Earth Magnetism
A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields

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which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch').A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. when my father showed me a compass. Albert Einstein . That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events. I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me. Something deeply hidden had to be behind things.

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. . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .3. .3 . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . Chapman 1. . . . . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . .1 1. . . . . . . Steady and Changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. . . Faraday Gauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locating the Fields . . . . . . . . .2 Finding the Fields 1. . . . . . . . . .3. . Gilbert . . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . . . . . . Maxwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs . . . . . . . . . . . Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . ix . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . . . .. . . . . . . and Frauds . . . . . . Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . .1. Old Wives' Tales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Rocks .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Travel and Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .1. . . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. . . . . . Double Blind . .4 2. . . . . 60 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Improvement . . 2. . . . . . Biomagnetism . . . . .7 2. 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .1. . . . . . . .2 2. Water Witching or Divining . . . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . . . . . Establishing Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . . .2. 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . .1. . . . . . Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . ..5 2. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets . . . . . . .1.1. . . . .3 Pseudoscience.2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . . . . Modeling 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . . . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Sampling . . . . . . .X Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . K p Index Ap Index 4.1. . . . Two Eccentric Axis Poles . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . Pole M a r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4. . . . .3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . . . . . . . .Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . . .2. . . . . . .3 121 121 . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IGRF Main Field Poles . . . 127 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4. . . . . . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . Harvesting the Fields 5. . . . . .1. . .1. .3 3. . . . . . . . . 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 93 94 Induction . . .5. . . . . . . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sectors . Measures of Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Magnetic Poles Galore . Conducting Blanket . . . . .1 Field Traces 5. . . . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . .1 3. . . . .2 Inside Sources . . . . . . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glamorous Display . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns . . .2. . . . . . . . . . Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l . . . . .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. . .1 5. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .5 5. . .4 5. . .5 Contents .2.6 Pulsations . . . .4 5. . 128 130 130 5. . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . Index 143 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . Magnetotellurics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . .xii 5. .

and radio propagation. satellite drag. and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. yet easy-to-understand way. in a way that is state-of-the-science. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. magnetic fields. He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. Dr. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete. His recent book. He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review. Thus. yet fun to read. Dr. It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic. Dr. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. including telecommunications. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. In addition. is one of the most important references in our field. interplanetary. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism. Campbell has authored several well-known books. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. not just geomagnetism. Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. Dr.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. satellite operations.

and he does so with superb clarity. Dr.xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives. and practicality. Herbert W. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy . Kroehl General Secretary. Dr. simplicity. He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields. the magnetic field of the Earth. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment.

Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age. To remedy this situation. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. Occurring every eleven years. XV . just start with the second. See Figure C.2. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour.) See Figure C. In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives. I have written this book for the interested nonscientist. Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies. You will have a personal.1. guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism.

opposing fields.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life. helical windings.FIGURE C. and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation. a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers. all involved in magnetic navigation. . These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force.1 I~. ready to misinterpret everything. Chinese compass. magnetic-dip instrument. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms. FIGURE C.

We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field. the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms. Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time. Together.3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image. . See Figure C. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole.Preface xvii FIGURE C. Both wish to be involved in the trip. In Chapter 3. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions.3. explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles.

these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries. See Figure C.5. and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field.4. See Figure C. field appearances on magnetic records. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users. what researched is now in progress. how field records can be obtained. our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun. . In Chapter 4.4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms. We will examine the storm impact at the Earth. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured.xviii Preface FIGURE C. and indices of such activity.

I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism. let us start the tour.Preface xix FIGURE C. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf. the modern father of space magnetism. Have no fear. A picture of Chapman. waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers.H. November 2000 . Now. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend.5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk. W. is prominently displayed. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away.C.

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the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer.Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group. W.H. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book. Although most illustrations are of my own creation. away from household duties. in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA.C. xxi . Finally. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues. Beth. Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA. the Space Environment Center of NOAA. the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. I thank my wife. I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily.

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1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly. Fortunately. indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together. Along the way. . I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift. acting as your guide. I1. But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house. Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction. In contrast. In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths.I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways. this is not an unusual route to understanding.

a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia. Chu Yu. The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape. . had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces. Then. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl.1). Si Nan.1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia. Similarly. Written records show that a Chinese compass. FIGURE 1.21 Historical Tour Markers 1. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions. opposite the handle of the Big Dipper. the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1.2. a Cantonese author of 1117. point toward the North Star.1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction. the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction.2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11. corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major).

But if it were given that name. how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline. He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole. Peregrinus described the pole locations. for which the negative and positive charges can be separated).Section 1. at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen." was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole. Loadstone (or lodestone). For our Western culture. A Frenchman. had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254. there would be even greater confusion. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1. The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star. an early word for "leading stone.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles. By the early fifteenth century. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus). .2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners. In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips.2 Historical Tour Markers 1. This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence. and how similar poles repel (Figure 1. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite.2.2).


Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism

FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.

declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about

Section 1.2

Historical Tour Markers


FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.

the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.

1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the


Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism

FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.

science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.

In addition. Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth.8) of Goettingen. =.6). who originally worked in England. Germany. In 1831. In 1893. but spent much of his productive life in the United States. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes. he developed the first electric motor.Section 1. Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. In 1838. in a time of significant English maritime expansion. He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity. and fields. the original design for our present public electric power plants. James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation. .7). Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman. mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes. In 1821. Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges.10). Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism. currents. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances. Chapman Finally. the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1.9).

With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany. Chapman became the father of space magnetism.6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms. Geomagnetism. The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage. who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name.8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1940. Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook. .

8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth. FIGURE 1. devised the first electric motor and electric current generator.7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867). . who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields.Section 1.2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1.

10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies.10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today. FIGURE 1. .

3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1.1 Earth Fields. points at different angles. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet. This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent . to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour. However. used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. the natural fields within and around the Earth. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism. as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth). Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism.31 Local Language Dictionary 1. as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts.3. out of or into the Earth.5).Section 1. to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject. The prefix gee. Steady and Changing Now. the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1.11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle. when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our planet. popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism.11).

and 24-hour periods are shown. is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter. which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time. In addition. Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago.12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion. The inverse of the period is the frequency. Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period. Examples of 12. meaning ancient. we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second.12). The prefix paleo. The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field. This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. is rapidly changing. the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1. . For example. but more dramatic appearance. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source. As we shall see in our tour. the weaker the effect of that field becomes.13).12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude. In contrast. The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation.

that can move another magnet. Of course. The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1.13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks. iron. or iron-rich rocks. Alaska. this control is measured by the force. The effectiveness of this field. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch. At the place where a field exists. also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. there are many different sources of magnetic fields. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size.3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1. .2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current.3.14). The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM. having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action. Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. For example. at 2 inches from a magnet. magnetic observatory.Section 1. and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. of course. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. 1. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current.

heavy iron bars. slowing it to a stop. strong attracting magnetic field. he discovered that magnetism was the problem. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1. To my dismay. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized..15).0 .14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1.6 "o It. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby._ *.. When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet. the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum. 1. When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate.00 1.. 0.. > . the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down..00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1.0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0.50 2.50 5. I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home.8 e. Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper.4 n- 0.00 3. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience.14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet. The field . The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones. 0. Somehow.1 1. By gently flicking the paper.50 3. probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred.50 4. A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding.2 0. What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive. c !.00 4.00 2..

is the proper unit officially . from electric current sources deep within the Earth. we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source. the equivalent name. it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine. 1. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT). Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength.3. and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities. Nevertheless. similar to that of the bar magnet. In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older. current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine.15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet. Giant. The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material. and from currents in the region of space above our planet. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss).3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1.Section 1. nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma).3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources.

1. called SI Units. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour.01 0.000. Another unit.16. t~ 0. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system. and lasting from hours to a full day or more. The Earth's main field varies from about 60.000. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies. The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-. Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below).000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1. the Gauss (1 Gauss =100.16 100. .16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources.000 gammas). occur during a geomagnetic storm. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude. The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1.000.001 0. 1. with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second.0001 0.1 0.0 . 100. The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers. EARTH MAIN FIELD 10.

Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields


Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.

FIGURE 1.17 I~

Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.

