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A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields
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I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me. Albert Einstein . Something deeply hidden had to be behind things.A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch'). That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events. when my father showed me a compass.
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. . . . . . . . . . . Chapman 1. . . . . .3 1. . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halley . . . Steady and Changing . . . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs . . . ix . . . . .1 1. Faraday Gauss .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . Maxwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .4 1. . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gilbert . . . . . . . . . . . . Locating the Fields . . . . Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. . . .3. . . . .1 1. . . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Finding the Fields 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .X Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Double Blind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Travel and Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets . . and Frauds . . . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 65 . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Witching or Divining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation . . . . .1 2. . . . . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. . . . . . . . .2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3 2. . . 60 60 . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .4 2. . . . Medicine . . . . Old Wives' Tales. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . Biomagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . . . .3 Pseudoscience. . . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 . .1. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Improvement . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions .1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration . . .6 2. . . . . . . Establishing Significance . . . . . .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 .2 2. .1. . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust . . Statistical Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . .1. . . Modeling 2. . . . . . Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Rocks . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . .1. . . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . . . . . . . . . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . .5.1. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . . .3 3. .1. . . . . .2 4. . .2. . . . . . . Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Magnetic Poles Galore .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measures of Activity . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . Conducting Blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harvesting the Fields 5.Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . . . . . .1 Field Traces 5. . . . . . . . . .2.1 5. . . . . . K p Index Ap Index 4. . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . .1 4. 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IGRF Main Field Poles .2 5. . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .4 3. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Inside Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . . . . .5. . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . . . . . . . . .5. Two Eccentric Axis Poles . . . . . . . . . . .1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 . . . . . . . . .3 3. . Glamorous Display .4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4. . . .3 121 121 . . . 92 93 94 Induction . . . . . . . . . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . . . . . . . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations . . . . . . . . . Pole M a r k e r s . .1. . .
. .3 5. .6 Pulsations . . . . . .2. . .6 5. . . Magnetotellurics . . . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . . . . . . . .4 5.2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . 128 130 130 5. . . .5 5. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 5. . . . . . . . .xii 5. . . . . . . . . . . 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. . . . . Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . Index 143 . .5 Contents . . . . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. .
Dr. In addition. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. Thus. is one of the most important references in our field. including telecommunications. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. interplanetary. He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. and radio propagation. and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . satellite operations. yet fun to read. He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review. Dr. not just geomagnetism. Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. satellite drag. His recent book. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. Dr. It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic. Campbell has authored several well-known books. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. magnetic fields. in a way that is state-of-the-science. yet easy-to-understand way. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. Dr.
Dr. Dr. Kroehl General Secretary. He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields. the magnetic field of the Earth.xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives. and he does so with superb clarity. simplicity. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy . Herbert W. and practicality. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment.
In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. just start with the second. XV . global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. See Figure C. guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters.2. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour. Occurring every eleven years. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives.) See Figure C. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics. I have written this book for the interested nonscientist.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period. To remedy this situation. Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age. You will have a personal. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism.1. Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies.
FIGURE C. helical windings. a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers. magnetic-dip instrument. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean. Chinese compass. ready to misinterpret everything. FIGURE C. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life. opposing fields. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand. and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones. These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force. all involved in magnetic navigation. .1 I~.
. We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field.Preface xvii FIGURE C.3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. See Figure C. the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction.3. In Chapter 3. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained. explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles. Together. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole. Both wish to be involved in the trip. Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time.
In Chapter 4. what researched is now in progress. field appearances on magnetic records.5. . and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information.xviii Preface FIGURE C. and indices of such activity. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field. See Figure C. how field records can be obtained. See Figure C. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured. our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun. these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries.4.4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users. We will examine the storm impact at the Earth.
5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk.Preface xix FIGURE C. Have no fear. W. is prominently displayed. the modern father of space magnetism. waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers. let us start the tour. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away. I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf. Now.C. November 2000 . A picture of Chapman. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend.H.
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Finally. Although most illustrations are of my own creation. Beth. I thank my wife. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book. Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty. the Space Environment Center of NOAA. the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. away from household duties. I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily.C. in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA. W. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA. xxi .H. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues. for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer.Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group. the Geomagnetism Section of USGS.
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But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together. indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction. Along the way. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift. acting as your guide. . this is not an unusual route to understanding. I1. Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head. I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place.1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly.I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways. In contrast. Fortunately. In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths.
a Cantonese author of 1117. Then. . Written records show that a Chinese compass. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions. Si Nan. opposite the handle of the Big Dipper. The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape. had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces. FIGURE 1. a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia.21 Historical Tour Markers 1. Similarly.1).2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11. the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1. corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major).1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction. Chu Yu.2. point toward the North Star. the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC.1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia.
Loadstone (or lodestone). had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254. an early word for "leading stone.2 Historical Tour Markers 1. Peregrinus described the pole locations.2). and how similar poles repel (Figure 1.2. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips. By the early fifteenth century." was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses. . For our Western culture. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole. A Frenchman. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus).Section 1. there would be even greater confusion. But if it were given that name.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1. The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star. This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence. at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen.2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole. He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline. for which the negative and positive charges can be separated). how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other. In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone.
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.
declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about
Historical Tour Markers
FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.
the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.
1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.
science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.
. Chapman Finally.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. =. Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. Germany. and fields. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman. Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges. James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1.7). currents. In 1831. a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution. he developed the first electric motor. He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1. In 1893. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation.Section 1.10). the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1.9). the original design for our present public electric power plants. In 1821. he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity. Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes. Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth. In 1838. mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes. in a time of significant English maritime expansion.8) of Goettingen. In addition.6). who originally worked in England. but spent much of his productive life in the United States.
who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name.6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley. . With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany. Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms. Chapman became the father of space magnetism. The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage.in 1940.8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1. Geomagnetism.
2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1.8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth.7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867).Section 1. who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields. devised the first electric motor and electric current generator. . FIGURE 1.
. FIGURE 1.10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies.10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today.
Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism. The prefix gee.11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet. as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts. out of or into the Earth. 11. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism. This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent .3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1.31 Local Language Dictionary 1. as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth). points at different angles. the natural fields within and around the Earth.5). to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1.is used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. Steady and Changing Now.11).3. to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject. the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour. However. popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism. when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our planet.1 Earth Fields.Section 1.
the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period.12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion.12). Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation. For example. which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago. is rapidly changing. The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter. Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances. Examples of 12. the weaker the effect of that field becomes.and 24-hour periods are shown. The inverse of the period is the frequency. As we shall see in our tour. In contrast. In addition. we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second. The prefix paleo. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example. . the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1. is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times. meaning ancient. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. but more dramatic appearance. The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field.13).12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1.
also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. iron.13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks. . magnetic observatory. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch.3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1.Section 1. having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action. there are many different sources of magnetic fields. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil.2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current. or iron-rich rocks. For example. The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. The effectiveness of this field. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current. The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1. this control is measured by the force. and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. at 2 inches from a magnet. At the place where a field exists. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface. Alaska.3. Of course. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size.14). of course. 1. that can move another magnet.
The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones.00 1. To my dismay.00 2. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience.0 .00 4. Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper. probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred. the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down.00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1. > .15).50 5. 0.4 n- 0. 0.8 e.. A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding.. I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home.6 "o It. c !.. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby.0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0. Somehow._ *. the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum.50 4. The field . strong attracting magnetic field. When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate. What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive. he discovered that magnetism was the problem. When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights.00 3. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet. By gently flicking the paper.50 2.14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet.. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized.50 3. 1.14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1.. slowing it to a stop.1 1..2 0. heavy iron bars. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1.
nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma). and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities.3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1. from electric current sources deep within the Earth. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss). 1. The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material.Section 1.3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources. and from currents in the region of space above our planet. is the proper unit officially . current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine. it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine. Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength. similar to that of the bar magnet. the equivalent name.15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet. we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source. Nevertheless. In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT). Giant.3.
16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources. occur during a geomagnetic storm.001 0.000.01 0.0001 0. The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1. 100. the Gauss (1 Gauss =100.000. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10.0 . The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma. called SI Units. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies. and lasting from hours to a full day or more. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude. Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size. . with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second.000. 1.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-. 1. t~ 0. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system. The Earth's main field varies from about 60.000 gammas). Another unit.16 100. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below). EARTH MAIN FIELD 10.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1.1 0.000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour. The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers.16.
Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields
Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.
FIGURE 1.17 I~
Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.
18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles
Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism
To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell
Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary
FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.
becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two
leaving a positive ion. The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away. . These parts are called ions. A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17). to form sodium chloride. hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1. and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe. Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions.20). Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral. Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule. neon. There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon. which has just seven electrons in its third shell. the molecule of table salt. the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1.18).19).20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule. For example. carbon dioxide.
with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules. .Section 1. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth. An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere. For example. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current. described earlier. This is because the moving charges. the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field. This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. producing other characteristic auroral colors.. ions or electrons that compose the current. called its conductivity.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these. produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1. can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet.p e" e" FIGURE 1.~. By convention. the flow is called an electric current. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule. The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +. the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water. If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow.21). The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source. +.3 Local Language Dictionary 21 . In that gaseous region.
nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer. The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules. The sources of such fields . I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong. 11. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current.41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories.22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1.g. Rather. causing them to glow (e.. generally linearly directed magnetic field.21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire. Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space.
the main field at the Earth's surface. and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. pipelines. However. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field. and natural current systems above the Earth. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist. We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. and electricity transmission lines. liquid outer core of the Earth. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution. Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field. from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface. We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks. magnetized materials. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives. . Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field. Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface. In subsequent chapters. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet).4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth.Section 1. We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives. due to currents flowing in our space environment. Natural currents. in large measure.
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If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected.12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2.7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices. watches.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6). We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1. Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications. guns. The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames. which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger. keys. Within the security passageway. airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2. At concourse entrances. 25 . coins.1). etc. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects. for example. from rings. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1. called magnetometers.1. Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious. an alarm is sounded. knives. an oscillating field is generated.
Ships at sea.) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2. from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships. back-country travelers. printed nearby. and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass. is also important for the traveler. By universal convention. On the modern vessels.26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Hikers. the map date. most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display. have a compass as part of their navigation system. forest rangers. the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage. Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2.1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger.satellite-dependent .3). In addition to the magnetic northward direction.2). (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top.
~..1 1960 1970 .... .. 14..i-dC--~:-L~.0 - % ~... I iN~EIII~iI~-.5X48 FOR SALE BY U.... ~ .~.. 1980 1940 FIGURE 2.. " ' ' -...~ . |g'22'30" 104o37.... y t l l l G i N J & ... . along with the date. I I .. ... 5 ..Section 2. . from 1910 to 1986. I k 45' R.2 I~ Magnetic declination. COLORADO 80225.3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson. DENVER.. I"85.~ . II|iIY(H(...~oIr. ~ ' R ..... . ...5 -- 14. . . I . GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922..-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN..... ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W .5/37. 66 W. .. o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~. I .I In q) Q) 01 13..5 A 4.. ~ t "... I" .. i .5--W 10437. " . .' ' 1'. OR RESTON.. 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~. . ._~. 65 W i s~ii=E....* In m U.. Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS.. ~ ~ . Arizona..~. ..S.i ~ .~ J. i .....VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2.5 - o o o o 12.....L . I 1990 1 1 .~ .1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~.. '2200000 FEET'~ q... .0 - 13.....30- "1" I ' ' I .0 -- % o C2 e 12. .. . ~ i " . ~ .~" .... is always displayed on the best maps.. f "' .
In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2.D Q t _ t~ r-.4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea. 49) have replaced the older navigational aids.9.1. For years.4). global positioning systems (see Section 2. modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2. longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed. so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service. It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude. . p.. where the North Star cannot be seen.. cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r . Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere. Nevertheless. used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance.=.28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ .
In this example. . on the voyage. in an age of modern electronic navigation systems. longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery. 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich. so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours. as well as many freighters and passenger ships.5). Today. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position.6). By international agreement. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea.Section 2. small airplanes. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2.5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757. England. This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only. For example. In later years. navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean. a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock. Between star sightings and in overcast conditions.
In the beginning years of space exploration. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite. satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor. magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2. Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems.30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents.6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. For many years. scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere. 87~ east of geographic north. Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment. 2. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position.7). Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age. On a microscopic scale. such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which . Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface.1.
8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization. Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2.Section 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2. For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit). the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does. When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment. the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2. Paleomag- .8). If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis. all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction. the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization.7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems. Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing.
32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2.3. Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1. p.8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization. Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains. who study these rocks. and 3. continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature. Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains.2. By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass. Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized. Although geophysicists. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation. As this liquid rock material cools into igneous . Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle). 2. By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field. 14). Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer.
When . Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation.9). The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago.Section 2. Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma.10) or road cuts. Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes. many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction.9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava. While moving with the water. scrambled by the water currents. at first. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens. the overall alignment of the many particles is. The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock. Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2. (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field.
Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-. silt-. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea. the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction. Upon cooling and hardening. Utah. The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed.11). Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position. Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization. Studies of this type are called . and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation. At high baking kiln temperatures. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples. the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2.10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery.34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.
archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures. the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years.1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2. Now.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence. In addition. After allowing for continental drift.5). Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern. 2. rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- . the geomagnetic main field has. the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction. the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe.Section 2. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1. on many occasions.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay. armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior. completely reversed its direction.1.
and India were also once connected. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern.12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples. special crustal regions. but are continuing to separate. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. As this material cools. The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift.0 inches) a year. In those two matched continental regions.12). have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom. The cooled magma.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10. The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Africa is pushing into . with its field identification. Australia. This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating. In recent years. activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2. ancient flora.13). spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom. similar geology. The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. forming the Himalayan Mountains. and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified. it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge. Antarctica. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder. often toward the middle of our major oceans. India is pushing up against Asia.
closing the Mediterranean Sea. Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents. Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2. Europe.1. The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust.Section 2. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields . or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7). 2.13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift.1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2.14).
During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances. Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves.2.3. Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers.13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings. p. All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements.14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology. National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- . To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist. (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area. The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys. 128).38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5. wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1. magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites.
Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods. aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a .1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2. In 1991.Section 2. Shading indicates contours of similar field strength. We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4). iron nails.15). The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys. The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2. Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament.15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast. just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico.
This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations. Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause .5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field. requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist. For their detection.1. at least two measurement sites are used. Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1. In early North American land exploration and development. Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone. 2. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process.1 gamma. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days. Unfortunately. For example. Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity.16).40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other. For example. a local effect is verified. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0. Today. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles). a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). As a result. mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials. after adjusting for geological site differences. This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2. 2.
66).6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions. changes in magnetization. apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers. and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event.1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2. this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material. 2.1. Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed . p.Section 2.3. At the time of earthquakes.16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption. For example. but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2.2.
These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction.42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2.7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms.17). In other studies. Biological researchers.1.0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior. The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1. Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense. using a large loop antenna. mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue. The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons. the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction. Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions.13). The well-known sea travelers whales. spinning in random orientation. magnetic material in their stomachs. Blakemore. blue marlins. Inside these pond bacteria. dolphins. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the . green turtles. artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern. 2. The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation. Approximately 0.17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R. and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism.
A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r.1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2. pulse. live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2.Section 2. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response. detected by magnetometers. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity.f. Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because. The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms.) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession.18).f.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice. A brief radio frequency (r. occasionally. . and analyzed by computers. pull of a gravitational field). With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals.
The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. 2. consider the fact that during major magnetic storms. to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement. Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways. electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. In March 2000. The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed. . Wire resistance limits the current flow. Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr).1. In recent years. This suspension is called magnetic levitation.1. maglev trains have been developed.19). For propulsion.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. using these field techniques.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves. allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields. at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike. For now. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields. NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2. However. or maglev for short.
More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. for example).19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position.Section 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2. over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions. The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density. . Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions. Following magnetic storms. On occasions following a great magnetic storm. Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt. Everest use oxygen masks. the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit.
Energetic charged particles. Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region. when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere.20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2. captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms. During major geomagnetic storms. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms. upsetting program memory control. Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites. have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites. Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency. Surrey Space Center. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. such . A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft. During geomagnetic storm periods.20).46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite. Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. the increased number of particles in space. U. naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood.K.
