Earth Magnetism
A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields

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2nd Edition R. 2nd Edition Warren S. 2nd Edition Robert Mortimer Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics J. Scott Hawley I~ Julia Richards I~ Catherine Mori 1999 Chemistry Connections Kerry Karukstis I~ Gerald Van Hecke Mathematics for Physical Chemistry.harcourt-ap. Warren Physics in Biology and . House www.Complementary Science Series [m 2000/2001 The Physical Basis of Chemistry. 2nd Edition Paul Davidovits Introduction to Relativity John Kogut The Human Genome.

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That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events.A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. Albert Einstein . Something deeply hidden had to be behind things. I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me. when my father showed me a compass. which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch').

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. . . . . .2. . . . Gilbert . . Steady and Changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapman 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix . . . .3. Maxwell . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halley . . . .3 . . . Faraday Gauss .3. . . . . . . . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . .2 Finding the Fields 1. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . Locating the Fields . . . . . Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . . . . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. . . . . . . .2. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . Double Blind . . . . Travel and Exploration . . . . .1 2. . . . . . Establishing Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . . . .5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . .1. . . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration .1. . .8 2. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Magnetic Rocks . . . . . .3 Pseudoscience. . . . . . . Water Witching or Divining . . . . . . . Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation . . . . . . . . .3 2.4 2. . Old Wives' Tales. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.. . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 . . . Biomagnetism . . . . 66 . . . . . and Frauds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2.9 . . . . .1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . . . . . . . . . .X Molecules . . . . . Statistical Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets . . .1. . . Modeling 2. . . . . Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . . . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . . . . . Cause and Effect . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions . . . .

. . . . . . . . .1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. Conducting Blanket . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . . . . . . . .5.4 3. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Glamorous Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 121 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harvesting the Fields 5. . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IGRF Main Field Poles . . . . . . . . . . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations .5 3. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .1.4 3. . . . . . . Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . . . . . . .3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . . . .2.Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 93 94 Induction . . . . . Measures of Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . . . . .1. . .2 4. . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems . . . . . 127 . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Inside Sources . . . Sectors . . . . . . 3. .6 Magnetic Poles Galore . . .4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . Two Eccentric Axis Poles . . . . . Pole M a r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . . K p Index Ap Index 4. . . .1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .1. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . .1 Field Traces 5. . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . . . .6 5.2. .2. . . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . .4 5. .3 5. . . . . . . . .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . . . . . . .2. . . .1 5. . . . . . 128 130 130 5. . . .2. . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 143 . . . . . . . Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . .xii 5. . .5 Contents . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns . . . Magnetotellurics . . . . . . 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . .

He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. is one of the most important references in our field. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. in a way that is state-of-the-science. satellite operations. Dr. yet easy-to-understand way.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. Dr. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete. Thus. Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. satellite drag. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. Dr. magnetic fields. Campbell has authored several well-known books. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. not just geomagnetism. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism. His recent book. In addition. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . Dr. interplanetary. including telecommunications. yet fun to read. It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic. and radio propagation. He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review.

simplicity. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy .xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives. Dr. and practicality. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment. and he does so with superb clarity. Dr. Kroehl General Secretary. the magnetic field of the Earth. He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields. Herbert W.

just start with the second. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics. In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms.2. See Figure C. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour.) See Figure C. global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world. To remedy this situation. Occurring every eleven years.1. XV . guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism. Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter. Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments. I have written this book for the interested nonscientist. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. You will have a personal.

FIGURE C.1 I~. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms. ready to misinterpret everything. . and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand. magnetic-dip instrument.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life. helical windings. Chinese compass. all involved in magnetic navigation. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation. a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers. opposing fields. These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force.FIGURE C.

See Figure C. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image.3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole.Preface xvii FIGURE C. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions. In Chapter 3. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained. Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time. Both wish to be involved in the trip. explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles.3. . Together. the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms. We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field.

and indices of such activity. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field. these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries. what researched is now in progress.5. In Chapter 4.xviii Preface FIGURE C. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured. See Figure C. See Figure C. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users. and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information. how field records can be obtained. field appearances on magnetic records. We will examine the storm impact at the Earth.4. .4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms. our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun.

H. let us start the tour. is prominently displayed.Preface xix FIGURE C. Now.5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk. A picture of Chapman. I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend. the modern father of space magnetism. waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away. November 2000 .C. W. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf. Have no fear.

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the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily. Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues.Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group. xxi . the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. I thank my wife. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book. Beth. W. for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA.C. Finally.H. Although most illustrations are of my own creation. away from household duties. in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA. the Space Environment Center of NOAA.

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. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction.I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways. Along the way. Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head. this is not an unusual route to understanding. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together. indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour. Fortunately. I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place. In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths.1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly. In contrast. I1. But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house. acting as your guide. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift.

1). point toward the North Star.1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC.2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11. Si Nan.1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction. a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia.2. Then. the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction. a Cantonese author of 1117. . The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape. the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1. corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major). opposite the handle of the Big Dipper. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions. had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl. Written records show that a Chinese compass. Chu Yu. FIGURE 1.21 Historical Tour Markers 1. Similarly.

" was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite. Loadstone (or lodestone).2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners. had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles. Peregrinus described the pole locations.2. at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen. In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone. for which the negative and positive charges can be separated). For our Western culture. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole. an early word for "leading stone. and how similar poles repel (Figure 1. This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence.2 Historical Tour Markers 1.2). But if it were given that name. The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1. By the early fifteenth century. there would be even greater confusion. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips. how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other. He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus).Section 1. A Frenchman. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline. .


Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism

FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.

declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about

Section 1.2

Historical Tour Markers


FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.

the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.

1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the


Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism

FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.

science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.

and fields. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman.8) of Goettingen. Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. currents. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth. Germany. He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1. who originally worked in England.9). In 1893. Chapman Finally. Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism. =. In addition. Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation. he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity. in a time of significant English maritime expansion. the original design for our present public electric power plants.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances.6). He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. In 1831. In 1821. mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes.10). the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes.Section 1.7). a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution. Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. but spent much of his productive life in the United States. he developed the first electric motor. . Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges. In 1838.

Geomagnetism. Chapman became the father of space magnetism. With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany. who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms. The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage. .in 1940. Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook.8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley.

devised the first electric motor and electric current generator. who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields.7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867).Section 1. .2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1. FIGURE 1.8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth.

10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today. FIGURE 1. .10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies.

the natural fields within and around the Earth. the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1. Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1.11).3. However. to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1.1 Earth Fields. as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth). to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject.11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle. when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our planet. This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent . The prefix used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour. as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts. points at different angles.5).Section 1. popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism. Steady and Changing Now. 11. out of or into the Earth. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism.31 Local Language Dictionary 1.

The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude. the weaker the effect of that field becomes. but more dramatic appearance. Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. The prefix paleo. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time. In contrast.12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example. Examples of 12.13). is rapidly changing. This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation.and 24-hour periods are shown. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. The inverse of the period is the frequency. meaning ancient. Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances. we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter. As we shall see in our tour. the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1. For example.12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1.12). . In addition. the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period. The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago. is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times.

and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. or iron-rich rocks.2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current. iron. of course. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size.14). The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1. The effectiveness of this field. At the place where a field exists. The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM. For example. at 2 inches from a magnet. Of course. Alaska. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch. Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil. . having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action. 1. that can move another magnet.13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks.Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface. there are many different sources of magnetic fields. this control is measured by the force.3. magnetic observatory.

2 0. strong attracting magnetic field.00 3.8 e.00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1. What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive.0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0. Somehow. 0. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience.0 . The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones.00 4.. I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home. When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate..6 "o It. 0.1 1. the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down. heavy iron bars. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby. The field . probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred.. By gently flicking the paper.00 1. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized.4 n- 0.00 2. c !. When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights. To my dismay. > .50 5.15).14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet. slowing it to a stop.50 3. he discovered that magnetism was the problem.50 2. A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding. 1. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet.14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1... the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum.50 4.._ *. Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1.

1. nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma). The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material.3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT). is the proper unit officially . Giant. Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength.3.3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form. similar to that of the bar magnet. the equivalent name. In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older.15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet.Section 1. from electric current sources deep within the Earth. current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss). we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source. Nevertheless. and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities. it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine. and from currents in the region of space above our planet.

