....16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya.16). What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated. the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds. in that region. There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally. Alaska..15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave. which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds. ..... At the po- . A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds.. 2055 _~ . ~ 2110 FIGURE 4. However... N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August... ... . ~ 2045 .....1 Disturbances in Sight 113 . That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4.. The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3. Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon. _~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~. The light and dark traces indicate north-south.. causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth. Alaska.5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units)."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L. . 1962.Section 4. it is possible to point out some generalizations. initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed. Russia...
the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. For each Universal Time hour. magnetometers register a large. field-aligned (Figure 4. At low and equatorial latitudes. All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position. the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate. Extending to the equator. storm-time. 4. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. field-aligned currents. some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes. the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. As a result.8). and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents.5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras. nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger.114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important. at the low and equatorial latitudes. and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4. . The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination. but more distant. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. Therefore. Thus.1.12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations. At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents.17). a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4.11). At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions. eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator. The strong nightside.
AU) and the lowest (lower envelope. AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. 1974. The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times. The small short-period variations contribute little. K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century.18). In this example. An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp. for 4 and 5 July. Kp Index A third magnetic index. (Figure 4.17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope. The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours. called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index.Section 4. Dst (Figure 4. magnetospheric currents. Kp. Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4. A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index. Illustration from World Data Center A. NGDC/NOAA. Unfortunately. the planetary form of the index. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket. such stations are not uniformly . of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index.
fixed so that. the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index). Statistically. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes. Each contributing station has a different K table. and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4. The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change. the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each location. Because a large number of the index . The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0. and .9. +. there is a concentration in Europe.to indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp. The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. More are in the Northern Hemisphere.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period.19).116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4. distributed around the Earth. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms. in a long-term average.
----.--0. At such times.1 3 3. Coffee at NGDC/NOAA. There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods.----.2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3.2+ 0 0 1.4.--..au|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1.2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____..1+ 1.2 2+ 1 2 .1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23.64.2 1 O+ 2+ 1.12 13 . daily Ap. Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes.-----------------------.=--.lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .------.2 1. A study of .1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2. Table provided by H.O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6.3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__.42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11..2+ 3+ 4 4 2.Section 4.__--_.1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm..4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 .1+ 3. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4. lalallalal.19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K..--.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71.2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2.20).16 65+ 6 2. stations are at high-latitude locations.36 85... large magnetic storms are more likely to occur.. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described..3 2 3+ 4.6 5+ 4 .1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3.------------------___----.O+ 1.3+ 3. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998.1.
Figure from E.16). Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5. travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere. On the charts.1 to 0. the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous.1.22). Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields.118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.6. .20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997. Erwin of NGDC/NOAA. p.6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances.001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur. upon arriving at high latitudes. 131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface. 4. small (0. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4.21). Other pulsations. Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4. quite oscillatory form (called Pc). Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4.2.
Allen and D.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station. . FIGURE 4.21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40. Antarctica. H. Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA. C. on 23 August. 1966.1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4.Section 4.22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0. Figure from J.
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Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory. The first question I expect is. It is time now for tourists' questions.Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the fields. 15-1 I Field Traces 5. I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter.1. I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism.8). He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred.to 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5. of Goettingen. How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be. At prearranged times. the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1. Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask. Germany. The 121 .1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries.1). investigated the global distribution of field disturbances. Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. In those times.
2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system.2). the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward. These magnetometers were given the more specific .1. capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5. Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis. when photography came into general use. the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum. A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. which rotated once a day.122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly. and vertical directions. eastward. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction. With the improved instrument in a darkened room. It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device. By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions. 5.1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century.
Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material. Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded. The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period. Notice how your home compass needle.2 I~ The simple variometer. Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. oscillates before coming to rest northward.Section 5. A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength. He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator. could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position. Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet. Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties. developed by the mid-nineteenth century.4 6 0 ~ F).3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . Today. shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper. whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5. moving with the magnet. not the full main field strength. The exact strength of the Earth's main field. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet. The light beam. .2 7 3 ~ C or . many other systems are used to record the field. after being moved.
