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A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields
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2nd Edition R.com . Warren Physics in Biology and Medicine. 2nd Edition Warren S.Complementary Science Series [m 2000/2001 The Physical Basis of Chemistry. 2nd Edition Robert Mortimer Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics J.E. 2nd Edition Paul Davidovits Introduction to Relativity John Kogut The Human Genome. Scott Hawley I~ Julia Richards I~ Catherine Mori 1999 Chemistry Connections Kerry Karukstis I~ Gerald Van Hecke Mathematics for Physical Chemistry.harcourt-ap. House www.
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Earth Magnetism A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields Wallace Hall Campbell Boulder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado [I/ . . . A Harcourt Science and Technology Company San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo . .
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when my father showed me a compass. That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events. which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch'). Albert Einstein . Something deeply hidden had to be behind things.A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me.
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. . .2. . . . . Locating the Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . .2 Finding the Fields 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maxwell . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 1. . . Faraday Gauss . . .2 1. . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Gilbert . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. . . . . . . . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . Steady and Changing . . . . . . Chapman 1. . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . and Frauds . . . .4 2. . . . . Modeling 2. . . . .8 2. . . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. . . . . . . . . .. . . .7 2. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. Double Blind . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . 64 65 . . . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . .1. . . . . .1. . . . . . Cause and Effect . .6 2. . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 2. . . . . .. . . . Medicine . Establishing Significance . . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust .2.. . . 60 60 . . . . . . .1. . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning . . . . .1. . . . .3 Pseudoscience. . . . . . . Water Witching or Divining .1. . . . . . . . . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . Old Wives' Tales. . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .X Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration . . . . . Travel and Exploration . . . . . Biomagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2.1. . Correlation . . . . . . . . . Water Improvement . . . . . . . . . .3 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions . . . . . . 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . . . . . . . .
Sectors .1. . . . . . . .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. Harvesting the Fields 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2 3.3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . K p Index Ap Index 4. . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pole M a r k e r s . . .1 3. . . . . 121 . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4. . . . . . .2. . .2 Inside Sources . . . . . . .Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. IGRF Main Field Poles . . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . Two Eccentric Axis Poles .1 3. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .2 4. . . 92 93 94 Induction . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . .3 121 121 . . . . . . Glamorous Display .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . . . Conducting Blanket . . . . . .6 Magnetic Poles Galore . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1 Field Traces 5.4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . . . . . . . . . . . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4. . Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . . . . . . . 127 . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Measures of Activity . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii 5. . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . .2. 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Contents . . .2. . . . 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . 128 130 130 5. . . . .3 5. Magnetotellurics . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. .3 5. . . . .2.4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . .5 5. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . . Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l . . . . . . . Index 143 . .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. . . . . . . . .
yet fun to read. Campbell has authored several well-known books. and radio propagation. It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. Thus. In addition. Dr. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete. yet easy-to-understand way. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. in a way that is state-of-the-science. satellite drag. interplanetary. magnetic fields. His recent book. Dr. including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. is one of the most important references in our field. satellite operations. He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. Dr. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . Dr. not just geomagnetism. Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. including telecommunications.
Kroehl General Secretary.xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives. and he does so with superb clarity. simplicity. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment. Dr. and practicality. He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields. the magnetic field of the Earth. Dr. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy . Herbert W.
In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms. Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age.) See Figure C. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter. global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. I have written this book for the interested nonscientist.1.2. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism. Occurring every eleven years. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour. XV . guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics. You will have a personal. See Figure C. just start with the second. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments. To remedy this situation.
opposing fields. Chinese compass. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean. . magnetic-dip instrument. helical windings. These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force. all involved in magnetic navigation. a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers.FIGURE C.1 I~. ready to misinterpret everything.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life. and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation. FIGURE C. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand.
Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models. . Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole. In Chapter 3. Both wish to be involved in the trip. We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field. Together. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction.Preface xvii FIGURE C.3. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained. explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles. See Figure C. the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms.3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image.
4. See Figure C. how field records can be obtained. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured. and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information. and indices of such activity.5. See Figure C. our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun. what researched is now in progress. these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries.xviii Preface FIGURE C. field appearances on magnetic records. In Chapter 4.4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users. . We will examine the storm impact at the Earth.
W. Have no fear.Preface xix FIGURE C. the modern father of space magnetism. November 2000 . let us start the tour. is prominently displayed. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf.5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away. waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers.H.C. Now. I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism. A picture of Chapman. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend.
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W. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book. I thank my wife. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA.C. in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA. the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer.H. Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues. the Space Environment Center of NOAA. away from household duties. Finally. xxi . I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily. Beth. Although most illustrations are of my own creation.Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group. the Geomagnetism Section of USGS.
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But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction. . Fortunately. I1.I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways.1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly. In contrast. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift. In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths. Along the way. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together. acting as your guide. this is not an unusual route to understanding. indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour. I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place. Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head.
opposite the handle of the Big Dipper. . Written records show that a Chinese compass. The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape. Similarly.21 Historical Tour Markers 1.1). a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia.2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC. FIGURE 1. Chu Yu. point toward the North Star. a Cantonese author of 1117. corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major).2. had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions.1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia. the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction. Si Nan. the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1. Then.1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction.
Peregrinus described the pole locations. .2 Historical Tour Markers 1.Section 1. an early word for "leading stone. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus). there would be even greater confusion. at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen. and how similar poles repel (Figure 1. In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone. The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star.2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole. For our Western culture. for which the negative and positive charges can be separated). Loadstone (or lodestone). how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite. By the early fifteenth century.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles. But if it were given that name." was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1.2. He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges.2). This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence. A Frenchman. had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips.
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.
declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about
Historical Tour Markers
FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.
the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.
1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.
science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.
currents. the original design for our present public electric power plants. he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. In 1838.9). Chapman Finally. In addition. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation.Section 1. In 1831. . a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes. Germany. he developed the first electric motor. Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. in a time of significant English maritime expansion. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman. Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth.8) of Goettingen. and fields.6). mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes. but spent much of his productive life in the United States. James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1.10). Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism. In 1893. He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1.7). In 1821. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances. Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges. the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. who originally worked in England. =. He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents.
6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley. Chapman became the father of space magnetism. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms.8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1. who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name. The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage. .in 1940. With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany. Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook. Geomagnetism.
who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields. devised the first electric motor and electric current generator.2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1.Section 1. .7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867).8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth. FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 1.10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1. .9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today.10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies.
This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent .11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle.Section 1.31 Local Language Dictionary 1. to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1.11). The prefix gee. points at different angles.1 Earth Fields. when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our planet.3. Steady and Changing Now. as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism. as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth). the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet. to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject. Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism.is used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. the natural fields within and around the Earth.5). popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism. out of or into the Earth. 11. However.
