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A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields
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Complementary Science Series [m 2000/2001 The Physical Basis of Chemistry. 2nd Edition Paul Davidovits Introduction to Relativity John Kogut The Human Genome.E. House www. 2nd Edition Robert Mortimer Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics J. 2nd Edition Warren S. Warren Physics in Biology and Medicine.com .harcourt-ap. 2nd Edition R. Scott Hawley I~ Julia Richards I~ Catherine Mori 1999 Chemistry Connections Kerry Karukstis I~ Gerald Van Hecke Mathematics for Physical Chemistry.
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. Colorado [I/ . . . . . . . . . A Harcourt Science and Technology Company San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo . . . . . . . . .Earth Magnetism A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields Wallace Hall Campbell Boulder. .
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Albert Einstein . I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me. That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events.A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch'). Something deeply hidden had to be behind things. when my father showed me a compass.
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. . Gilbert . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix . . . .4 1. . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locating the Fields . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapman 1. . . . . . . . Maxwell . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halley . . . Faraday Gauss . . .2 Finding the Fields 1. .2. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. Steady and Changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . Double Blind . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . Statistical Sampling . . . . . . . Old Wives' Tales. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . Travel and Exploration . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets . . . . . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning . . . . . . . . . . 64 65 . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .3 Pseudoscience. . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2. . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . Magnetic Rocks . . . Establishing Significance . . . 60 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2.2. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . Modeling 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .X Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . ..1 . . . . . . . Water Witching or Divining . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration . . . . . . . . Biomagnetism .1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. Correlation . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . Water Improvement . . . . . .1. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Frauds . . . . . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . . .
. .6 Magnetic Poles Galore . . . . . . . .2. . .4 3. . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. . . . . .1 3. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . Measures of Activity . . . . . . . . . IGRF Main Field Poles . .2.1 4.2 5. . . . . . . . 92 93 94 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Field Traces 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . . . . .2 3. Harvesting the Fields 5. . .3 3. . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 .3 121 121 . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4. . . . . . . . . . . Two Eccentric Axis Poles . . . . . . . . . . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3.5. . Conducting Blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . .2. . .6 Pulsations . . . . . . . . .1.3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . K p Index Ap Index 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . Pole M a r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glamorous Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . . . . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Inside Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 . . . . Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .4 3. . .1 5. . . . . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Pulsations . . . . Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l . . .2 5. . . .5 5. . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . . . .3 5. . . . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1 5. . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . .6 5. . . . .4 5. . . . .2. . . . . .xii 5. .2.2. . . . 128 130 130 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetotellurics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 143 . . . . . . . . . . .
Dr. including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. satellite drag. He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. and radio propagation. not just geomagnetism. Dr. and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . in a way that is state-of-the-science. satellite operations. including telecommunications. It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic. yet easy-to-understand way. Dr. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. Campbell has authored several well-known books.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. In addition. He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. magnetic fields. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism. is one of the most important references in our field. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. interplanetary. Dr. yet fun to read. His recent book. Thus. Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields.
simplicity. Dr. the magnetic field of the Earth. and he does so with superb clarity. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy . and practicality. Dr. Kroehl General Secretary. Herbert W. He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment.xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives.
Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies. XV . You will have a personal. In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms.1. global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives. just start with the second. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period. To remedy this situation. Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age.) See Figure C. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter. guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters. I have written this book for the interested nonscientist. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments. See Figure C. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism. Occurring every eleven years.2.
helical windings. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean.1 I~. These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force. Chinese compass.FIGURE C. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms. . FIGURE C. and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation. ready to misinterpret everything.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand. opposing fields. magnetic-dip instrument. all involved in magnetic navigation. a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers.
the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms. Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time. explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles. We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field. See Figure C. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models. In Chapter 3. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained.3. Together. Both wish to be involved in the trip.Preface xvii FIGURE C. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image.3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole. .
how field records can be obtained.xviii Preface FIGURE C. We will examine the storm impact at the Earth.4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms.4. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users. our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun. what researched is now in progress. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field. and indices of such activity. and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information. In Chapter 4. See Figure C. See Figure C.5. . these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries. field appearances on magnetic records. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured.
A picture of Chapman. Now. I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend.Preface xix FIGURE C. the modern father of space magnetism. W. is prominently displayed.H. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf.C. let us start the tour. Have no fear. November 2000 . waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers.5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away.
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away from household duties. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA. I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily. the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. W.H. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues.Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book. xxi . Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty. I thank my wife. for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer. Finally. Although most illustrations are of my own creation. Beth. the Space Environment Center of NOAA. in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA.C.
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In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths. Fortunately. this is not an unusual route to understanding. In contrast. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction.1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly. .I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift. I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place. acting as your guide. Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together. I1. indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour. But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house. Along the way.
. Then.1). Chu Yu. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions. corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major). point toward the North Star. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl.1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia. FIGURE 1. a Cantonese author of 1117. The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape.2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC.1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction. the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1. the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction.2. Si Nan. Similarly. a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia.21 Historical Tour Markers 1. opposite the handle of the Big Dipper. had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces. Written records show that a Chinese compass.
there would be even greater confusion. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite. how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other.2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus). for which the negative and positive charges can be separated).2. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips." was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses. Peregrinus described the pole locations.2). an early word for "leading stone. at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen.2 Historical Tour Markers 1. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole. This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole. Loadstone (or lodestone). He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges. had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles. For our Western culture. A Frenchman. By the early fifteenth century. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline. and how similar poles repel (Figure 1. In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone. The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star. But if it were given that name. .Section 1.
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.
declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about
Historical Tour Markers
FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.
the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.
1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.
science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.
7). he developed the first electric motor. In 1838.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. but spent much of his productive life in the United States. He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. and fields. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes. Germany. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances. Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman. Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth.10). In 1821. the original design for our present public electric power plants. In 1893.6).8) of Goettingen.9). a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution. He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1. Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. In addition. he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity. Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. . James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1. Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. In 1831. mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes. =. Chapman Finally. currents. the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1.Section 1. in a time of significant English maritime expansion. who originally worked in England.
Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook. who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms.6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley. The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage. . With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany. Geomagnetism. Chapman became the father of space magnetism.8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.in 1940.
FIGURE 1.Section 1. devised the first electric motor and electric current generator. .7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867).2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1. who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields.8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth.
FIGURE 1. .10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies.10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today.
when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our planet. The prefix gee. popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism. 11.5).3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1. as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts. out of or into the Earth. to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject. However.11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle.3. the natural fields within and around the Earth.11). the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1. Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism. This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent .Section 1.31 Local Language Dictionary 1.1 Earth Fields. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet. to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1. Steady and Changing Now. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism.is used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour. points at different angles. as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth).
is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times. In contrast. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter.13). As we shall see in our tour. but more dramatic appearance. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago. Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances. .and 24-hour periods are shown. The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation. we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second. Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation. In addition. meaning ancient. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1. For example. the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example. The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field. Examples of 12. The inverse of the period is the frequency.12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion. is rapidly changing. The prefix paleo. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source.12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1. the weaker the effect of that field becomes.12). which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude.
At the place where a field exists. of course.14). or iron-rich rocks. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil. .3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1. magnetic observatory. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface.Section 1.13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks. that can move another magnet. Of course. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current. this control is measured by the force. For example. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. there are many different sources of magnetic fields. The effectiveness of this field. Alaska. The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1.3. 1. having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action. Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch.2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current. also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. iron. at 2 inches from a magnet. The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM.
. the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum.00 3. heavy iron bars..6 "o It.50 2. When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights.0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0.. > ..1 1.15). When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate. 0.14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive. the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down.00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1. 0.50 4. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet.50 5. The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones._ *. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience.4 n- 0.50 3... Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper. To my dismay. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized. c !. slowing it to a stop.14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet. By gently flicking the paper. I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home. 1. probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1.00 1. strong attracting magnetic field. The field . A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding. he discovered that magnetism was the problem.00 4. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby.0 .8 e. Somehow.00 2.2 0.
3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1.Section 1. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT). 1. Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength. In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older. similar to that of the bar magnet. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss). Giant. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form. The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material. is the proper unit officially . from electric current sources deep within the Earth. we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source. nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma).3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources. and from currents in the region of space above our planet. it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine. current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine. the equivalent name.15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet.3. Nevertheless. and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities.