Figure from J.Coaxial Line -..Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5.RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw .. Zimmerman of NIST..124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields .. The niobium metal sensor. which is only approximately 1. .5 cm (0.00001 gamma. which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium .3 I~ Modern... is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling. but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer.Coil -.6 inches) in diameter..
You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw.1. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam. Some 1See the website http://image. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed. 1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5. and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular loop. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom. put a dot near its center.nasa.1 Field Traces 125 5. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface.4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms. Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on. gsfc.Section 5. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle. Turn on thehighintensity lamp and. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and. with a marking pen. The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day.gov/poetry/workbook/page9. With the 2-inch-wide tape. . carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together. making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet. Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet.html. for school demonstrations.
and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table.25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north. If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches). effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp. lasting many hours or even days. near a wall. a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a . deflections of several degrees. can .4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA. During geomagnetic storms.126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. magnetometer. or other fiat surface.
the measurements will be affected. Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more. Note that if any of the parts are moved. Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder. .1 millivolt. The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0. That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0. The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations.Section 5. . .5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises.3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). Most of the time. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot. . a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5.19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. the spot will remain in the same location. . In typical soil. For those readers who are adept at electronics.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations.05 gamma (for most locations). however. A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor . can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0. About 2 square feet (0. two probes. Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity. .1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field.
78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3.128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes. p. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles).2.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior.2. 80). Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- .6 with Figure 2.21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region. 5. 5.3.1 Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region. a small battery.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region. p. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data.2. amplifiers. One such model is depicted in Figure 5.2. and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores.2. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best.21. The necessary variable resistors. 1. using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges.7. Comparing the results in Figure 5. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields.4. 5. one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section 3. switch.5. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work.
Figure 5. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA.l. ments taken along a fixed line on the surface. Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole. .6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered. the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure.Section 5.a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 . The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas)."56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5. 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 . Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model. tilted dipole. R. The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole. Figure from J.2 90 --.8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes.
the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were .5.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows. 5. Using a chain of observatories.5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index.4. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3. Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country. Quinn of USGS. Figure from J. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5. Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations.2. The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors.9) in the polar regions at low activity times. 5. 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3.2.4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields. p.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions.
The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS.6. 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times.2. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters.1. it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations. 5. There were often large local storm field differences from the index. determined (Figure 5. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- . More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks.10). thus. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations. Figure 5.6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation.Section 5. In this figure. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4.8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. they were not due to local anomalies. The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations. p.
\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5. Today. ond. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. By international agreement.3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form. and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation. These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2.5 hours in local time for the two conditions. so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents. there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5.132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '. which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special. duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers.. Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET.12). There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere. globally distributed collection points. . 15. chart preparation. the horizontal axis represents the time in hours.
. i . . . . JAPAN. . . Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science. 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l . . 0 10 20 ! . tel: 81-75-753-3929. . tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619.gov 9 In Russia: World Data Center B. . tel: 1303-297-6761.noaa. . 325 Broadway. | . Molodezhnaya 3. . e-mail: info@ngdc. fax" 81-75-7227884. Kyoto 606-8502. .. . . . . . . . NGDC/NOAA. Colorado 80305-3328. . . . . . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group). .10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories. .. . .World Data Center A. . Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. Academy of Sciences of Russia. RUSSIA. . . . . . i . 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day .. USA.3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9. fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2.Section 5. fax: 1-303-497-6513. .. . consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure). Moscow 117 296. These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude). . Kyoto University.12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United States. 60 | . mailstop EGC2. 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. . Boulder. . . . . . . field differences were determined. . .
Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields
FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.
15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.
15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:
FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, ac.jp 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. ac.uk 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. usgs.gov 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: http://maxwell.gi. alaska.edu 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. noaa.gov--select Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on
TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)
Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and
tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.
100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)
200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)
600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)
1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)
a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).
Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted. Biological: none. Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets.2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). o . Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. and solar panels degraded. Satellite operations: memory device problems. Flux levels are 5 min averages. high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays). Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. and decrease of solar panel currents. memory impacts cause loss of control. Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA. Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days. Satellite operations loss of some satellites. serious noise in image data.t ". these events can last more than one day). permanent damage to exposed components/detectors.~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA. star-trackers unable to locate sources. Satellite operations: none. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days. elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays). Biological: none. _.4 . passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray). bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions). permanent damage to solar panels.TABLE 5. and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult.. 103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors. star-trackers cause orientation problems. noise in imaging systems.. Flux in particles: s .l c m -2. 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m. noise on imaging systems.l s t e r .
HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. causing loss in positioning. ~r -rl r o.TABLE 5. -r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours. measured in the 0. loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators. Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour.4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 .. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators.8 nm range. HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours. X20 (2 x 10 . in Wm-2)..1--0. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth.3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 . HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side.3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 .-i. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators. loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth. .. affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth. a Some or all of these effects are possible. which may spread into the night side. bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux.3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days).
USA: http://www.nascom.gsfc. also http://www. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories. gov/UVI/current_image. Box 25286 Federal Center. Australia: http://www. Gilbert. also http://image. NOAA. noaa. Denver.noaa. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback. USA: http://sohowww.gov 15. html 9 Space Environment Center. gi. nasa. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern life.services @usgs. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center. University of Alaska.doc3. NASA. De Magnete. NASA. English translation in 1893 by P.gov/Education/Intro. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical Institute.E Mattelay.spaceweather. Such data.gov. U. with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle.nasa. Sydney.com. New York.pfrr. and radiation information to monitor the space environment..msfc.61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended books.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services.gov/gallery/LASCO.gov Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales. Geological Survey.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX.nasa.sec. fax: 1-303-202-4693. USA. USA: http://www. also http://www.HTML.alaska.gov/poetry. 1600. USA: http://uvisun.gsfc.html 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA. nasa. . ngdc. magnetic field.S. g ov/$tp/stp. in the order of their original publication date. 368 pp. republication by Dover Publications.edu 9 GoddardSpaceFright Center.Section 5. e-mail: info. USA: http://www. 9 W.ips. Colorado 80225. also http://www-spof. alaska. Mailstop 306. 1958.
. 1980. 2 vols. 9 S. the Natural Magic of Magnets. 9 W..H. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time... Geomagnetism. New York. 4 vols. 9 J. Oxford. Parkinson. Brisbane. Cambridge. beautifully written. 2545 pp. 1398 pp. thorough review of the technology. Brisbane Brookfield Press. History. Academic Press. and thorough description of analytical methods. Campbell.. New York. Scottish Academic Press Ltd. Washington D. 1996. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. 433 pp. Stacy. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age. ed. Majestic Lights. American Geophysical Union.D.. This classic. 9 W.. Introduction to Geomagnetism. 434 pp. 1050 pp. 1940.H. Edinburgh.D. compact yet complete. 9 J. 1987.. Physics of the Earth. Matsushita and W. 2 vols..D. Jacobs. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies. Open University Press. Piper. Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena. Harvard University Press.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. 9 R. Oxford University Press. Eather. application. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust. 1983. Bartels. Chapman and J. Milton Keynes Pub.C. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book)... and history of magnets. A fine. 9 J. Driving Force. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information. Massachusetts. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage.A. 1987-1991. 1967. auroral descriptions. Livingston. An up-to-date.. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. Geomagnetism. and beautiful illustrations. It was last republished in 1951. Academic Press.. 311 pp. and the Arts.A. eds. 323 pp. .D. the Aurora in Science. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate.. 513 pp. 1992.. detailed references. Although our subject is only a small part of this book. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists..
1997. 1996. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field.H. My own compact but comprehensive textbook.. 531 pp. and the Deep Mantle. with many illustrations. 9 W. and EL.. Cambridge. McElhinny.W. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. Cambridge University Press. McFadden.6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R. Merill. The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism. Academic Press. . 304 pp. San Diego. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations. Written by well-respected researchers. M. the Core.T.Section 5. Campbell.