18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles

Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism

To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell

Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary


FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.

becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two

Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1.19). Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral.20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions. Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule. leaving a positive ion.18). and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe. There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon. the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1. A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17). to form sodium chloride. For example. hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1. which has just seven electrons in its third shell. the molecule of table salt. . neon. These parts are called ions. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule. carbon dioxide.19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away.20).

the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere. . If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow. +. In that gaseous region.~. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. described earlier. This is because the moving charges. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these. called its conductivity.p e" e" FIGURE 1. ions or electrons that compose the current. For example. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet. producing other characteristic auroral colors. the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field. then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source. An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region. the flow is called an electric current. produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1.. By convention. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction. We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere. How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule.Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary 21 . can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth. The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +.21). with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current.

.g.21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current. Rather. generally linearly directed magnetic field. The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong.41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules. Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space.22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1. causing them to glow (e. 11. The sources of such fields . I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment. nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer.

. magnetized materials. due to currents flowing in our space environment. Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field.Section 1. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks. in large measure. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives. liquid outer core of the Earth. and electricity transmission lines. pipelines. However. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field. and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface. Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives. In subsequent chapters. Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet). Natural currents. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. the main field at the Earth's surface. We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist.4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth. from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface. and natural current systems above the Earth. We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep.

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1. Within the security passageway.12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger. etc. watches. knives.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices. 25 . IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1. keys. The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6). an alarm is sounded. from rings. We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1. Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications. Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious. At concourse entrances. guns.1). airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2. called magnetometers.7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials. for example. If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected. coins. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects. an oscillating field is generated.

Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2.) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2. Hikers. have a compass as part of their navigation system. (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top. is also important for the traveler.satellite-dependent .26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display.3). On the modern vessels. In addition to the magnetic northward direction. By universal convention. back-country travelers. and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass. from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships. the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage.1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger. Ships at sea.2). printed nearby. forest rangers. the map date.

.... ...... .. COLORADO 80225. 5 ...~ . ... .. 1980 1940 FIGURE 2. ~ .. . |g'22'30" 104o37. along with the date.5 A 4.... . I k 45' R..-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN. ......... '2200000 FEET'~ q. I iN~EIII~iI~-.5/37.5--W 10437... . " ' ' -.. " . f "' .. Arizona... . i ..5 -- 14.tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922.~ ..0 -- % o C2 e 12.. 66 W.. DENVER.... 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~..S.. .~ J.~ . ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W .. .. I" .Section 2. from 1910 to 1986. o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~..VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2. ..~. ~ i " .....~... is always displayed on the best maps.0 - % ~.2 I~ Magnetic declination..... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.0 - 13...* In m U. I I ._~... ~ . II|iIY(H(. I .I In q) Q) 01 13... .. i . Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS.. 14.3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson. OR RESTON. I 1990 1 1 . ~ t ".5X48 FOR SALE BY U..1 1960 1970 . .1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~.. y t l l l G i N J & . 65 W i s~ii=E.. I .' ' 1'. .~" . I"85.L . ~ ' R .. . ~ ~ ..30- "1" I ' ' I . ~.5 - o o o o 12..i ~ .~oIr..i-dC--~:-L~.

It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude..28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ .9. In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2. modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail.D Q t _ t~ r-.. so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service. . longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed. 49) have replaced the older navigational aids. global positioning systems (see Section 2.1. Nevertheless. cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r . where the North Star cannot be seen. Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere. p. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2.=. For years.4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea. used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance.4).

Between star sightings and in overcast conditions.5). By international agreement. a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. For example. England.5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757. 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich. so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2. In later years. as well as many freighters and passenger ships. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position. navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock. small airplanes.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2.Section 2. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours. Today. In this example. . longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses. on the voyage. This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only.6). in an age of modern electronic navigation systems.

In the beginning years of space exploration. scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere.2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents. Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age.30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.7). Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface. On a microscopic scale. 2. For many years. Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment. Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position. 87~ east of geographic north. magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2. such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which .1.6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor.

For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit). the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2.Section 2.7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems. the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization. Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2.8). all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction. When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment. Paleomag- . the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does. If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis.8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization. Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing.1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2.

3. Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains. By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field. Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized.8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization. who study these rocks.2. continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature. 2. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation. Although geophysicists. By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass.32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2. Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains. p. Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle). 14). As this liquid rock material cools into igneous . Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises. Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1. and 3.

Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2. (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field. many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2.10) or road cuts. at first. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago. The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock. scrambled by the water currents.9). Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma.Section 2. Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation. Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2. The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone. While moving with the water. When .9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava. the overall alignment of the many particles is. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens.

Utah. archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2. the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. Upon cooling and hardening. silt-. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea.10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples. the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction. Studies of this type are called . At high baking kiln temperatures. Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery.34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago. Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization. Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed.11). and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation. Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position.

armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay. Now. the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe.Section 2. completely reversed its direction.1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2. Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern. the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence. After allowing for continental drift. the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1.5). the geomagnetic main field has. archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures. 2. rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- . on many occasions. In addition.1.

13). ancient flora. The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2.0 inches) a year. In recent years. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift. and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified. The cooled magma. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge. Africa is pushing into . with its field identification. Antarctica. This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating. special crustal regions.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10. activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2. and India were also once connected. forming the Himalayan Mountains. India is pushing up against Asia. In those two matched continental regions. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Australia. As this material cools. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder. but are continuing to separate. it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence.12).12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples. spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern. similar geology. have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth. often toward the middle of our major oceans.

2.Section 2. closing the Mediterranean Sea.13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift.1.1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2. The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7). Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2. or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf.14). Europe. Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields .

Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers. (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area. 128). p. During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances.2.13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings.3. To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist.14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology. Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves. an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5. National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- . The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys. All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements. wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1. magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites.38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.

Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4). cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods. Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament. iron nails.1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2. In 1991. The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys.15).Section 2.15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2. The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping. Shading indicates contours of similar field strength. just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a .

For example.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field. after adjusting for geological site differences. For their detection. mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials. Today. a local effect is verified. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process. Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites. or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2. For example. 2. Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause . This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1.40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other. This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations. at least two measurement sites are used. In early North American land exploration and development. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone. As a result. 2. Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity.1 gamma.1. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles). requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days. Unfortunately.16).

At the time of earthquakes. apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers. changes in magnetization.2. 2. this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material. p.1. Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal.6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions.16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed .1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2. but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2. and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event. 66).3.Section 2. For example.

These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction. 2. Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense. blue marlins. Approximately 0. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1. The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the .13). The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields. the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction.42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Inside these pond bacteria. green turtles.17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R.0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior. using a large loop antenna. artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern. and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism. Biological researchers. In other studies.7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2. spinning in random orientation. The well-known sea travelers whales.17). Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions.1. Blakemore. The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation. dolphins. mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue. magnetic material in their stomachs.

Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging. occasionally. live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2. and analyzed by computers. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because. A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r. .Section 2.) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession.18).f.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field. detected by magnetometers. pulse. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response. A brief radio frequency (r.f.1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2. pull of a gravitational field). With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals. The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms.

Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move. In recent years. We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets. Wire resistance limits the current flow. The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike. 2. This suspension is called magnetic levitation. However. In March 2000.1.19). at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away. using these field techniques. maglev trains have been developed. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region. Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr). to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets. Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves. or maglev for short. For propulsion. consider the fact that during major magnetic storms. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2.1. . The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents. NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields. For now. allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1.

More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions. The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density. for example).Section 2. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions. Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground. On occasions following a great magnetic storm. Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt.1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2. . over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost.19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth. Everest use oxygen masks. Following magnetic storms. the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position.

K. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. U. During geomagnetic storm periods. astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft. Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites. when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere.20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2. Energetic charged particles. Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation.46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency. upsetting program memory control. have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites. Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region. Surrey Space Center. the increased number of particles in space.20). A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage. During major geomagnetic storms. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms. such . A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms.