During a mag- .1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2. engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean. and its electronic configuration. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas. Particle impacts (Figure 2. the orbit and speed of the satellite. Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere. principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles). Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS.21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth. Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions. The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly. To avoid unhealthy exposure. manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field.21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000.20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. To lessen the damage to its systems.Section 2.
netic storm. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere). the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. Worldwide telephone. Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm. The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction. At such times. fax. also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver. These signals. higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere.48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. and then degraded or lost.22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere. and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2. the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out.22). and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. . In recent years. the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms.
S.S.1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2.Section 2. longitude.23). the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20. Such .625 mi) above the Earth. commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. Soon U. ship captains. hunters. These clock-synchronized.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2. fisherman.200 km (about 12.23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20.200 km (12. hikers. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites. The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists. For navigation purposes. radiowave-signal transmitter satellites. and the U. The GPS allows users to find their time. Defense Department which funded the system. latitude. Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth. constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS). together with the ground receivers.
Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques. In general. 2. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field. causing extensive electric power failures . scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2. or em) fields.3. Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times.3. 128). Canada.25). naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations. 127). show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5.1. high energy-demand occasions.m. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field.50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. The science of physics tells us that. At high-latitude locations. and the northern United States. the greater the induced fields. such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather. the nearer to the region of auroras. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor. With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field. A pair of electric field probes.10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor. p.24). such as northern Europe. during major magnetic storms. Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material. researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period. can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters. We call the pair electromagnetic (e. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. At the surface of the conducting Earth. The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems. such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart.2. p. by nature. in some situations.1. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth.
1 . and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter. static. Using this conductivity information together with seismic records.- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .- 500 600 700 0 - 0 .24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth.2 .5 FIGURE 2.:Section 2. at great inconvenience and expense to the public. geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way. long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted.4 I I I I .1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 . Six million people were affected by that power outage. Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system. some messages have been reduced to whispers. laboratory testing. or complete blackout. and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States.3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I . Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms. Canada. An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province. . At such times.
telephone lines.52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil. The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits. At low latitudes. and long oil. improper FIGURE 2. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions. At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest.25). and water pipelines.25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. . where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2. gas. the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating.26). corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents. and water (Figure 2. gas. These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems.
which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow. J2.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena.2J Tour to the Boundaries 2.Section 2.2.'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms. The central section of the pipeline. is particularly susceptible. Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o . Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~. alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour. and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline. To avoid such problems. We k n o w that two happenings can be related if .
there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile. Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. Sometimes. D. D. Correlation values greater (less) than 0. It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds. Cause and Effect Third.4 ( . For example. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics. the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes. The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. for the paired events. it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. Correlation Second. it has five important features: D. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions. A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. On other occasions. not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second. Statistical Sampling First. High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs.0 . values 0.8 (-0.54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events. specific mathematical test techniques need to be used.1 ) . as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena. The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method. This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to . A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile. Further study would probably show . Just because Mr. Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes. the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous). 4 ) encourage further study.
and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar latitudes. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. Sunspot regions are cooler. in tune with the 11-year cycle. special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study. cooler or hotter.2 Magnetic Correlations =. Studies have shown that.2. scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and. 2. For convenience. For example. Models of the biological. Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause.27). when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence.2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2. physical.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather. the number of sunspots increase and then decrease. and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. whether there are attending unwanted side effects). giving off less radiation than the average solar surface. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. for ingested chemicals. known from a secret list. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses. the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle. The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation. Modeling Fifth. During the Sun's cycle. the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of . for unknown reasons.to l l.Section 2. Double Blind Fourth. Statistical significance is then required of the true item.5. Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10. when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active. when a true relationship is found. However.
Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle.27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation.56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Greece. some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring. . A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions. the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens. Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum. They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum. However.
beginning in 1276. there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate. result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere. preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado.28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles.Section 2. Geomagnetic storms. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection. recorded at world magnetic observatories. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth.2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle. Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms. These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's .28). near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States. We shall see.
.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4. Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields. measuring the magnetic fields from the brain. In addition. Figure adapted from Williamson. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic. p. Sensitive magnetometers. containing ferric iron deposits. Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design.29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger. have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2.1. Originating in the auroral region. FIGURE 2. and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews. 111).29). Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations. Kaufman.4. Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated.
Section 2.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. 5. when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period).2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior. 4. For example. scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. Nevertheless. there are certainly well-known. 2. seasonal. Also. Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2. Random associations can occur. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima. although unrelated. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random.10). the number of publications by active scientists. an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow. The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. However. A famous and prolific space scientist. But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum. the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack. the number of heart attacks. Also. the two can display a false correlation. specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes. the number of admissions to mental hospitals. and 6. although a significant (0. There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist. 3. will show a significant value. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. . the number of convulsive seizures.
Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite .2.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S. and at the Cape York peninsula.lll ~ '. in its yearly orbit about the Sun.3 Pseudoscience. %. ~ . is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year.ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall.. t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ . One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes. Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967. it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense. As another example. Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields.l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2. 2. therefore. the Earth. A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community. oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2.~'. it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad. India.-~ !. Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north. magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects. . and Frauds I. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year.' I.31). The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers. Old Wives' Tales.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD . at Arnhem Land.I ~. Also.
In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds. these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature. mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery. Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains. about the time of the American Revolution. constructions. Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2. increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun.Section 2. P. The word mesmerize originated in that period. B. A then-popular Viennese physician. allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J.31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions. not because of the magnetic field direction. the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- .
pillows. the MRI described in Section 2. p. health-food stores." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy. direct-marketing outlets. Some department stores." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense. such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen. knee braces. suppress coughing. for a princely sum. newlyweds could spend their nuptial night.g. .. sleeping pads. stop headaches.32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. 42). beautiful. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2. Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2. alleviate arthritis. It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process. vard University Press. with the promise that "strong." Magnetic finger rings. The magnets are said to be a time-honored. and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public. 1996).1. bracelets. There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e.29). reduce food cravings.32). long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation. That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten. cure insomnia. However. cervical collars. revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin).7. creating heat that soothes pain and swelling.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. shoe innersoles.
Berkeley. who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. A similar add-on system for water pipes. trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure. by itself. The responsible American Medical Association requires careful.Section 2. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies. Held tightly in the hands of the witch. suffering. called a divining rod. using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger). Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod. shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L". Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. say. or reference to a medical journal article. "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. In his hands. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests." Some witches. statistically significant. When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof. under tightly controlled field ." Tests of the method. and desperation of the gullible public. when examined. In their Health News Letter of May 1999." =. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff. untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories. Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment. the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California. which.33). The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. The advertisements feed on the fear. the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect). advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge. allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices.
33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful. when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said.64 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2. but magnetism is not the responsible agent.skeptic.com/dousing." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that. in truth.html. predominant weather front directions. has nothing to do with rock magnetism. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. 1See the website http://www. with a statistically significant number of examples. recurring surface heating. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water. Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material. Magnetism has no role in the divining. . "The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well known. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks. The procedure is successful only by random luck. have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense. The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography. and local prevailing winds. While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. conditions. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local geology. During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak.
~. usually magnetic. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region. in fact. Serious researchers have proved that.html.2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2. hazily defined by Bermuda. To create even more mystery. 2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness.Section 2. given the weather and traffic. Given the weather and traffic. Florida. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle. not unusual. the number of lost ships and planes in that area is. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept.com/bermuda. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces.34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda Triangle. .34). following Columbus's voyage of discovery. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual. Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area. and Puerto Rico (Figure 2. 2See the website http://skepdic.
their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors. some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville.35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes. Australia. Dewey of the USGS. ~. Captain James Cook. They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices. Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2. . workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes. although the island's name remains. Most likely. Nicaragua earthquake photo by J. who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. Earthquake Predictions In recent years. Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. Unfortunately.
Section 2. R. Geophys. 1997.m. citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. J. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs. is published and touted in the news media. Eos Trans. although a clearly random coincidence. The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. Of course. Occasionally. . the Chinese blame numerous causes. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief. almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled.35). the occasional fortuitous prediction success. but the many failures are rarely mentioned. The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable. Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. 63-67. *Geller. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences. signals that forecast earthquakes. Union 78.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast. Therefore. Am. For these. including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods.
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69 .Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. Generated by dynamic processes. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere. We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. every day of the year. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years. We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. the magnetosphere. changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth. Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive. in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior.