The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers. with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude.000 gammas). 1.000. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system.000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1. 100. .0001 0. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below).01 0. 1. and lasting from hours to a full day or more. occur during a geomagnetic storm. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10. t~ 0.001 0.000. The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma. The Earth's main field varies from about 60. The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1.1 0.16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources.16 100.0 . called SI Units. Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size. the Gauss (1 Gauss =100.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-. Another unit.000. EARTH MAIN FIELD 10.16.

Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields


Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.

FIGURE 1.17 I~

Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.

18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles

Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism

To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell

Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary


FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.

becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two

18).19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. which has just seven electrons in its third shell. That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1. Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral.19). The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away. Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1. Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule. There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon. . A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17). the molecule of table salt. leaving a positive ion. and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe. neon. For example. hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. These parts are called ions.20). carbon dioxide. to form sodium chloride. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule.20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions. the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1.

~.21).Section 1.p e" e" FIGURE 1. producing other characteristic auroral colors. described earlier. How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere. . the flow is called an electric current. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source. can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet. the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water. called its conductivity. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules. For example. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current. then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current. +. By convention. produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1. In that gaseous region. This is because the moving charges. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these. An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region. ions or electrons that compose the current. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth. the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field.3 Local Language Dictionary 21 . We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere. The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +..

nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer. Rather. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current.22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong. 11. I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment. Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space.21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire. generally linearly directed magnetic field. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules. The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire. causing them to glow (e.g. The sources of such fields .41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories..

4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth. We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives. due to currents flowing in our space environment. and natural current systems above the Earth. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field.Section 1. liquid outer core of the Earth. pipelines. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks. Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. and electricity transmission lines. In subsequent chapters. Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. . Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet). We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. magnetized materials. We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. Natural currents. the main field at the Earth's surface. However. in large measure. and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface. Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field.

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The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices. Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications. an oscillating field is generated.1).12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. knives. etc. coins. for example. guns.7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials. Within the security passageway. called magnetometers. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects. Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious. from rings. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1. watches. an alarm is sounded. We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1. IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2.1. which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger. At concourse entrances.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6). If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected. 25 . keys. airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2.

) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2. On the modern vessels. (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top. forest rangers. the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage. Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2.2).satellite-dependent . from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships.1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger. printed nearby. have a compass as part of their navigation system.3). back-country travelers. In addition to the magnetic northward direction. is also important for the traveler. and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass. the map date.26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display. By universal convention. Ships at sea. Hikers.

.0 - 13. . . Arizona... .. 5 .i-dC--~:-L~..Section 2. 14.~..~ J.. .~" .... . I .. ~ ' R ..... i ... Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS... . '2200000 FEET'~ q..~. ~ ~ ..5 A 4. DENVER. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY..' ' 1'. from 1910 to 1986.5 -- 14....30- "1" I ' ' I . . I I . |g'22'30" 104o37.. ~. ..... 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~.....5 - o o o o 12. I" . ~ ...S. y t l l l G i N J & . II|iIY(H(..0 -- % o C2 e 12. o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~. COLORADO 80225. ~ i " . 65 W i s~ii=E...~ .1 1960 1970 ... . I .. OR RESTON..~ .... is always displayed on the best maps. ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W .0 - % ~.. ~ . I iN~EIII~iI~-. .5X48 FOR SALE BY U.. ..2 I~ Magnetic declination.VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2.5--W 10437. . . " ..1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~.. " ' ' -.. ._~.* In m U. along with the date.-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN.... I 1990 1 1 . 1980 1940 FIGURE 2.I In q) Q) 01 13.. .~oIr. ~ t "... I"85......i ~ ....5/37.. 66 W... i .~ .L .. I k 45' R.3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson...tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922. f "' ..

p. 49) have replaced the older navigational aids. . It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude. modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail. cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r .D Q t _ t~ r-. For years. where the North Star cannot be seen.=.. Nevertheless. longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed. so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2. In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2..9. Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere. used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance.28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ .4).4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea. global positioning systems (see Section 2.1.

For example. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2. England. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea. Today. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position.6). 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich. small airplanes.Section 2. on the voyage. This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only. so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2. a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. In later years. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock. longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses. By international agreement. as well as many freighters and passenger ships. . In this example.5). navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean.5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757. Between star sightings and in overcast conditions. in an age of modern electronic navigation systems.

2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents.7). Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface. 87~ east of geographic north. Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment.1. 2. magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite. In the beginning years of space exploration.30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position. Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age. Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems. On a microscopic scale.6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which . For many years. satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor.

8). Paleomag- . For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit). If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis. When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment. the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2. the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does.1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2. Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2.Section 2. all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction. Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing.8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization. the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization.7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems.

p. 14). Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains. Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized.3. Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation.2. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle). By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises.32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2. As this liquid rock material cools into igneous . and 3. Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer. Although geophysicists. Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1. continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature. 2.8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization. who study these rocks. By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field. Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains.

When . (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field. the overall alignment of the many particles is. Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation. Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes. Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma.9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava. scrambled by the water currents. at first. many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2.9). The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock.10) or road cuts. Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2. The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2.Section 2. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction. While moving with the water.

Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery. Studies of this type are called . the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position. archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed. The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago.11). Upon cooling and hardening. silt-. At high baking kiln temperatures. Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-. the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples.34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation. Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization.10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. Utah.

After allowing for continental drift. Now. completely reversed its direction. on many occasions. the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years. archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures. In addition.Section 2. rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- .1. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1. 2.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence.5). the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction. armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior. the geomagnetic main field has.1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2. the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe. Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern.

Australia. special crustal regions. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. The cooled magma.13).12). ancient flora.12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples. In those two matched continental regions. As this material cools. The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2. have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth. Antarctica. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder. Africa is pushing into . The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. forming the Himalayan Mountains.0 inches) a year. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern. it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence. This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10. activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge. The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle. with its field identification. often toward the middle of our major oceans. similar geology. but are continuing to separate. spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified. In recent years. and India were also once connected. India is pushing up against Asia.

The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields .14). Europe.1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2.1. Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2. or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf. 2.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7). closing the Mediterranean Sea. Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents.Section 2.13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift.

an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5. Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves. National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- . (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area.13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings. Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers. All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements.3. p. magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites.14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology. wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1. The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys. During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances.2. To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist.38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. 128).

iron nails. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2. In 1991.Section 2.15).15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast. cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods. just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico.1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2. The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys. We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4). The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping. Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament. aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a . Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. Shading indicates contours of similar field strength.

field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other. As a result. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0. or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2. Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1. 2. requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist. For example. This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. In early North American land exploration and development. This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations. mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials. Today. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles). Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process. 2.16). For example. after adjusting for geological site differences. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days.1.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field.40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. at least two measurement sites are used. a local effect is verified. a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause . Unfortunately. Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites. For their detection. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone.1 gamma.

2. 66).16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption. but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2.6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions. 2. At the time of earthquakes. apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers. changes in magnetization. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed . Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal. p.1.1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2. For example.Section 2. this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material.3. and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event.

Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense.17). mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue. using a large loop antenna.42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms.1. Biological researchers. These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction. The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields. spinning in random orientation. The well-known sea travelers whales. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2. The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons.17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the . The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation.0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior. the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction. Blakemore. magnetic material in their stomachs. Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions.13). Approximately 0. Inside these pond bacteria. In other studies. artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern. 2. dolphins. blue marlins. and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1. green turtles.

1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2. pulse. pull of a gravitational field).Section 2. A brief radio frequency (r.) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession. Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging. detected by magnetometers.f.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field. live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response.18). With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals. A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice.f. . The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms. and analyzed by computers. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because. occasionally.

Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr). Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun.19). 2. Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways. allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields. at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away.1. The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents.1. using these field techniques. The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2. to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets. In March 2000. maglev trains have been developed. consider the fact that during major magnetic storms. However. . This suspension is called magnetic levitation. Wire resistance limits the current flow. We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets. In recent years. or maglev for short.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. For now. electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. For propulsion.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike.

Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt.Section 2. More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. . The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density. Following magnetic storms. On occasions following a great magnetic storm. Everest use oxygen masks. Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground. the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit.19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position. over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions. for example).1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2.