In contrast.13). The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field.12). The prefix paleo. which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time. Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times. the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period. As we shall see in our tour. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago. The inverse of the period is the frequency. Examples of 12. the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1.and 24-hour periods are shown. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude. the weaker the effect of that field becomes. This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation.12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1. meaning ancient. For example. but more dramatic appearance. Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances. .12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion. In addition. The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation. we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. is rapidly changing.
1. For example. magnetic observatory. and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. of course. The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1. Alaska. this control is measured by the force. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. there are many different sources of magnetic fields. Of course. having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil.3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1. that can move another magnet. Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM. iron. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch. . at 2 inches from a magnet.14).3. At the place where a field exists. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current. The effectiveness of this field.Section 1. also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. or iron-rich rocks.13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks.2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface.
c !. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet. strong attracting magnetic field. > .. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized. By gently flicking the paper..0 .50 2.00 2. 0. 0. A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding. The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones.00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1.. the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down.15). probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred.00 3. Somehow.50 5. When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights. When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate.0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0. the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum. slowing it to a stop.14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. heavy iron bars. 1.. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience. he discovered that magnetism was the problem.00 1.50 4._ *.8 e. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby.1 1. I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home.. What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive.00 4.2 0. Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper. To my dismay.14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet.4 n- 0.50 3.. The field .6 "o It.
it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine. The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material.Section 1. similar to that of the bar magnet. Nevertheless. is the proper unit officially . Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form. Giant. current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine.15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet. In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older. nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma).3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT). and from currents in the region of space above our planet.3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss).3. from electric current sources deep within the Earth. the equivalent name. we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source. and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities. 1.
001 0.16 100. EARTH MAIN FIELD 10.000.000. 100.16. The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma. The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1. and lasting from hours to a full day or more.0001 0. The Earth's main field varies from about 60.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1.000 gammas).000. 1.000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator. called SI Units. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system. . the Gauss (1 Gauss =100. t~ 0. Another unit. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour.16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources. with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-.1 0.01 0. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude. occur during a geomagnetic storm. 1. The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies.0 . Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below).
Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields
Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.
FIGURE 1.17 I~
Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.
18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles
Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism
To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell
Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary
FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.
becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two
which has just seven electrons in its third shell.20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1. Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1. Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule.19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1. . These parts are called ions. carbon dioxide. For example.20). Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule. hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.19). to form sodium chloride. That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1. neon. A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17). the molecule of table salt. The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away.18). leaving a positive ion. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions. and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe. There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon.
If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow. +. produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1. The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these. By convention. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. the flow is called an electric current. described earlier. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere. This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. called its conductivity. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction. can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule. the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field. For example. The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source. the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water.3 Local Language Dictionary 21 . then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current. This is because the moving charges. How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. In that gaseous region. ions or electrons that compose the current.21).. . An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region.Section 1.~.p e" e" FIGURE 1. We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere. producing other characteristic auroral colors. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current.
nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer. Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space.g.22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1. causing them to glow (e.. Rather.41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current. 11. The sources of such fields . I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment.21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire. generally linearly directed magnetic field. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules. The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong.
Natural currents. . We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep. Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. liquid outer core of the Earth. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. in large measure. However. due to currents flowing in our space environment. from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface. Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field. the main field at the Earth's surface.Section 1. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist. and electricity transmission lines. Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet). and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives.4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field. magnetized materials. pipelines. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution. and natural current systems above the Earth. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks. We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives. We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. In subsequent chapters.
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keys. Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious. an alarm is sounded. airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2. coins. Within the security passageway. We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1. 25 . The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1. guns. from rings. At concourse entrances.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices.7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials. IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2.12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected. an oscillating field is generated. Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications. etc. knives.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6). which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger.1). for example. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects.1. watches. called magnetometers.
On the modern vessels.) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2.3). the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage.satellite-dependent . most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display. Hikers. Ships at sea. from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships. By universal convention. have a compass as part of their navigation system.2).1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger. back-country travelers. Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2. (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top. forest rangers. printed nearby. and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass. the map date. is also important for the traveler. In addition to the magnetic northward direction.26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.
y t l l l G i N J & . " .5/37. along with the date.~ ... '2200000 FEET'~ q... ~..~ J..... I iN~EIII~iI~-. Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. DENVER. i . GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 1980 1940 FIGURE 2. II|iIY(H(. .L .~" . f "' .. ... I"85.. ..... I 1990 1 1 . is always displayed on the best maps. .5 A 4.~ . ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W ..0 -- % o C2 e 12.... . 14..* In m U.... I" . o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~.-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN.....5 - o o o o 12.. I . ~ . . . I .... .. 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~.1 1960 1970 .. 66 W. ...Section 2.... I I ..~oIr.. |g'22'30" 104o37..i ~ .~.. from 1910 to 1986....._~. OR RESTON.30- "1" I ' ' I ...i-dC--~:-L~.. 5 .. .0 - 13. 65 W i s~ii=E. .S.5X48 FOR SALE BY U.... ~ ~ ...~. .~ .2 I~ Magnetic declination.....5 -- 14...3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson... ~ ' R ... ~ . COLORADO 80225. ~ i " . ...I In q) Q) 01 13.tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922.1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~. . Arizona.' ' 1'. i . .. ~ t ".5--W 10437. .VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2. " ' ' -.0 - % ~.. I k 45' R..
49) have replaced the older navigational aids.4). longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed. In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2. where the North Star cannot be seen. so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service.=. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2. Nevertheless. used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance.1. It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude. p. . cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r . global positioning systems (see Section 2..28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ . For years..D Q t _ t~ r-.9.4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea. modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail. Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere.
navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean. England. This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only. in an age of modern electronic navigation systems. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours. For example. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position. so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea. longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery.6). By international agreement. In later years. In this example.5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757. a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. Between star sightings and in overcast conditions. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses. as well as many freighters and passenger ships. small airplanes. on the voyage.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2. .5).Section 2. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock. Today. 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich.
scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite.6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. 2. Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age.1.7). On a microscopic scale. Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems. Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment. For many years. Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface.2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents.30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. In the beginning years of space exploration. magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2. 87~ east of geographic north. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position. such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which . satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor.
When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment. For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit).7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems.Section 2. Paleomag- . all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction. Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2.8).8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization. the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does. the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2. the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization.1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2. Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing. If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis.
Although geophysicists. 14). continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature.3. and 3. 2. Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1. Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer. Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle). Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation.32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2. As this liquid rock material cools into igneous . p.8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization. Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1. By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises. Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized. By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass. who study these rocks.2.