During a mag- .21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas. principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles). To lessen the damage to its systems.1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2. Particle impacts (Figure 2. the orbit and speed of the satellite. manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region. The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field.20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields. Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean. Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly. To avoid unhealthy exposure. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions. Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere.Section 2. and its electronic configuration.21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000.

higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere. netic storm.22). also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver. and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2. Worldwide telephone. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms. the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm. In recent years. At such times. .22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere. the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. and then degraded or lost. the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out.48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. fax. These signals. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere). The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction.

200 km (12. Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth.1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2.S. radiowave-signal transmitter satellites. commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. Such . constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS). ship captains.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2. fisherman.200 km (about 12. hunters. For navigation purposes.S. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites. The GPS allows users to find their time.Section 2. longitude. Soon U. hikers. These clock-synchronized. and the U.23). Defense Department which funded the system.625 mi) above the Earth. the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20.23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20. together with the ground receivers. The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists. latitude.

p. show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5.25).10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material. and the northern United States. such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather. magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field. With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field.1. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth. the nearer to the region of auroras.24). 2. Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times. such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart. We call the pair electromagnetic (e. At the surface of the conducting Earth. Canada. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor. can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters. 128). p. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems. the greater the induced fields. high energy-demand occasions. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. In general.m. in some situations. causing extensive electric power failures . Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5. At high-latitude locations. scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2. such as northern Europe.50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period. naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations. or em) fields.3. The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. The science of physics tells us that. A pair of electric field probes. 127).3.2.1. Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques. by nature. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field. during major magnetic storms.

long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted.1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 .5 FIGURE 2. some messages have been reduced to whispers. At such times. static. Canada.4 I I I I . geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way.- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms. laboratory testing.:Section 2. Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system.2 .1 . Using this conductivity information together with seismic records. An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province.24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth. and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter. and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States. or complete blackout. Six million people were affected by that power outage. .- 500 600 700 0 - 0 . at great inconvenience and expense to the public.3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I .

and water (Figure 2. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions. telephone lines. corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents.52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil. gas. and water pipelines. and long oil. At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest.26). The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits. improper FIGURE 2. These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems.25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating. . where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2. At low latitudes. gas.25).

We k n o w that two happenings can be related if .'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena. and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline.2. To avoid such problems.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o . Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion.2J Tour to the Boundaries 2. is particularly susceptible.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms. alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour. Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~.Section 2. which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow. The central section of the pipeline. J2.

The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method. D. there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile. specific mathematical test techniques need to be used. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events.0 . D. it has five important features: D. A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile. The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. 4 ) encourage further study. Sometimes. Cause and Effect Third. It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds. Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs. This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to .54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event. for the paired events. Correlation Second. as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics.4 ( . it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes. the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous). values 0.1 ) . Statistical Sampling First. Correlation values greater (less) than 0. On other occasions.8 (-0. not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second. For example.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship. the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes. A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. Just because Mr. Further study would probably show .

the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of . 2.5. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active. Models of the biological. and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar latitudes. For convenience. giving off less radiation than the average solar surface. During the Sun's cycle. the number of sunspots increase and then decrease.Section 2. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses.2. known from a secret list. Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause.2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2.27). Modeling Fifth. in tune with the 11-year cycle. when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation. special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study. Double Blind Fourth. for unknown reasons. For example. the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle. Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10.2 Magnetic Correlations =. Statistical significance is then required of the true item. and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. Studies have shown that. physical. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence. scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and. However. when a true relationship is l l. cooler or hotter.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather. whether there are attending unwanted side effects). The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation. Sunspot regions are cooler. for ingested chemicals.

some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring. the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens. However. Greece. A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions. Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum. Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle.56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation. . They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum.

2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States.28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles. These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection.Section 2. beginning in 1276. Geomagnetic storms. result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere. We shall see. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand. Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's . there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate. recorded at world magnetic observatories. near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms.28). preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth.

measuring the magnetic fields from the brain. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic. Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields. Figure adapted from Williamson.4. Sensitive magnetometers.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. In addition.29). have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2. Kaufman. 111).1. Originating in the auroral region. p. Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated. FIGURE 2. Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4. and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews. .29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger. containing ferric iron deposits. Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design.

Also. an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow. and 6. Nevertheless. the two can display a false correlation. 5. seasonal. although a significant (0. There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist.Section 2. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. Also. . the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. 3. the number of publications by active scientists. For example.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2. the number of admissions to mental hospitals. scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields. there are certainly well-known. the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum. But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. the number of heart attacks. will show a significant value. Random associations can occur. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima. A famous and prolific space scientist. although unrelated. the number of convulsive seizures.10). variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays. 2. 4.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random.2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior. when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period). or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes. However.

3 Pseudoscience.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD .2. at Arnhem Land. 2. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite . Also. in its yearly orbit about the Sun.~'. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes. India. Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north. .-~ !. The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall.' I.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S. it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year.ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q.31). Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields. Old Wives' Tales. Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967..l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2. therefore. ~ . it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad. magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects. is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year. As another example.I ~. oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2. A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community.lll ~ '. t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ . the Earth. and Frauds I. One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin. and at the Cape York peninsula. %.

these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature. allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night. Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season. P. In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery. constructions. Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun. about the time of the American Revolution. The word mesmerize originated in that period.Section 2.31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2. the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis. B. All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- . A then-popular Viennese physician. For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J. not because of the magnetic field direction.

alleviate arthritis. for a princely sum. health-food stores. However. suppress coughing. pillows.32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets. vard University Press. bracelets. with the promise that "strong. beautiful." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense. 1996). and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public.g. sleeping pads. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten.7. It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process. Some department stores. . such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen. direct-marketing outlets. cure insomnia. revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin).. knee braces. p. stop headaches. shoe innersoles. long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation. The magnets are said to be a time-honored. creating heat that soothes pain and swelling. cervical collars.1.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2. newlyweds could spend their nuptial night. 42).29)." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy. the MRI described in Section 2. There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e. reduce food cravings. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2.32)." Magnetic finger rings.

and desperation of the gullible public. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod." Tests of the method. under tightly controlled field . trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure. the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L". Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. when examined. who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater. the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California. The responsible American Medical Association requires careful.33). A similar add-on system for water pipes. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests. Berkeley. called a divining rod. by itself. The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies. untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories." Some witches. "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. suffering. describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof. In his hands.Section 2. say. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. or reference to a medical journal article. using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home. Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff. allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices. In their Health News Letter of May 1999. Held tightly in the hands of the witch. is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger). statistically significant. The advertisements feed on the fear.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment." =. the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect). which.

Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material.64 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2. recurring surface heating. Magnetism has no role in the divining.html. has nothing to do with rock magnetism. predominant weather front directions. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water. The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks.33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that. During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local geology. conditions. "The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. with a statistically significant number of examples. in truth. 1See the website http://www. The procedure is successful only by random luck. when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths. but magnetism is not the responsible agent. have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense. and local prevailing winds. .skeptic.

Section 2. Given the weather and traffic. not unusual. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual. hazily defined by Bermuda. usually magnetic. To create even more mystery. and Puerto Rico (Figure 2.34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda Triangle. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept.2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2.34).html. Serious researchers have proved that. in following Columbus's voyage of discovery. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region. the number of lost ships and planes in that area is. 2See the website http://skepdic. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle. ~. given the weather and traffic. 2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness. . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area. Florida.

Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices. . Most likely. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes. their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors.35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes. Nicaragua earthquake photo by J. Australia. They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region. Earthquake Predictions In recent years.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville. although the island's name remains. Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. Captain James Cook. some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem. workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes. Dewey of the USGS. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. ~. who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location. Unfortunately.

J. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable. citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. *Geller. Am. Of course. Eos Trans.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast. 1997. the occasional fortuitous prediction success. the Chinese blame numerous causes. although a clearly random coincidence. . including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief.35). R. is published and touted in the news media. Geophys. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs. but the many failures are rarely mentioned. The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences. 63-67.Section 2. Occasionally. Therefore. For these. signals that forecast earthquakes. Union 78.m. Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled.

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Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive. so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years. We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. every day of the year. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. 69 . We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. Generated by dynamic processes. the magnetosphere. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing. in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere.Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth.