A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite. the increased number of particles in space. have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites. During major geomagnetic storms. such . During geomagnetic storm periods.46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms. A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. upsetting program memory control. Energetic charged particles. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood. when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere. naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field. captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms. Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2.20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. Surrey Space Center. U. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region.K. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency. astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage.20). Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites.

Section 2.21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth. the orbit and speed of the satellite.21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000. The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation.20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas. and its electronic configuration. During a mag- . manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean. Particle impacts (Figure 2. Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields. principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles). Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere. To avoid unhealthy exposure. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly.1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2. To lessen the damage to its systems. Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS.

48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2.22). These signals. also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver. the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction. . Worldwide telephone. Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere). In recent years. and then degraded or lost. the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere. fax. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out. the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered. netic storm. and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. At such times.22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms.

ship captains.S. hikers. fisherman.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2. Such . Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth. The GPS allows users to find their time. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites.23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20.625 mi) above the Earth. Defense Department which funded the system. constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS). together with the ground receivers.Section 2. hunters.S. These clock-synchronized. Soon U. the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20. latitude. and the U.1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2. commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. radiowave-signal transmitter satellites.200 km (12. longitude. The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists.200 km (about 12. For navigation purposes.23).

m. 128). or em) fields.1.3. can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters.50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather. With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field. during major magnetic storms. high energy-demand occasions. scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2. Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques. causing extensive electric power failures . The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart. show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5. Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5.2. We call the pair electromagnetic (e. The science of physics tells us that. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth. such as northern Europe. At high-latitude locations. the nearer to the region of auroras.25). A pair of electric field probes.24).10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor.1. magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. by nature. and the northern United States. At the surface of the conducting Earth. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field. in some situations. researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period. Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times. naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems. 2. the greater the induced fields. In general. p.3. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field. p. 127). Canada.

Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms. At such times. geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way. laboratory testing. static. at great inconvenience and expense to the public.4 I I I I .2 . Six million people were affected by that power outage.1 . Canada.3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I . or complete blackout. and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter. and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States.24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth.- 500 600 700 0 - 0 .:Section 2. long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted. Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system. .5 FIGURE 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 .- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . some messages have been reduced to whispers. An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province. Using this conductivity information together with seismic records.

gas. The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits. telephone lines.52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil. and water pipelines. At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest.25). gas. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions. where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2.26). These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems. and long oil. and water (Figure 2. . the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating. At low latitudes. corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents.25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. improper FIGURE 2.

2J Tour to the Boundaries 2. Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion. J2. We k n o w that two happenings can be related if . Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~. is particularly susceptible. To avoid such problems.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms. which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow. and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline.2.Section 2.'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o . alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour. The central section of the pipeline.

it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous). A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. Further study would probably show . High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs. D. On other occasions. The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship.54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event. D. for the paired events. It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds. it has five important features: D. Statistical Sampling First.8 (-0. values 0. specific mathematical test techniques need to be used. Sometimes. Correlation Second. Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events. Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes. The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions. A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile.0 . For example. This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to . the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics. Correlation values greater (less) than 0. as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena. Just because Mr. 4 ) encourage further study. there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile.4 ( .1 ) . Cause and Effect Third. not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second.

Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10. in tune with the 11-year cycle. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation. physical. Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause. cooler or hotter. scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and. 2. for ingested chemicals. whether there are attending unwanted side effects). and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. However.2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2. During the Sun's cycle.5. known from a secret list. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active. the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of . special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study.27). when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence. For convenience. For example. giving off less radiation than the average solar surface.2. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. Double Blind Fourth. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. Models of the biological.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather. Studies have shown l l. Statistical significance is then required of the true item. The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation. for unknown reasons. when a true relationship is found.2 Magnetic Correlations =. when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation.Section 2. the number of sunspots increase and then decrease. and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar latitudes. the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses. Sunspot regions are cooler. Modeling Fifth.

Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle.27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation. They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum. Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum. . A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions.56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring. the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens. Greece. However.

28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles. beginning in 1276. recorded at world magnetic observatories.Section 2. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand. These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere. We shall see. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle. Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms.2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth. there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate. Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's . preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado. near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. Geomagnetic storms.28).

Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields. p.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. containing ferric iron deposits.1. Kaufman. have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2.4. In addition. Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations. measuring the magnetic fields from the brain. Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design. 111). . Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4. Originating in the auroral region. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic. FIGURE 2. Figure adapted from Williamson.29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger. and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews. Sensitive magnetometers.29).

There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist.2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior. the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum. 3. Random associations can occur. A famous and prolific space scientist. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random. or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes. the number of admissions to mental hospitals. will show a significant value. the number of publications by active scientists. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. the two can display a false correlation. Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. . specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. However. scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. Nevertheless. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima. seasonal.10). an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow. 4. For example.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. and 6. Also. the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack. Also. although unrelated. when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period).Section 2. 5. the number of convulsive seizures. although a significant (0. the number of heart attacks. 2. The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. there are certainly well-known.

lll ~ '. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes. the Earth.2. in its yearly orbit about the Sun. t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ . and Frauds I. Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite .l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2.31). it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad.~'. . magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects.I ~. Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north. ~ . at Arnhem Land. One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin.-~ !. Old Wives' Tales. As another example.ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q. 2. Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967.3 Pseudoscience. and at the Cape York peninsula. The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S.. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall. A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community. therefore. %.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD . it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense. Also. India.' I. is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year. oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2.

these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature. In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds. B. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). A then-popular Viennese physician. not because of the magnetic field direction. P. The word mesmerize originated in that period. Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season.Section 2.31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions. constructions. For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J. about the time of the American Revolution. mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery. allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night. Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- . the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2. increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun. All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains.

vard University Press. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets. reduce food cravings. the MRI described in Section 2.32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. However. It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process. shoe innersoles. There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2.29).g. long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation. 42).1. Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2." Magnetic finger rings. bracelets. sleeping pads. alleviate arthritis. 1996). for a princely sum. knee braces. cervical collars. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten. That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. . and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public. suppress coughing. revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin). with the promise that "strong. pillows. stop headaches. Some department stores. newlyweds could spend their nuptial night." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy. such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen. cure insomnia. beautiful. creating heat that soothes pain and swelling. direct-marketing outlets." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense. health-food stores.32). p.7. The magnets are said to be a time-honored..

In their Health News Letter of May 1999. Held tightly in the hands of the witch." =. or reference to a medical journal article.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. In his hands. Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because. and desperation of the gullible public. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod. trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies. the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories. describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff." Tests of the method. Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect). the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California.33). Berkeley. is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger). when examined.Section 2. When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. which. advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge. The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. under tightly controlled field . who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater. called a divining rod. A similar add-on system for water pipes." Some witches. using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home. by itself. statistically significant. allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices. suffering. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L". The advertisements feed on the fear. The responsible American Medical Association requires careful. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment. say.

1See the website http://www. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming.33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful. has nothing to do with rock predominant weather front directions. in truth. "The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well known. when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths. Magnetism has no role in the divining. conditions." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that.64 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks. During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local geology. The procedure is successful only by random luck. While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water. with a statistically significant number of examples. The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography. Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material. recurring surface heating. have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense. but magnetism is not the responsible agent. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said.skeptic. and local prevailing winds. .

~.34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda Triangle. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces.html. not unusual.34).Section 2. hazily defined by Bermuda. in fact. the number of lost ships and planes in that area is. Florida. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region. and Puerto Rico (Figure Given the weather and traffic. Serious researchers have proved that. given the weather and traffic. following Columbus's voyage of discovery. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept.2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2. usually magnetic. 2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual. . To create even more mystery. Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle. 2See the website http://skepdic.

Most likely. Earthquake Predictions In recent years.35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes. Dewey of the USGS.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville. workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes. They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region. . Nicaragua earthquake photo by J. Captain James Cook. their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors. who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location. Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. Unfortunately. although the island's name remains. some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices. ~. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes. Australia.

63-67. the Chinese blame numerous causes. Therefore. Eos Trans. The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs. but the many failures are rarely mentioned. *Geller.35). The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience. . almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled.Section 2. Union 78. is published and touted in the news media. J. R. signals that forecast earthquakes. citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods. Geophys. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable. For these.m. Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. Of course. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences. the occasional fortuitous prediction success. Am. Occasionally. 1997. although a clearly random coincidence.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast.