16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources. t~ 0. The Earth's main field varies from about 60.000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator. The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma. Another unit.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below). 1. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies. 100. called SI Units.000.0001 0. The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1.1 0.0 . occur during a geomagnetic storm. EARTH MAIN FIELD 10.001 0. the Gauss (1 Gauss =100.01 0. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour. with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second. and lasting from hours to a full day or more.16 100.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-.16. Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size.000.000. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system.000 gammas). The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers. . 1.
Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields
Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.
FIGURE 1.17 I~
Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.
18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles
Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism
To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell
Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary
FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.
becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two
Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral. . leaving a positive ion. to form sodium chloride.19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1. The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away. which has just seven electrons in its third shell. These parts are called ions. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule. and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe. A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17).18). the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1. Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule.20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1.20). neon. That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1. For example. the molecule of table salt. carbon dioxide. hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions.19). There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon.
. How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. described earlier.3 Local Language Dictionary 21 .Section 1. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule. then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current. We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules.~. . This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow. The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +. can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth. ions or electrons that compose the current. For example. In that gaseous region. By convention. with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current. produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1. the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water. the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source.p e" e" FIGURE 1. called its conductivity.21). the flow is called an electric current.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere. This is because the moving charges. +. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current. producing other characteristic auroral colors. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these.
I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment. causing them to glow (e. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules..22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1. 11.41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories. Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space. nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current. Rather. The sources of such fields . The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire. generally linearly directed magnetic field. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong.g.21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire.
Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field. We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. However. and natural current systems above the Earth. . Natural currents.4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth. due to currents flowing in our space environment. Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet). and electricity transmission lines. from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives. and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks. Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface. We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep. In subsequent chapters. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field. the main field at the Earth's surface. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. magnetized materials. pipelines. in large measure.Section 1. liquid outer core of the Earth. We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives.
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25 .1). IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2. airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2. an alarm is sounded.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices. At concourse entrances. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1. called magnetometers. If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected. knives. for example.12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. an oscillating field is generated. Within the security passageway. which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger. from rings. guns. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects. The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames.7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials. Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications. We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1. etc. keys. watches. coins. Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6).1.
have a compass as part of their navigation system. On the modern vessels. (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top. forest rangers.3). and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass.2).1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger.satellite-dependent . back-country travelers. By universal convention. Ships at sea. Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2.) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2. printed nearby. In addition to the magnetic northward direction.26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. is also important for the traveler. most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display. Hikers. the map date. from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships. the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage.
Arizona.5/37....* In m U.. ... o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~.i-dC--~:-L~.....~oIr. . DENVER.2 I~ Magnetic declination. ..~... ~.. I 1990 1 1 . OR RESTON. 65 W i s~ii=E. .1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~.. 66 W.. I iN~EIII~iI~-.S._~. |g'22'30" 104o37.. i . ~ . .. COLORADO 80225. ~ i " .... f "' .~ J. I ..~ . ....~ ..5 -- 14. ~ ...L ..~.. is always displayed on the best maps....30- "1" I ' ' I .i ~ . ...5X48 FOR SALE BY U.5--W 10437..~" .. 14. .. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. .. II|iIY(H(.. along with the date... . ...~ .0 -- % o C2 e 12.. i . I"85.-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN. I" .tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922.. .. Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. " .. y t l l l G i N J & .... ... .5 A 4. 1980 1940 FIGURE 2... .' ' 1'. 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~... I k 45' R. ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W .VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2.0 - % ~.0 - 13.. from 1910 to 1986. ~ ~ ..... I I .3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson.I In q) Q) 01 13... ... 5 . '2200000 FEET'~ q.Section 2. ~ ' R ... I . " ' ' -..5 - o o o o 12...1 1960 1970 . ~ t "..
p. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2. For years.4).=.1. Nevertheless. used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance. modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail.28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ .D Q t _ t~ r-. cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r ..9.4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea. . longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed. 49) have replaced the older navigational aids. It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude. In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2. so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service. where the North Star cannot be seen. Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere.. global positioning systems (see Section 2.
Section 2. By international agreement. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea. small airplanes. Today. In later years.6). This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only.5). In this example. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours. a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. . so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2. England. in an age of modern electronic navigation systems. on the voyage. 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2. longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock.5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757. For example. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses. as well as many freighters and passenger ships. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position. navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. Between star sightings and in overcast conditions.
2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents. Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age. such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which .6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite. magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2. scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere.7). satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor.30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. 2. Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position.1. Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems. On a microscopic scale. 87~ east of geographic north. Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment. For many years. In the beginning years of space exploration.
If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis. When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment. the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization. For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit).Section 2.8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization. the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does. all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction.8). Paleomag- . Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing.1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2. Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2. the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2.7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems.
and 3. Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer. Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains. Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1.3. As this liquid rock material cools into igneous . By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises. By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass. continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature. who study these rocks.2. p.8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization.32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2. 14). Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains. 2. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation. Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1. Although geophysicists. Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle).
10) or road cuts. The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone. the overall alignment of the many particles is. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction. at first. When . Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens. Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes. many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2. scrambled by the water currents. Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago. The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock.Section 2. While moving with the water.9).9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava. (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field. Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation.
Utah. Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed. The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago.34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation. Upon cooling and hardening. Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea. silt-. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples. Studies of this type are called . the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction. At high baking kiln temperatures.11).10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization. archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2. Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery.
the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe. archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1. Now. on many occasions. 2.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay. the geomagnetic main field has. In addition. completely reversed its direction.1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2. the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction.1.5). armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior. the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years. After allowing for continental drift. Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern. rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- .Section 2.
and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified. ancient flora. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom.0 inches) a year. India is pushing up against Asia. often toward the middle of our major oceans. have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth. The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2. spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern.12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. forming the Himalayan Mountains. In recent years. it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence. The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift. Africa is pushing into . The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle. The cooled magma. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder. activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2.13). similar geology. Australia. This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10. but are continuing to separate. and India were also once connected. Antarctica. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. special crustal regions. As this material cools.12). In those two matched continental regions. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge. with its field identification.
Section 2. Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents.14).1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields .1. Europe.13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift. or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf. Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2. closing the Mediterranean Sea. 2.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7). The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust.
During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances. wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1.38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.2. Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves. All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements.14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology. an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5. 128). National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- .13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings. To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist. The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys. Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers.3. magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites. p. (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area.
1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2.15). In 1991. aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a . Shading indicates contours of similar field strength. cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods. iron nails. The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping. just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys.Section 2. We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4). Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament.15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast.
This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations. or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2. field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other. This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. As a result.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field.16). For example. requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist. Unfortunately. Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0. Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause . For example. In early North American land exploration and development.1.40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. at least two measurement sites are used. Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1. 2. Today. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days. a local effect is verified. after adjusting for geological site differences. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles). mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials.1 gamma. 2. Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites. a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). For their detection. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process.
apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers. At the time of earthquakes. 2. Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal.3. but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2. changes in magnetization.1.16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption. this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material.Section 2.6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions. For example. 66).2. and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event.1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2. p. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed .
The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields.17). Blakemore. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the . artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2. and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism. dolphins. These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction. The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation. mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue.7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms.0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior. the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction. spinning in random orientation.1. Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions. 2. Inside these pond bacteria. green turtles. magnetic material in their stomachs. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1. using a large loop antenna. Biological researchers. In other studies. Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense.42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. blue marlins. The well-known sea travelers whales. Approximately 0.13). The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons.17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R.
f. occasionally. Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging.) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession.1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because.18). . and analyzed by computers. The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms. A brief radio frequency (r. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice. pulse. detected by magnetometers.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field.Section 2. A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response.f. live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity. With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals. pull of a gravitational field).
Wire resistance limits the current flow. The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents. However. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. maglev trains have been developed. Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr). Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed. In recent years.1. . consider the fact that during major magnetic storms. 2. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement. to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets. This suspension is called magnetic levitation. electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. using these field techniques.1. For now. NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles.19). Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike. For propulsion. allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields. In March 2000. Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways. or maglev for short.
Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position. over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost. The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density. Following magnetic storms.1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2. Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt. . More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions. for example).Section 2. Everest use oxygen masks. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions. On occasions following a great magnetic storm. the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit.19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth.
Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region. A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency.K. such . astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft.46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites. Surrey Space Center.20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms. Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. Energetic charged particles. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage. A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood. captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2.20). the increased number of particles in space. upsetting program memory control. Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites. U. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. During major geomagnetic storms. During geomagnetic storm periods.
engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields.21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth.1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2. The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly. To lessen the damage to its systems. During a mag- . and its electronic configuration. Particle impacts (Figure 2. Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere. principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles).21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field. Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS. To avoid unhealthy exposure. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas.Section 2. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean.20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions. Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields. the orbit and speed of the satellite.
Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm. . and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere.22). the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. In recent years.48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. and then degraded or lost. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out. netic storm. At such times. Worldwide telephone. fax. These signals.22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms. the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered. also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere). The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction. and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2.
Defense Department which funded the system. fisherman. together with the ground receivers. latitude.23). The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists.S.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2. Soon U. For navigation purposes. longitude.S. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites. The GPS allows users to find their time. hikers. constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS). ship captains. the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20. radiowave-signal transmitter satellites.200 km (12. These clock-synchronized.625 mi) above the Earth. commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth. Such .23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20. and the U. hunters.Section 2.200 km (about 12.
p.3. causing extensive electric power failures . 127). can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters. The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field. A pair of electric field probes. At the surface of the conducting Earth. scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2. the nearer to the region of auroras.10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor. 2. such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart. such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather. magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. The science of physics tells us that. Canada. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor.50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field. or em) fields. high energy-demand occasions.2. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. in some situations.1.25). researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period.1. and the northern United States. show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5.m.24). 128). With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field. At high-latitude locations. We call the pair electromagnetic (e. by nature. during major magnetic storms. In general.3. the greater the induced fields. Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques. p. Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times. Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth. naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations. such as northern Europe.
Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system.- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter. geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way.1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 . An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province. Using this conductivity information together with seismic records.:Section 2.24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth.1 . laboratory testing. and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States.2 .3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I . . Canada. or complete blackout. Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms. at great inconvenience and expense to the public. static.- 500 600 700 0 - 0 . Six million people were affected by that power outage.4 I I I I . long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted. At such times.5 FIGURE 2. some messages have been reduced to whispers.
gas. where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2.52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil. and long oil. improper FIGURE 2. gas. corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents. and water (Figure 2.26). At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest. the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating. and water pipelines. telephone lines. These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems. The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions.25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. . At low latitudes.25).
'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2.Section 2. Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena. J2. and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline. is particularly susceptible. which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow.2J Tour to the Boundaries 2. To avoid such problems.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o . The central section of the pipeline.2. We k n o w that two happenings can be related if . alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour. Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~.
Sometimes. Correlation Second. For example. the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes. as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena.0 . Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes. it has five important features: D. not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second. Just because Mr. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events. High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs. Further study would probably show . This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to . On other occasions.8 (-0. Correlation values greater (less) than 0. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions.1 ) . The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. D. it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile. there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile. It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds. specific mathematical test techniques need to be used. Cause and Effect Third.54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship. 4 ) encourage further study. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics. values 0. for the paired events. the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous). Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. D. Statistical Sampling First.4 ( . The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method.
and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active. During the Sun's cycle.Section 2. when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation. 2. for ingested chemicals. Modeling Fifth. when a true relationship is found. for unknown reasons.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather.2.to l l. the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of . and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar latitudes. scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and. Studies have shown that. special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study.27).2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2. known from a secret list. in tune with the 11-year cycle. The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation. Statistical significance is then required of the true item. For example. the number of sunspots increase and then decrease. giving off less radiation than the average solar surface. Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. Sunspot regions are cooler. physical. Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10.5. cooler or hotter. However. when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence. Double Blind Fourth. the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. whether there are attending unwanted side effects). For convenience.2 Magnetic Correlations =. Models of the biological.
They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum.27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation. A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions. Greece. . However. Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum. some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring. the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens.56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle.
Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection.28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles. beginning in 1276. result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere. recorded at world magnetic observatories. Geomagnetic storms. We shall see.2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's . Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms. there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate.Section 2. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand.28). near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth. These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle.
Kaufman. containing ferric iron deposits. Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design. In addition. measuring the magnetic fields from the brain. and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated. have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2. Sensitive magnetometers.29). Figure adapted from Williamson. Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations.1. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4. FIGURE 2. .4. Originating in the auroral region. 111). Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields. p.29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger.
3. A famous and prolific space scientist. although unrelated. The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow. the number of admissions to mental hospitals. when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period). there are certainly well-known. the number of heart attacks. the number of publications by active scientists. although a significant (0. the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum. Nevertheless. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima. and 6.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2. But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. However. the number of convulsive seizures. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random. 2. . For example. the two can display a false correlation. Also. Random associations can occur. scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields. the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack.Section 2.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist. 4.10). Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays.2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior. will show a significant value. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. 5. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. seasonal. Also.
~'. oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2. Old Wives' Tales.ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q. magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects.lll ~ '. 2. at Arnhem Land. Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes. and Frauds I. it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad. %. it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense. As another example. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year. t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ . A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community.3 Pseudoscience. therefore.l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2.. and at the Cape York peninsula. Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967. Also.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S.2. India. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall. ~ . the Earth.' I. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite . Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north.I ~. The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers. in its yearly orbit about the Sun. is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year.31). One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD .-~ !. .
mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). constructions. The word mesmerize originated in that period. Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season. the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2. about the time of the American Revolution. P. A then-popular Viennese physician.31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions. All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains.Section 2. For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J. not because of the magnetic field direction. allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night. B. increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- . these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature. In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds.
pillows. 1996). direct-marketing outlets.29). That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where. with the promise that "strong. for a princely sum.." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense. bracelets. shoe innersoles. the MRI described in Section 2.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2.32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. beautiful. vard University Press. cure insomnia. alleviate arthritis. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets. . However.g. reduce food cravings. Some department stores. stop headaches. cervical collars. The magnets are said to be a time-honored. suppress coughing.7." Magnetic finger rings. and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public. sleeping pads. newlyweds could spend their nuptial night." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy.1. long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation. health-food stores. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten. knee braces. 42). creating heat that soothes pain and swelling. revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin). There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e.32). It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process. p. such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2.
which.Section 2. A similar add-on system for water pipes. trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure.33). the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect). statistically significant. Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. by itself. under tightly controlled field . Held tightly in the hands of the witch. and desperation of the gullible public. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff. The responsible American Medical Association requires careful. is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger). Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment. the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. The advertisements feed on the fear. shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L"." Some witches. allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices. Berkeley. In his hands. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. say. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. or reference to a medical journal article. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California. suffering. Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies. when examined. Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. called a divining rod. using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home. In their Health News Letter of May 1999. describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof. who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater." =. untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories." Tests of the method. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests. advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge.
have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water.33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful. recurring surface heating. when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths.html. and local prevailing winds. The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography. has nothing to do with rock magnetism. During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks. Magnetism has no role in the divining. "The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well known. conditions. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local geology. with a statistically significant number of examples. in truth. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said.com/dousing. The procedure is successful only by random luck. . While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. but magnetism is not the responsible agent. predominant weather front directions. 1See the website http://www.skeptic.64 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that.
given the weather and traffic.34).Section 2. Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area. To create even more mystery. 2See the website http://skepdic. Serious researchers have proved that. and Puerto Rico (Figure 2. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region.html. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces. ~. not unusual. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle. 2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness.2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2.com/bermuda. hazily defined by Bermuda. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept. usually magnetic. following Columbus's voyage of discovery. . in fact. Given the weather and traffic. Florida.34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda Triangle. the number of lost ships and planes in that area is.
Earthquake Predictions In recent years. Captain James Cook. They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes. although the island's name remains. Most likely. Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. Nicaragua earthquake photo by J. . some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem. ~. their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors.35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes. Unfortunately. workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes. Dewey of the USGS. Australia. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2. who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location.
is published and touted in the news media. the occasional fortuitous prediction success. Geophys.Section 2. Am. The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience. For these. signals that forecast earthquakes. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief. but the many failures are rarely mentioned.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences. *Geller. Therefore. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs. Of course. The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. Eos Trans. including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods. J. although a clearly random coincidence. 63-67. Occasionally. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable. R. 1997. .m. the Chinese blame numerous causes.35). almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled. Union 78.