A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area. the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth. They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape. a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change.1. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region. a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself. Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth.3. 31) is reached for iron and magnetite.1. Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. 2. is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3. but the absence . There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth. p. 3. p.1). the Curie Temperature (see Section 2. Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region. Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. Fluids could cause this.5). The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1. 35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. 4. 5. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles). but not solid material. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field.2.2 and Plate 8). there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1. An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field. Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept.
Uranus. destroy the organized loop current. Saturn. However. in time. Using the more recent main field evidence.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. Ganymede. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. a moon of Jupiter. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism. The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying. scientists have found that. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes. seems to display such a field.Section 3. Although Mars has no such field now. with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions. Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field. in cycles averag- . Jupiter. Planets Mercury.1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). Disruptive eddy currents within that region can. and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres. Venus also has no permanent main field.
For example. We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal. but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature. 13. possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years. .2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth.1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps. we see a problem immediately. which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3. If we don't stop at the first chart viewing. There are many magnetic poles used by different groups.3). ing 200 to 250 thousand years.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3.72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.2. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds.
Rand McNally. Most commercial world maps (e. those by National Geographic.g. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3..4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania. it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are. The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point. One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3. The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross. To further confuse this situation.2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3." a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time. not the important . and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions.5).3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland.Section 3. most certainly.
let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth. pronounced "eye-yah-gah"). As part of a special IAGA working group. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3.4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands.74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole .2.. Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas. scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). pole locations "to which all world compasses point." So that we can better understand this universal misconception. This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values .. 3. a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA. Hammond Inc.2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II.
The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). Also. the scientists use a special mathematical technique. E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles. To prepare the model fields. The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth. the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) . and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections. G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles. called Gauss coefficients. The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior.Section 3. intelligently adjusted to a common date. called the analysis epoch. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1.5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles. Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions).2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3. when additional recovered data become available.6).8) of Germany. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes. spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site.
Display program from P. a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that. n and m. The IGRF table (Figure 3.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices. when all are added together. g and h. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field . the Earth.6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field. McFadden of AGSO.7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients. External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior.
Internal field models have been established back to 1945.3 -13.8 -6.1 -12.7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years. a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space.7 -4.6 -1. scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface.0 -18.8 -8. The total field map shown in Figure 2.6.9 1.5 2.4 4.2 0.Section 3. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3. These poles are determined from a global field. From a full IGRF or DGRF table.html.0 FIGURE 3. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics.7 -15. are indexed as types g and h.1 0. Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here.2 -8.2 2.8 0. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600. n o a a .6 13.9 1. n g d c . less accurate. but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T . depicted in Figure 3. With this table and special formulae.5 -6. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w . The numbers (Gauss coefficients). We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles". m and n.2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17.0 -0. g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag.8 1. for the given epoch.2 3. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12.6).21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values. scientists can compute.1 -0.
octupole.7) define the centered dipole terms. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3.O I N v . the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling. This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements. shown in Figure 3. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole. As we shall see below. but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles.. The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3.78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part.2. quadrupole. is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center. The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3. Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns. and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3. The symmetrically S 17. The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center. 3. a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe.3).9). S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S .? N N 1 I''~. and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF. The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~. This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern.w // S octupole N FIGURE 3.8).8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole. Earth-centered coordinates. .8.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic. quadrupole.
128). We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles". about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms.Section 3. Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field. All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5. interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth.2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3.2. Figure from M. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model.2. All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that.3). it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting. However. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that. Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays. p. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner . on average. drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields. on average. Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600. located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3. Davis of NGDC/NOAA.
Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms. The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. simpler analysis method is now typically used. Because of their short spacial dimensions. it was offset from the Earth's geographic center. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one.80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem. and radioactive heating.4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted. The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our . Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location. attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth.10). That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others. on average. a slightly different. If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center). the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data. This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that. 3. In one.2. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis. Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group. introduced by the researcher. To understand this fact. Thus.
Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis. Similarly. not the Earth's surface. That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit. Were it not for some other difficulties.10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center.Section 3. The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. its distance from the geographic Earth center. from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles". The main geomagnetic field changes with time. Since the 1800s.11). the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center. the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal. "Magnetic Poles" definition. .2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. the tilt of the eccentric dipole.
For example. There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only.4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3. Also. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics. The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below .5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements. C.11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region. Figure adapted from A. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3. 3.12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields. Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point. Fraser-Smith. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface. aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon).2.
the Earth's surface.5.1 .8ol 14. there are seasonal. Rand McNally & Company.12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica. Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents. p. what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field. diurnal (24-hr cycle). ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3. 94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements. In addition. New Zealand. the arrival of . As we shall see shortly.Section 3.4. and sector-effect (Section 3. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole.2 Pole Markers 83 . whereas.
not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. Nevertheless. the ionospheric currents (see Section 3. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter. just northwest of Thule. . for some strange reason. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole. and day-night distortions. Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii. 3. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement. With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations.13). Thus.84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. seasonal.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora. in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station. Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms. the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location.4.2. Antarctica. p. fully quiet. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists. cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3. solar-terrestrial conditions." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts. When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3. Charged particles. it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare. arriving from the Sun.) Also. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. Greenland. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location.14 and Plate 4).
Section 3. induced currents in the Earth. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3. in the Southern Hemisphere.20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region. and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field).21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- . These are the pole locations with significant meaning. auroral region (ionospheric) currents. This anomalous region (Figure 2.13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2.
Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space. Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance.31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. . A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left. The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure.1 gamma. Figure from NASA. 13.86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation.14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole.
Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate. In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun. In the space around the Earth. On the day side. the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. Re.15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. in times of extreme quiet. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re). depending on the compression by the solar wind. antisolar direction. = 6371 km or 3959 miles). Downwind.Section 3. However. two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re. away from the Sun. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. Thus. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward. which defines the ecliptic plane. During major blasts of the solar wind. This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. called the solar wind. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance.15). the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator. the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius. The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind. from our viewpoint on Earth. opposite to the apparent seasonal . that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3. but.3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3. on average.
a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth. This shift. there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation. the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles. the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge. toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2. Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen. to about 90 km (56 miles). the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind. 13.41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and . called galactic cosmic rays.0 Re and 4. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4. Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2. In addition. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3. Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes.20). that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy.15). The shorter the wavelength of light. At higher altitudes. Principally at the two distances of approximately 1. verified by satellite measurements. scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect). Curiously.21). Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles).2 Re to 4. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak. the higher the radiation energy. Far above the Earth.5 to 6. This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons. Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes. The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field.88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes.0 Re. during strong solar winds. which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation.
Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions.16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. The electron density values shown here are for midday.16). the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher.Section 3. Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth. above 900 km (560 miles). upper-atmosphere composition. the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles). The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles). oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons. but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate. The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . summertime. although. Therefore. In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). at mid-latitudes.4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3. which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3.
not all the ionosphere goes away at night. the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient). Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town. Of course. the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region. how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur. such as: 1. summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness.90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features.16). As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. 2. 13.51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3. and 3.1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3. Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. In this way. For example. The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large. However. The water moves a .22). there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance. One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface. Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears.5.
This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here. Of course. or the conductor is stationary and the field moves. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth. The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field. When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves. They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field. the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved. The daily heating and FIGURE 3. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet.17). electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3. fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. . through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field. Commercial.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet. and the conducting properties of that wire. as far as the current flow is concerned.Section 3. This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo.
Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. causing a current to flow near 100 km (62. and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex. changing with solar activity and season. Use Figure 1. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another.92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction. The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size. due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans). 3. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet).5 miles) in altitude. there are global winds. At much higher altitudes. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. Also. . typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. the wind system within the ionosphere. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction.21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex.18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere. the two motions cancel out the current.5. where the ionospheric conductivity is large. The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. where collisions are rare. At lower altitudes. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory. However. As you might guess. where the main field is horizontal.2 S o l a r Q u i e t . surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values. and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. the direction and strength of the Earth's main field. a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere. This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq).
Such events include" 1.Section 3.5. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter. or sudden heating by auroral-related currents. on the Sun side of the Earth. atmospheric atomic explosions. flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions. 2. All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions. and 3. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun. Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset.3 Induction At the Earth's surface. 3. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator. magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external .