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Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent. We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. 69 . Generated by dynamic processes. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing. Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere. changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields. so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years. every day of the year. We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. the magnetosphere. Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive.

An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field. a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change. 35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. 3.2. between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles). 4. but not solid material. The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3. They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape. the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth. A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area. p.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1. Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region. There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth. Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field.3. p. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth.1).1. 31) is reached for iron and magnetite.5). 5.2 and Plate 8). is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3. Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. but the absence . there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep. 2. Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust.1. a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself. the Curie Temperature (see Section 2. Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. Fluids could cause this.

Uranus. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions. a moon of Jupiter. Venus also has no permanent main field. Saturn.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field. Ganymede. in time. Planets Mercury. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism. However. Using the more recent main field evidence. destroy the organized loop current.1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). in cycles averag- . Although Mars has no such field now. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes. with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions. scientists have found that. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. Jupiter. and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres. The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying. Disruptive eddy currents within that region can.Section 3. seems to display such a field.

but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature.2. . 13. For example. which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth.3).1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3. If we don't stop at the first chart viewing. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds. We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal. There are many magnetic poles used by different groups. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3. ing 200 to 250 thousand years.72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. we see a problem immediately. possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years.2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth.

. Most commercial world maps (e. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground. not the important ." a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time. The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1. Rand McNally.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet.2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3.Section 3. those by National Geographic.5). most certainly. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross. The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3. and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions.3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland.g.4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania. To further confuse this situation. it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are. One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3.

. let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth.2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II. As part of a special IAGA working group. 3. This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values . Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas.. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3. scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA.74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole . Hammond Inc. pole locations "to which all world compasses point." So that we can better understand this universal misconception.2. pronounced "eye-yah-gah").4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands.

and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes. Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site. The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF).2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. To prepare the model fields. called Gauss coefficients.8) of Germany. the scientists use a special mathematical technique. the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) . The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth. when additional recovered data become available. Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions). G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles.Section 3. intelligently adjusted to a common date. Also.5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles. that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections.6). E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. called the analysis epoch. which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior.

the Earth. n and m. External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior. The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices. Display program from P. The IGRF table (Figure 3. when all are added together. McFadden of AGSO. g and h. a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field .7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients.

2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17. scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface.6. Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here. scientists can compute.4 4.7 -4.0 -18.7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years.3 -13.Section 3.6).7 -15. Internal field models have been established back to 1945.8 1.8 -8.21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values. m and n.8 0.5 -6.1 0. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years.2 3. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w . n g d c .2 2. From a full IGRF or DGRF table.0 FIGURE 3.0 -0. The total field map shown in Figure 2.9 1.1 -12. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3. a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space. are indexed as types g and h. but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T . for the given epoch. The numbers (Gauss coefficients). We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles".html. n o a a .6 -1. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12.1 -0. depicted in Figure 3.2 -8. g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag.9 1. With this table and special formulae.6 13. These poles are determined from a global field.2 0.8 -6. less accurate.5 2. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600.

. As we shall see below. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole.8.78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part. and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic.9).w // S octupole N FIGURE 3. The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3. the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling. is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center. This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern. octupole.? N N 1 I''~. 3.8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole.3). quadrupole.. Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3. This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements.7) define the centered dipole terms. The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3. but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles. shown in Figure 3.O I N v . The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center. The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~. Earth-centered coordinates.2. S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S . and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF. quadrupole. a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe.8). The symmetrically S 17.

on average. interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth. Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field.Section 3. on average. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that. All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5. All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that. p. Figure from M.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600.2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3.2. Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays. Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years. Davis of NGDC/NOAA.3). 128).2. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model. about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner . drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields. However. located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3. We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles". it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting.

To understand this fact. In one. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our . on average. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem. a slightly different. it was offset from the Earth's geographic center. Because of their short spacial dimensions.4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth. and radioactive heating. 3. If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center). simpler analysis method is now typically used. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis. the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data.2. Thus. That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms. The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials. This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one. The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. introduced by the researcher. Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location. Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group.10).80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core.

and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. Since the 1800s. Were it not for some other difficulties.Section 3. The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry. Similarly. from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles". not the Earth's surface. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center. "Magnetic Poles" definition. its distance from the geographic Earth center. That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit. The main geomagnetic field changes with time.2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal. .10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center. Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis. the tilt of the eccentric dipole.11).

11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region. C. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon). aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3. Also. There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth. Figure adapted from A.12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields.4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface. For example.2. Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point. Fraser-Smith. The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below .5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements. 3." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.

the Earth's surface. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole.5.2 Pole Markers 83 . the arrival of . Rand McNally & Company. In addition. ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3. there are seasonal.8ol 14.12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica. 94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements.Section 3.1 . p. diurnal (24-hr cycle). whereas. As we shall see shortly. what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field. New Zealand. Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents. and sector-effect (Section 3.4.

the ionospheric currents (see Section 3. With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps.) Also. it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora.4.84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. Antarctica. cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3. seasonal. not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. . Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii. just northwest of Thule. Thus. Charged particles. arriving from the Sun. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter. in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station.13). solar-terrestrial conditions. and day-night distortions. for some strange reason." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement. the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location. fully quiet. it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare. 3. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists. The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data. Greenland. p.14 and Plate 4).2. Nevertheless. When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3.

Section 3. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents. The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2. in the Southern Hemisphere.20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region. These are the pole locations with significant meaning. This anomalous region (Figure 2.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3.13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field). auroral region (ionospheric) currents.21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- . induced currents in the Earth.

Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space.86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. 13. .14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole. Figure from NASA.31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure. A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance.1 gamma. sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation.

the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. away from the Sun.3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. Thus. opposite to the apparent seasonal . from our viewpoint on Earth. In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun. In the space around the Earth. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. Downwind.Section 3. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re). which defines the ecliptic plane. However.15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. but. in times of extreme quiet. The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. antisolar direction. that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward. primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind. The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. Re. two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re. out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius. depending on the compression by the solar wind. = 6371 km or 3959 miles).15). on average. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole. called the solar wind. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance. the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator. During major blasts of the solar wind. On the day side. Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate.

In addition.41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet. The shorter the wavelength of light. there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation. the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge.2 Re to 4. Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes. the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind. called galactic cosmic rays.88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. during strong solar winds. Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen. At higher altitudes. the higher the radiation energy.21).20). a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth.15).5 to 6. which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level. toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2. 13. From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles). This shift.0 Re. the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles. Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes. verified by satellite measurements. scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect). The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4. to about 90 km (56 miles). Principally at the two distances of approximately 1.0 Re and 4. Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. Far above the Earth. This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and . Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak. that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy. Curiously.

16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher.Section 3. Therefore. Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions. The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . summertime. the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles).16). although. The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles). oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons. but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate.4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3. In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3. The electron density values shown here are for midday. Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth. upper-atmosphere composition. at mid-latitudes. above 900 km (560 miles).

summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness. In this way. not all the ionosphere goes away at night. the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient). The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground. As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. 13. the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region. Of course. such as: 1. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization.1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. However. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance.51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3. One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface. and 3. That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large.16).22). Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur. For example. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2. Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. 2. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town. Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3.5. Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow.90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features. The water moves a .

This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here. the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved. When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field. The daily heating and FIGURE 3. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth. fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. Of course. This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field.Section 3. electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet.17). The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo. They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field. and the conducting properties of that wire. . Commercial. or the conductor is stationary and the field moves. through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel. as far as the current flow is concerned.

. Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex.92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction.5 miles) in altitude. 3. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory. due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans).5. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere. Use Figure 1. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet). Also. At lower altitudes. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq). surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values. Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction. typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. changing with solar activity and season. there are global winds. the direction and strength of the Earth's main field. This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents. where the main field is horizontal. At much higher altitudes. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another.21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex. The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size.2 S o l a r Q u i e t . where collisions are rare.18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere. The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. the wind system within the ionosphere. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. the two motions cancel out the current. However. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity. causing a current to flow near 100 km (62. and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. where the ionospheric conductivity is large. As you might guess.

on the Sun side of the Earth. Such events include" 1. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun. 3. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter. Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset. All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions. magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external . flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.3 Induction At the Earth's surface. and 3.18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system.Section 3. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse.5.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions. 2. atmospheric atomic explosions. or sudden heating by auroral-related currents.