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We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. every day of the year. changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth. in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing.Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent. the magnetosphere. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields. Generated by dynamic processes. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. 69 . Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere. Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive.
a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. p. Fluids could cause this. 3. Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust. a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself. There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth.1. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field. the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth.1.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1. Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. 2.2. but the absence . between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles). Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region. 5. 31) is reached for iron and magnetite. p. 4. there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1.5). but not solid material. the Curie Temperature (see Section 2.1).3. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region. 35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep. is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept. The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3. They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape. A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area. An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field. Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth.2 and Plate 8).
Planets Mercury.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. However. Ganymede. Uranus. Venus also has no permanent main field. Disruptive eddy currents within that region can. Jupiter. Saturn.Section 3.1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). scientists have found that. seems to display such a field. destroy the organized loop current. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes. Although Mars has no such field now. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions. and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. in cycles averag- . Using the more recent main field evidence. in time. a moon of Jupiter. with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism. Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field. The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying.
. ing 200 to 250 thousand years. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds.1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps.72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.2. If we don't stop at the first chart viewing. We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3. For example. There are many magnetic poles used by different groups.2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth. 13. we see a problem immediately. possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years. but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature. which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth.3).
" a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time.. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3. most certainly.Section 3. those by National Geographic. The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1.2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3. not the important . To further confuse this situation. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross.g.3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland.5). One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3. The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point. Most commercial world maps (e. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground. Rand McNally.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet. it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are. and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions.4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania.
As part of a special IAGA working group.4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands. Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas. pronounced "eye-yah-gah"). let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth..2. pole locations "to which all world compasses point. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3. a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA. Hammond Inc." So that we can better understand this universal misconception. 3.74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole . This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values .. scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF).2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II.
6). that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections. Also. which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. intelligently adjusted to a common date. the scientists use a special mathematical technique. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes. The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions). Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site. E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles. G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles.Section 3. called Gauss coefficients.5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles. called the analysis epoch. and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior. when additional recovered data become available.2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3. spherical harmonic analysis (SHA).8) of Germany. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. To prepare the model fields. The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth. the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) .
a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. McFadden of AGSO. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field . n and m.6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field. when all are added together. Display program from P. The IGRF table (Figure 3.7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients. g and h. The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices. External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior. the Earth.
1 -12.2 2.0 FIGURE 3. The numbers (Gauss coefficients).0 -0. a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space.7 -15.6.5 -6.2 3. less accurate. With this table and special formulae.0 -18. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600.8 -6. scientists can compute.1 0.2 0.6 13. The total field map shown in Figure 2.9 1. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years.5 2.8 0.3 -13.1 -0. From a full IGRF or DGRF table. g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag.4 4. Internal field models have been established back to 1945. Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here.8 1. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3.8 -8.2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12.html. m and n.7 -4. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w .9 1.6).7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years. but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T . n o a a . scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface. These poles are determined from a global field. n g d c . depicted in Figure 3.2 -8.21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values. are indexed as types g and h. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics.6 -1.Section 3. for the given epoch. We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles".
The symmetrically S 17. The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3. but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles. The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center.8. Earth-centered coordinates. a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe. and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole. shown in Figure 3.3). This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern. This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements.8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole.w // S octupole N FIGURE 3. S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S . the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling. is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center.O I N v .2. quadrupole. As we shall see below. octupole.8).7) define the centered dipole terms.? N N 1 I''~. 3. The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~. . and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3.. Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns.78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part. quadrupole.9). The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3.
Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years.Section 3.2. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600. on average. However. Figure from M. interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth.2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model. it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting. We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles". Davis of NGDC/NOAA. All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that. Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays. drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields. on average. about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms. located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3. Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field.2. p.3). All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner . 128).
attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one. Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group. The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials.80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core. Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. simpler analysis method is now typically used. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis. a slightly different. 3. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others. it was offset from the Earth's geographic center. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our . the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms. introduced by the researcher. If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center).10). To understand this fact. That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that. In one. and radioactive heating.2. Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location. the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. on average. Because of their short spacial dimensions. Thus.4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center.
the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal. That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit. and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. not the Earth's surface. the tilt of the eccentric dipole. from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific. Since the 1800s. its distance from the geographic Earth center.Section 3. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles". Similarly. The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry. Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis.11). Were it not for some other difficulties. .10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center. the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center.2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. "Magnetic Poles" definition. The main geomagnetic field changes with time. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts.
3. Figure adapted from A.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon).5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements.4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3. There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth. For example.12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only.11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region.2. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics. Also. Fraser-Smith. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3. C. The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below . Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point.
94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements. the arrival of .4.5.12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica. New Zealand. Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents. what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field. whereas. p. ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3. Rand McNally & Company. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole. As we shall see shortly. In addition. there are seasonal.2 Pole Markers 83 .1 . and sector-effect (Section 3. diurnal (24-hr cycle). the Earth's surface.8ol 14.Section 3.
in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station. fully quiet.14 and Plate 4). The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data. Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii. With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations. just northwest of Thule. Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms.) Also. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps. for some strange reason. seasonal. and day-night distortions. When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3.84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. Thus. Antarctica. solar-terrestrial conditions. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole. 3. Charged particles. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. arriving from the Sun. the ionospheric currents (see Section 3. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement.4. cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts.13). p. not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. Nevertheless. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location. Greenland.2. the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location. . it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora.
and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field).13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. These are the pole locations with significant meaning.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3. This anomalous region (Figure 2.20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region. auroral region (ionospheric) currents. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents. induced currents in the Earth. in the Southern Hemisphere.Section 3.21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- . The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2.
sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left.14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole. Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space. 13. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation. . A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. Figure from NASA.86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.1 gamma.31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure. Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance.
The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. Downwind. the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. called the solar wind. Re. the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator. depending on the compression by the solar wind. that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3. but. This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. On the day side.Section 3. Thus. out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius. from our viewpoint on Earth. However. = 6371 km or 3959 miles).15). The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind. on average. away from the Sun. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. which defines the ecliptic plane. antisolar direction. two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re. During major blasts of the solar wind. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole. In the space around the Earth. opposite to the apparent seasonal . Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate. In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun.3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3.15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward. in times of extreme quiet. primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re). The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance.
Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen. the higher the radiation energy. called galactic cosmic rays.15). Principally at the two distances of approximately 1.2 Re to 4. This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons.0 Re. From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles). The shorter the wavelength of light. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation. verified by satellite measurements.20). The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field.88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and . toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2. At higher altitudes. the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind.21). Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2. scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect). This shift. 13. In addition. that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy. the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles.5 to 6. Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes. the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge. there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes. during strong solar winds. Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes. Far above the Earth. to about 90 km (56 miles). which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level.41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3.0 Re and 4. Curiously. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4. a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth.
The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . The electron density values shown here are for midday. which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3. the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles). at mid-latitudes. Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions.16).16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. above 900 km (560 miles). The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles). but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate.Section 3. oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons. Therefore. In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). although. Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth. the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher. upper-atmosphere composition. summertime.4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3.
how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region. Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears. As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3. However. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2.16). not all the ionosphere goes away at night. Of course.22). The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. such as: 1. and 3. In this way. One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface. For example. The water moves a .1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town. Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground.51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3. Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur. the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient). That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large. 2. 13.5. Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance. summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization.90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features.
Section 3. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet. or the conductor is stationary and the field moves.17). Commercial. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field. the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo. as far as the current flow is concerned. through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel. Of course.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet. The daily heating and FIGURE 3. This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field. . When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field. This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here. electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3. fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. and the conducting properties of that wire. The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth. They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field.
The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size. However. a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq). 3. typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. where the ionospheric conductivity is large. Use Figure 1. Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere. and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex. due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans). there are global winds.21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex. As you might guess.2 S o l a r Q u i e t .92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity. changing with solar activity and season. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories. the direction and strength of the Earth's main field. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction.5. At lower altitudes. . where the main field is horizontal. Also. At much higher altitudes. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet). the wind system within the ionosphere. the two motions cancel out the current. where collisions are rare.5 miles) in altitude. causing a current to flow near 100 km (62.18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere. This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents.
flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions. Such events include" 1. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator.5. All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions. atmospheric atomic explosions. magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external . Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset. 3. 2.Section 3.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. or sudden heating by auroral-related currents. on the Sun side of the Earth. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse.18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter. and 3. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun.3 Induction At the Earth's surface.