A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area. Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust.2. a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself. 31) is reached for iron and magnetite. Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region. 4. Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. 5.1). there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field. between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles). 2. An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field. 35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. the Curie Temperature (see Section 2. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. p. but the absence . p. but not solid material. Fluids could cause this.3. a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change. There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth. They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape.5).1.2 and Plate 8). Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept. 3. the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth.1. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep. The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1. is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3.

Using the more recent main field evidence. destroy the organized loop current. Planets Mercury. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. Uranus. scientists have found that. Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field. Jupiter. Ganymede. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions. However. and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres. Venus also has no permanent main field.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. Disruptive eddy currents within that region can.Section 3. Saturn. The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying. in cycles averag- . Although Mars has no such field now. in time. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism. seems to display such a field. a moon of Jupiter.1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions.

If we don't stop at the first chart viewing.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds. we see a problem immediately.72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3.2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth.3). . For example. which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth. 13.2. We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal. ing 200 to 250 thousand years. There are many magnetic poles used by different groups. but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature.1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps. possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years.

Most commercial world maps (e.4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania. The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point..g. it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are. To further confuse this situation. not the important . most certainly.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground.2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3.5).Section 3. One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3.3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland. and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions. Rand McNally. The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1. those by National Geographic." a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3.

a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA. let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth.. Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas. 3. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3." So that we can better understand this universal misconception. pronounced "eye-yah-gah").2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II. This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values ..2. Hammond Inc. scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). As part of a special IAGA working group.74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole . pole locations "to which all world compasses point.4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands.

6).2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3. spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes. the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) . To prepare the model fields. The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior. The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth. Also. and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site. the scientists use a special mathematical technique.Section 3. which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections. Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions).8) of Germany. called Gauss coefficients. called the analysis epoch. E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles.5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles. The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). intelligently adjusted to a common date. when additional recovered data become available.

n and m. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed.7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices.6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field. Display program from P. a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that. g and h. the Earth. The IGRF table (Figure 3. when all are added together. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field . McFadden of AGSO. External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior.

0 FIGURE 3. Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here. a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space. depicted in Figure 3.6.8 -6.5 2.9 1. for the given epoch. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w . g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag.1 -12.2 3.9 1. but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T . The numbers (Gauss coefficients).2 0.6 13.Section 3. With this table and special formulae.0 -18.4 4.2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17.2 2. From a full IGRF or DGRF table. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12.5 -6. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3. m and n. Internal field models have been established back to 1945.6 -1.7 -15. scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface.8 -8.1 -0.21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values.0 -0.8 0. n o a a . less accurate.6).1 0.html.8 1. scientists can compute.7 -4. We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles". These poles are determined from a global field. n g d c .2 -8. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics. The total field map shown in Figure 2.7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600.3 -13. are indexed as types g and h. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years.

but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles. Earth-centered coordinates.? N N 1 I''~. This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements. The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center. quadrupole.8.8). Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns.9).3). is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center. The symmetrically S 17.w // S octupole N FIGURE 3. As we shall see below.78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part.. and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3.2.7) define the centered dipole terms. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3. The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3. The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~. . The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3. a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole. octupole. This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern. and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF. the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling. shown in Figure 3. 3. quadrupole. S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S .3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic.8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole.O I N v .

Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner . 128). Davis of NGDC/NOAA. about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms. We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles". Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years. However.2. All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5.3). Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays. located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600. interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth. Figure from M.2. it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that. All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that. on average. p. drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields.2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3. on average.Section 3. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model.

Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. a slightly different. attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our .2. and radioactive heating.4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted.80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core. This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem. the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data. The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one. To understand this fact. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis. introduced by the researcher. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. simpler analysis method is now typically used. the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others.10). it was offset from the Earth's geographic center. Thus. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group. Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location. 3. Because of their short spacial dimensions. The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials. In one. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center. If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center). on average.

not the Earth's surface.10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center. Similarly. from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific.Section 3. The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry.11). its distance from the geographic Earth center. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. Since the 1800s. the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center. Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis. The main geomagnetic field changes with time. the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles".2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit. "Magnetic Poles" definition. the tilt of the eccentric dipole. Were it not for some other difficulties. .

11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region. The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below . aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon). Also." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only.4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth. Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point.2. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics. 3.5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements. Fraser-Smith. Figure adapted from A. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface. For example. C.12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3.

2 Pole Markers 83 .8ol 14. what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field. and sector-effect (Section 3. p.1 .Section 3. there are seasonal. 94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements. As we shall see shortly. the arrival of .4.5. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole. In addition. ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3. whereas. Rand McNally & Company. New Zealand. Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents. the Earth's surface.12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica. diurnal (24-hr cycle).

cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3.84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole.2.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps.4. solar-terrestrial conditions. seasonal. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. Antarctica. Thus. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. for some strange reason. the ionospheric currents (see Section 3.13). it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare. Nevertheless. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter. just northwest of Thule.14 and Plate 4). Greenland. and day-night distortions. 3.) Also. in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station. Charged particles. With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations. Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms. fully quiet. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists. not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3. arriving from the Sun. . p. The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location. it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement. the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location.

21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- . This anomalous region (Figure 2. in the Southern Hemisphere. induced currents in the Earth.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3.13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. These are the pole locations with significant meaning. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents.Section 3.20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region. The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2. and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field). auroral region (ionospheric) currents.

The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure. Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance.14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole.1 gamma. A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation.86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left. Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space. Figure from NASA.31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. . 13.

On the day side. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole. two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re.Section 3. which defines the ecliptic plane. However. = 6371 km or 3959 miles). opposite to the apparent seasonal . In the space around the Earth. depending on the compression by the solar wind. Downwind. The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re). the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator. During major blasts of the solar wind. Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate. but. Thus.3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3. The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind.15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. from our viewpoint on Earth. antisolar direction. on average. This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance. away from the Sun. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward. called the solar wind.15). in times of extreme quiet. out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun. Re. that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3.

13.0 Re and 4. the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind. Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes. From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles). The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field. the higher the radiation energy. In addition. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4.5 to 6. This shift. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation. Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes.2 Re to 4.0 Re. Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. The shorter the wavelength of light. Principally at the two distances of approximately 1. Curiously. toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2.88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth. verified by satellite measurements. scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect). called galactic cosmic rays. there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation. Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen. to about 90 km (56 miles). This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons. that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy. which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. At higher altitudes.20).15). the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge. during strong solar winds.21). Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and . the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3.41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes. Far above the Earth.

at mid-latitudes.Section 3. Therefore. summertime.16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. The electron density values shown here are for midday. the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher. Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions. The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . upper-atmosphere composition.16). but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate. the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles). The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles).4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3. although. In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons. above 900 km (560 miles). Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth. which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3.

1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur. there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization. such as: 1. summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness. Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow. Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. 13.5. The water moves a . As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground.16). how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). For example. and 3. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town. Of course. the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient).51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3. the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region. Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3. In this way. However. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2. not all the ionosphere goes away at night.22).90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large. One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface. 2.

The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field. They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth. . This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field. Commercial. electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3.17). fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel. the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved. as far as the current flow is concerned. When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field. This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here. or the conductor is stationary and the field moves. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field.Section 3. Of course. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet. and the conducting properties of that wire.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves. The daily heating and FIGURE 3.

3. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex. a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator. As you might guess. where the main field is horizontal.18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere. The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size.5. .5 miles) in altitude. there are global winds. Use Figure 1. However. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another. where the ionospheric conductivity is large. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory. the two motions cancel out the current. Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans). This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet). causing a current to flow near 100 km (62. Also. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction. typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. At lower altitudes.2 S o l a r Q u i e t . The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. At much higher altitudes. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current.21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex. changing with solar activity and season. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq). the direction and strength of the Earth's main field. the wind system within the ionosphere. and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. where collisions are rare. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity.92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction. surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values.

18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system. All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions.Section 3. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter. Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset. 3. Such events include" 1.3 Induction At the Earth's surface. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse. and 3. on the Sun side of the Earth. or sudden heating by auroral-related currents. atmospheric atomic explosions.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun. 2.5. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator. flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions. magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external .

The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3. for the conductivity determinations.4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected. The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth.5.19). from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2.24). 3.19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth. Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary. a corresponding field change occurs. Geomagneticians use the separated.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3. surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth. Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind. . there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind. a special daily solar sector effect is found. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior. toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun. Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns. The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity.