19).4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected. a special daily solar sector effect is found. a corresponding field change occurs. from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2. The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3. Geomagneticians use the separated. toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun. there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind. The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth. Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind. Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary. . surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth.19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3.5. The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity.24). 3. for the conductivity determinations. Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior.

. p.4. There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve).5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule. a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3.2. Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5.20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station. Thule.Section 3. Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3. Greenland. 130.20).

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Chapter 4

Umbrella for Magnetic Storms

Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.

i4' 1

Disturbances in Sight

4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in


Chapter 4

Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms

FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.

the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):

1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.

2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages.1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4. The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. . which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4.3). The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle. The solar corona. filaments.4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas. 5. The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth. Photo from SEC/NOAA. That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions.Section 4. and arches of solar gases. prominences.

3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec).4).3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon. . Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR. determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4. The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection. 4. Although each particle of water is shot out radially.2 In the W i n d In the solar wind. CME. showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles.100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower. Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler. The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves.1. The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral. the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4. more constant plasma stream. The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun.

At differing solar longitudes.5. determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm. either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane. The . The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4.3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle. p. creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3. which has the opposite direction. In this chapter. carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself. The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane.5. The outward flow of solar plasma. Its interaction with the Earth's main field. Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface. The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball. slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator.4). in both quiet and active times.1. p. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances. which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3. high-latitude fields are mostly open. 4. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components.4. The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun).4.Section 4. so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles). 94).1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4. 94).

The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum.102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm. seem to be responsible for this delay. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions.1). When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect . The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4. Using measurements from special satellites. Earth responds to this activity. The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause.5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape. space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause. with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle. The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4.

and induced currents in the Earth. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types.Section 4. near the 100. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms.3. other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic storm. During the equinoxes. When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size. charged particles (primarily solar electrons. green. and the shape of the Earth's 300-km-high (63.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4. Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents. During the magnetic storm. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights). where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere. . Figure 4. protons. yellow. they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. their energy.7). photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth. In addition to the auroras. releasing 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes. 88). powerful field-aligned currents. This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the tube.5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms.6 and 4. thermospheric pressure waves. intense ionospheric currents. strong partial ring currents. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. p. Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with red.

. Figure adapted from L. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center. Combs and R. arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current. which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers.104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.6 I~ Electrons. bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms. nm).

there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary.7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger. Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1.4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms. The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours. 4. On the records. Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth. Photo by R. Overmyer of NASA.9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field. at the onset of a geomagnetic storm. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4.5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase . Then there typically follows a slower.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4.8).Section 4. with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4. Figure 4. H-component increase (called the initial phase.1.13).

producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface.and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149. with a considerably intense internal sheet current. Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites. Of course. a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4. In these displays. the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location. north or south of the magnetic equator. A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination. After this compression. see Section 4.10). The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display. in response to the solar wind direction. p. and forms the north and south tail lobes. 116).106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4.1. =. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source . constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories.5.8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30. The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4. it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3.15).9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created. at the Earth's surface. The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary.5). During the storm development. a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail. This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4. Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time).

Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4.5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region.9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left). 20. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J. The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record. current patterns. spaced in longitude around the Earth. i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec. all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere. Field-aligned current (Figure 4. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes. but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part. For convenience in representation. Because of the ionospheric conductivity.12). In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~.Section 4. a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region. A concentration of these currents . Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4. 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~.11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes.lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase . 19. 1980 FIGURE 4. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec.5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones.

An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis. typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds. As the air molecules are split apart. Instruments on highaltitude balloons. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June.5). The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. southward. In the auroral region. That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies. The cross-tail currents move similarly. away from the spin axis. Because of the solar wind flow. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. . December. a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously. northward) with the antisolar location. during the geomagnetic storm. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation.13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena. strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4. attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere. count the electrons that are arriving. Figure 4. measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules.10 I~ During a magnetic storm. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere.

Local time is indicated around the circumference. During a magnetic storm. Figure 4.11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms. fields from the partial ring currents. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+. Therefore. only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time. Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere. that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes. negative).14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox. field-aligned currents.Section 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4. . the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed.

travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones. The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects. pro- .110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating. =. This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters. Another stronger pressure wave.12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates. at just under sonic speed. This wave disrupts the high ionosphere.15). Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman.

illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons.Section 4. the traces. the field from the westward auroral electrojet current. . the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves. Alaska. and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations. top to bottom.1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks.

auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW). can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields. and Byrd Station. which are not traceable to solar sources. Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces. eastward (D).. Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles .112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. these are the field changes in the northward (H). N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 . 14 UT FIGURE 4. Antarctica.14 I~ During a magnetic storm day. Some phenomena. Byrd ! _! 10 I. and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located. . !. Canada.! 12 I . ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents. Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event.

. What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated.. 1962. .... . The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3. were detected at Fort Yukon. causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth..... A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds. .Section 4... The pressure waves. The light and dark traces indicate north-south. ~ 2045 . initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed. That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4. Alaska. which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds.... .15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave... the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August.. Russia.16). _~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~.16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya. N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4.. ~ 2110 FIGURE 4... There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally.. in that region.. Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon.."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L.. Alaska. / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T.5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units)..and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction. . At the po- .1 Disturbances in Sight 113 . it is possible to point out some generalizations.. 2055 _~ . However.

the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate. . At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions.5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras.1. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. 4. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. As a result. field-aligned (Figure 4. the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. field-aligned currents. Thus. Therefore. Extending to the equator. but more distant. at the low and equatorial latitudes. the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. For each Universal Time hour. The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination.8). others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents. storm-time. magnetometers register a large.12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations. At low and equatorial latitudes.11). nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger. and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4.114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important.17). and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes. The strong nightside. All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position. a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4. eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator. At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents.

The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4. In this example. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket.Section 4. Kp. Illustration from World Data Center A. Kp Index A third magnetic index. called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index. magnetospheric currents. Dst (Figure 4. An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century. Unfortunately. of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index. AU) and the lowest (lower envelope. AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. The small short-period variations contribute little. such stations are not uniformly .18).17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope. Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements. A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index. The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times. K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed. the planetary form of the index. for 4 and 5 July. NGDC/NOAA. 1974. (Figure 4.

there is a concentration in Europe. fixed so that. distributed around the Earth. Because a large number of the index .to indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp. the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above.9.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period. and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. and . the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index). in a long-term average. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes. The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms.19). the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each location. +. Each contributing station has a different K table.116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. Statistically. The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change. More are in the Northern Hemisphere.

daily Ap. Coffee at NGDC/NOAA.=--.12 13 . lalallalal.42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11.--.--0.16 65+ 6 2.Section 4. large magnetic storms are more likely to occur. stations are at high-latitude locations. Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes.4.----..2 1 O+ 2+ 1. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described.------.lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4.--.1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .2|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1.3 2 3+ 4.2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2.2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3.----. There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods.19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K.3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__. Table provided by H.. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998....1+ 3. At such times. A study of .1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2.1.2+ 3+ 4 4 2.1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23.-----------------------.4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 .------------------___----..2 2+ 1 2 .64.20).O+ 1.1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm.1 3 3.6 5+ 4 .3+ 3..O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6.__--_.1+ 1.36 85.2+ 0 0 1..2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____..

Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4. small (0.6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances. Figure from E. 131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface.16).1. Other pulsations. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4. On the charts.118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous. .6. Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields.22). upon arriving at high latitudes. Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5. p. travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere.1 to 0. 4.2. Erwin of NGDC/NOAA.20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997. Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4. quite oscillatory form (called Pc).21).001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur.

C. Figure from J. .22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0.21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40.1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4. Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA. FIGURE 4.Section 4. on 23 August. Allen and D. 1966. H. Antarctica.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station.

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it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5. the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1. He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred. At prearranged times. The first question I expect is. investigated the global distribution of field disturbances.1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries. Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally. Germany. of Goettingen.Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the fields. Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask. The 121 . 15-1 I Field Traces 5. Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. It is time now for tourists' questions. In those times. How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory.8).1). I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter.1. I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism.

1. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction. which rotated once a day. A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. and vertical directions. capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5.122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5.2). the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum. 5. These magnetometers were given the more specific .1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century. when photography came into general use. It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device. eastward. Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis. collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly. By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions.2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system. With the improved instrument in a darkened room. the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward.

whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward. shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper. He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator. Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents. Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties. many other systems are used to record the field. . developed by the mid-nineteenth century. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded.Section 5. Today. The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period.4 6 0 ~ F).2 7 3 ~ C or . Notice how your home compass needle. Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5.2 I~ The simple variometer. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet. The exact strength of the Earth's main field. Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material. The light beam. after being moved. Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position. A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper.3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . oscillates before coming to rest northward. moving with the magnet. not the full main field strength.

.124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields . which is only approximately 1..00001 gamma.Coaxial Line -.6 inches) in diameter. which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0. .5 cm (0... The niobium metal sensor. but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer.. is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling.3 I~ Modern.RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw ..Coil -.Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5. Figure from J. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium . Zimmerman of NIST..

Section 5. The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on. .4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms. You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together. making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =. and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular loop. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface.1 Field Traces 125 5. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed. for school demonstrations. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet. 1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5. Turn on thehighintensity lamp with a marking pen. Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle. Some 1See the website http://image. With the 2-inch-wide tape. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and.html. gsfc. put a dot near its center. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom.nasa.

a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a .25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north. and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table. deflections of several degrees. magnetometer. near a wall. lasting many hours or even days. or other fiat surface. effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp.126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. can . During geomagnetic storms. If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches).4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA.

a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5. Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity.05 gamma (for most locations). . separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more.Section 5.19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. . For those readers who are adept at electronics. That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0. Most of the time.3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. About 2 square feet (0. The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0. the measurements will be affected. however. The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder. the spot will remain in the same location. . can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations. two probes. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot. . . A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor . .5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises. In typical soil.1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. Note that if any of the parts are moved. Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field. Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations.1 millivolt.

5.21.2. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best. one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section 3. 80). One such model is depicted in Figure 5. a small battery. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields.128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes.2.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles). switch. Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2. and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data. Comparing the results in Figure 5. 1. 5.21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth. p.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region. amplifiers.2.2.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior.2. The necessary variable resistors. 5. using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism. p.6 with Figure 2. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work.5. Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- . 78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3.

Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered. Figure 5. . the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure. Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole.8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes. The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole. The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas). 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 . tilted dipole. Figure from J. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA.l. R.a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 .2 90 --. ments taken along a fixed line on the surface."56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5.Section 5.

Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country. Figure from J.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows.9) in the polar regions at low activity times.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions.4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed. Quinn of USGS.4. Using a chain of observatories. 5. Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5.2.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5.2. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3. 5. p. 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3. the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were .5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index.5. The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors.

Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS.6. The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis. determined (Figure 5. More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. they were not due to local anomalies.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5. p. That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations.10). thus. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4.1. The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations.Section 5.8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance. Figure 5. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton.2. 5.6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation. There were often large local storm field differences from the index.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations. 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- . In this figure.

chart preparation. globally distributed collection points.. the horizontal axis represents the time in hours. Today. and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation. so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling. ond. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere. duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers. there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere.5 hours in local time for the two conditions. 15. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2. By international agreement. Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET.12).132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '.3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents. .\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5. which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special.

. . i . . tel: 1303-297-6761. . 60 | . | . .. RUSSIA. . . USA.noaa.12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United States. tel: 81-75-753-3929. . tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619. . Moscow 117 296. 325 Broadway. . . Kyoto 606-8502.. Academy of Sciences of Russia.Section 5. . . Colorado 80305-3328. . 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day . .gov 9 In Russia: World Data Center B. .10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories. . . 0 10 20 ! . . . . . . Boulder. . These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude). .World Data Center A. . . fax" 81-75-7227884. . Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science. Kyoto University. NGDC/NOAA. 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. . . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group). fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2. . i . Molodezhnaya 3. fax: 1-303-497-6513. Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. . 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l . . field differences were determined. mailstop EGC2.. . e-mail: info@ngdc. . . . . . . . . . .. consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure). JAPAN.3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9. . .


Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.

15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.

15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:

Section 5.5

Information Kiosk


FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on

TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)


Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and






tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.

including a9-

100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)


200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)




600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)

t.,rl "I"
< r


1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)


~r "11

a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).

Q. W


memory impacts cause loss of control. 103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible.4 . and decrease of solar panel currents.~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA. high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays). Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days. _. Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions.. o . Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted. Flux in particles: s ..TABLE 5. and solar panels degraded. noise in imaging systems. Satellite operations loss of some satellites. Biological: none. Flux levels are 5 min averages. 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors.l c m -2. serious noise in image data. star-trackers unable to locate sources. bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions). and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult. elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays). permanent damage to exposed components/detectors. Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets. Biological: none. noise on imaging systems. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days. Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA. permanent damage to solar panels. Satellite operations: memory device problems.2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray). star-trackers cause orientation problems. these events can last more than one day).t ". Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. Satellite operations: none.l s t e r .

Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour.4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 .. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. -r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m.TABLE 5. HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days). Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. in Wm-2). HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side.. loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators. HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth. bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux. . affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 .-i.t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours.1--0. measured in the 0.3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 . causing loss in positioning. Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth. ~r -rl r o. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators.. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators. HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals. Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth. which may spread into the night side.3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _. loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth. Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours. X20 (2 x 10 .8 nm range. a Some or all of these effects are possible.

with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams. e-mail: info. .gov Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales. noaa. New York. USA: http://uvisun. U. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center. 1958.nascom. g ov/$tp/stp.ips. 1600. republication by Dover Publications. also http://www. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern life. html 9 Space Environment Colorado 80225. 9 15.61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended books. Mailstop 306. fax: 1-303-202-4693. Australia: http://www.msfc. ngdc. De Magnete.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services.nasa.S. alaska. also http://www. magnetic field. Denver.spaceweather.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX. NASA. Gilbert. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical Institute. gov/UVI/current_image.Section 5. NOAA. also http://image. also http://www-spof. USA: http://www. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback. in the order of their original publication 9 GoddardSpaceFright Center.nasa. NASA. nasa. 368 pp. USA: http://sohowww.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect Sydney.E Mattelay. USA: http://www. Geological Survey.pfrr. English translation in 1893 by P..HTML. University of Alaska. Such data. Box 25286 Federal Center.html 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA. nasa. and radiation information to monitor the space environment. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories. USA: http://www.

433 pp.D. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. 2 vols. 9 W. Physics of the Earth. Stacy.. Introduction to Geomagnetism. 1987-1991.. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book). Harvard University Press. Driving Force. 311 pp.. 1967. 1983. History. Matsushita and W. and the Arts. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage. application. Brisbane.C. 1992. 1940. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. 323 pp. 9 J. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust. 9 W.. and beautiful illustrations.H.. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time.A. 9 J. Piper. detailed references.. Washington D. 1050 pp.. 9 J. Cambridge. Jacobs.H. Geomagnetism.. Academic Press. 434 pp.. ed. 513 pp. . Eather. Bartels. Milton Keynes Pub. and thorough description of analytical methods. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies. New York. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age. thorough review of the technology. 1398 pp. Brisbane Brookfield Press.D.. auroral descriptions. beautifully written.. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information. 1987.. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists. and history of magnets. Chapman and J. Campbell. Open University Press. This classic. American Geophysical Union. 9 R. Although our subject is only a small part of this book.D. 1980.. the Natural Magic of Magnets. eds. Parkinson. Edinburgh. Academic Press.. 1996. 2 vols. A fine.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. It was last republished in 1951. compact yet complete. 4 vols. Majestic Lights. An up-to-date. 9 S. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 2545 pp. Geomagnetism. Livingston. Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena.. the Aurora in Science. New York..A. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate. Scottish Academic Press Ltd. Massachusetts.D.

T. McFadden. Cambridge. 531 pp.Section 5. 9 W. Merill. and the Deep Mantle. San Diego.. .6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R. 1997. with many illustrations. Written by well-respected researchers. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field. My own compact but comprehensive textbook. The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. the Core. Cambridge University Press.W. 1996. 304 pp. M.. and EL. McElhinny.H. Campbell. Academic Press.