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65 Big Dipper. 133 Asteroid. 34 Byrd Station. 148 oil discovery. 18-19 Auroral displays. 102 Bremerton. 116 Aeromagnetism. 37 charts. 21. 8 Bermuda Triangle. 35. Julius. 60. 8. 113 magnetic observatories. 105 bombarding particles. 106 values. 4 Airport magnetometer. 41-42 correlations. 84 pulsating. 105 high-latitude. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 45 temperature. 90. 125 Bartels. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index. 139-141 Bowshock. 82 surveys. Qu6bec. 101 angle.Index Activity index. 123. 25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields. 39 Archimedes spiral. 17. 39 Atmosphere lower. 113. 56 upper. 18 weight. 22 Australis (Southern Lights). 38 Analysis epoch. 14. 17. 2 Biomagnetism. 118 Addresses. Antarctica. 116 Aurora. 38 Agonic line. 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. 131 Bryce Canyon. 109. 20 electrojet current. 40 Atomic number. 110 oval. 39 Archeological formations. 115. 134 Bar magnet. 120 143 . 61-63 Books. 84. Paul. 106. 102 Archives. 70. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights). 117 Apollo space craft. 17. 109. R. 20. 15. 59 Blakemore. 109 zone. 39 map. Washington State. 17. 119 Baie St. 42 Body magnets.. 18 Atoms.
123 temperatures. 9. 75. 40. 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 93. 48 Conductivity. Captain James. 10. Christopher. 80 field alignment. 69 strength. 55 ecliptic plane and. 20-23 direct. 55. 84 . 115 ionosphere. 34 equator. 84 Dipole. 111 Continental drift. 7. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 34. copper). 72. water. 98 mass ejection (CME). 25 source and induced. 124 electromagnets. 63 Drift contintental. 130 Corona. 26 aeromagnetic. 23. 6. 3. 51 radiowave. 3 Communications. 50-51. 2 Climate. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays. 29 Chinese. 36--41 resistivity. 15 induction. 17. 56. Australia. 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 70 moment. 11. 35-37 Cook. 103. 54 double blind. 31.144 Index Chapman. 94 geological features. Sydney. 21 secondary. 29. 32 bar magnet. 14 Earth. 108 Double-blind test. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 26 lodestone. 101 Columbus. 21 corrosion and. 27. 108 Crust. 13. 89. 70. 101 Correlation cause and effect. 88 sunspot connection. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 94 Darwin. 6 magnet Earth as. 53 Earth. 70 Current. 130 De Magnete. 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 90 Compass. 35 magnetotelluric. 18 comparative (air. 54 coefficient. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). 2 declination and. 59 Charts. 6 eccentric axis. 36-38. 44 magnetometers. 4. 92. 38 navigation. 79 field pattern. 82. 109 Conjugate positions. 55 modeling. 8. 26. 3 magnetic island and. 90 pole eccentric axis. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. 99 Coronal holes. 48 long-wire. 81 locally-measured. 26 Chu Yu. 23. 111 electrical. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 4. 77 Dip angle. 15 Disturbed field. 82 ionosphere. 60. 122 airport runway declination. 23 origin. 139 Declination. 70 distorted. 70 Tucson. 39 ancient field behavior. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 6. 25 right-hand rule. 92. 66 main field and. Arizona. 70 magnetism. 32. 75. 70. 11 main field.
102-104. 92. 70 source. 115117. 134 Electric charge. 79 lower mantle. 19. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 19 Electrojet auroral. Antarctica. 89. 50. dipole field. 36. 25 Ferrous atoms. 28 External field. 85. 22 induction responses. 13. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 90. 114 Franklin. 109. 7 transmission lines. 32 clay. 112 Faraday. 20. 44 in wire. 18 atomic number and. 70. 56 Exploration (global). 127 Electrons. 101 Eights Station. 90-92 current. 77 analysis. Alaska. 90 region. 3. 90 sharing of. 99 Flares. 26. 22. 87. 44 use in maglev. 81 dipole. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. 98. 7. 18 current. 9. 21. 50-53 mapping. 110 equatorial. 70 theory. 3. 18 aurora and. 23. 79 particle. 18 molecule. 127-128 dipole field strength. 41. 71 Earthquake. 80. 128 dipole poles. 81 field representation. 20 solar. 7. 130-131 Dynamo. 66-67 signals. 50 systems in satellites. 79 non-dipole field vs. 7. 55 Energetic particle events.Index 145 magnetic pole. 34 Field in space. 84 Ecliptic plane. 50. 18. 75. Benjamin. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 70 Earth current. 3. 114 models. 84. 88 Force of magnetic field. Michael. 102 upper atmosphere and. 44 Electromagnetic field. 84 Fairbanks. 90 Electromagnet. 81 current in a wire. 111. 50 power plant. 21. 70. 111. Alaska. 71 outer core. 47. 23 Electrical conductivity. 9. 44 Fort Yukon. 21. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 37 reversal. 104 Elements. 127 probe. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 75 Equatorial electrojet. 22 ionization and. 14. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. 87. 7. 75. 90 . 109 Ethesian winds. 115 Filaments. 94 conductor. 130 storm currents. 48 and magnetic fields. 13. 92. 37 power lines. 40. 22 field. 123 Forbush effect. 84. 13. 76. 37 Field-aligned current. 54 prediction. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 134 Epoch. 9.