9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava. Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction. Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2. Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation.10) or road cuts. When . many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2. The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock.9). the overall alignment of the many particles is.Section 2. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago. (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens. at first.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2. While moving with the water. The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone. scrambled by the water currents. Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes.
and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation.10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. Studies of this type are called . the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. Upon cooling and hardening. At high baking kiln temperatures. archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2. the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea. The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago. Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-. silt-. Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples. Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position. Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery. Utah. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed.34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.11).
the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe. Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern. on many occasions. completely reversed its direction. After allowing for continental drift.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence. In addition. the geomagnetic main field has.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay. armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior.Section 2. archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures.1.1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2. the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction. 2. rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- . Now.5). the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1.
12). special crustal regions.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder. As this material cools. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom.13). and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified.12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples. often toward the middle of our major oceans. Africa is pushing into . with its field identification. The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift. similar geology. In those two matched continental regions. it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence. Antarctica. but are continuing to separate. have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth. forming the Himalayan Mountains.0 inches) a year. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern. and India were also once connected. In recent years. India is pushing up against Asia. ancient flora. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge. The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle. spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2. The cooled magma. Australia. This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating.
Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents.1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2. closing the Mediterranean Sea. Europe.14).1. The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust.13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift. or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf.Section 2. 2. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields . Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7).
magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites. 128).3.38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- .14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology. (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area. Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers. an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5. During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances. p. All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements. The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys. wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1. Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves. To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist.2.13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings.
The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys. Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament. Shading indicates contours of similar field strength.15).1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2. Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping. iron nails. aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a .15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast. just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods. We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4). In 1991.Section 2. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2.
mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone. 2.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field. at least two measurement sites are used.1. Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process. This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. As a result. Unfortunately. This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations. requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist. Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause . field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other. Today. In early North American land exploration and development. a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). For example. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles). after adjusting for geological site differences. For example.40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. 2.1 gamma. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0. For their detection. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days. Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity. or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2.16). a local effect is verified. Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1.
3.1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2.6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions. but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2. For example. and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event. p. At the time of earthquakes. 2. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed . changes in magnetization.1.2. this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material. apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers. 66).16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption.Section 2. Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal.
2. Approximately 0. The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1. Biological researchers.42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. In other studies. using a large loop antenna. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2.1. dolphins. Inside these pond bacteria. spinning in random orientation. The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation. blue marlins.7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms.17). magnetic material in their stomachs. mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue. Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions.13). The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons.17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R. and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism.0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior. Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense. Blakemore. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the . These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction. the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction. artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern. green turtles. The well-known sea travelers whales.
pull of a gravitational field). occasionally. detected by magnetometers.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field. A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice.) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity.18). and analyzed by computers. A brief radio frequency (r. With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals. Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging. pulse.f. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response. live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because. The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms. .Section 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2.f.
NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles. Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves.19).1. maglev trains have been developed. using these field techniques. For now. at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away. 2. . We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. In March 2000. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement.1. In recent years. consider the fact that during major magnetic storms. The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed. For propulsion. to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike. Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets. allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways. or maglev for short. This suspension is called magnetic levitation. Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr). However. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. Wire resistance limits the current flow. The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2.
for example).19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth.1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2. More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. . On occasions following a great magnetic storm. over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions. Everest use oxygen masks. the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit. Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position.Section 2. The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density. Following magnetic storms. Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions.
when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere. naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field.K. Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites. have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites.46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage. Energetic charged particles.20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. such . Surrey Space Center. U. captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms. Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation. A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite. During major geomagnetic storms. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood. upsetting program memory control. Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region. astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. During geomagnetic storm periods. A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms.20). the increased number of particles in space.
Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere. Particle impacts (Figure 2. During a mag- .Section 2. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field.20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields. principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles). manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region. Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS. Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas. To avoid unhealthy exposure.1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean.21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions.21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth. the orbit and speed of the satellite. The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation. To lessen the damage to its systems. and its electronic configuration.
Worldwide telephone. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms. the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere). . the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered. netic storm.22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere. At such times.22). The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction. fax. and then degraded or lost.48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere. These signals. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out. the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. In recent years. and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2. also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver. Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm.
Defense Department which funded the system. together with the ground receivers.1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2. fisherman. The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists. ship captains.S. and the U.200 km (about 12. latitude. hunters.Section 2.23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20. These clock-synchronized. Such .23). constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS). the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20. Soon U. For navigation purposes.200 km (12.625 mi) above the Earth. The GPS allows users to find their time. longitude. hikers. Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites.S. commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. radiowave-signal transmitter satellites.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2.
Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5. With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field. during major magnetic storms. in some situations.24). magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. or em) fields. Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times. Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field. A pair of electric field probes. 127). At high-latitude locations. and the northern United States.3. can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters. the nearer to the region of auroras.m. causing extensive electric power failures . The science of physics tells us that. p. 2. show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5. scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2. high energy-demand occasions.1. The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor. At the surface of the conducting Earth. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth. such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather.50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material. the greater the induced fields. naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations. We call the pair electromagnetic (e.2. such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart. 128).10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor.3. by nature. In general. p. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. Canada.1. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems.25). such as northern Europe. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field.
. static. At such times.5 FIGURE 2. Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system.1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 .1 . geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way.:Section 2. Using this conductivity information together with seismic records. some messages have been reduced to whispers. long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted. or complete blackout.- 500 600 700 0 - 0 .- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . Six million people were affected by that power outage. Canada. and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter.3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I .24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth. Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms. laboratory testing.2 . and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States. at great inconvenience and expense to the public.4 I I I I . An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province.
gas. and long oil. where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2. corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents. gas. improper FIGURE 2. At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest. . and water pipelines.25). and water (Figure 2. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions.25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. At low latitudes. telephone lines.52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil. These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems. the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating.26). The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits.
is particularly susceptible. To avoid such problems.Section 2. which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o . and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline.2J Tour to the Boundaries 2. J2. The central section of the pipeline.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena. We k n o w that two happenings can be related if . Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion.2. Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~. alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour.'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms.
4 ( . the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous).1 ) .54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event. Statistical Sampling First. as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena. it has five important features: D.8 (-0. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship. Further study would probably show . there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile. This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to . It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds. Cause and Effect Third. 4 ) encourage further study. A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile. values 0. Just because Mr. The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. specific mathematical test techniques need to be used. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events. for the paired events. not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second. Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes. Correlation values greater (less) than 0. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions. A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. On other occasions. The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method.0 . High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs. Sometimes. Correlation Second. For example. Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. D. it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes. D.
whether there are attending unwanted side effects).5. and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. physical. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. Modeling Fifth. Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause. Sunspot regions are cooler.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather. Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10. and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar latitudes. known from a secret list. Studies have shown that. special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study. For convenience. However. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and. for ingested chemicals.2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2. the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of . the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle. for unknown reasons. Models of the biological. when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence. 2.2 Magnetic Correlations =. when a true relationship is found. Double Blind Fourth.2.Section 2.to l l. The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation. when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active. For example. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation.27). the number of sunspots increase and then decrease. in tune with the 11-year cycle. During the Sun's cycle. giving off less radiation than the average solar surface. cooler or hotter. Statistical significance is then required of the true item.