4.20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station. 130. There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve). Thule. p.Section 3.5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule.2. . Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5. Greenland. Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3. a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3.20).

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Chapter 4

Umbrella for Magnetic Storms

Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.

i4' 1

Disturbances in Sight

4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in


Chapter 4

Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms

FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.

the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):

1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.

which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4. Photo from SEC/NOAA.2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages.1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4. The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. . and arches of solar gases. The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth. The solar corona. filaments.3). The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle.Section 4.4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas. That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions. 5. prominences.

CME. Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler. the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves. The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral.1. The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower. Although each particle of water is shot out radially. showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles. determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4.3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon.2 In the W i n d In the solar wind. Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR. The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. more constant plasma stream. The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun. . the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4.3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec). 4.4).100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.

4. In this chapter.1. which has the opposite direction. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances. The outward flow of solar plasma. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components.Section 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4. which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3. determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm. The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun). 4. p.3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle. At differing solar longitudes.4. The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4. 94). high-latitude fields are mostly open.4).5. carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself. Its interaction with the Earth's main field. Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface. so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles). The . creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball. p. either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane. The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field.5. in both quiet and active times. 94). The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane. slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator.

with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances. Earth responds to this activity. space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4.5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape.102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle.5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm. seem to be responsible for this delay. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions. The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum. The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause. Using measurements from special satellites. The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4.1). When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect .

3. powerful field-aligned currents. p. During the equinoxes. strong partial ring currents. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with red. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. During the magnetic storm. and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4.6 and 4. .to 300-km-high (63. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic storm. charged particles (primarily solar electrons. thermospheric pressure waves. When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types. other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth. and the shape of the Earth's field. 88). and induced currents in the Earth. Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. green.Section 4. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods. releasing energy. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. their energy. protons. Figure 4. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights). intense ionospheric currents.5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms. Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere. In addition to the auroras. yellow.7). they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. near the 100. This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes. growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents. where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere.

104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Figure adapted from L. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center. which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers.6 I~ Electrons. Combs and R. . nm). arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current. bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms.

Then there typically follows a slower.9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4. Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth. The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours. On the records.13).4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms. 4.8). Overmyer of NASA. at the onset of a geomagnetic storm. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4. with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4. Photo by R. there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component. Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1.5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase . Figure 4.1.Section 4. H-component increase (called the initial phase.7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary.

north or south of the magnetic equator. The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary. it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3. This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4.10).and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149. The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4.1. and forms the north and south tail lobes. at the Earth's surface. a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4. 116). Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites. Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time).106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4. the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. in response to the solar wind direction. a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail. In these displays. p. see Section 4. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source . constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories. =.9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created.5). the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location. The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display. with a considerably intense internal sheet current. Of course.5. During the storm development. After this compression. A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination. producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface.15).8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30.

Field-aligned current (Figure 4. 1980 FIGURE 4. Because of the ionospheric conductivity.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec.5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region.12). 20. A concentration of these currents . The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record.lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase . a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere.9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left).Section 4. The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part. all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere. Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4. spaced in longitude around the Earth. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J. Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4. 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~. In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re. For convenience in representation. 19.5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes.11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes. but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region. current patterns.

strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4.13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena. northward) with the antisolar location. a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously. In the auroral region. An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis. Because of the solar wind flow. southward.10 I~ During a magnetic storm. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June.5). count the electrons that are arriving. Figure 4. As the air molecules are split apart. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation. away from the spin axis. typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet. That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies. during the geomagnetic storm. measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules. attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Instruments on highaltitude balloons. The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth. The cross-tail currents move similarly. . December. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere.

During a magnetic storm. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. Therefore. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+. At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment.11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms. negative). field-aligned currents. . only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time.Section 4. the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself. that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes. fields from the partial ring currents. Figure 4. Local time is indicated around the circumference.1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4.14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox.

This wave disrupts the high ionosphere. Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating.12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates.15). =. A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. at just under sonic speed. travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones. Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman. pro- . The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects. Another stronger pressure wave.110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters.

and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations.1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4. the traces. .Section 4. the field from the westward auroral electrojet current. Alaska.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks. the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves. illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons. top to bottom.

. N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 . auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW). which are not traceable to solar sources. 14 UT FIGURE 4.112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. Antarctica. these are the field changes in the northward (H). Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles . and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located. eastward (D). Some phenomena. Canada.! 12 I . Byrd ! _! 10 I.14 I~ During a magnetic storm day. Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces. can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields. ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents. Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event. !. and Byrd Station. .

which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds. ~ 2045 . / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T.. in that region. _~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~. . initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed.. A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds.16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya. were detected at Fort Yukon. .. causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth.. Russia. The light and dark traces indicate north-south. That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4.. N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4. There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August.5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units)...and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction. . the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds. 2055 _~ .. .. .. ~ 2110 FIGURE 4.16).. 1962.. The pressure waves... Alaska....... What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated. The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3. However."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L. it is possible to point out some generalizations..1 Disturbances in Sight 113 .15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave... Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon. Alaska.Section 4.... At the po- .

At low and equatorial latitudes. storm-time.11). As a result. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger.1. Thus. but more distant. at the low and equatorial latitudes.12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations. field-aligned currents. the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate. magnetometers register a large. a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator. and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. field-aligned (Figure 4. At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents. The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination. All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position. . Therefore. others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents. The strong nightside. some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes. At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions.5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras.8).17).114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important. the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. 4. Extending to the equator. For each Universal Time hour. and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4.

The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times. K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed. the planetary form of the index. such stations are not uniformly . A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index. of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index. AU) and the lowest (lower envelope. called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index. Kp. An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp.18). The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours. Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements. NGDC/NOAA.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4. Dst (Figure 4.17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century. Kp Index A third magnetic index. (Figure 4. AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket. In this example. Illustration from World Data Center A. The small short-period variations contribute little. Unfortunately. magnetospheric currents. for 4 and 5 July.Section 4. 1974.

The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. in a long-term average. The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0. the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index). Each contributing station has a different K table. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4. distributed around the Earth.116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. More are in the Northern Hemisphere.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above. and . the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each location. and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms. there is a concentration in indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp.19). Statistically. the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes.9. fixed so that. +. the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. Because a large number of the index . The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change.

daily Ap..6 5+ 4 .20).----. Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes..1 3 3.3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__.2 1.1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23.O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6.--0.3 2 3+ 4.-----------------------.------.2+ 3+ 4 4 2. There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods.64.12 13 .2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4.. Coffee at NGDC/NOAA.----.1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3.2 1 O+ 2+ 1..2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3.--.42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11.__--_.------------------___----..2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____...lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4.1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2.36 85.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71.3+ 3.19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K. A study of .1.16 65+ 6 2..2 2+ 1 2 . lalallalal. Table provided by H.--.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .Section 4.1+ 3. stations are at high-latitude locations.=--. At such times. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described.4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 .2+ 0 0|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1. large magnetic storms are more likely to occur.4.O+ 1..1+ 1.1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm.

Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4.6. travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere.6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances.16).001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur.1.118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields. Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4. Other pulsations. quite oscillatory form (called Pc). Erwin of NGDC/NOAA.20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997.22). 131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface. p. 4. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4.1 to 0. upon arriving at high latitudes. On the charts.2. Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5. .21). Figure from E. the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous. small (0.

. 1966.22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0. C. Allen and D. Figure from J. on 23 August. H.Section 4. FIGURE 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4.21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station. Antarctica. Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA.

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He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred. The first question I expect is. It is time now for tourists' questions. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory. How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be. 15-1 I Field Traces 5. Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally. I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism. Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask. In those times.1).1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries. the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1. At prearranged times. I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter. Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. investigated the global distribution of field disturbances. Germany. of Goettingen. The 121 .Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5.1.8).

A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device. collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly. By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions. 5. the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward.2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system. and vertical directions. Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis.1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century. eastward. With the improved instrument in a darkened room. when photography came into general use.122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5.1. which rotated once a day. These magnetometers were given the more specific . the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction.2). capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5.