24). The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth. The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3.19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth. from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2. for the conductivity determinations.19). a corresponding field change occurs. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior. Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind. surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth. Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns. there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind. Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary. . Geomagneticians use the separated.4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected. The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3. a special daily solar sector effect is found. 3. toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun.5.
Greenland. Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5. p.20). 130.5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule.4.Section 3.2. There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve). . a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3. Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3.20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station. Thule.
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Umbrella for Magnetic Storms
Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.
Disturbances in Sight
4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in
Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms
FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.
the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):
1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.
2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages. filaments.4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas. The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle. The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. prominences.Section 4. Photo from SEC/NOAA. which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4. . That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions. The solar corona. 5. and arches of solar gases.1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4. The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth.3).
4.4).2 In the W i n d In the solar wind. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower. more constant plasma stream.3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon. Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR. the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4. the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves. determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4.1.3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec). The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun. Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler. The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. CME. . The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral. showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles. The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection. Although each particle of water is shot out radially.100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.
3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle. The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane.4).1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4. which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3. p. In this chapter.Section 4. The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun). carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself.1.4. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball. 4. The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field. The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4. either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane. p. high-latitude fields are mostly open. 94). determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm. At differing solar longitudes. Its interaction with the Earth's main field.5.5. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances.4. slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator. 94). The outward flow of solar plasma. in both quiet and active times. creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3. The . which has the opposite direction. Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface. so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles).
1).102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions. When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect .5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape.5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm. The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4. The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum. The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause. Earth responds to this activity. space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause. with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances. seem to be responsible for this delay. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle. Using measurements from special satellites.
yellow. green. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size. other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights).to 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes. strong partial ring currents. powerful field-aligned currents.5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms. and the shape of the Earth's field.3. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. and induced currents in the Earth. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic storm. thermospheric pressure waves. Figure 4. releasing energy. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re. their energy. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods.Section 4. 88). and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4. During the equinoxes. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with red. This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the tube. intense ionospheric currents. where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere.to 300-km-high (63.7). protons. photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth. charged particles (primarily solar electrons.6 and 4. During the magnetic storm. Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3. . growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents. In addition to the auroras. they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. p. Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. near the 100.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms.
Combs and R. .6 I~ Electrons. bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms.104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Figure adapted from L. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center. which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers. nm). arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current.
On the records. with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4.Section 4. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary. Figure 4. Overmyer of NASA. 4.9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field.5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase .8). at the onset of a geomagnetic storm. there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component.13). The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4.4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms. Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1. Then there typically follows a slower. Photo by R. H-component increase (called the initial phase.1.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4. Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth.7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger.
the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3. Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites.106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4. in response to the solar wind direction. The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary. see Section 4. In these displays.and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149. at the Earth's surface. A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination. The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display.8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30. the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location. north or south of the magnetic equator. This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4. The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4. a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4. p. After this compression.10).1. and forms the north and south tail lobes. 116). Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time). a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail.15). producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface.5).9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created.5. During the storm development. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source . Of course. =. with a considerably intense internal sheet current. constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories.
The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record. Field-aligned current (Figure 4. Because of the ionospheric conductivity.9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left).5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones. Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4. The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec. In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re. 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region.12).Section 4. a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere. 19. but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes. For convenience in representation. current patterns. A concentration of these currents .5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region. Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4. spaced in longitude around the Earth. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J. 20.lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase . all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~.11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes. 1980 FIGURE 4. i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec.
The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation. during the geomagnetic storm. Because of the solar wind flow. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds. As the air molecules are split apart. Instruments on highaltitude balloons.13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena.10 I~ During a magnetic storm. . December. In the auroral region. strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4. An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis. typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet. northward) with the antisolar location. count the electrons that are arriving.5). a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously. The cross-tail currents move similarly. Figure 4. away from the spin axis. That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere. measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. southward.
negative).Section 4. Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. Figure 4. Local time is indicated around the circumference. During a magnetic storm. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself. Therefore.1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4.11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms.14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox. field-aligned currents. the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth. fields from the partial ring currents. At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+. only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time. .
This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters.15). =. This wave disrupts the high ionosphere. A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. pro- . at just under sonic speed. Another stronger pressure wave. Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman. travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones.12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates. Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating.110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects.
the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves. top to bottom. the field from the westward auroral electrojet current.Section 4.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks.1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4. the traces. illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons. and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations. Alaska. .
Byrd ! _! 10 I. Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces. Some phenomena. Antarctica. which are not traceable to solar sources. !. N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 .14 I~ During a magnetic storm day. ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents. Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event. these are the field changes in the northward (H). eastward (D).112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located.! 12 I . Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles . can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields. auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW). and Byrd Station. Canada. 14 UT FIGURE 4.. .
16)..1 Disturbances in Sight 113 . causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth. 2055 _~ . were detected at Fort Yukon.15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave. 1962... N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4.. At the po- .... Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon.. Alaska... However. the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds.. The pressure waves.and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction.. ~ 2045 .. in that region.... initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed. . it is possible to point out some generalizations. . ~ 2110 FIGURE 4. The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3. . .....Section 4. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August.. That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4. Russia. The light and dark traces indicate north-south.. Alaska..16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya. There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally... _~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~. . which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds. A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds. / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T.5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units). What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated.."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L.
. At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions.8). All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position. at the low and equatorial latitudes. the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate. 4.12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations.5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras. Thus. nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger. At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. storm-time.114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important.1. and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4.11). the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. field-aligned (Figure 4. For each Universal Time hour. As a result. magnetometers register a large. field-aligned currents. some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes. eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator.17). but more distant. a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4. others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents. Therefore. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. The strong nightside. At low and equatorial latitudes. The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination. and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. Extending to the equator.
Kp. 1974. In this example. of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index. Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements. NGDC/NOAA. The small short-period variations contribute little.Section 4. The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours. for 4 and 5 July. (Figure 4. K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed. Kp Index A third magnetic index. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket. A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index. magnetospheric currents.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century.17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope.18). AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index. An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp. Unfortunately. the planetary form of the index. such stations are not uniformly . AU) and the lowest (lower envelope.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4. Dst (Figure 4. Illustration from World Data Center A. The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times.
116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4. Statistically. in a long-term average.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period.19). More are in the Northern Hemisphere. fixed so that. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above. the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each location. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms.to indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes. the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. Each contributing station has a different K table. The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0. distributed around the Earth. there is a concentration in Europe. The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change. the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index). and .9. the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4. and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. Because a large number of the index . +.
2 2+ 1 2 .. At such times..--. Table provided by H.1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2.12 13 .. large magnetic storms are more likely to occur..2 1.42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11.2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2.2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3.------.lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4. lalallalal.3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__.-----------------------.------------------___----.1+ 1.1. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998.4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 . Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes. stations are at high-latitude locations.Section 4.--0.2+ 0 0 1.1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23. There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods.__--_..6 5+ 4 . Coffee at NGDC/NOAA.3 2 3+ 4.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71.2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____.2 1 O+ 2+ 1.--.O+ 1.1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm.1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3..----..19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K.20)..1 3 3.O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4. A study of .16 65+ 6 2.1+ 3.au|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described. daily Ap..64.=--.36 85.4.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .3+ 3.2+ 3+ 4 4 2.----.
On the charts. Erwin of NGDC/NOAA. . quite oscillatory form (called Pc).22).2. Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5. Figure from E.118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997. Other pulsations.001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur. 4.1. 131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface. Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields. p. small (0. upon arriving at high latitudes.1 to 0.6. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4. the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous. Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4.16).21).6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances. Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4. travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere.
Allen and D. Figure from J.21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station.1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4. on 23 August. 1966. . H. Antarctica. C.22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0.Section 4. FIGURE 4. Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA.
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Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the fields. The 121 . the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1. How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be. It is time now for tourists' questions. 15-1 I Field Traces 5. The first question I expect is. Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. investigated the global distribution of field disturbances. Germany.to 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5. of Goettingen. Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask. At prearranged times. I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter.1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries. He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred. I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory.1.8).1). In those times. it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally.
2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system. These magnetometers were given the more specific . 5. eastward. A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly. capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5.2). By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions.1. which rotated once a day. the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward.122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum. With the improved instrument in a darkened room. It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction. and vertical directions. when photography came into general use.1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century. Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis.
Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties. not the full main field strength. The exact strength of the Earth's main field. after being moved.2 I~ The simple variometer. He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator. could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position. moving with the magnet. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet. Notice how your home compass needle. Today. oscillates before coming to rest northward. Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded. Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material. The light beam.4 6 0 ~ F). The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period. A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5.3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward. shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper. . many other systems are used to record the field.Section 5. developed by the mid-nineteenth century. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength.2 7 3 ~ C or . Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet.
Coil -. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium .6 inches) in diameter. The niobium metal sensor..00001 gamma. Zimmerman of NIST.Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5..124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields ...RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw . which is only approximately 1..5 cm (0.. but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. Figure from J. is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling..Coaxial Line -. . which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0.3 I~ Modern.
1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet. Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet. making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together. gsfc. and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular loop.1. .1 Field Traces 125 5. The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day. With the 2-inch-wide tape.Section 5. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and. with a marking pen.nasa. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle.html. put a dot near its center. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on. Some 1See the website http://image. for school demonstrations. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =. Turn on thehighintensity lamp and. Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card.gov/poetry/workbook/page9.4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms.
126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5.4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA. If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches). During geomagnetic storms. magnetometer. lasting many hours or even days. or other fiat surface. effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp. a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a . deflections of several degrees. and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table.25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north. near a wall. can .
That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0. Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity.3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. . In typical soil.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations. separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more.5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises. Note that if any of the parts are moved. . .05 gamma (for most locations). the spot will remain in the same location. About 2 square feet (0. . a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5.Section 5. .1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot. . The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0.1 millivolt. Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. the measurements will be affected. however. Most of the time. can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0. A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor . Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder.19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. two probes. Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field. Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations. For those readers who are adept at electronics.
21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth. p. Comparing the results in Figure 5. using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region.5. a small battery. 1.2.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region. One such model is depicted in Figure 5. 5. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles).7. p. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work.128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes. 80).3. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges.21. one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section 3. 5.2.2. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior.6 with Figure 2. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields.1 Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2. The necessary variable resistors.4. switch. 5. and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores. 78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3. amplifiers.2.2.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region. Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- .
the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure. R. The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas). Figure 5. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA.l. tilted dipole."56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5.2 90 --. Figure from J.a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 . The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole.Section 5. 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 . .8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes. Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model. ments taken along a fixed line on the surface.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered. Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole.
Figure from J.2.5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index. The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields. the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were .2. 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3.9) in the polar regions at low activity times. 5. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5. p. Quinn of USGS.4. Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows.4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed.5. Using a chain of observatories. Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations. 5.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions.
8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state.2. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton. That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations. 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times. p.6.1. In this figure. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations. Figure 5.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations.Section 5. thus. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- . determined (Figure 5. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. they were not due to local anomalies. The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. There were often large local storm field differences from the index. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4. 5.10). The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters. it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5. More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks.6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation.
Today.3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form. These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere.. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents. By international agreement. ond. so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling.\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2. the horizontal axis represents the time in hours. which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special. duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers.5 hours in local time for the two conditions. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET. . and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation. globally distributed collection points.132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '. there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5. chart preparation. 15.12).
. Molodezhnaya 3. . . i . Colorado 80305-3328. . . NGDC/NOAA.. mailstop EGC2. . Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science. 0 10 20 ! .. fax" 81-75-7227884. e-mail: info@ngdc. consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure). . . . 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. . . . . USA. Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. . . Kyoto 606-8502. Kyoto University. tel: 81-75-753-3929. . Boulder. . .12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United States.Section 5. . . 60 | . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group). . fax: 1-303-497-6513.gov 9 In Russia: World Data Center B. . . 325 Broadway. . . . JAPAN. . .. . .. . RUSSIA. tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619. 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day . tel: 1303-297-6761. . . . . 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l . . | .noaa. .3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9. Academy of Sciences of Russia. Moscow 117 296. These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude). . . i . fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2. . field differences were determined. .10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories. . . . . .World Data Center A.
Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields
FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.
15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.
15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:
FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, ac.jp 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. ac.uk 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. usgs.gov 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: http://maxwell.gi. alaska.edu 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. noaa.gov--select Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on
TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)
Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and
tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.
100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)
200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)
600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)
1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)
a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).
Satellite operations: memory device problems. star-trackers cause orientation problems. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. these events can last more than one day). memory impacts cause loss of control. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors. permanent damage to solar panels. Flux in particles: s . permanent damage to exposed components/detectors. 103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible. Satellite operations loss of some satellites. Biological: none. Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets. Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days. noise on imaging systems. star-trackers unable to locate sources.~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA. 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m.t ".4 . CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days.TABLE 5. Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA.2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions. high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays).l c m -2. bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions).. Satellite operations: none. Flux levels are 5 min averages. passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray). Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted. _. and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult. elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays). serious noise in image data.. Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. o . noise in imaging systems. and decrease of solar panel currents.l s t e r . and solar panels degraded. Biological: none.
CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days). Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators. loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators.3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _. HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side.TABLE 5. -r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m. loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth.. which may spread into the night side. affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.-i. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours. a Some or all of these effects are possible. in Wm-2). ~r -rl r o. HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side.3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 .8 nm range. bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux. causing loss in positioning. Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth.1--0. Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth. measured in the 0. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 . X20 (2 x 10 ..3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 . Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour. HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth.. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. .t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours. HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals.
Sydney. NASA.sec.html 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA. fax: 1-303-202-4693.Section 5. 9 W. e-mail: info. U.spaceweather.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle. also http://www.61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended books.com. republication by Dover Publications. Box 25286 Federal Center. NOAA.alaska.gov/Education/Intro. Australia: http://www. in the order of their original publication date. also http://image. 1600.doc3.gsfc.E Mattelay.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services. also http://www.gsfc. USA: http://sohowww. Such data.gov/gallery/LASCO. Mailstop 306.services @usgs. University of Alaska. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical Institute.nasa. English translation in 1893 by P. nasa. and radiation information to monitor the space environment. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback. 1958.HTML. also http://www-spof. USA.edu 9 GoddardSpaceFright Center. html 9 Space Environment Center. g ov/$tp/stp. gov/UVI/current_image. noaa. Gilbert. alaska. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories.pfrr.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX. Geological Survey. ngdc.gov Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales. 368 pp.nascom. USA: http://www. with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center.nasa. nasa. NASA.S. magnetic field.msfc.noaa. De Magnete. Denver. New York. Colorado 80225.gov 15. gi. USA: http://www. USA: http://uvisun. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern life.gov.gov/poetry.ips. . USA: http://www..
.D. 1992... Massachusetts. 513 pp. Oxford University Press. 9 R.D. 433 pp.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena. Geomagnetism. This classic. and thorough description of analytical methods. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time. 9 J. Oxford. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. Brisbane Brookfield Press. Matsushita and W. Edinburgh. Academic Press.. Bartels. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust. Piper. History.. 1398 pp. 1050 pp.D.H. auroral descriptions. Campbell. 1996.. Milton Keynes Pub. 9 W. It was last republished in 1951. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists. 9 W. Cambridge. and the Arts. A fine.. thorough review of the technology...A. 434 pp. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book). the Aurora in Science. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism.C. 311 pp. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate.A. Physics of the Earth. 1967. Brisbane. Washington D. compact yet complete. Chapman and J. 9 J. Although our subject is only a small part of this book. Jacobs. Majestic Lights. Open University Press. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information. 9 S. the Natural Magic of Magnets. 1987. 2545 pp. Stacy.D. An up-to-date. 1983. ed.. and beautiful illustrations... Harvard University Press. and history of magnets. eds. American Geophysical Union. Eather. 2 vols. 1940. 1987-1991.. . 2 vols. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies. Driving Force. beautifully written. 1980. 323 pp.H. Scottish Academic Press Ltd. Livingston. New York. New York. application. Academic Press. Parkinson. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age... detailed references. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage. 9 J. Introduction to Geomagnetism. Geomagnetism. 4 vols..
Section 5. and the Deep Mantle.6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R. 1997. 9 W. 304 pp.T. McFadden..W. My own compact but comprehensive textbook. Campbell. Cambridge University Press. Academic Press. the Core.H. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations. . Cambridge. McElhinny. 531 pp. The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field. San Diego. and EL. 1996. Written by well-respected researchers.. M. Merill. with many illustrations.