107 recovery phase. 15 Ganymede main field. 46 Gamma (y). 80 table. 49 main phase. 132 Internal field. 89. 128 coordinate system. 8. 74 regions (zones). Canada. 25. 16 Geologic exploration. 66. 48. 40 Latitude. 8 Health magnets. 78. 61 Humbolt. 32 . 89 solar wind. 11 from North Star. 74. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 111 Jupiter main field. 18. 74. 95 poles. 86 High latitudes. 110. 20-23. 17 Hubble Space Telescope. 90. Edmund. 78 2000 coefficient values. 5. 134 GPS and.) of oscillation. 64 Joule heating. 107 satellites and. 8 Geostationary satellites. 44. 92 Ions. 76 Induction. 5. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. India. England. 29 Halley.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 50 Infrasonic pressure waves. 138 Gilbert. 40. 89 electron density. 11 first textbook on. 48. 48. 64 Great Earth Magnet. 49 Grand Teton National Park. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 53. 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 28. 44 Indices. 50. 94 of pulsations. 128. 12. 16. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 16 netism and Aeronomy). 108 Jackson Lake. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. Baron Alexander von. 77 IMAGE spacecraft. 79 North Pole. 94 field responses. 62 Heliospheric boundary. 79 main field poles. 114. 77-80 multipoles. 58 low. 75. 121 coefficients. 75-77 field units. 52. 58. 111. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 72-86. 75. 114 Intergalactic fields. 109 current. 57. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. 90 dip equator. 78. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 49 Geomagnetism. William. 115 equatorial. 84. 16. 102 Ionosphere. 28 geomagnetic coordinates. 115 lunar quiet-day. 45. 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 113 Greenwich. 78-80. Wyoming. 92 high latitude. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 84. 58. 7. 9. 132 pulsation. 92. 130 auroral. 72 GPS and. 131 storms. 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 92-94. 7. 116 Land survey. 115. 17 Igneous rock. 123 Hyderabad. 73. 49 high. 130 field models. 97-120. 119. 75. 86 INTERMAGNET. 47.
44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 77 locally measured. 114 currents. 42 in animal brains. 123 Magnetopause. 26 dipole. 70 field effect of. 87. 44 termites. 46 satellites and. 92 Maglev. 32 field human response to. 102 tail of. 2 body "health" magnet. 115 envelope. 31 randomly oriented. 4 clocks and. 3 polarities. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 13 poles. 23 permeability. 6. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and. 44 mountain. 88 field measurements. 6 domains. 111 fields. 124 variometer. 43 cryogenic. 15 south pole. 41 rubidium. 84 axis. 75 movement of. 2 Magnet. 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 72 types of. 3 Eccentric axis dipole. 58 proton. 87 tail. 28 Lower mantle. 5. 30-35 storms. 88 tail boundary. 102 field and charged particles. 123 quake-site. 3 crystals. 78. 102 sunward boundary. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 26 declination. 106. 30 field-aligned current.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 66 levitation. 111 magnetic storms and. 2. 23. 118 currents in. 82-84 Longitude. 25 coils. 43 rocks. 46 satellites and. 123 fluxgate. 71. 123 satellite. 102 Magnetosphere. 44 simple bar. 103 heating of. 49 ship's. 95. 61-63 Earth's main field. 111 solar wind path within. 60-61 Magnetite. 30 microscopic. 42 Curie point. 104 outer boundary. 123 medical uses. 30. 45 particles and. 35 positions of. 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 13 north pole. 44 seasonal differences. 69 alignment with solar wind. 3 Magnetic charts. 31 SQUID. 93 airport. 79 IGRF. 102. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 70 Magnetometer. 72 GPS and. 107. 87. 87. 14. 130 . 78 dipole moment. 71 positions. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 3 Locally measured dip poles. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 88 Van Allen belts. 102 Magnetosheath. 42. 58 Island. 32 realignment.