However.27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation. the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens. A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions. They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum. Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle. Greece. Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum. .56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring.
Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States.Section 2. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle.28). These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. beginning in 1276.2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. We shall see. result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection.28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand. recorded at world magnetic observatories. preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado. Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms. near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate. Geomagnetic storms. Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's .
1. and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews. Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields. Figure adapted from Williamson. Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4.29).4.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. FIGURE 2. measuring the magnetic fields from the brain. p. In addition. containing ferric iron deposits. have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2. Sensitive magnetometers.29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic. Kaufman. . Originating in the auroral region. 111). Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations. Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design.
the number of heart attacks. although a significant (0. There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist. For example. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. the two can display a false correlation. Also. A famous and prolific space scientist. The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. However. or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes. and 6.10). scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields. Nevertheless. the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack.Section 2. 2. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima. seasonal. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random. the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum. will show a significant value. 5. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. Also. Random associations can occur. there are certainly well-known. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. 3.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. the number of publications by active scientists.2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior. . when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period). variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow. the number of convulsive seizures. although unrelated. Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2. the number of admissions to mental hospitals. But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. 4.
-~ !. Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967. Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north.' I.l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2. it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense.3 Pseudoscience. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year. is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year. . A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community. and Frauds I. t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ . it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad. and at the Cape York peninsula.31).lll ~ '. Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields. at Arnhem Land. in its yearly orbit about the Sun.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD ..ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q. India.2. Also. the Earth. ~ . The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers. One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite . %.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S. magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes. As another example. therefore. oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall. 2.~'.I ~. Old Wives' Tales.
31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions. allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night.Section 2. Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. B. constructions. Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season. In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds. these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature. All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- . about the time of the American Revolution. P. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2. The word mesmerize originated in that period. mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery. not because of the magnetic field direction. A then-popular Viennese physician. For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J. the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis.
However." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense. shoe innersoles. and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public." Magnetic finger rings. such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen. p. cure insomnia. 42).7. .. for a princely sum. with the promise that "strong.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. reduce food cravings. revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin). knee braces. alleviate arthritis. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten. long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation.32). The magnets are said to be a time-honored. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets. It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process. health-food stores. 1996). pillows. direct-marketing outlets.1.29). There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e. beautiful. Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2. newlyweds could spend their nuptial night." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy. Some department stores. bracelets. vard University Press.32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. stop headaches. That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where. the MRI described in Section 2. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2. suppress coughing.g. cervical collars. creating heat that soothes pain and swelling. sleeping pads.
In their Health News Letter of May 1999. allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices. say.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests.Section 2. Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because. In his hands. is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger)." =. The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. The advertisements feed on the fear. which.33). When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect). trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure. using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home." Tests of the method. The responsible American Medical Association requires careful. suffering." Some witches. by itself. A similar add-on system for water pipes. under tightly controlled field . who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater. untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod. statistically significant. and desperation of the gullible public. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. called a divining rod. when examined. shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L". "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. Held tightly in the hands of the witch. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff. describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof. Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. or reference to a medical journal article. Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California. Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. Berkeley.
"The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well known. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks. The procedure is successful only by random luck. Magnetism has no role in the divining. but magnetism is not the responsible agent. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that.skeptic. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. and local prevailing winds. 1See the website http://www. . During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local geology. recurring surface heating. in truth.64 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2.com/dousing. Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material. when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths. have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense. While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said. conditions. The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography. with a statistically significant number of examples. predominant weather front directions.33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful. has nothing to do with rock magnetism.html.
html.34). 2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness.Section 2. and Puerto Rico (Figure 2. usually magnetic.34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda Triangle. in fact. hazily defined by Bermuda. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept. Florida. Given the weather and traffic. Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle. Serious researchers have proved that. . following Columbus's voyage of discovery. the number of lost ships and planes in that area is.com/bermuda. not unusual. To create even more mystery. given the weather and traffic.2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2. ~. 2See the website http://skepdic.
~. Nicaragua earthquake photo by J. Unfortunately. They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region.35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes. Dewey of the USGS. Most likely. although the island's name remains. Captain James Cook.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville. Earthquake Predictions In recent years. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices. Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2. . who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location. some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem. their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. Australia. Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes. workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes.
citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. 63-67. Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. For these. R. the occasional fortuitous prediction success. 1997. signals that forecast earthquakes. .35).m. Of course. but the many failures are rarely mentioned. J. the Chinese blame numerous causes. almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled. The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. Am. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief. Eos Trans. *Geller. Occasionally. including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods. The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience. Geophys. Therefore. is published and touted in the news media. although a clearly random coincidence. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences.Section 2. Union 78.
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We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere. in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing. Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive.Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields. Generated by dynamic processes. changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth. the magnetosphere. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent. We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. 69 . every day of the year.
3.1. between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles). is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3. 5. p. the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth. Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust.5). Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area. Fluids could cause this. 3. but the absence . the Curie Temperature (see Section 2. 35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field. An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field.2 and Plate 8). 2. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth. Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept. there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1.1). a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself.2. but not solid material. p. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change. They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape. 31) is reached for iron and magnetite.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1. The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3. Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region. 4. There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth.1. Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region.
in cycles averag- . in time. Planets Mercury. Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes. Disruptive eddy currents within that region can. Saturn. seems to display such a field. a moon of Jupiter.Section 3.1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). Venus also has no permanent main field. Although Mars has no such field now. The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism. Uranus. Ganymede. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions. scientists have found that. and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. Jupiter. Using the more recent main field evidence. destroy the organized loop current. with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions. However.
We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3.2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth. For example. 13. There are many magnetic poles used by different groups.1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps. If we don't stop at the first chart viewing. which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3. we see a problem immediately. ing 200 to 250 thousand years.72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.3). possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years.2. . but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature.
The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1.5). most certainly.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet. those by National Geographic.3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland.4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania. not the important . The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point." a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time. and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions. To further confuse this situation. Rand McNally. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross.2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3.Section 3. One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3. it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are.g. Most commercial world maps (e. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground..
Hammond Inc. scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF).. This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values . a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA. pronounced "eye-yah-gah"). Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas. 3.74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole . As part of a special IAGA working group. let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth.2.4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands.. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3." So that we can better understand this universal misconception.2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II. pole locations "to which all world compasses point.
called Gauss coefficients. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions). when additional recovered data become available. The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF).2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3. intelligently adjusted to a common date.8) of Germany. and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth. E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles. To prepare the model fields. that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections.6).Section 3.5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior. Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes. Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site. the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) . called the analysis epoch. G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles. spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). the scientists use a special mathematical technique. Also.
n and m.6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field. when all are added together.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed. McFadden of AGSO.7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients. Display program from P. The IGRF table (Figure 3. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field . The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices. the Earth. a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that. g and h. External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior.