4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected. toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun. The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth. Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary. The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3. 3. Geomagneticians use the separated.24). surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth.19). Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns. The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3. there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind. a corresponding field change occurs.5. for the conductivity determinations. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior. from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2. a special daily solar sector effect is found. .19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth. Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind.
Section 3. Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3. a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3. Thule. Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5. 130. . p.20). Greenland.5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule.2.4. There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve).20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station.
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Umbrella for Magnetic Storms
Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.
Disturbances in Sight
4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in
Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms
FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.
the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):
1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.
which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4. The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth. 5. and arches of solar gases. filaments. The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle. That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions.3). prominences. Photo from SEC/NOAA.Section 4.2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages. The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. .1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4.4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas. The solar corona.
The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection. CME. The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves. showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles. Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR.2 In the W i n d In the solar wind.3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon. more constant plasma stream. The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun. The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral.4). Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler.1. 4. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower. the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4. Although each particle of water is shot out radially. . determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4.100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec).
3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle. 94). which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball. The outward flow of solar plasma.5. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances.4. The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field. slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator. p. carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself. The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane. determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm. 94).5.1. p. The . In this chapter. in both quiet and active times. The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4. which has the opposite direction.Section 4. creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3. At differing solar longitudes.4). Its interaction with the Earth's main field.4. either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane. so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles).1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components. The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun). Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface. 4. high-latitude fields are mostly open.
The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4.5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape. The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause.1).102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances. When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect . The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause. Using measurements from special satellites. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle. seem to be responsible for this delay. Earth responds to this activity.5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm. The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum. The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4.
to 300-km-high (63. powerful field-aligned currents. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. and induced currents in the Earth. their energy. where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic storm. growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents. 88). releasing energy.7). This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the tube.to 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes. near the 100.6 and 4. In addition to the auroras. When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size. thermospheric pressure waves. yellow. Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. intense ionospheric currents. and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4. p. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights). they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. During the magnetic storm. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with red. protons. photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. green. Figure 4.3. strong partial ring currents. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms. and the shape of the Earth's field. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types. Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. . During the equinoxes.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. charged particles (primarily solar electrons.5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re.Section 4. Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods.
Figure adapted from L. nm). which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers. arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current. bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Combs and R. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center.6 I~ Electrons. .104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.
Overmyer of NASA.9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field. Photo by R.Section 4. The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours. Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1. On the records. Figure 4. at the onset of a geomagnetic storm.8).1. H-component increase (called the initial phase. with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4.13). Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth.5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary. 4.7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger. there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component. Then there typically follows a slower.
producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface. In these displays. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source .5. Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites. =. with a considerably intense internal sheet current. Of course. in response to the solar wind direction. The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary. After this compression. at the Earth's surface.5). it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3.1. and forms the north and south tail lobes. This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4. the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location. the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4.106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4. During the storm development.10). The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display.15).and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149. see Section 4. Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time). north or south of the magnetic equator. p. 116).9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created.8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30. a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail. a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4. constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories. A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination.
but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. 1980 FIGURE 4.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~. current patterns. A concentration of these currents .9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left).5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones. For convenience in representation. Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region. The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record.lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase .11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J. i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec. 20. 19. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec. Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4. 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~.Section 4. a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere. all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere. spaced in longitude around the Earth. Field-aligned current (Figure 4.5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region. The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part. In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re.12). Because of the ionospheric conductivity. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes.
The cross-tail currents move similarly. As the air molecules are split apart. a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously. during the geomagnetic storm. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth. typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet. count the electrons that are arriving.5). measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules. away from the spin axis.10 I~ During a magnetic storm. The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation. strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4. attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds. Because of the solar wind flow.13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena. northward) with the antisolar location. An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June. December. In the auroral region. . That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere. southward. Figure 4.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Instruments on highaltitude balloons.
1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4. Figure 4.Section 4. . field-aligned currents. During a magnetic storm. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes. negative).14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere. the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed. fields from the partial ring currents. Local time is indicated around the circumference.11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+. that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. Therefore. only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time. At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment.
110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. =. Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating. This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters. pro- . Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman. The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects.15). Another stronger pressure wave. at just under sonic speed. This wave disrupts the high ionosphere.12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates. travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones.
the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves. illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons. .Section 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks. Alaska. the traces. and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations. top to bottom. the field from the westward auroral electrojet current.
14 UT FIGURE 4. . ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents. auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW). Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles . and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located. which are not traceable to solar sources. Some phenomena.. Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces. Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event.14 I~ During a magnetic storm day. and Byrd Station. !. N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 . Canada.112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. Antarctica. Byrd ! _! 10 I. eastward (D).! 12 I . these are the field changes in the northward (H). can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields.
2055 _~ . What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated. N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4. .5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units)... the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds. . which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds...Section 4.. causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth... _~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~.. ~ 2045 .. The light and dark traces indicate north-south. That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4. Russia... The pressure waves. However.16). / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T.. The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3. . A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds. At the po- .. in that region. initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed....and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction.. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August....... 1962. were detected at Fort Yukon.. Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon. ~ 2110 FIGURE 4. . Alaska. Alaska.1 Disturbances in Sight 113 .. it is possible to point out some generalizations.15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave. There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally.. .16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L.
Thus. others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents.17). All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position. At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions. magnetometers register a large. The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination. For each Universal Time hour. field-aligned currents. As a result. and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents.114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important.11).5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras. the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate. but more distant. Extending to the equator.1. field-aligned (Figure 4. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator. 4.12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations. storm-time. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. . nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger. Therefore. some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes. at the low and equatorial latitudes. and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4.8). At low and equatorial latitudes. The strong nightside. the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4.
called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index. The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times. Dst (Figure 4. of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index. Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements. A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index. the planetary form of the index. The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours. Kp Index A third magnetic index. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket. K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed. Illustration from World Data Center A. Unfortunately. An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp.18). AU) and the lowest (lower envelope.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4. 1974. NGDC/NOAA. such stations are not uniformly .17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope. The small short-period variations contribute little.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century. for 4 and 5 July. Kp. In this example. AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. (Figure 4.Section 4. magnetospheric currents.
to indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp. The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. and . The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0. distributed around the Earth. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes. +.19). the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index). Each contributing station has a different K table. More are in the Northern Hemisphere. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms. the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each location. and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. in a long-term average. Because a large number of the index . the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. there is a concentration in Europe. Statistically. fixed so that.116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period. The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change.9. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above. the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4.
--.----.lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4..3+ 3..19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K.2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3.4. Coffee at NGDC/NOAA..3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998. At such times. large magnetic storms are more likely to occur.6 5+ 4 ..1.1 3 3.=--.------.20). stations are at high-latitude locations.1+ 3.2 2+ 1 2 .O+ 1. lalallalal.1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2.2+ 3+ 4 4 2. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4.16 65+ 6 2.42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .--...2 1 O+ 2+ 1.3 2 3+ 4. daily Ap.1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23.--0.__--_. Table provided by H.2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2..1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm.O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6..au|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1.2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____.Section 4.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71.2 1.12 13 . Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes.. A study of .1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3.36 85.4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 . There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods.2+ 0 0 1. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described.64.----.1+ 1.-----------------------.------------------___----.
131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface.22).1.16). Other pulsations.20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4. . Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields.2. p.6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances. Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4. small (0. On the charts. Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4. Erwin of NGDC/NOAA.21). Figure from E.6.001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur. upon arriving at high latitudes. quite oscillatory form (called Pc). 4. the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous. travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere.118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.1 to 0. Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5.
Antarctica.22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0.1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4.Section 4. Figure from J. C. on 23 August. Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA.21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40. 1966. H. . FIGURE 4. Allen and D.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station.
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The first question I expect is. It is time now for tourists' questions. The 121 . He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred. 15-1 I Field Traces 5.to 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5. In those times. At prearranged times. Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter. How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be. of Goettingen. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory. Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally.1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries. investigated the global distribution of field disturbances. I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism.8).Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the fields.1. the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1. it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1.1). Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask. Germany.
By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions. the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward. the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum.2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction. when photography came into general use. which rotated once a day. and vertical directions. It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device.1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century. collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly.2).122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5.1. capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5. eastward. Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis. 5. These magnetometers were given the more specific . A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. With the improved instrument in a darkened room.