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8. 56 upper. Julius. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 116 Aurora. 134 Bar magnet. 61-63 Books. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index. 17. 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights). 45 temperature. 18 Atoms. R. 125 Bartels. 14. 60. 133 Asteroid. 131 Bryce Canyon. 39 Archimedes spiral. 39 Atmosphere lower. 40 Atomic number. 105 high-latitude. 90. Washington State.Index Activity index. 20 electrojet current. 120 143 . 37 charts. Antarctica. 8 Bermuda Triangle. 17. 102 Archives. 34 Byrd Station. 106 values. 139-141 Bowshock. 110 oval. 18 weight. 22 Australis (Southern Lights). 25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields. 101 angle. 20. 70. 59 Blakemore. 84. 109. 15. 123. 42 Body magnets. 2 Biomagnetism. 148 oil discovery. 4 Airport magnetometer. 17. 116 Aeromagnetism. 117 Apollo space craft. 105 bombarding particles. 39 Archeological formations. 113. 41-42 correlations. 38 Agonic line. 21. 39 map. 18-19 Auroral displays. 119 Baie St. 82 surveys. 84 pulsating. 109. 102 Bremerton. 115. 38 Analysis epoch. 35. 65 Big Dipper. 109 zone.. 17. Qu6bec. Paul. 106. 113 magnetic observatories. 118 Addresses.

32 bar magnet. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 34 equator. 55 ecliptic plane and. 2 Climate. 53 Earth. 26. 15 Disturbed field. 9. 15 induction. 69 strength. Sydney. 13. 70 magnetism. 8. 89. 6. 109 Conjugate positions. 77 Dip angle. 111 Continental drift. 123 temperatures. 139 Declination. 39 ancient field behavior. 82. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 3 magnetic island and. 124 electromagnets. 6 magnet Earth as. 7. 4. 101 Correlation cause and effect. 18 comparative (air. 63 Drift contintental. 60. 81 locally-measured. 11. 93. 50-51. 4. 14 Earth. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays. 25 source and induced. 70. 111 electrical. 38 navigation. 26 lodestone. 27. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 6 eccentric axis. 21 secondary. 21 corrosion and. 11 main field. 2 declination and. 23 origin. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 31. 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 108 Crust. 115 ionosphere. 92. 23. 29. 90 pole eccentric axis. 40. 55 modeling. 44 magnetometers. 101 Columbus. 6. 75. 54 coefficient. 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 108 Double-blind test. 36-38. 88 sunspot connection. 82 ionosphere. 92. 54 double blind. 72. 70. 26 aeromagnetic. 70 distorted. Christopher. 70 Tucson. 56. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). Captain James. 80 field alignment. 35 magnetotelluric. water. 70 moment. copper). 84 Dipole. 70 Current. 32. 90 Compass. 94 geological features. 98 mass ejection (CME). 36--41 resistivity. 99 Coronal holes. 55. 26 Chu Yu. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 17. 20-23 direct. 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 75. 35-37 Cook. 130 De Magnete. 130 Corona. 48 Conductivity. 23. 29 Chinese. Arizona. 79 field pattern. 25 right-hand rule. 66 main field and. 3 Communications. 3. 94 Darwin. 84 . 10.144 Index Chapman. 34. 51 radiowave. 103. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 48 long-wire. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. Australia. 122 airport runway declination. 59 Charts.

90-92 current. 18 aurora and. 75. 101 Eights Station. 76. Benjamin. 114 Franklin. 18 current. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 20. 70. 7. 26. 87. Michael. 127-128 dipole field strength. 111. 70 source. 84. 28 External field. 13. 94 conductor. 127 probe. 34 Field in space. 114 models. 50. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 22 induction responses. 50. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 44 Fort Yukon. 127 Electrons. 18 molecule. 37 power lines. 71 Earthquake. 71 outer core. 55 Energetic particle events. 70 Earth current. 7. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. Alaska. 50-53 mapping. 79 non-dipole field vs. 21. 99 Flares. 70. 123 Forbush effect. 104 Elements. 110 equatorial. 9. 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. 98. 77 analysis. 130 storm currents. Antarctica. dipole field. Alaska. 20 solar. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 134 Epoch. 90 sharing of. 84 Fairbanks. 79 particle. 54 prediction. 90. 134 Electric charge. 112 Faraday. 3. 36. 85. 14. 50 power plant. 9. 47. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 21. 13. 7. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 90 . 84. 92. 22 ionization and. 109. 19. 37 Field-aligned current. 84 Ecliptic plane. 66-67 signals. 88 Force of magnetic field. 80. 25 Ferrous atoms. 75. 22 field. 81 current in a wire. 92. 102 upper atmosphere and. 44 in wire. 111. 22. 90 region. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 23. 109 Ethesian winds. 50 systems in satellites. 81 field representation. 115 Filaments. 115117. 130-131 Dynamo. 21. 87. 37 reversal. 70 theory. 40. 89. 13. 3. 128 dipole poles. 23 Electrical conductivity. 7 transmission lines. 19 Electrojet auroral. 48 and magnetic fields. 81 dipole. 9. 90 Electromagnet. 32 clay. 3. 79 lower mantle. 75 Equatorial electrojet.Index 145 magnetic pole. 102-104. 44 Electromagnetic field. 56 Exploration (global). 18 atomic number and. 41. 18. 44 use in maglev. 7.

40 Latitude. 5. 58. 46 Gamma (y). 66. 7.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 49 Geomagnetism. 90. 49 main phase. 128 coordinate system. 92 high latitude. 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 80 table. 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 97-120. 8. 77-80 multipoles. 32 . 111 Jupiter main field. 57. 75-77 field units. 115 equatorial. 79 North Pole. 75. 17 Igneous rock. 64 Great Earth Magnet. India. 74 regions (zones). 84. 58 low. 134 GPS and. 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 28 geomagnetic coordinates. 64 Joule heating. 72-86. 114 Intergalactic fields. 48. 77 IMAGE spacecraft. 40. 74. 73. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. 114. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. 50 Infrasonic pressure waves. England. 45. 53. 107 satellites and. 107 recovery phase. 119. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 130 auroral. 7. 58. 113 Greenwich. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 20-23. 108 Jackson Lake. 115. 92-94. 52. 102 Ionosphere. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. 75. 78. 89 electron density. 90 dip equator. 116 Land survey. 25. 115 lunar quiet-day. Canada. 16. 79 main field poles. 72 GPS and. 48. 29 Halley. 131 storms. 11 first textbook on. 16. 11 from North Star. Edmund. 5. 94 of pulsations. Baron Alexander von. 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 110. 75. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 109 current. 78-80. 61 Humbolt. 138 Gilbert. 15 Ganymede main field. 48. 28. 92. 78. 9. 95 poles. 84. 92 Ions. William. 47. 121 coefficients. 74. 86 High latitudes. 16 netism and Aeronomy). 76 Induction. 128. 8 Geostationary satellites. 16 Geologic exploration. 86 INTERMAGNET. 78 2000 coefficient values. 18. Wyoming. 123 Hyderabad. 17 Hubble Space Telescope. 130 field models. 111. 49 Grand Teton National Park. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 8 Health magnets. 94 field responses. 50. 89. 62 Heliospheric boundary. 44. 89 solar wind.) of oscillation. 132 pulsation. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 44 Indices. 132 Internal field. 12. 49 high.

3 polarities. 6 domains. 66 levitation. 61-63 Earth's main field. 30-35 storms. 123 Magnetopause. 49 ship's. 25 coils. 84 axis. 44 simple bar. 103 heating of. 123 quake-site. 3 Eccentric axis dipole. 23. 102 tail of. 3 Locally measured dip poles. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 41 rubidium. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 72 GPS and. 30 field-aligned current. 46 satellites and. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 82-84 Longitude. 88 Van Allen belts. 70 Magnetometer. 123 satellite. 69 alignment with solar wind. 79 IGRF. 77 locally measured. 35 positions of. 26 declination. 23 permeability. 71. 44 mountain. 32 realignment. 14. 43 cryogenic. 32 field human response to. 31 SQUID. 2 Magnet. 60-61 Magnetite. 31 randomly oriented. 92 Maglev. 44 termites. 5. 87 tail. 75 movement of. 107. 130 . 123 medical uses. 102 sunward boundary. 3 Magnetic charts. 42 Curie point. 3 crystals. 104 outer boundary. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 72 types of. 87. 114 currents. 6. 95. 78 dipole moment. 43 rocks. 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 44 seasonal differences. 124 variometer. 45 particles and. 102. 93 airport. 28 Lower mantle. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 115 envelope. 42. 30. 102 Magnetosphere. 58 proton. 106. 87. 78. 4 clocks and. 13 poles. 88 field measurements. 13 north pole. 70 field effect of. 15 south pole. 87. 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 102 Magnetosheath. 118 currents in. 88 tail boundary. 2. 26 dipole. 2 body "health" magnet. 71 positions. 42 in animal brains. 111 fields. 46 satellites and. 58 Island. 30 microscopic. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 102 field and charged particles. 111 solar wind path within. 111 magnetic storms and. 123 fluxgate.