From a full IGRF or DGRF table. scientists can compute.2 2.6.9 1. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w .1 -0. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics. These poles are determined from a global field.6). The total field map shown in Figure 2.Section 3.html.0 -0. n o a a .2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17. We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles". a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3. scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface. depicted in Figure 3.1 -12.0 -18.9 1. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12.4 4.7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years.6 13.21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values.8 -8.2 3. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years. n g d c . less accurate.6 -1.5 2.8 1.5 -6.0 FIGURE 3.2 0.7 -15. Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here. With this table and special formulae.1 0.2 -8.7 -4. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600. for the given epoch.8 -6. g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag. but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T .8 0.3 -13. m and n. Internal field models have been established back to 1945. The numbers (Gauss coefficients). are indexed as types g and h.
quadrupole. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole. and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF.. quadrupole. The symmetrically S 17. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3.? N N 1 I''~. . is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center. a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe. the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling. 3.7) define the centered dipole terms.2. and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3. The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~.8. The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center. octupole. but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles. As we shall see below. Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns.3). S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S . This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern.78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part.8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole. This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements. The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic.O I N v . shown in Figure 3.9).8). Earth-centered coordinates. The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3.w // S octupole N FIGURE 3.
Section 3.2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3. Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays.2. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model. All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that. located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3. drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600.2. about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms. However. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner . on average. it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting. All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5. Davis of NGDC/NOAA. interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth. We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles". on average. p. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that. Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field. Figure from M.3). 128). Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years.
The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. In one. a slightly different. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our . Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis.2. If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center). Thus. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization. it was offset from the Earth's geographic center. attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth.10). Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group.80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center. That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. on average. Because of their short spacial dimensions. To understand this fact. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. simpler analysis method is now typically used. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one. 3. The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials.4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted. Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location. the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data. and radioactive heating. introduced by the researcher. the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that.
Were it not for some other difficulties. The main geomagnetic field changes with time. and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal.Section 3. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. not the Earth's surface. "Magnetic Poles" definition. Since the 1800s. That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit.11). Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis. the tilt of the eccentric dipole.10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles". The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry. from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific. . the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center.2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. Similarly. its distance from the geographic Earth center.
5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements.12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields. Figure adapted from A. aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska.11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region.2.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3. Also. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only. 3. Fraser-Smith. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon).4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3. C. For example. Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point. There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth. The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below .
12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica.5. As we shall see shortly. New Zealand. and sector-effect (Section 3.1 . the Earth's surface.2 Pole Markers 83 . Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents. Rand McNally & Company. whereas. p. there are seasonal.8ol 14. diurnal (24-hr cycle). 94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements. the arrival of .Section 3. what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole. ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3. In addition.4.
solar-terrestrial conditions.14 and Plate 4). arriving from the Sun. Greenland. the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location. cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3.) Also. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists.13)." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts. the ionospheric currents (see Section 3.4. . Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement. When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3. The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. Antarctica.2. Nevertheless. and day-night distortions.84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations. 3. for some strange reason. Thus. seasonal. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter. it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora. in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station. Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. Charged particles. fully quiet.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps. not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. just northwest of Thule. p.
This anomalous region (Figure 2. auroral region (ionospheric) currents.21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- . These are the pole locations with significant meaning.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3. The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2. in the Southern Hemisphere.20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region.13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. induced currents in the Earth.Section 3. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents. and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field).
. sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left. Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space.31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation.86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.1 gamma. 13.14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole. A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure. Figure from NASA.
two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re. from our viewpoint on Earth. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward.15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. Re. Thus. in times of extreme quiet. On the day side. the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator. that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3. away from the Sun. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. During major blasts of the solar wind. In the space around the Earth. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re). The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole. Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate.Section 3. depending on the compression by the solar wind. which defines the ecliptic plane.15). on average. called the solar wind. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance. opposite to the apparent seasonal . This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. Downwind. the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. = 6371 km or 3959 miles).3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3. but. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind. In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun. However. antisolar direction. out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius.
Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2. Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes.21). the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes. the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3.0 Re. Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes. The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field. Curiously. called galactic cosmic rays. to about 90 km (56 miles). The shorter the wavelength of light. Far above the Earth. 13. the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind. the higher the radiation energy. At higher altitudes. This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons. during strong solar winds.15).0 Re and 4. that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy. toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2.20).41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet. Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. In addition.88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. verified by satellite measurements. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and . there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation. Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation. This shift.2 Re to 4. scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect). a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth. which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level. Principally at the two distances of approximately 1.5 to 6. From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles).
Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth. the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles). The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles). In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). summertime. the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher. oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons.Section 3.16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3. The electron density values shown here are for midday. Therefore. but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate.4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3. The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . upper-atmosphere composition. although. at mid-latitudes.16). above 900 km (560 miles). Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions.
In this way. the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region. and 3. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town. Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. not all the ionosphere goes away at night. Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow. Of course. Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur. such as: 1. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization.5. However. summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness.1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance. One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface. the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient). Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears.90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features.22). For example. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3. That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large.51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3. 2. how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground. The water moves a . 13.16).
Of course. The daily heating and FIGURE 3. or the conductor is stationary and the field moves. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet. The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field. the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved.Section 3. and the conducting properties of that wire. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet. This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here. This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field. electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3.17). They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field. Commercial.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo. fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel. as far as the current flow is concerned. . When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves.
Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. where collisions are rare.5.2 S o l a r Q u i e t . 3. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. At much higher altitudes. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory. Also. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current.92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction. changing with solar activity and season. . the two motions cancel out the current.5 miles) in altitude. surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values.18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere. typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq). due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans). and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. At lower altitudes.21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex. the wind system within the ionosphere. there are global winds. causing a current to flow near 100 km (62. However. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction. where the main field is horizontal. As you might guess. the direction and strength of the Earth's main field. This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents. a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories. where the ionospheric conductivity is large. The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another. Use Figure 1. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet). and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity.
magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external .5. jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions. All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions.18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter. Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset. 3. and 3. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator. or sudden heating by auroral-related currents. atmospheric atomic explosions.Section 3. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. Such events include" 1. 2. flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. on the Sun side of the Earth.3 Induction At the Earth's surface.
a special daily solar sector effect is found.19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth. Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind. Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary. from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2. The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3. Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns. surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3.24). toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun. 3. The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth. Geomagneticians use the separated. . The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity.4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected.19). there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind. a corresponding field change occurs. for the conductivity determinations.5.
20). Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3.2. Greenland. Thule. There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve). p.Section 3.4. 130.20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station.5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule. . Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5. a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3.
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Umbrella for Magnetic Storms
Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.
Disturbances in Sight
4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in
Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms
FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.
the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):
1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.