4 6 0 ~ F). Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents.Section 5. A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper. Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties. Today. Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5. . The light beam.3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper. oscillates before coming to rest northward. The exact strength of the Earth's main field. not the full main field strength. Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward. after being moved.2 I~ The simple variometer. The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period. moving with the magnet. developed by the mid-nineteenth century. Notice how your home compass needle. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet. Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet. could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded. many other systems are used to record the field.2 7 3 ~ C or . He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator.
.Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5. . which is only approximately 1.5 cm (0. The niobium metal sensor. but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium .RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw .Coaxial Line -.6 inches) in diameter.Coil -. Zimmerman of NIST. Figure from J. which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0.124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields .3 I~ Modern... is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling.00001 gamma.....
carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap. You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. Some 1See the website http://image. and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular loop. .Section 5. put a dot near its center. With the 2-inch-wide tape. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed. The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day. gsfc.1.1 Field Traces 125 5. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides.nasa.gov/poetry/workbook/page9. with a marking pen. Turn on thehighintensity lamp and. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on. Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card. 1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5.4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms.html. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet. for school demonstrations. Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw.
If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches). can . or other fiat surface. magnetometer.25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north. near a wall. deflections of several degrees.4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA. and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table. lasting many hours or even days.126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a . effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp. During geomagnetic storms.
The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0. In typical soil. the spot will remain in the same location.1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. About 2 square feet (0. . two probes. . Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field. Note that if any of the parts are moved. . Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder. For those readers who are adept at electronics. the measurements will be affected.Section 5. A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor .1 millivolt.19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. Most of the time. a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5. can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0. . however.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations. . separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot. The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0. Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations. Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity.05 gamma (for most locations).3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). .5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises.
The necessary variable resistors.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior.3. 80). Comparing the results in Figure 5. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges. 1. 78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3.2. and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores. p. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region. Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- . 5. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data.4. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields. 5.7.21. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles).2.6 with Figure 2. amplifiers. a small battery. one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section 3.128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best.2.1 Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2. switch.21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region. p. using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism.2.2.5. 5. One such model is depicted in Figure 5.
Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA. tilted dipole.a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 .2 90 --. The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas). R. the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure.8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes. . Figure 5.Section 5. Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model. The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole."56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5. Figure from J. 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 . Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole.l. ments taken along a fixed line on the surface.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered.
4. p.2. Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5.5.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions. 5. Figure from J.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows.4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed.9) in the polar regions at low activity times. The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5. the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were . Quinn of USGS. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields. Using a chain of observatories.5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index. 5.2. 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3. Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3.
determined (Figure 5.1. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance.6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation.6. That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. In this figure. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters.10).8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state. thus. 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times. it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5. Figure 5. they were not due to local anomalies.Section 5. The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. p.2. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations. 5. The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- . There were often large local storm field differences from the index.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations. More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks.
and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation. chart preparation.3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form. 15. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents.\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5.. By international agreement.132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '. so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling. These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2.5 hours in local time for the two conditions. which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special. the horizontal axis represents the time in hours.12). Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere. . duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers. Today. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. ond. there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5. globally distributed collection points.
. . . Molodezhnaya 3. .12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United States. . tel: 81-75-753-3929. . . . . i . . . .gov 9 In Russia: World Data Center B. Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science. . e-mail: info@ngdc. . 60 | . . . . Academy of Sciences of Russia. Boulder. RUSSIA.World Data Center A. . 0 10 20 ! . .. JAPAN.Section 5. . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group). Moscow 117 296. fax: 1-303-497-6513. fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2. 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l . mailstop EGC2. 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day . NGDC/NOAA. tel: 1303-297-6761. . . . . . .. USA. . . i . . . .. tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619. . Kyoto University. These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude). . Kyoto 606-8502. . field differences were determined. Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. . . consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure). .10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories. 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. fax" 81-75-7227884..3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9. . . . . . .noaa. 325 Broadway. . . Colorado 80305-3328. | . .
Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields
FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.
15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.
15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:
FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, ac.jp 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. ac.uk 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. usgs.gov 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: http://maxwell.gi. alaska.edu 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. noaa.gov--select Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on
TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)
Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and
tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.
100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)
200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)
600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)
1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)
a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).
and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult.~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA.4 . Biological: none. memory impacts cause loss of control. Flux levels are 5 min averages.t ". serious noise in image data.. 103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible. Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted. Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. permanent damage to exposed components/detectors..TABLE 5. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors. and solar panels degraded. Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions. and decrease of solar panel currents.l s t e r . star-trackers cause orientation problems. Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA. permanent damage to solar panels. Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets. high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays). 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m. Satellite operations: memory device problems. Satellite operations loss of some satellites. Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days. _. noise on imaging systems. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. Biological: none. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days. Flux in particles: s . these events can last more than one day).l c m -2. elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays).2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). noise in imaging systems. bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions). passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray). star-trackers unable to locate sources. o . Satellite operations: none.
HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth. affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators. Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour.-i. in Wm-2).t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours.TABLE 5. X20 (2 x 10 .3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 . -r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m.. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours.3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _. a Some or all of these effects are possible.. bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux..4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 . HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. . HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals. ~r -rl r o. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. which may spread into the night side. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days). Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth.1--0. causing loss in positioning.8 nm range. Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators.3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 . loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators. measured in the 0.
Such data. NASA. fax: 1-303-202-4693. U.gsfc. e-mail: info. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback. USA: http://www. Australia: http://www.spaceweather.S. and radiation information to monitor the space environment.edu 9 GoddardSpaceFright Center.html 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA. USA: http://www.61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended books. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories. in the order of their original publication date. g ov/$tp/stp. magnetic field. nasa. 368 pp. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical Institute. University of Alaska.msfc.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services. .noaa.services @usgs. also http://image. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center. gov/UVI/current_image. NASA. noaa. 1600. gi. also http://www. NOAA.gov. USA.nascom. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern life.E Mattelay. nasa.. Gilbert. Mailstop 306. De Magnete. Sydney. also http://www-spof.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle.doc3. 1958. Colorado 80225. ngdc. USA: http://www.gov/gallery/LASCO.Section 5.nasa. 9 W. New York. also http://www. Geological Survey. English translation in 1893 by P.com. USA: http://sohowww.HTML.sec.pfrr.gsfc.gov Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales. USA: http://uvisun.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX.nasa.ips. html 9 Space Environment Center. republication by Dover Publications.gov 15. alaska. Box 25286 Federal Center.gov/Education/Intro. Denver. with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams.gov/poetry.alaska.
D. 1967. Geomagnetism. 2545 pp. 9 R.D. A fine. Academic Press. 1996. Scottish Academic Press Ltd. An up-to-date. Bartels. 1940. Jacobs. 4 vols... The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists. auroral descriptions. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena. Physics of the Earth. 434 pp. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies. Brisbane Brookfield Press.... Milton Keynes Pub. Harvard University Press. New York. History. . Parkinson. Massachusetts. 1987. compact yet complete.A. thorough review of the technology..D. 9 S. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage. 1398 pp. Open University Press.. 2 vols. detailed references. 1983. 9 J. and thorough description of analytical methods. Piper. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. 1987-1991. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time. 1980. Livingston. ed. Driving Force... 433 pp. Edinburgh. and beautiful illustrations.. Although our subject is only a small part of this book. the Natural Magic of Magnets. 9 W. and the Arts. Chapman and J.. Washington D.D. 323 pp. This classic. beautifully written. 2 vols. 9 J. Geomagnetism. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information. It was last republished in 1951.C. American Geophysical Union. 9 J. Brisbane. and history of magnets. 311 pp.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. Oxford.. 513 pp.A. 1050 pp. New York. Introduction to Geomagnetism. Campbell. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust. 1992. Academic Press. 9 W.. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book). Oxford University Press.. Cambridge. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate.. the Aurora in Science. Majestic Lights. eds. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age.H.. Stacy. application. Matsushita and W.H. Eather.
531 pp. and the Deep Mantle.W.Section 5.H. Written by well-respected researchers..6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R. 9 W. San Diego. 304 pp. 1996. with many illustrations. Cambridge University Press. M.. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. . The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field. and EL. the Core.T. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations. McFadden. 1997. McElhinny. Cambridge. Academic Press. Campbell. My own compact but comprehensive textbook. Merill.