2 I~ The simple variometer. after being moved.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5. Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material.2 7 3 ~ C or . developed by the mid-nineteenth century. A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper. Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents. shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper.3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet. Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet. The light beam. moving with the magnet. . Notice how your home compass needle. The exact strength of the Earth's main field.Section 5.4 6 0 ~ F). whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward. Today. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength. Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties. many other systems are used to record the field. could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position. He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator. not the full main field strength. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded. oscillates before coming to rest northward. The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period.

Figure from J.3 I~ Modern.Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5. but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer..Coil -. is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling.124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields . Zimmerman of NIST.RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw ... The niobium metal sensor. which is only approximately 1.6 inches) in diameter. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium .5 cm (0. which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0...Coaxial Line -..00001 gamma. ..

4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on. 1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5.1 Field Traces 125 5. and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular 5. carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides.html. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom. With the 2-inch-wide tape. Some 1See the website http://image.nasa. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw. gsfc.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet.1. Turn on thehighintensity lamp and. The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day. You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. with a marking pen. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and. Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card. . making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. for school demonstrations. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap. put a dot near its center. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed.

can . During geomagnetic storms. lasting many hours or even days.25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north.4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA. If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches). a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a . effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp. deflections of several degrees.126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table. or other fiat surface. near a wall. magnetometer.

a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5. however. Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity. The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0. Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations.1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. two probes.Section 5. Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder. the spot will remain in the same location.5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises. Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field. In typical soil. .19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. the measurements will be affected. Note that if any of the parts are moved.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations.3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). About 2 square feet (0. A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor . . can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0. That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0. .1 millivolt. separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more. Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot. The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. Most of the time. . .05 gamma (for most locations). For those readers who are adept at electronics. .

2.2. 5. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data. The necessary variable resistors. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields.3.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region.7. 5.1 Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2. p. 1.21. amplifiers.4.5. Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- . One such model is depicted in Figure 5. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best. one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section 3. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges. 78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3.2.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior.6 with Figure 2. 5. switch.2. 80).128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes. Comparing the results in Figure 5. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles). and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores. using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism. p.2.21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth. a small battery. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work.

"56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5. the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure. Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model.Section 5. R. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA. Figure 5. ments taken along a fixed line on the surface.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered.l. . 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 .a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 . Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole. Figure from J.8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes.2 90 --. tilted dipole. The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas). The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole.

The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows.2.5. 5.2. Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations.4. 5.4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3.9) in the polar regions at low activity times. the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were . 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3. Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions. Figure from J. p. Using a chain of observatories. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5.5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index. Quinn of USGS.

The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. determined (Figure 5. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance.2. they were not due to local anomalies. There were often large local storm field differences from the index. More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks. The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4. p.6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- . 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS.8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state. Figure 5. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters. thus. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. In this figure.Section 5.1.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5. it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations. 5.6.10). That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations.

so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling. By international agreement.\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5. the horizontal axis represents the time in hours. ond. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2. These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution. globally distributed collection points.132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '. .12).3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form. duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents.. Today. which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special. Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere.5 hours in local time for the two conditions. and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation. chart preparation. 15.

. i . .gov 9 In Russia: World Data Center B.Section 5.noaa. fax: 1-303-497-6513. . tel: 81-75-753-3929. . . mailstop EGC2. . fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2. . .. 0 10 20 ! . . . . | . . . .. . . 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. . tel: 1303-297-6761. . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group). Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science. .10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories. . These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude). . 60 | .12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United States. consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure). 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l . . field differences were determined. JAPAN. . . .. . . . .3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9. i . fax" 81-75-7227884. RUSSIA. NGDC/NOAA. tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619. Kyoto University. . . . Academy of Sciences of Russia. . . . Molodezhnaya 3. e-mail: info@ngdc. . . . . Moscow 117 296. Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. . . . Colorado 80305-3328.. . Boulder. 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day . . 325 Broadway. .World Data Center A. Kyoto 606-8502. USA. .


Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.

15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.

15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:

Section 5.5

Information Kiosk


FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on

TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)


Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and






tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.

including a9-

100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)


200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)




600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)

t.,rl "I"
< r


1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)


~r "11

a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).

Q. W


and solar panels degraded.. Satellite operations: none. Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions. elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays). memory impacts cause loss of control. Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted.2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). star-trackers unable to locate sources. 103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible. _. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets.l s t e r . Biological: none.. high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays). permanent damage to exposed components/detectors.~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA. 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days. permanent damage to solar panels.t ". these events can last more than one day). Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. noise on imaging systems. serious noise in image data. noise in imaging systems. Satellite operations loss of some satellites. Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days. and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult. Flux in particles: s . Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA. and decrease of solar panel currents. Satellite operations: memory device problems. o . passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray).l c m -2. Biological: none. bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions).4 . Flux levels are 5 min averages.TABLE 5. star-trackers cause orientation problems.

which may spread into the night side. ~r -rl r o. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour.4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 .. causing loss in positioning. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators. a Some or all of these effects are possible.t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours. affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. measured in the 0. loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours.-i.TABLE 5. Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 . loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth. X20 (2 x 10 .. HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. -r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m.1--0. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days). HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators.8 nm range. HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.. in Wm-2). bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux. .3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _.3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 . Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth.

alaska.ips. Geological Survey. NOAA.gsfc. with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams. Sydney.alaska. English translation in 1893 by P. De Magnete. also . g ov/$tp/stp. Gilbert. in the order of their original publication @usgs.Section 5. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern NASA. USA: http://sohowww. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center. Denver. University of Alaska. USA. 1600. New York.E Mattelay. Australia: http://www. 368 pp. 1958. Colorado 80225. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical Institute. e-mail: 9 GoddardSpaceFright Center. Such data. USA: http://www. NASA.noaa. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories.S. USA: http://www.spaceweather. 9 W. USA: http://uvisun.sec.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle. Box 25286 Federal Center.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX. html 9 Space Environment Center. also http://www.HTML. Mailstop 306.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services. magnetic field. noaa. U. nasa.. also http://image. ngdc. fax: 1-303-202-4693.pfrr. republication by Dover Publications. also 15. USA: http://www.61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales. 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA. gov/UVI/current_image. and radiation information to monitor the space environment. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback.

Scottish Academic Press Ltd. A fine. 2 vols..D.. application. American Geophysical Union. ed. 1967. 2545 pp.. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust. Majestic Lights. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information. Piper. 9 J.. Harvard University Press. Washington D. Driving Force.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. Jacobs.. Eather. Bartels. Campbell. Physics of the Earth. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time. and history of magnets. Brisbane Brookfield Press. An up-to-date. Chapman and J. thorough review of the technology. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. New York. Cambridge.D. beautifully written. 1940. 9 S. Milton Keynes Pub. auroral descriptions. Geomagnetism. 434 pp. Matsushita and W. the Aurora in Science. 9 R. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists.. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book). . detailed references. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. Stacy. compact yet complete. 4 vols. Parkinson. 433 pp. 2 vols... 323 pp. 9 J.H. 1987-1991. 9 W. and thorough description of analytical methods. 1992. the Natural Magic of Magnets.A.. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate. and the Arts. 1050 pp.D.. 311 pp. It was last republished in 1951. Oxford University Press. 1980. This classic.H... Edinburgh. Introduction to Geomagnetism. 513 pp.. Academic Press. 1996. 1398 pp. Oxford. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age. New York. Although our subject is only a small part of this book. 9 W. Massachusetts... History. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies. and beautiful illustrations. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage.. Geomagnetism. 1987. Livingston. Brisbane. Open University Press.D. Academic Press.C. 9 J. Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena.A. 1983. eds.

.W. Merill. and EL. San Diego. Written by well-respected researchers. Cambridge University Press. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. M. the Core. 1997. 9 W. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field. .. Campbell. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations. 304 pp. and the Deep Mantle. 1996. The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism. McElhinny.Section 5. Cambridge. My own compact but comprehensive textbook. with many illustrations.H. 531 pp.T. McFadden.6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R. Academic Press.