Photo from SEC/NOAA.2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages. which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4.4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas. 5. filaments. The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle.1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4. prominences. The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth. That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions.3). .Section 4. The solar corona. The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. and arches of solar gases.
3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec). 4. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower. more constant plasma stream. The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral. Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler. The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun. .4).100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.1. the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves. Although each particle of water is shot out radially.2 In the W i n d In the solar wind. the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4. Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR. determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4. The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection.3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon. showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles. CME.
either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane. high-latitude fields are mostly open. Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface.5.4. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances. so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles). in both quiet and active times. 94). determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm. 94). which has the opposite direction.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball. The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun).4. slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator. The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4. Its interaction with the Earth's main field. p. In this chapter.5. which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3. The . At differing solar longitudes. creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3. 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4.3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle. The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane.4). carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself. p.1. The outward flow of solar plasma. The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components.Section 4.
The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4.102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm. The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum. The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4. Using measurements from special satellites. with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances. When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect . seem to be responsible for this delay. The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause. space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions.5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle.1). Earth responds to this activity. The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause.
Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3. In addition to the auroras. p. they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights).5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. . their energy. 88).to 300-km-high (63. strong partial ring currents. When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size. This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the tube. near the 100.3. and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4. growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents.to 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes. yellow. thermospheric pressure waves. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth. protons. Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms. other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. During the magnetic storm. powerful field-aligned currents. where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere. charged particles (primarily solar electrons. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic storm. Figure 4. releasing energy. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. and induced currents in the Earth. and the shape of the Earth's field. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods. green.Section 4. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with red.6 and 4.7). Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. intense ionospheric currents. During the equinoxes.
104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Combs and R. . which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers.6 I~ Electrons. Figure adapted from L. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center. nm). bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms. arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current.
with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4. Then there typically follows a slower. 4. H-component increase (called the initial phase.1. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary. Photo by R.8).4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms.Section 4. Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4.13).5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase . Overmyer of NASA.9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field.7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger. at the onset of a geomagnetic storm.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4. The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours. Figure 4. Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth. On the records. there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component.
In these displays. with a considerably intense internal sheet current. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source . =. and forms the north and south tail lobes. During the storm development.106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4. see Section 4. in response to the solar wind direction. north or south of the magnetic equator.10).and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149. the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location. The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display. A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination. p. the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites. The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary. constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories.5). at the Earth's surface. Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time).5.15).1.8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30. This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4. Of course.9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created. 116). After this compression. a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4. a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail. The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4. it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3. producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface.
spaced in longitude around the Earth. Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec.12).9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left).11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes. Field-aligned current (Figure 4. A concentration of these currents . Because of the ionospheric conductivity. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes. 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~.5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region. a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere. For convenience in representation. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region. but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J.Section 4. current patterns. Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4.5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones.lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase . i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec. 1980 FIGURE 4. 20. In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re. The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~. 19. The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record.
away from the spin axis. As the air molecules are split apart. Because of the solar wind flow. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere. In the auroral region. Instruments on highaltitude balloons. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June. The cross-tail currents move similarly. attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation. .5).10 I~ During a magnetic storm. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth. strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4. southward. during the geomagnetic storm. northward) with the antisolar location. typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet. That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies. measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds. count the electrons that are arriving. The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. Figure 4. a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously.13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena. December.
field-aligned currents. Figure 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4. At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time. Local time is indicated around the circumference. Therefore.11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. negative).Section 4. the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself. During a magnetic storm. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes. Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+. fields from the partial ring currents.14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox. . that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth.
12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates. This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters. pro- . This wave disrupts the high ionosphere. Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman. A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. Another stronger pressure wave. at just under sonic speed.110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. =. The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects. travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones. Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating.15).
the field from the westward auroral electrojet current.1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4. top to bottom. illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons. the traces.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks. and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations.Section 4. Alaska. . the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves.
Canada.. auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW).112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. these are the field changes in the northward (H). Some phenomena. eastward (D). ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents. can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields.! 12 I . Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles . Byrd ! _! 10 I. N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 .14 I~ During a magnetic storm day. 14 UT FIGURE 4. which are not traceable to solar sources. Antarctica. Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event. Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces. and Byrd Station. and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located. . !.
1 Disturbances in Sight 113 . 1962.. .... The light and dark traces indicate north-south. ~ 2110 FIGURE 4.. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August. Alaska. That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4. were detected at Fort Yukon. / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T....16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya. At the po- .. A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds. ..15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave. ~ 2045 . in that region. _~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~. it is possible to point out some generalizations... .16). initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed. There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally.. N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4.. which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds.and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction..Section 4.5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units). The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3.. Russia... What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated.. 2055 _~ .."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L.. causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth. . .. The pressure waves... However.. Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon. Alaska.. the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds.
All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. but more distant. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination.11). At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions. the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes.114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important. . At low and equatorial latitudes. at the low and equatorial latitudes. Extending to the equator. magnetometers register a large. Thus. For each Universal Time hour.12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations.17). storm-time. field-aligned currents. eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator. the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate. and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4.8). At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents.5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras. others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents. the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. Therefore. nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger. and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. field-aligned (Figure 4. a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4. As a result. The strong nightside.1. 4.
A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4.Section 4. Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements. such stations are not uniformly . called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index. magnetospheric currents. Unfortunately. The small short-period variations contribute little. The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours. Illustration from World Data Center A.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century. of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index. In this example. Dst (Figure 4.18). An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket. NGDC/NOAA. K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed. AU) and the lowest (lower envelope. 1974. Kp. for 4 and 5 July. AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times. Kp Index A third magnetic index.17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope. the planetary form of the index. (Figure 4.
More are in the Northern Hemisphere. distributed around the Earth.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period. Statistically.19). the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4. fixed so that. The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index). there is a concentration in Europe. and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change. the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each location. in a long-term average. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4.to indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp. The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above. and . Each contributing station has a different K table.116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms. +. Because a large number of the index .9.
1+ 1.. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4.2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____.2 1..36 85..1 3 3. daily Ap.1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2.------.3 2 3+ 4. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described.2+ 3+ 4 4 2.1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm.20).__--_. A study of .lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4.O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6.3+ 3. large magnetic storms are more likely to occur.--0.O+ 1..64.12 13 .----.4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 ...1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3.------------------___----.19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K. lalallalal.6 5+ 4 . Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes. Table provided by H.au|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1. At such times.2+ 0 0 1.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71.-----------------------.2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2.16 65+ 6 2.42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11.--. Coffee at NGDC/NOAA. stations are at high-latitude locations..2 1 O+ 2+ 1.2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3.4.--.1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23.1+ 3.3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__.2 2+ 1 2 . There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods..=--.----.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .Section 4.1..