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17. 118 Addresses. 116 Aurora. 131 Bryce Canyon. 34 Byrd Station. 84 pulsating. 38 Agonic line. 8 Bermuda Triangle. 14. 20. 15. Antarctica. R. 102 Bremerton. 109. Qu6bec. Julius. 90. 134 Bar magnet. 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. 59 Blakemore. 148 oil discovery. 25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields. 18 Atoms. 82 surveys. 70. 4 Airport magnetometer. 18-19 Auroral displays. 110 oval. 56 upper. Washington State. 17. 84. 39 Atmosphere lower. 8. 119 Baie St. 17. 45 temperature. 117 Apollo space craft. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights). 113 magnetic observatories. 109 zone. 105 high-latitude. 113. 123. 65 Big Dipper. 101 angle. Paul. 125 Bartels. 35. 22 Australis (Southern Lights). 42 Body magnets. 40 Atomic number. 139-141 Bowshock. 2 Biomagnetism. 41-42 correlations. 21. 116 Aeromagnetism. 106 values. 39 map.Index Activity index. 39 Archimedes spiral. 61-63 Books. 39 Archeological formations. 102 Archives. 38 Analysis epoch. 109. 120 143 . 60. 106. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index. 105 bombarding particles. 20 electrojet current. 17. 18 weight. 115. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 133 Asteroid.. 37 charts.
123 temperatures. 10. Captain James. 48 long-wire. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 27. 32. 21 secondary. 25 right-hand rule. 111 Continental drift. 13. 26 aeromagnetic. 130 Corona. 99 Coronal holes. 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. 29 Chinese. 21 corrosion and. 54 coefficient. 94 Darwin. 35 magnetotelluric. 89. 70 Tucson. 50-51. 63 Drift contintental. 4. 124 electromagnets. 6 eccentric axis. 26 lodestone. 6. 70 magnetism. 38 navigation. 55. 55 ecliptic plane and. 70. 115 ionosphere. 55 modeling. 70 Current. 92. 44 magnetometers. 90 Compass. 9. 17. 25 source and induced. 72. 80 field alignment. 94 geological features. 3 magnetic island and. 36-38. 108 Double-blind test. 69 strength. 32 bar magnet. 7. 6 magnet Earth as. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). 14 Earth. 70 moment. 84 Dipole. 56. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays. 90 pole eccentric axis. 101 Columbus. 26 Chu Yu. 81 locally-measured. 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 35-37 Cook. 29. 23 origin. 53 Earth. 48 Conductivity. 51 radiowave. 75. 92. Arizona. 59 Charts. 84 . copper). 54 double blind. 70 distorted. Australia. 18 comparative (air. 40. 66 main field and. Christopher. 36--41 resistivity. 34. 82 ionosphere. 34 equator. 88 sunspot connection. 15 induction. 11 main field. 23. 79 field pattern. 4. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 130 De Magnete. 109 Conjugate positions. 75. 26. 60. 122 airport runway declination. 6. 15 Disturbed field. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 108 Crust.144 Index Chapman. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 3. 20-23 direct. 82. 103. 8. 2 Climate. 98 mass ejection (CME). water. 39 ancient field behavior. 23. Sydney. 2 declination and. 70. 11. 77 Dip angle. 111 electrical. 31. 3 Communications. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 101 Correlation cause and effect. 139 Declination. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 93.
13. 134 Electric charge. 90 sharing of. 25 Ferrous atoms. 102-104. 71 Earthquake. 18. 98. 18 atomic number and. 44 use in maglev. 54 prediction. 18 aurora and. 130 storm currents. 3. 41. Benjamin. 70. 44 in wire. Antarctica. 90-92 current.Index 145 magnetic pole. 22. 89. 40. 32 clay. 50 power plant. 79 non-dipole field vs. 87. 19 Electrojet auroral. 50. 28 External field. 92. 81 field representation. 80. 18 molecule. 70 source. 71 outer core. 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. 128 dipole poles. 79 particle. 127-128 dipole field strength. 56 Exploration (global). 114 models. 77 analysis. 88 Force of magnetic field. 127 Electrons. 13. 7. 90 Electromagnet. 104 Elements. 90 region. 9. 7. 130-131 Dynamo. 84. 44 Electromagnetic field. 9. 90. 22 ionization and. 3. 127 probe. 37 reversal. 21. 75 Equatorial electrojet. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 84. 114 Franklin. 13. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 76. 22 field. 7. 50-53 mapping. 19. 134 Epoch. Michael. 37 Field-aligned current. 84 Ecliptic plane. dipole field. 70 theory. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 20. 111. 92. 110 equatorial. 99 Flares. 81 current in a wire. 50 systems in satellites. 48 and magnetic fields. 37 power lines. Alaska. 75. 115 Filaments. Alaska. 7 transmission lines. 81 dipole. 112 Faraday. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 79 lower mantle. 84 Fairbanks. 36. 94 conductor. 90 . 9. 75. 70. 111. 22 induction responses. 70 Earth current. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. 47. 101 Eights Station. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 87. 21. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 50. 23. 66-67 signals. 34 Field in space. 44 Fort Yukon. 23 Electrical conductivity. 109 Ethesian winds. 55 Energetic particle events. 18 current. 85. 20 solar. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 123 Forbush effect. 21. 14. 109. 3. 7. 115117. 102 upper atmosphere and. 26.
74 regions (zones). 18. 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 61 Humbolt. 107 satellites and. 89 solar wind. 12. 5. 97-120. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 92-94. 90 dip equator. 8 Geostationary satellites. Wyoming. 62 Heliospheric boundary. 119. 111. 76 Induction. 130 auroral. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 7. 73. 49 Geomagnetism. 28. 108 Jackson Lake. 86 High latitudes. 20-23. William. 11 first textbook on. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. 49 main phase. 17 Igneous rock. 40 Latitude. 48. 44 Indices. 47. 90. 9. 115 equatorial. 29 Halley. 75. 114 Intergalactic fields. 128. 58. 44. 16. 15 Ganymede main field. 8 Health magnets. 107 recovery phase. 16. 74. 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 80 table. 110. 95 poles. 109 current. 77 IMAGE spacecraft. 64 Joule heating. 57. 116 Land survey. 58 low. 25. India. 53. 78. 32 . 28 geomagnetic coordinates. 66.) of oscillation. 52. 132 Internal field. 17 Hubble Space Telescope. 49 high. 75. 92 Ions. 40. 48. 113 Greenwich. 131 storms. 92 high latitude.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 94 of pulsations. Canada. 132 pulsation. England. 49 Grand Teton National Park. 115. 50. 72 GPS and. 123 Hyderabad. 130 field models. 7. 102 Ionosphere. 114. 115 lunar quiet-day. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 78 2000 coefficient values. 16 Geologic exploration. 8. 121 coefficients. 72-86. 11 from North Star. 75. 79 main field poles. 78-80. 50 Infrasonic pressure waves. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 86 INTERMAGNET. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 84. 89 electron density. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. 58. 111 Jupiter main field. 46 Gamma (y). 5. 64 Great Earth Magnet. 45. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. Baron Alexander von. 92. 74. 134 GPS and. 94 field responses. 48. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 138 Gilbert. 75-77 field units. 89. 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 84. 79 North Pole. 78. Edmund. 16 netism and Aeronomy). 128 coordinate system. 77-80 multipoles.
58 proton. 43 rocks. 44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 79 IGRF. 102. 30. 23 permeability. 124 variometer. 31 randomly oriented. 3 polarities. 102 tail of. 114 currents. 88 Van Allen belts. 82-84 Longitude. 42 Curie point. 70 field effect of. 30 microscopic. 3 crystals. 13 north pole. 46 satellites and. 123 quake-site. 42 in animal brains. 103 heating of. 102 Magnetosheath. 26 declination. 61-63 Earth's main field. 72 types of. 75 movement of. 72 GPS and. 32 field human response to. 3 Magnetic charts. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 84 axis. 42. 88 tail boundary. 45 particles and. 111 solar wind path within. 71 positions. 41 rubidium. 49 ship's. 102 Magnetosphere. 123 Magnetopause. 5. 93 airport. 44 simple bar. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 87. 2 Magnet. 6 domains. 115 envelope. 107. 30 field-aligned current. 87. 102 sunward boundary. 13 poles. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 78. 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 58 Island. 30-35 storms. 26 dipole. 44 termites. 77 locally measured. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 46 satellites and. 2 body "health" magnet. 23. 66 levitation. 2. 31 SQUID. 44 mountain. 123 satellite. 3 Locally measured dip poles. 87 tail. 95. 106. 32 realignment. 92 Maglev. 123 fluxgate. 123 medical uses. 102 field and charged particles. 14. 111 magnetic storms and. 15 south pole. 78 dipole moment. 130 . 25 coils. 35 positions of. 60-61 Magnetite. 43 cryogenic. 6. 87. 69 alignment with solar wind. 28 Lower mantle. 104 outer boundary. 4 clocks and. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 44 seasonal differences. 118 currents in. 111 fields. 70 Magnetometer. 3 Eccentric axis dipole.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 88 field measurements. 71.