115 Milky Way Galaxy. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 57 Mesmer. 130 daytime field variations. 23 . 43 spin alignment. 36 waves. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 129 Natural magnetic noise. 75. 26-29 Neptune main field. 109 auroral zone. 6. 19-20 Moon main field. 23 dip angle. 3. 71 Neptune. 73 magnetic. 71 Maunder. 138 northern hemisphere. 5. 79. 120 molecule. 132. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 88 Molecules. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 16 solid magnet and. 105 Novaya Zemlya. 128-129 charts. Franz Anton. 108 magnetic. 34 Mid latitude.W. 36 plates. 10 Medicine. 11. 42-43 Mercury main field. 92 global network. 32 at poles. 69 Ganymede. 106 auroral and polar regions. 71 Main phase. 28.) tail current. 81 North Pole. 71 Neutrons. 131 method. 98 Maxwell. 23 alignment. 71 size of. 71 reversal of. 92. 88. 88. 131 Multipole. Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). 49 ships. 15. 29 Northern auroral zone. 20. 30. 47 Saturn. 17. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 71 Venus. 71 Mesa Verde. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. 7. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). Russia. 3 Mars main field. 38 data. 35 satellites and. 18 Observatories. 115 Magnetotail. 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). 4 Star. 89. 106 major worldwide. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 43 Nucleus. 2. 18. 84 high latitude. 22. 18 hydrogen atom. 4 geographic. 107 Maricourt. 4 geomagnetic. 12. 113.. 34 extension into space. 36 troughs. 30 Mars. 110 northern high-latitude. 71 Mercury.148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. 132 low latitude. 134 INTERMAGNET. 17 changing source. 71 Jupiter. 17. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). 71 Moon. 130 chain of. 57. 113. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR). 117 Northern Lights. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 71 mapping. James Clerk. 61 Metamorphic rock. 3. 40. 38 Main field. 43 Non-dipole field. 70 Uranus. 26. E. 42 satellites. 116 Australian.
84 Remanent magnetization. 69 Ring current. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. 73 drag. 131 Oscillation period. 111 regions. Australia. 114 Paleomagnetism. 77 dysfunction. 90. 79 Prominences. 119 Quadrupole. 119. 58. 102 Satellite sector currents. 47. 16. 31 Octupole. 36. 50 Prehistoric fields. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 48. 114 Paleomagnetician. 103 precession. 83 north geomagnetic. 130 Power lines. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 11. 42. 82 magnetometer. 18 corrosion. 112. 18. 32. 16. 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 123 square of. 117 3 Pseudoscience. 123 Outer core. 48 chart location of. 45 IGRF field. 13 131 Phase. 23. 35-37 Pressure waves. 32-34 cap. 94 Ross. 44. 72-86 communication signals. 67 Periods of oscillation. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 128 magnetic. 57. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 116 auroral oval. 43 explorers. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 17 Recovery phase. 46. James Clark. 87. 140. 37. 84. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 81 electrical noise. 53 Quebec blackout. 43 Peregrinus. Permeability. 84 Right-hand rule. 48 partial.Index 149 magnetic drift. 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen). 41 Quake-site magnetometer. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 132 Port Augusta. 46. 40. 72. 48 search expeditions. 141 sonic. 71 current loop. 32. 88. 114 dynamo theory. 114 field. 134 Polar. 3. 78. 95. 11. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 123 Partial ring currents. 23. 106. 70 region of Earth. 103. 108 Plato. and main field strength. 73 auroral field. 30 Poles. 80 Piezomagnetic effect. Washington State. 95. 111 internal currents. 123 effects of current. 21 field description. 70 Ozone layer. 35 of Dst index. 50. 88 . 98. 60. 12. 70. 112. 7 Proton. 17 Reversal of field. 80. 108. 92 Plages. 41 Pipelines. 70. 70 subsonic. 114. 11 damage. 52. 72 observatory. 99 Paramour ship. 98 Plasma. 34 explosive. 130 alignment. 85. 74 Placebo effect. 51 grounding. 111 atmospheric. 74 magnetic south. 79 magnetic north. 16. 108 latitudes. 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. 2 Radiowaves.