Other pulsations.6. 131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4. Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4. 4. . the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous.21). Erwin of NGDC/NOAA.6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances.20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997. p.16). quite oscillatory form (called Pc).1 to 0.22). travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere.001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur. upon arriving at high latitudes. Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5. small (0. On the charts. Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields.1.2. Figure from E. Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4.118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.
1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4. H. Allen and D. Antarctica. Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA. on 23 August. C. FIGURE 4.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station.22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0. 1966.Section 4. Figure from J. .21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40.
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to 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5. Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask.1. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory. How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be. He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred.1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries. The 121 . I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism. The first question I expect is. At prearranged times.8). the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1. It is time now for tourists' questions. Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally.1). Germany. I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter. it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. In those times. investigated the global distribution of field disturbances. 15-1 I Field Traces 5. of Goettingen.Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the fields.
2). the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum. the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward. when photography came into general use. A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction. eastward.1. With the improved instrument in a darkened room. which rotated once a day. and vertical directions. 5. capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5.1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century.2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system. These magnetometers were given the more specific . Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis. It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device. collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly.122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5.
Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents.Section 5. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded. whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward. Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material.4 6 0 ~ F). could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position.2 7 3 ~ C or . after being moved. many other systems are used to record the field.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5.3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet. The exact strength of the Earth's main field. Notice how your home compass needle. He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator. The light beam. not the full main field strength. Today. oscillates before coming to rest northward. shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper. . A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper.2 I~ The simple variometer. Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties. developed by the mid-nineteenth century. The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period. moving with the magnet. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet.
which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0..124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields . but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer.Coaxial Line -.3 I~ Modern. is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling..Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5.RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw . The niobium metal sensor.. Figure from J.. which is only approximately 1.Coil -. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium .6 inches) in diameter. .5 cm (0..00001 gamma... Zimmerman of NIST.
for school demonstrations. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle. Turn on thehighintensity lamp and. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and. and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular loop. The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day. You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on. carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam. .1. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap. put a dot near its center.gov/poetry/workbook/page9. gsfc.4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms. with a marking pen.1 Field Traces 125 5. Some 1See the website http://image. making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw.Section 5. With the 2-inch-wide tape. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides.nasa. 1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5.html. Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =.
deflections of several degrees.25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north. effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp. and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table. or other fiat surface. a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a . magnetometer. lasting many hours or even days.4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA. near a wall. can .126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches). During geomagnetic storms.
05 gamma (for most locations). In typical soil.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations.1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0. That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0. separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more. the spot will remain in the same location. . The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. Most of the time. The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0. A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor . Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity.Section 5. . . For those readers who are adept at electronics.1 millivolt. however. . Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field. a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5. Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. About 2 square feet (0. .5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot.19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. Note that if any of the parts are moved. Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations. two probes.3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). the measurements will be affected. . Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder.
one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section 3.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior.128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes.2.1 Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best. 5. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields.188.8.131.52. 78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3. 1. One such model is depicted in Figure 5. p. The necessary variable resistors. p.6 with Figure 2. 80). 5. a small battery. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region. Comparing the results in Figure 5. using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism.21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth.5. switch.21. amplifiers.2. and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data.7. Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- .2. 5. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles).
R.l.2 90 --. Figure from J.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered.a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 .8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes. The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA. . the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure."56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5. ments taken along a fixed line on the surface. The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas). Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole. 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 .Section 5. tilted dipole. Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model. Figure 5.
Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations.2. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3. Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country. p.4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed. 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5. Using a chain of observatories.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows.9) in the polar regions at low activity times. the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were . The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields.5. Quinn of USGS. 5.5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index.4. Figure from J. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5. 5.2.
determined (Figure 5.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5. In this figure. thus. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton. That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations.8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state. 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- .11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations. More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks.1.2.6. 5. it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations. p. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations.10). they were not due to local anomalies. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance. Figure 5.6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation. The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS.Section 5. The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. There were often large local storm field differences from the index.
132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2.3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET. . which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special.. chart preparation. and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation.12). These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents. so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution. ond. 15. duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers.\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5. By international agreement. there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5.5 hours in local time for the two conditions. the horizontal axis represents the time in hours. globally distributed collection points. Today.
. . fax" 81-75-7227884. . Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. field differences were determined. . Colorado 80305-3328. Boulder. . tel: 81-75-753-3929. . . mailstop EGC2. .3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9. . e-mail: info@ngdc. . . USA. . . . . . . RUSSIA. fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2. . Molodezhnaya 3. consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure). Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science. .. 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. . 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day . . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group). .12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United States. . fax: 1-303-497-6513. tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619. . . Kyoto University. 60 | . JAPAN. . . Moscow 117 296.gov 9 In Russia: World Data Center B. . | . NGDC/NOAA. i . . . . . . 0 10 20 ! . .. . .. . 325 Broadway. . . . These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude). i . tel: 1303-297-6761.World Data Center A.noaa. . . . . . 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l . Academy of Sciences of Russia.Section 5. .. Kyoto 606-8502.10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories.
Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields
FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.
15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.
15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:
FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, ac.jp 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. ac.uk 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. usgs.gov 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: http://maxwell.gi. alaska.edu 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. noaa.gov--select Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on
TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)
Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and
tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.
100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)
200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)
600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)
1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)
a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).
Satellite operations: none. high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays). and solar panels degraded. noise in imaging systems. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. these events can last more than one day).l s t e r .2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). o . passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray). permanent damage to exposed components/detectors.TABLE 5.~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors. and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult..l c m -2. 103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible. memory impacts cause loss of control. star-trackers cause orientation problems. Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions. Flux levels are 5 min averages. _. bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions). CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days. permanent damage to solar panels. Satellite operations: memory device problems. and decrease of solar panel currents..t ". Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets. Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA. Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted. serious noise in image data. Biological: none. Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. star-trackers unable to locate sources. noise on imaging systems. elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays).4 . 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m. Satellite operations loss of some satellites. Flux in particles: s . Biological: none. Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days.
-r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m.4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 . HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth.. . Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators. loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators.3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 ..TABLE 5. HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals. Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth.8 nm range. ~r -rl r o. measured in the 0. affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour. HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. in Wm-2). causing loss in positioning. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 . Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours. which may spread into the night side. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators. a Some or all of these effects are possible. bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux.. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days).3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _.t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours. Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth.1--0.-i. X20 (2 x 10 .
University of Alaska.nascom. 1600.gsfc. e-mail: info. Gilbert. English translation in 1893 by P.msfc.gov. ngdc. Colorado 80225. gi.Section 5.sec. New York.alaska. also http://www.gov 15.gov/poetry. also http://www.services @usgs. g ov/$tp/stp. U.com. USA. USA: http://www. USA: http://www.ips.S.nasa. with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams. fax: 1-303-202-4693. Mailstop 306..E Mattelay. Sydney.spaceweather. html 9 Space Environment Center. in the order of their original publication date. also http://image. Box 25286 Federal Center. Australia: http://www. gov/UVI/current_image. .61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended books. NASA. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical Institute.edu 9 GoddardSpaceFright Center. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories.noaa. Geological Survey. NASA.HTML. republication by Dover Publications. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern life. 1958. nasa. USA: http://www. De Magnete. NOAA. also http://www-spof. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center. nasa.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle.gov Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services. 9 W. 368 pp.gov/Education/Intro. Such data. magnetic field.gov/gallery/LASCO. alaska.pfrr. and radiation information to monitor the space environment.nasa.doc3.html 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA. USA: http://sohowww.gsfc. Denver. noaa. USA: http://uvisun.