128-129 charts. 36 troughs. 98 Maxwell. 71 Mesa Verde.W. 36 waves. 88 Molecules. 7. 89. 35 satellites and. 71 Mercury. 57. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 71 reversal of. 120 molecule. 36 plates. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. 17 changing source. 47 Saturn. 88. James Clerk. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR). 107 Maricourt. 43 Non-dipole field. 17. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 30. 10 Medicine. 30 Mars. 26-29 Neptune main field. 57 Mesmer. 34 Mid latitude. 71 Jupiter. 22. Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). 40. 70 Uranus. 18 Observatories. 117 Northern Lights. 71 Venus. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 6.) tail current. 116 Australian. 16 solid magnet and.148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. 42-43 Mercury main field. 71 Moon. 130 chain of. 130 daytime field variations. 71 Neutrons. 43 Nucleus. 75. 73 magnetic. 92. 23 . 29 Northern auroral zone. 129 Natural magnetic noise. 109 auroral zone. 18. 71 size of. 71 mapping. 106 auroral and polar regions. 28. 32 at poles. 110 northern high-latitude. 38 data. 132. 43 spin alignment. 17. 20. 42 satellites. 4 geomagnetic. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 49 ships. Franz Anton. 84 high latitude. 69 Ganymede. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). 138 northern hemisphere. 18 hydrogen atom. 115 Milky Way Galaxy. E. 131 method. 12. 5. 105 Novaya Zemlya. 3 Mars main field. Russia. 2. 71 Maunder. 71 Neptune. 34 extension into space. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 11. 134 INTERMAGNET. 131 Multipole. 23 dip angle. 4 Star. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 26. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 115 Magnetotail. 61 Metamorphic rock. 88. 3. 132 low latitude. 106 major worldwide. 3. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). 71 Main phase. 92 global network. 81 North Pole.. 23 alignment. 19-20 Moon main field. 15. 38 Main field. 113. 108 magnetic. 113. 4 geographic. 79.

117 3 Pseudoscience. 3. 69 Ring current. 45 IGRF field. 35-37 Pressure waves. 18 corrosion. 111 atmospheric. 114. 17 Reversal of field. 47. 41 Quake-site magnetometer. 119. 103. 82 magnetometer. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 130 Power lines. 46. 36. 37. 94 Ross. 43 Peregrinus. 87. 80. 74 Placebo effect. 58. 32. 52. 48 partial. 141 sonic. 41 Pipelines. 108. 70. 88 . 84 Remanent magnetization. 17 Recovery phase. 30 Poles. 131 Oscillation period. 98. 78. 70. 114 Paleomagnetism. 21 field description. 132 Port Augusta. 81 electrical noise. 72-86 communication signals. Washington State. 99 Paramour ship. 51 grounding. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 85. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. 73 drag. 70 region of Earth. 90. 73 auroral field. 11. 72. 119 Quadrupole. 114 field. 111 internal currents. 123 effects of current. 130 alignment. Australia. 92 Plages. 116 auroral oval. 13 131 Phase. 111 regions. 32-34 cap. 98 Plasma. 79 Prominences. 16. and main field strength. 83 north geomagnetic. 34 explosive. 123 Outer core. 112. 46. 48. 53 Quebec blackout. 70 subsonic. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 42. 80 Piezomagnetic effect. 48 search expeditions. 77 dysfunction. Permeability. 74 magnetic south. 16. James Clark. 44. 123 Partial ring currents. 134 Polar. 16. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 43 explorers. 23. 114 dynamo theory. 71 current loop. 18. 11. 31 Octupole. 84. 123 square of. 84 Right-hand rule. 7 Proton. 23. 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. 32. 12. 40. 70 Ozone layer. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 50 Prehistoric fields. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 106. 114 Paleomagnetician. 140. 50. 112. 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen). 60. 95. 2 Radiowaves. 128 magnetic. 95. 108 Plato. 48 chart location of. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 108 latitudes.Index 149 magnetic drift. 102 Satellite sector currents. 57. 35 of Dst index. 79 magnetic north. 67 Periods of oscillation. 88. 103 precession. 72 observatory. 11 damage.

87. 46 geostationary. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 49 magnetometer. 97. 31 measurement of drift. 124 Stand-off position. 93 elevation angle.) evidence of poles. 39. 57 disturbances. 9. 26. 56. 16. 131 Seismologists. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 108 magnetic field. 98 eclipse. 70. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 92 vortices. 60.150 Index Satellite (cont. 33. 13-15. 47. 34. 87 elevation angle. 87 surface rotation. 46 navigation and. 44--46. 97-101. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 92 field polarity. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 101. 107 disturbance. 83 Southern Cross. 80 functions. 88. 130 ions. 98 quiet (Sq). 82. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 92 magnetic field. 49 Saturn main field. 13. 2 SI units. 1. 98 panels. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 125. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). 101 visible light from. 69. 29 plasma. 134 Spectral analysis. 92 radiation. 95. 94. 107 Statistical significance. 128. 56. 119. 69. 46 radiowave-signal transmitter. 102 direction. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 17 Storm explanations. 107 field. 30 power supply. 106--107 geomagnetic. 46 plasma. 94-95. Chinese earthquake prediction. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 52. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. 71 Sea-floor spreading. 129 South Magnetic Pole. 28 navigation by. 45. 86 orientation by field. 57 eleven-year. 16. 54 Steady field. 85. 95. 99. 84 failure. 126 Solar corona. 102. 77 Sedimentary rock. 44 maximum elevation. 36 Sector effect. 55. 118. 132 Secular variation (SV). 88. 108-111 fingerprints. 66 Si Nan. 99 coronal holes. 88 Sunspot. 57. 102 burst IMF. 132 variations (Sq). 48--50. 88. 57 cycles drought and. 22 of main field. 53. 46. 98 cycle. 59 Strength of magnetic field. 3. 55 . 93 SQUID magnetometer. 75. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 12. 6. 101 prominences. 92 wind. 37 memory upset. 30. 55 ecliptic plane. 55. 6. 77 Sun. 55 rotation. 101 sectors. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center. 56 activity. 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 114. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 130 cycle. 99 flares.

Arizona. 17 equatorial. 84 Water divining/witching. 46 SV (Secular Variation). 106-108 field. 27 Units gamma (y). 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 17 . 55-58 space. 56. 77 Tail currents. 95 lobes. 17 polar caps. 39 Zone auroral. 60. 88. 134 Westward drift. 15 nanotesla. 95 Tomographic analysis. 35 World Data Centers. 123 Venus main field. 97. 12 Variometer. 17 low latitudes. 57 region temperature. 106 pressure waves. 55. 15 Gauss. 51 lines. 130 Tree-ring dating. 63-64 Weather. 17 high latitudes. 40 Telephone. 106 Thule. 48. 2 Van Allen radiation belts. 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. Antarctica. 132. 108 Variation field. 71 Vostok Station. 133. 5. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 111 heating. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect. 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 102. 118 minimum. 57 Tucson. 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk. 84. 102 maximum.Index 151 number (R). 43 Toward and Away sectors. Greenland. 44. 52 pager. 46 Upper mantle. 59. 15 Thermosphere. 138 X-rays. 94 Uranus main field. 50. 87. 46 Tesla unit. 16 magnetic field.

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Illustration from NASA. These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth.PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image. . PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona.

Figure from SEC/NOAA. enter our atmosphere.PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail. PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles. This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field. guided by the Earth's field. . A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown. Figure from NASA.

Bell 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle. Lanzerotti. Lucent Technologies. J.ptialaska. PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www. . Figure from L. Alaska.html). note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles.

PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits. organized by the Earth's spin. Hastings. . Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D. and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels. PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth.

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