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61-63 Books. 42 Body magnets. 2 Biomagnetism. 109. 101 angle. Paul. 117 Apollo space craft. 113 magnetic observatories. 110 oval. 120 143 . 84. 34 Byrd Station. Antarctica. 37 charts. 17. 17. 109 zone. 65 Big Dipper. 102 Bremerton. 20 electrojet current. 116 Aeromagnetism. 59 Blakemore. 106 values. 105 high-latitude. 148 oil discovery. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights). 25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields.Index Activity index. 82 surveys. 35. 70. 106. 118 Addresses. 8. 14. 22 Australis (Southern Lights). 18 weight. 131 Bryce Canyon. 39 map. 38 Analysis epoch. 60. 133 Asteroid. 123.. 40 Atomic number. R. 18 Atoms. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 17. 8 Bermuda Triangle. 84 pulsating. 139-141 Bowshock. 125 Bartels. 105 bombarding particles. 90. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index. 39 Archeological formations. 45 temperature. Washington State. 39 Archimedes spiral. 21. 109. 38 Agonic line. 56 upper. 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. Qu6bec. Julius. 18-19 Auroral displays. 17. 119 Baie St. 102 Archives. 115. 20. 15. 113. 116 Aurora. 39 Atmosphere lower. 41-42 correlations. 4 Airport magnetometer. 134 Bar magnet.

44 magnetometers. 35 magnetotelluric. 38 navigation. 14 Earth. Australia. 59 Charts. 23. 7. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays. 60. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). 88 sunspot connection. 6. 34. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 70 distorted. 93. 77 Dip angle. 124 electromagnets. 123 temperatures. 69 strength. 29 Chinese. 53 Earth. 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 94 Darwin. 36--41 resistivity. 26 Chu Yu. 26 aeromagnetic. 39 ancient field behavior. 80 field alignment. 2 declination and. 25 source and induced. 11. 34 equator. 66 main field and. 81 locally-measured. 50-51. 84 . Captain James.144 Index Chapman. water. 32 bar magnet. 94 geological features. 20-23 direct. 55 ecliptic plane and. Sydney. 15 induction. Christopher. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 92. 35-37 Cook. 29. 75. 84 Dipole. 54 double blind. 101 Correlation cause and effect. 75. 36-38. 31. 21 secondary. 3 magnetic island and. 70. 72. 70 Current. 6 eccentric axis. 13. 11 main field. 23. 70 moment. 51 radiowave. 70. 48 Conductivity. 98 mass ejection (CME). 40. 25 right-hand rule. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. 54 coefficient. 70 Tucson. 21 corrosion and. 6 magnet Earth as. 18 comparative (air. 3 Communications. 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 122 airport runway declination. 55 modeling. 111 Continental drift. 111 electrical. 10. 6. 103. 109 Conjugate positions. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 17. 90 pole eccentric axis. 108 Crust. Arizona. 4. 26 lodestone. 48 long-wire. 130 Corona. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 89. 32. 4. 2 Climate. 56. 99 Coronal holes. 15 Disturbed field. 101 Columbus. 79 field pattern. 9. 115 ionosphere. 82 ionosphere. 70 magnetism. 3. 92. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 82. 63 Drift contintental. 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 27. copper). 23 origin. 130 De Magnete. 90 Compass. 139 Declination. 108 Double-blind test. 55. 26. 8.

70 source. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 18 current. 44 use in maglev. 37 reversal. 110 equatorial. 81 field representation. 23 Electrical conductivity. 7. 71 Earthquake. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 21. 54 prediction. 18 aurora and. 101 Eights Station. Alaska. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 77 analysis. 32 clay. 3. 92. 98. 7. 48 and magnetic fields. 28 External field. 104 Elements. 22 field. 47. 13. 34 Field in space. 127 Electrons. 90 region. 9. 123 Forbush effect. 90-92 current. 109 Ethesian winds. 102 upper atmosphere and. 84. 9. Michael. 114 Franklin. 79 particle. 50 systems in satellites. 70 theory. 25 Ferrous atoms. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 112 Faraday. 66-67 signals. 50-53 mapping. 76. 90. 111. 84 Ecliptic plane. 87. 90 Electromagnet. 111. 134 Epoch. dipole field. 114 models. 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. 37 power lines. 81 dipole. 115 Filaments. 26. 44 in wire. 7 transmission lines. 128 dipole poles. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 75. 92. 23. 50. 21. 22 induction responses. 127-128 dipole field strength. 127 probe. 44 Electromagnetic field. 44 Fort Yukon. 88 Force of magnetic field. Benjamin. 84. 41. 75 Equatorial electrojet. 3. Alaska. 18 molecule. 3. 84 Fairbanks. 13. 79 lower mantle. 87. 21. 79 non-dipole field vs. 70. 134 Electric charge. 18.Index 145 magnetic pole. 130 storm currents. 36. 55 Energetic particle events. 130-131 Dynamo. 37 Field-aligned current. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. 71 outer core. 50. 13. 85. 50 power plant. 90 sharing of. 19. 94 conductor. 18 atomic number and. 80. 40. 102-104. 99 Flares. 90 . 22 ionization and. 89. 109. 70 Earth current. 75. 7. 20. 14. 22. 9. 115117. 20 solar. 56 Exploration (global). 19 Electrojet auroral. 70. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 81 current in a wire. 7. Antarctica.

84. 61 Humbolt. 45.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 16. 121 coefficients. 74. 75. 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 78. 28. 132 pulsation. 115. 8 Health magnets. 49 Grand Teton National Park. 130 field models. 110. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 11 first textbook on. 11 from North Star. 92 Ions. 25.) of oscillation. 97-120. 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 48. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 50 Infrasonic pressure waves. 109 current. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 73. 74 regions (zones). 77 IMAGE spacecraft. 89. 102 Ionosphere. 107 recovery phase. 16 Geologic exploration. 92 high latitude. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. 113 Greenwich. 75. 130 auroral. 17 Hubble Space Telescope. 58. 49 main phase. 94 field responses. 20-23. 15 Ganymede main field. India. 48. 78 2000 coefficient values. 111. 75-77 field units. 50. 66. 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 92. 49 Geomagnetism. 44. 44 Indices. 58 low. William. 17 Igneous rock. 72 GPS and. 52. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. 18. 114 Intergalactic fields. 29 Halley. Wyoming. 74. 76 Induction. 78. 62 Heliospheric boundary. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 57. 131 storms. 86 INTERMAGNET. 64 Joule heating. 75. 123 Hyderabad. 116 Land survey. 89 solar wind. 80 table. 95 poles. 49 high. Baron Alexander von. 115 lunar quiet-day. 92-94. 89 electron density. 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 78-80. 32 . 138 Gilbert. 16. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 84. 53. 128 coordinate system. 5. 12. 47. 40. 108 Jackson Lake. 77-80 multipoles. 86 High latitudes. 111 Jupiter main field. 9. 40 Latitude. 94 of pulsations. 90. 72-86. 134 GPS and. 8 Geostationary satellites. 114. 132 Internal field. 64 Great Earth Magnet. 48. England. 79 North Pole. 119. 90 dip equator. 28 geomagnetic coordinates. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. 128. 8. 7. 46 Gamma (y). 7. 58. Canada. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. 79 main field poles. 107 satellites and. 115 equatorial. 16 netism and Aeronomy). 5. Edmund.

93 airport. 32 realignment. 44 termites. 42. 102 sunward boundary. 6 domains. 124 variometer. 30 microscopic. 31 SQUID. 78. 2 body "health" magnet. 28 Lower mantle. 104 outer boundary. 44 seasonal differences. 31 randomly oriented. 35 positions of. 123 quake-site. 30-35 storms. 88 field measurements. 14. 26 dipole. 3 Magnetic charts. 13 north pole. 6. 3 Locally measured dip poles. 2 Magnet. 95. 111 magnetic storms and. 58 Island. 102 Magnetosphere. 3 polarities. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 42 Curie point. 123 satellite. 72 GPS and. 111 fields. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 46 satellites and. 44 mountain. 5. 79 IGRF. 102 Magnetosheath. 69 alignment with solar wind. 44 simple bar. 61-63 Earth's main field. 123 Magnetopause. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 43 rocks. 72 types of. 115 envelope. 106. 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 49 ship's. 130 . 71. 43 cryogenic. 118 currents in. 123 fluxgate. 102 field and charged particles. 77 locally measured. 42 in animal brains. 102 tail of. 60-61 Magnetite. 87. 23 permeability. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 3 crystals. 32 field human response to. 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 3 Eccentric axis dipole. 87 tail.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 84 axis. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 102. 30. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and. 123 medical uses. 70 Magnetometer. 88 Van Allen belts. 30 field-aligned current. 87. 78 dipole moment. 45 particles and. 26 declination. 107. 58 proton. 92 Maglev. 66 levitation. 15 south pole. 71 positions. 88 tail boundary. 75 movement of. 82-84 Longitude. 111 solar wind path within. 13 poles. 46 satellites and. 23. 114 currents. 41 rubidium. 25 coils. 70 field effect of. 103 heating of. 2. 4 clocks and. 87.