108-111 fingerprints. 44--46. 39. 108 magnetic field. 114. 56. 46 radiowave-signal transmitter. 88. 134 Spectral analysis. 106--107 geomagnetic. 99 flares. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 55 rotation. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 118. 101 prominences. 98 panels. 49 magnetometer. 107 disturbance. 57 cycles drought and. 3. 99. 92 radiation. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 97-101. 95. 94-95. 92 magnetic field. 77 Sedimentary rock. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center. 70. 46 plasma. 44 maximum elevation. 107 Statistical significance. 98 cycle. 60. 52. 30. 36 Sector effect. 88. 92 wind. 12. 95. 97. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 130 cycle. 130 ions.150 Index Satellite (cont. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 2 SI units. 93 SQUID magnetometer. 55 . 57. 93 elevation angle. 80 functions. 132 variations (Sq). 102 direction. 47. 28 navigation by. 13-15. 46. 13. 6. 71 Sea-floor spreading. 56. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 69. 77 Sun. 119. 26. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 45. 99 coronal holes. 6. 101 visible light from. 53. 29 plasma. 1. 88 Sunspot. Chinese earthquake prediction. 87 elevation angle. 129 South Magnetic Pole. 98 eclipse. 55. 92 vortices. 125.) evidence of poles. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 128. 54 Steady field. 57 disturbances. 69. 59 Strength of magnetic field. 86 orientation by field. 30 power supply. 31 measurement of drift. 126 Solar corona. 84 failure. 87. 46 navigation and. 48--50. 37 memory upset. 34. 88. 87 surface rotation. 55 ecliptic plane. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 55. 102. 57 eleven-year. 9. 75. 66 Si Nan. 22 of main field. 132 Secular variation (SV). 131 Seismologists. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). 83 Southern Cross. 85. 33. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 94. 49 Saturn main field. 101 sectors. 16. 102 burst IMF. 92 field polarity. 56 activity. 101. 107 field. 46 geostationary. 98 quiet (Sq). 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 82. 16. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 124 Stand-off position. 17 Storm explanations.
130 Tree-ring dating. 95 lobes. 51 lines. 52 pager. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 118 minimum. 46 Upper mantle. 2 Van Allen radiation belts.Index 151 number (R). 134 Westward drift. 16 magnetic field. 12 Variometer. 57 region temperature. 97. Arizona. 5. 50. 43 Toward and Away sectors. 46 SV (Secular Variation). 46 Tesla unit. 57 Tucson. 63-64 Weather. 132. 108 Variation field. 17 . 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk. Greenland. 27 Units gamma (y). 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 123 Venus main field. 17 equatorial. 71 Vostok Station. 56. 102. 106 pressure waves. 39 Zone auroral. 48. 40 Telephone. 17 polar caps. 133. 84 Water divining/witching. 111 heating. 87. 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 106 Thule. 84. 106-108 field. 35 World Data Centers. 138 X-rays. 15 nanotesla. 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect. 55-58 space. 77 Tail currents. 59. 95 Tomographic analysis. 55. 60. 102 maximum. 17 high latitudes. 94 Uranus main field. 15 Thermosphere. 44. 88. Antarctica. 17 low latitudes. 15 Gauss.
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Illustration from NASA. PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona. .PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth. A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image.
. guided by the Earth's field. A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown. This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field. Figure from NASA. enter our atmosphere. Figure from SEC/NOAA.PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail. PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles.
Lanzerotti.ptialaska. note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles. Bell Laboratories. Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www. Figure from L. J. PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. Alaska.net/Nhutch/aurora.PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle. .html). Lucent Technologies.
and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels. organized by the Earth's spin. Hastings.PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits. PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth. . Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D.
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