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Antarctica. 115. 34 Byrd Station. 106. 25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields. 119 Baie St. 4 Airport magnetometer. 2 Biomagnetism. 8. R. 41-42 correlations. 38 Agonic line. 21.. 17. 18 Atoms. 105 high-latitude. 102 Archives. 113 magnetic observatories. 22 Australis (Southern Lights). 116 Aeromagnetism.Index Activity index. 38 Analysis epoch. 123. Washington State. 39 map. 102 Bremerton. 125 Bartels. Qu6bec. Julius. 101 angle. 40 Atomic number. 37 charts. 39 Archimedes spiral. Paul. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 14. 84. 134 Bar magnet. 39 Atmosphere lower. 131 Bryce Canyon. 8 Bermuda Triangle. 116 Aurora. 20. 45 temperature. 39 Archeological formations. 17. 42 Body magnets. 17. 109. 82 surveys. 17. 109 zone. 70. 65 Big Dipper. 15. 20 electrojet current. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights). 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. 35. 60. 18-19 Auroral displays. 105 bombarding particles. 61-63 Books. 84 pulsating. 133 Asteroid. 56 upper. 110 oval. 120 143 . 106 values. 118 Addresses. 18 weight. 59 Blakemore. 117 Apollo space craft. 139-141 Bowshock. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index. 90. 148 oil discovery. 109. 113.
Arizona. 82. 122 airport runway declination. 54 coefficient. 82 ionosphere. 29. 53 Earth. 101 Columbus. 66 main field and. 56. 88 sunspot connection. 115 ionosphere. 111 electrical. 26 lodestone. 55 ecliptic plane and. 84 . 101 Correlation cause and effect. 8. 70. 34. 81 locally-measured. 29 Chinese. 109 Conjugate positions. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 21 secondary. 3. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays. 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 60. 26 aeromagnetic. 70 moment. 36--41 resistivity. 40. 108 Crust. 92. Sydney. 51 radiowave. 13. 25 source and induced. 6 eccentric axis. Captain James. 98 mass ejection (CME). 34 equator. 50-51. 92. 139 Declination. 63 Drift contintental. 89. 44 magnetometers. 15 Disturbed field. 70 Current. 70. 72.144 Index Chapman. 6. 26. 6 magnet Earth as. 31. 94 geological features. 124 electromagnets. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 54 double blind. 70 distorted. 25 right-hand rule. 90 pole eccentric axis. 6. 17. 94 Darwin. 70 Tucson. 55. 59 Charts. copper). 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 39 ancient field behavior. 14 Earth. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. 11. 130 De Magnete. 26 Chu Yu. 2 Climate. 38 navigation. 99 Coronal holes. 23 origin. 79 field pattern. 69 strength. Christopher. 70 magnetism. 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 93. 4. 130 Corona. 21 corrosion and. 4. 75. 9. 75. water. Australia. 77 Dip angle. 90 Compass. 23. 18 comparative (air. 2 declination and. 20-23 direct. 3 Communications. 23. 80 field alignment. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 48 Conductivity. 35 magnetotelluric. 10. 48 long-wire. 32 bar magnet. 84 Dipole. 32. 36-38. 103. 55 modeling. 15 induction. 111 Continental drift. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 27. 35-37 Cook. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 3 magnetic island and. 123 temperatures. 7. 108 Double-blind test. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). 11 main field.
7 transmission lines. 114 models. 28 External field. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. 90 . 75 Equatorial electrojet. 7. 88 Force of magnetic field.Index 145 magnetic pole. 44 Fort Yukon. 84. 104 Elements. 114 Franklin. 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. 115 Filaments. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 76. 22 field. 50-53 mapping. 18 current. 9. 14. 7. 94 conductor. 66-67 signals. 101 Eights Station. 123 Forbush effect. 90. 20. 3. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 18. Alaska. 90 sharing of. 18 atomic number and. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 3. 26. 54 prediction. 110 equatorial. 70 theory. 55 Energetic particle events. 70 source. 47. 22 ionization and. 87. 50. 85. 84 Ecliptic plane. 71 outer core. 81 dipole. 21. 37 Field-aligned current. 23. 44 use in maglev. 127 probe. 102-104. 19 Electrojet auroral. 37 power lines. 36. 7. 112 Faraday. 109. 37 reversal. 79 lower mantle. 34 Field in space. 92. 41. 80. 130 storm currents. Alaska. 50 systems in satellites. 81 field representation. 50 power plant. 71 Earthquake. 75. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 115117. 90-92 current. 130-131 Dynamo. 89. 23 Electrical conductivity. 134 Epoch. 9. 50. 70 Earth current. 7. 84. 22. 44 Electromagnetic field. 13. 90 region. 90 Electromagnet. 9. 92. 84 Fairbanks. 70. 18 molecule. 99 Flares. 127-128 dipole field strength. 40. Michael. 20 solar. 75. 111. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 13. 127 Electrons. 128 dipole poles. 18 aurora and. dipole field. 134 Electric charge. 56 Exploration (global). 32 clay. 79 non-dipole field vs. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 109 Ethesian winds. 98. 22 induction responses. 13. 81 current in a wire. 70. 102 upper atmosphere and. Antarctica. 87. 44 in wire. 25 Ferrous atoms. Benjamin. 48 and magnetic fields. 21. 79 particle. 111. 3. 77 analysis. 19. 21.
77 IMAGE spacecraft. 92-94. 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 92 Ions. 17 Hubble Space Telescope. 61 Humbolt. 52. 128. 49 high. 28 geomagnetic coordinates. 48. 53. 25. 95 poles. 132 pulsation. 89 solar wind. 94 of pulsations. Edmund. 92 high latitude. 113 Greenwich. 121 coefficients. 7. 76 Induction. 90 dip equator. 5. Wyoming. 72 GPS and. Baron Alexander von. 86 INTERMAGNET. 92. 115 lunar quiet-day. 49 Grand Teton National Park. 109 current. 66.) of oscillation. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 75. 74. 44. 73. William. 74. 15 Ganymede main field. 32 . 58. 134 GPS and. 75. 64 Joule heating. 89. 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 48. 48. India. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. 114 Intergalactic fields. 17 Igneous rock. 28. 58 low. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 107 satellites and. 78. 130 auroral. 16. 108 Jackson Lake. 18. 74 regions (zones). England. 128 coordinate system. 110. 58. 97-120. 90. 123 Hyderabad. 78. 75-77 field units. 11 from North Star. 11 first textbook on. 86 High latitudes. 46 Gamma (y). 57. 132 Internal field. 40 Latitude. 44 Indices. 89 electron density. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 80 table. 78-80. 131 storms. 138 Gilbert. 130 field models. 84. 49 Geomagnetism. 16 netism and Aeronomy). 50. 62 Heliospheric boundary. 79 main field poles. 94 field responses. 111. 78 2000 coefficient values. 29 Halley. 45. 102 Ionosphere. 5. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 7. 111 Jupiter main field. 20-23. 47. 72-86. 49 main phase. 114. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 8 Health magnets. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. Canada. 8 Geostationary satellites. 9. 116 Land survey. 115 equatorial. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 64 Great Earth Magnet. 115. 119. 84. 16. 40. 12. 8. 77-80 multipoles. 107 recovery phase.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 79 North Pole. 16 Geologic exploration. 75. 50 Infrasonic pressure waves.
93 airport. 102 sunward boundary. 35 positions of. 6 domains. 102 Magnetosheath. 107. 30 microscopic. 111 solar wind path within. 70 Magnetometer. 26 declination. 106. 88 field measurements. 111 magnetic storms and. 88 tail boundary. 87. 102 tail of. 87. 44 seasonal differences. 2 body "health" magnet. 44 mountain. 3 Magnetic charts. 123 quake-site. 41 rubidium. 42 in animal brains. 104 outer boundary. 23. 123 medical uses. 71 positions. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 115 envelope. 25 coils. 84 axis.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 72 types of. 123 Magnetopause. 5. 42 Curie point. 44 simple bar. 60-61 Magnetite. 2 Magnet. 130 . 26 dipole. 13 north pole. 31 SQUID. 43 rocks. 87 tail. 58 proton. 43 cryogenic. 31 randomly oriented. 102 field and charged particles. 30-35 storms. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 78. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 123 fluxgate. 15 south pole. 44 termites. 114 currents. 124 variometer. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 30 field-aligned current. 30. 82-84 Longitude. 88 Van Allen belts. 49 ship's. 95. 46 satellites and. 79 IGRF. 87. 3 Locally measured dip poles. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 32 field human response to. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and. 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 6. 2. 78 dipole moment. 28 Lower mantle. 13 poles. 58 Island. 3 crystals. 3 polarities. 4 clocks and. 69 alignment with solar wind. 45 particles and. 75 movement of. 123 satellite. 102. 44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 111 fields. 32 realignment. 14. 71. 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 92 Maglev. 61-63 Earth's main field. 70 field effect of. 77 locally measured. 102 Magnetosphere. 3 Eccentric axis dipole. 46 satellites and. 72 GPS and. 118 currents in. 66 levitation. 42. 23 permeability. 103 heating of.