3 Mars main field. 84 high latitude. 81 North Pole. 36 troughs. 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). Franz Anton. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 38 data. 19-20 Moon main field. 23 alignment. 71 Mesa Verde. 28. 3. 89. 71 Neptune. 29 Northern auroral zone.148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. 88. 70 Uranus. 71 Main phase. 15. 35 satellites and. 134 INTERMAGNET.. 18 hydrogen atom. 92 global network. 5. 23 dip angle. 34 Mid latitude. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. 43 spin alignment. 108 magnetic. 17. 129 Natural magnetic noise. 73 magnetic. 43 Non-dipole field. 36 plates. James Clerk. 61 Metamorphic rock. 71 reversal of. 138 northern hemisphere. 98 Maxwell. Russia. 109 auroral zone. 47 Saturn. Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). 7. 42 satellites. 26-29 Neptune main field. 131 Multipole. 18 Observatories. 92. E. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). 71 Neutrons. 117 Northern Lights. 88. 30 Mars. 71 Venus. 75. 22. 10 Medicine. 128-129 charts. 26. 71 Moon. 115 Milky Way Galaxy. 43 Nucleus. 106 major worldwide. 110 northern high-latitude. 120 molecule. 132 low latitude. 40. 88 Molecules. 4 Star. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR).W. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 69 Ganymede. 2. 38 Main field. 3. 49 ships. 71 Jupiter. 20.) tail current. 11. 18. 71 Mercury. 130 daytime field variations. 115 Magnetotail. 130 chain of. 106 auroral and polar regions. 57. 71 mapping. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 42-43 Mercury main field. 4 geographic. 6. 36 waves. 32 at poles. 79. 4 geomagnetic. 23 . 34 extension into space. 57 Mesmer. 71 Maunder. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 131 method. 71 size of. 16 solid magnet and. 17 changing source. 17. 113. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 105 Novaya Zemlya. 116 Australian. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 113. 30. 12. 132. 107 Maricourt. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).

94 Ross. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 18. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 99 Paramour ship. 114 dynamo theory. 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 88. 53 Quebec blackout. 32. 90. 35 of Dst index. 112. 7 Proton. 114. 123 square of. Australia. 17 Recovery phase. 17 Reversal of field. 98. 23. 123 effects of current. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 16. 13 131 Phase. 50. 50 Prehistoric fields. 16. 114 Paleomagnetician. 77 dysfunction. 103. 40. 79 Prominences. 67 Periods of oscillation. 69 Ring current. 37. 43 explorers. 36. 114 field. 85. 43 Peregrinus. 35-37 Pressure waves. 80. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 47. 123 Partial ring currents. 30 Poles. 80 Piezomagnetic effect. 114 Paleomagnetism. 73 auroral field. 131 Oscillation period. 48 chart location of. 44. 42. 21 field description. 70. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 3. 81 electrical noise. 117 3 Pseudoscience. 116 auroral oval. 108 latitudes. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 128 magnetic. 123 Outer core. Washington State.Index 149 magnetic drift. 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen). 78. 83 north geomagnetic. 111 internal currents. 45 IGRF field. 134 Polar. 84. 48 partial. 46. 34 explosive. 2 Radiowaves. 32. 70 region of Earth. 130 alignment. 108 Plato. 60. 130 Power lines. 102 Satellite sector currents. 16. 74 Placebo effect. 48. 23. 58. 52. 111 atmospheric. 103 precession. 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. 72 observatory. 106. 57. James Clark. 108. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 119 Quadrupole. 41 Pipelines. 84 Right-hand rule. 95. 92 Plages. 111 regions. 46. 82 magnetometer. 11. 74 magnetic south. 11. 71 current loop. 79 magnetic north. 72. 51 grounding. 70. 141 sonic. 41 Quake-site magnetometer. 140. and main field strength. 72-86 communication signals. 84 Remanent magnetization. 88 . 11 damage. 32-34 cap. 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. Permeability. 12. 70 subsonic. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 18 corrosion. 48 search expeditions. 132 Port Augusta. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 70 Ozone layer. 119. 31 Octupole. 98 Plasma. 73 drag. 95. 87. 112.

1. 49 Saturn main field. 22 of main field. 13. 56 activity. 98 panels. 30. 85. 46. 13-15. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. 45. 97-101. 69. 102 burst IMF. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 129 South Magnetic Pole. 97. 2 SI units. 94. 87 surface rotation. 36 Sector effect. 80 functions. 59 Strength of magnetic field. 107 disturbance. 52. 77 Sun. 101 sectors. 55 rotation. 55. 94-95. 12. 57 cycles drought and. 29 plasma. 98 cycle. 17 Storm explanations. 3. 92 wind. 55 ecliptic plane. 88. 99. 6. 107 field. 101. 53. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 71 Sea-floor spreading. 92 vortices. 119. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 92 radiation. 46 navigation and. 102. 9. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 101 prominences. 48--50. 60. 87 elevation angle. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center. 47. 16. 66 Si Nan. 131 Seismologists. 108 magnetic field. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). 108-111 fingerprints. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 6. 84 failure. 34. 93 elevation angle. 130 ions. 114. 88. 126 Solar corona. 130 cycle. 49 magnetometer. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 92 field polarity. 125. 95. 128. 28 navigation by. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 57 eleven-year. 31 measurement of drift. 56.) evidence of poles. Chinese earthquake prediction. 46 plasma. 26. 33. 98 quiet (Sq). 46 geostationary. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 87. 70. 44 maximum elevation. 95. 16.150 Index Satellite (cont. 57. 83 Southern Cross. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 86 orientation by field. 54 Steady field. 57 disturbances. 30 power supply. 132 variations (Sq). 101 visible light from. 75. 106--107 geomagnetic. 77 Sedimentary rock. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 92 magnetic field. 98 eclipse. 124 Stand-off position. 39. 56. 102 direction. 107 Statistical significance. 93 SQUID magnetometer. 44--46. 55. 134 Spectral analysis. 99 flares. 88. 99 coronal holes. 69. 82. 55 . 118. 88 Sunspot. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 37 memory upset. 132 Secular variation (SV). 46 radiowave-signal transmitter.

71 Vostok Station. 39 Zone auroral. 43 Toward and Away sectors. 46 Tesla unit. 51 lines. 27 Units gamma (y).Index 151 number (R). 55. 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 63-64 Weather. 50. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 46 Upper mantle. 84. 118 minimum. 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk. 57 Tucson. 97. 15 Gauss. 15 nanotesla. 35 World Data Centers. 94 Uranus main field. 17 . 132. 106 pressure waves. 60. 138 X-rays. 134 Westward drift. 130 Tree-ring dating. 111 heating. 59. 102 maximum. 56. 108 Variation field. 48. 87. 123 Venus main field. 17 high latitudes. 46 SV (Secular Variation). 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. 44. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect. 17 low latitudes. 2 Van Allen radiation belts. 12 Variometer. 5. 17 equatorial. Arizona. 77 Tail currents. 15 Thermosphere. 102. 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 106-108 field. 17 polar caps. 16 magnetic field. 55-58 space. 106 Thule. 84 Water divining/witching. 95 Tomographic analysis. 52 pager. 40 Telephone. Antarctica. Greenland. 88. 95 lobes. 133. 57 region temperature.

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These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth. Illustration from NASA. A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image.PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona. .

. Figure from NASA. PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles. Figure from SEC/NOAA. This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field. enter our atmosphere. guided by the Earth's field. A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown.PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail.

html).net/Nhutch/aurora. Alaska.ptialaska. Bell Laboratories. Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www. Lanzerotti. PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. Figure from L. Lucent Technologies. J. . note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles.PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle.

PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth. organized by the Earth's spin.PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits. and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels. . Hastings. Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D.

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