71 Main phase. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 38 Main field. 130 chain of. 131 Multipole. 115 Magnetotail. 73 magnetic. 128-129 charts. 19-20 Moon main field. 71 reversal of. 22. 42-43 Mercury main field. 20. 113. 10 Medicine. 47 Saturn. 49 ships. 88. 71 Venus. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR). 79. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 106 auroral and polar regions. 3. 17. 71 Neptune. 131 method. 84 high latitude. 3. 23 dip angle. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 107 Maricourt. James Clerk. 69 Ganymede. 3 Mars main field.) tail current. 36 troughs. 12. 71 Neutrons. 116 Australian. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 134 INTERMAGNET. 28. 106 major worldwide. 98 Maxwell. 15.W. 43 spin alignment. 105 Novaya Zemlya. 138 northern hemisphere. 71 Mesa Verde. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 34 Mid latitude. 11. 92 global network. 71 Mercury. 71 Jupiter. 26. 70 Uranus. 34 extension into space. 109 auroral zone. 36 plates. 40.. 88 Molecules. 4 geographic. 57. 89. 5. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). 36 waves. 120 molecule. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. 30. 18 Observatories. 71 Moon. 117 Northern Lights. 4 Star. 61 Metamorphic rock. Russia. 4 geomagnetic. E. 35 satellites and. 115 Milky Way Galaxy. 108 magnetic. 113. 18 hydrogen atom. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 110 northern high-latitude. 88. Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). Franz Anton. 23 alignment. 71 size of. 81 North Pole. 38 data. 23 . 132. 57 Mesmer. 17 changing source. 75. 16 solid magnet and. 43 Nucleus. 2. 129 Natural magnetic noise. 18.148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. 132 low latitude. 6. 71 Maunder. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). 26-29 Neptune main field. 92. 7. 42 satellites. 71 mapping. 130 daytime field variations. 17. 30 Mars. 32 at poles. 29 Northern auroral zone. 43 Non-dipole field.
84 Remanent magnetization. 95. 141 sonic. 52. 7 Proton. 12. Washington State. 70. 98. 87. Permeability. 35 of Dst index. 32. 31 Octupole. 23. 2 Radiowaves. 11. 43 explorers. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 84. 102 Satellite sector currents. 32-34 cap. 35-37 Pressure waves. 111 atmospheric. 69 Ring current. 132 Port Augusta. 16. 73 drag. 45 IGRF field. 42. 112. 51 grounding. 73 auroral field. 48 partial. 58. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 60. 70 subsonic. 72. 95. 37. 78. 57. 11. 80. 79 magnetic north. 18 corrosion. 50. 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 106. 30 Poles. 17 Reversal of field. 114 dynamo theory. 111 regions. 131 Oscillation period. 70 region of Earth. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 108 Plato. 119. 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 103. 72 observatory. 81 electrical noise. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen). 11 damage. 32. 94 Ross. 3. 18. 140. 48 chart location of. 103 precession. 130 Power lines. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 80 Piezomagnetic effect. 46. 72-86 communication signals. 114. 134 Polar. 48. 16. 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. Australia. 108 latitudes. 83 north geomagnetic. 47. 114 Paleomagnetism. 84 Right-hand rule. 50 Prehistoric fields. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 108. 119 Quadrupole. 13 131 Phase. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 41 Pipelines. 130 alignment. 116 auroral oval. 48 search expeditions. 71 current loop. 21 field description. 88. 88 . 41 Quake-site magnetometer.Index 149 magnetic drift. 17 Recovery phase. 36. and main field strength. 34 explosive. 74 magnetic south. 98 Plasma. 112. 117 3 Pseudoscience. 90. 70. 82 magnetometer. 114 Paleomagnetician. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 16. 99 Paramour ship. 92 Plages. 53 Quebec blackout. James Clark. 123 square of. 40. 123 Outer core. 114 field. 123 Partial ring currents. 23. 70 Ozone layer. 85. 67 Periods of oscillation. 123 effects of current. 44. 111 internal currents. 46. 43 Peregrinus. 74 Placebo effect. 128 magnetic. 77 dysfunction. 79 Prominences.
71 Sea-floor spreading. 1. 55 rotation. 85. 101. 37 memory upset. 101 prominences. 87 elevation angle. 98 cycle. 6. 57. 16. 29 plasma. 88. 55. 57 disturbances. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 3. 13. 12. 108-111 fingerprints. 30 power supply. 92 radiation. 46. 48--50. 92 magnetic field. Chinese earthquake prediction. 99. 87 surface rotation. 101 sectors. 52. 46 plasma. 80 functions. 86 orientation by field. 97-101. 99 flares. 87. 49 Saturn main field. 95. 107 Statistical significance. 31 measurement of drift. 44 maximum elevation. 2 SI units. 99 coronal holes. 130 cycle. 28 navigation by. 106--107 geomagnetic. 46 navigation and. 22 of main field. 98 panels. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center. 33. 77 Sun. 84 failure. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 134 Spectral analysis. 88. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 56 activity. 56. 56. 107 disturbance.) evidence of poles. 59 Strength of magnetic field. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 101 visible light from. 55. 128. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 102 burst IMF. 92 field polarity. 93 SQUID magnetometer. 66 Si Nan. 57 cycles drought and. 55 . 34. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 6. 98 quiet (Sq). 44--46. 17 Storm explanations. 77 Sedimentary rock. 118. 124 Stand-off position. 26. 30. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 92 vortices. 108 magnetic field. 47. 107 field. 97. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 88 Sunspot. 129 South Magnetic Pole. 92 wind. 70. 36 Sector effect. 126 Solar corona. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 132 variations (Sq). 95. 53. 83 Southern Cross. 45. 55 ecliptic plane. 130 ions. 132 Secular variation (SV). 46 geostationary. 69. 88. 82. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 57 eleven-year. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. 39. 16. 46 radiowave-signal transmitter. 93 elevation angle. 54 Steady field. 49 magnetometer. 94-95. 13-15. 114. 102. 98 eclipse. 69. 102 direction. 75. 60. 119. 94. 131 Seismologists. 125. 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 9.150 Index Satellite (cont. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA).
55-58 space. Greenland. 40 Telephone. 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 60. 50. 5. 138 X-rays. 17 high latitudes. 59. 17 equatorial. 57 Tucson. 15 Gauss. 84. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 130 Tree-ring dating. 102. 48. 15 nanotesla. 132. 102 maximum. 118 minimum. 27 Units gamma (y). 39 Zone auroral. 52 pager. Antarctica. 55. 97.Index 151 number (R). 46 Tesla unit. 94 Uranus main field. 17 low latitudes. 51 lines. 2 Van Allen radiation belts. 71 Vostok Station. 123 Venus main field. 44. 134 Westward drift. 106 Thule. 56. 46 SV (Secular Variation). 84 Water divining/witching. 77 Tail currents. 43 Toward and Away sectors. 16 magnetic field. 111 heating. 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk. 17 polar caps. 63-64 Weather. 46 Upper mantle. 35 World Data Centers. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect. 95 lobes. 17 . 15 Thermosphere. 95 Tomographic analysis. 106 pressure waves. Arizona. 108 Variation field. 88. 133. 87. 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. 12 Variometer. 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 57 region temperature. 106-108 field.
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PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. . Illustration from NASA. These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth. A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image. PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona.
. PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles. Figure from NASA. guided by the Earth's field. A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown.PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail. This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field. enter our atmosphere. Figure from SEC/NOAA.
html). Bell Laboratories. Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www. J.ptialaska. note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles. Alaska. . PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. Figure from L.net/Nhutch/aurora.PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle. Lucent Technologies. Lanzerotti.
PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth. organized by the Earth's spin. . and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary. Hastings. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels.PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits. Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D.
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