43 spin alignment. 138 northern hemisphere. 131 method. 20.148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. 19-20 Moon main field. 18 hydrogen atom. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 61 Metamorphic rock. 89. 117 Northern Lights. 32 at poles. 4 Star. 11. 92 global network. 7. 36 plates. 113. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 57. 16 solid magnet and. 40. 128-129 charts. 17. 34 Mid latitude. 73 magnetic. 71 reversal of. 98 Maxwell. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 5. 71 Jupiter. 17 changing source. 71 Moon. James Clerk. 2. 3. 71 mapping. 105 Novaya Zemlya. 23 dip angle. 81 North Pole. 106 major worldwide. 71 Venus. 88. 10 Medicine. 108 magnetic. 75. 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). 79. 106 auroral and polar regions. 71 Neutrons.. Franz Anton. 115 Magnetotail. 34 extension into space. 30. 42 satellites. 49 ships. 92. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 71 Mercury. 18. 132. 70 Uranus. 130 daytime field variations. E. 3. 4 geographic. 84 high latitude. 120 molecule. 71 Mesa Verde. 42-43 Mercury main field. 36 troughs. 30 Mars. 28. 43 Nucleus. 113. 23 . 35 satellites and. 88. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). 71 Main phase. 47 Saturn. 36 waves. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 132 low latitude. 17. 131 Multipole. 38 Main field. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. 88 Molecules. 12. 4 geomagnetic. Russia. 29 Northern auroral zone. 71 Maunder. 38 data. 116 Australian.) tail current. 71 size of. 115 Milky Way Galaxy. 15. 26-29 Neptune main field. 26. 23 alignment. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). 129 Natural magnetic noise. 22. 3 Mars main field. 107 Maricourt. 6. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR). 130 chain of. 71 Neptune. 69 Ganymede. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 43 Non-dipole field.W. 134 INTERMAGNET. 109 auroral zone. 110 northern high-latitude. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 57 Mesmer. 18 Observatories.
48 partial. 11. 30 Poles. 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. 84 Remanent magnetization. 117 3 Pseudoscience. 123 Partial ring currents. 82 magnetometer. 18 corrosion. 81 electrical noise. 84 Right-hand rule. 32. 88. 72-86 communication signals. 99 Paramour ship. 111 regions. 88 . 132 Port Augusta. 119. James Clark. 114 Paleomagnetism. 95. 119 Quadrupole. 32. 12. 17 Recovery phase. 73 drag. 74 magnetic south. 23. 52. 31 Octupole. 41 Pipelines. 95. 43 explorers. 70 subsonic. 35-37 Pressure waves. 16. 108 Plato.Index 149 magnetic drift. 111 atmospheric. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 123 effects of current. 111 internal currents. 11 damage. 11. 140. 2 Radiowaves. 80 Piezomagnetic effect. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 42. 67 Periods of oscillation. 16. 50. 70 region of Earth. 47. 87. 114 dynamo theory. 106. 131 Oscillation period. 71 current loop. 53 Quebec blackout. 18. 80. 35 of Dst index. 72 observatory. 50 Prehistoric fields. 13 131 Phase. 69 Ring current. 114. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 114 field. 84. 40. 3. 102 Satellite sector currents. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 34 explosive. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 21 field description. 44. 128 magnetic. 98 Plasma. 23. 51 grounding. 57. 103 precession. 77 dysfunction. 36. 112. 48. 94 Ross. 41 Quake-site magnetometer. 112. 130 Power lines. 130 alignment. 37. 79 Prominences. 108. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 123 Outer core. 60. 134 Polar. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 45 IGRF field. 74 Placebo effect. 108 latitudes. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 78. 103. 58. 141 sonic. and main field strength. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 17 Reversal of field. 90. 70 Ozone layer. 48 search expeditions. 92 Plages. 116 auroral oval. 123 square of. 43 Peregrinus. 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. Permeability. 7 Proton. 79 magnetic north. Australia. 46. 46. 73 auroral field. Washington State. 72. 32-34 cap. 16. 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen). 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 98. 48 chart location of. 83 north geomagnetic. 70. 85. 114 Paleomagnetician. 70.
13-15. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 94-95. 99 flares. 1. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). 44 maximum elevation. 83 Southern Cross. 12. 9.150 Index Satellite (cont. 53. 131 Seismologists. 54 Steady field. 31 measurement of drift. 88 Sunspot. 93 SQUID magnetometer. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 37 memory upset. 75. 33. 6. 97. 66 Si Nan. 60. 102 direction. 47. 82. 102. 57 disturbances. 22 of main field. 55 rotation. 52. 88. 99 coronal holes. 88. 130 cycle. 49 Saturn main field. 34. 98 quiet (Sq). 102 burst IMF. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. Chinese earthquake prediction. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 107 field. 56 activity. 17 Storm explanations. 119. 45. 92 wind. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 132 Secular variation (SV). 39. 57 cycles drought and. 124 Stand-off position. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 99. 46 navigation and. 92 vortices. 95. 132 variations (Sq). 126 Solar corona. 118. 134 Spectral analysis. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 26. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 108 magnetic field. 98 cycle. 95. 87. 69. 55 ecliptic plane. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 36 Sector effect. 84 failure. 106--107 geomagnetic. 92 field polarity. 97-101. 77 Sun. 69. 101 sectors. 114. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 101. 16. 108-111 fingerprints. 28 navigation by. 77 Sedimentary rock. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center.) evidence of poles. 44--46. 87 surface rotation. 57. 55 . 46 geostationary. 30 power supply. 86 orientation by field. 59 Strength of magnetic field. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 107 disturbance. 92 magnetic field. 98 panels. 55. 125. 101 prominences. 130 ions. 87 elevation angle. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 92 radiation. 57 eleven-year. 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 93 elevation angle. 70. 16. 46 plasma. 128. 101 visible light from. 49 magnetometer. 56. 55. 46. 80 functions. 129 South Magnetic Pole. 13. 88. 98 eclipse. 56. 2 SI units. 107 Statistical significance. 71 Sea-floor spreading. 94. 85. 30. 46 radiowave-signal transmitter. 29 plasma. 3. 48--50. 6.
57 Tucson. 94 Uranus main field. 51 lines. 15 Gauss. 88. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 130 Tree-ring dating. 132. 97. 57 region temperature. 50. 46 Tesla unit. 55. 40 Telephone. 102 maximum. 2 Van Allen radiation belts. 27 Units gamma (y). 17 low latitudes. 16 magnetic field. 35 World Data Centers. 60. 87. 111 heating. 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 52 pager. 12 Variometer. 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 46 Upper mantle. 15 Thermosphere. 123 Venus main field. 59. 17 equatorial. 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. 106-108 field. 39 Zone auroral. 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk.Index 151 number (R). 84. Greenland. 106 Thule. 95 lobes. 17 polar caps. 95 Tomographic analysis. 71 Vostok Station. 46 SV (Secular Variation). 55-58 space. 15 nanotesla. 106 pressure waves. 63-64 Weather. 138 X-rays. 118 minimum. 17 . 133. 43 Toward and Away sectors. 102. 5. 134 Westward drift. 84 Water divining/witching. 48. 56. 77 Tail currents. 108 Variation field. 44. Arizona. 17 high latitudes. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect. Antarctica.
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PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona.PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. Illustration from NASA. These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth. . A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image.
This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field.PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail. . PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles. Figure from SEC/NOAA. A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown. enter our atmosphere. guided by the Earth's field. Figure from NASA.
Figure from L.PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle. Alaska. . Lanzerotti.net/Nhutch/aurora. Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www. Bell Laboratories.ptialaska. PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles. Lucent Technologies.html). J.
Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D. and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels. . PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth. organized by the Earth's spin.PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits. Hastings.
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