9 R.. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. New York. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age. Academic Press. Although our subject is only a small part of this book..D. Campbell. thorough review of the technology. History.. 2 vols. 2545 pp.A. Jacobs. the Natural Magic of Magnets... 4 vols. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists. 1996. Livingston.. 1050 pp.H. application. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information.A. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate. 1980. This classic. Introduction to Geomagnetism. Piper.. Brisbane Brookfield Press. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust.. Eather. compact yet complete. detailed references. auroral descriptions. Chapman and J. 323 pp.. It was last republished in 1951. . Oxford University Press. 433 pp. New York. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. Bartels. ed. and the Arts. and thorough description of analytical methods. 9 S. Parkinson. the Aurora in Science. Brisbane.D. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies. A fine.. 1398 pp. Driving Force. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book). 1987. 1987-1991.C.. 1992. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage.. Edinburgh. Milton Keynes Pub. Oxford. Matsushita and W.. 9 J. eds. 2 vols. Scottish Academic Press Ltd. 434 pp. Majestic Lights. 311 pp. 9 W. 1967.D. and history of magnets. American Geophysical Union.D. 9 J. Geomagnetism. 1983. Open University Press... 513 pp. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. 9 J. Geomagnetism. Academic Press. An up-to-date. 9 W. Physics of the Earth. Harvard University Press..H. Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena. and beautiful illustrations. Washington D. 1940. beautifully written. Massachusetts. Stacy. Cambridge.
. Academic Press. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations. Written by well-respected researchers. Merill. Cambridge University Press. The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism..6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R. M.Section 5. My own compact but comprehensive textbook. McFadden. Campbell. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. 1997. 304 pp. . 9 W. Cambridge. 1996. 531 pp. McElhinny. and the Deep Mantle. San Diego.H. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field. with many illustrations.T.W. the Core. and EL.
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25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields. 56 upper. 109. 118 Addresses. 21. 20 electrojet current. 18-19 Auroral displays. 65 Big Dipper. 105 high-latitude. 38 Analysis epoch. 116 Aurora. 18 weight. 134 Bar magnet. 131 Bryce Canyon. 39 Atmosphere lower. 125 Bartels. 35. 8 Bermuda Triangle. 139-141 Bowshock. 82 surveys. Qu6bec. 17. 115. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index. 41-42 correlations. 17. 120 143 . 84. Julius. 45 temperature. Antarctica. 34 Byrd Station. R. 110 oval. 90. 2 Biomagnetism. 101 angle. 18 Atoms. 40 Atomic number. 102 Archives.Index Activity index. 102 Bremerton. 84 pulsating. 109 zone. 39 Archeological formations. 39 Archimedes spiral. 106. 59 Blakemore. 42 Body magnets. 123. 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. 37 charts. 148 oil discovery. 133 Asteroid.. 70. 113 magnetic observatories. 22 Australis (Southern Lights). 117 Apollo space craft. 14. 17. 4 Airport magnetometer. 38 Agonic line. 20. 113. 60. 61-63 Books. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 8. Washington State. Paul. 119 Baie St. 17. 116 Aeromagnetism. 15. 105 bombarding particles. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights). 109. 106 values. 39 map.
53 Earth. 93. 82. 26. 70. 26 Chu Yu. water. 55 modeling. 99 Coronal holes. 55. 98 mass ejection (CME). 72. 103. Captain James. 15 Disturbed field. 82 ionosphere. 35 magnetotelluric. 109 Conjugate positions. 44 magnetometers. 84 . 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 139 Declination. 6 magnet Earth as. 34 equator. 108 Double-blind test. 70. 17. 31. 130 De Magnete. 60. 34. 10. 70 distorted. 90 pole eccentric axis. 6. 79 field pattern. 48 Conductivity. 23 origin. 56. 75. 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 70 Tucson.144 Index Chapman. 122 airport runway declination. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 66 main field and. 77 Dip angle. 21 corrosion and. 26 aeromagnetic. 40. 115 ionosphere. 13. 90 Compass. 70 Current. 4. 59 Charts. 130 Corona. 32 bar magnet. 80 field alignment. 36--41 resistivity. 51 radiowave. 88 sunspot connection. copper). 92. 70 moment. 11 main field. 54 coefficient. Christopher. 26 lodestone. 8. 14 Earth. 54 double blind. 23. 3 magnetic island and. 94 Darwin. 21 secondary. 29 Chinese. 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 75. 3. 20-23 direct. 35-37 Cook. Australia. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays. 25 right-hand rule. 6. 111 Continental drift. 29. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. 9. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 69 strength. 36-38. 70 magnetism. 89. 94 geological features. 123 temperatures. 84 Dipole. 15 induction. 4. 50-51. Arizona. 11. 38 navigation. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 101 Correlation cause and effect. 108 Crust. 18 comparative (air. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 6 eccentric axis. 3 Communications. 92. 32. 101 Columbus. 111 electrical. 48 long-wire. 81 locally-measured. 39 ancient field behavior. 7. 2 declination and. Sydney. 27. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). 55 ecliptic plane and. 124 electromagnets. 25 source and induced. 2 Climate. 23. 63 Drift contintental.
44 in wire. 84. 75. 7. 127 probe. 115 Filaments. 50. 18. 70 theory. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 70 Earth current. 102 upper atmosphere and. 79 particle. 127 Electrons.Index 145 magnetic pole. 22 field. 112 Faraday. 37 reversal. 13. 55 Energetic particle events. 48 and magnetic fields. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 90 sharing of. 37 power lines. 14. 7. 21. 84 Fairbanks. 102-104. 111. 28 External field. 44 Electromagnetic field. 34 Field in space. 3. Benjamin. 134 Epoch. 21. 7. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 79 lower mantle. 36. 114 models. 79 non-dipole field vs. 70. 90 . 99 Flares. 9. 109. 71 Earthquake. 23 Electrical conductivity. 87. 3. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 89. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 80. 50 systems in satellites. 13. 127-128 dipole field strength. 84. 7 transmission lines. 109 Ethesian winds. 3. 41. 70. 123 Forbush effect. 81 dipole. 85. 115117. 50-53 mapping. 90 region. 92. Alaska. 75 Equatorial electrojet. 56 Exploration (global). 75. 128 dipole poles. 19 Electrojet auroral. 44 Fort Yukon. 90. Michael. 18 aurora and. 50 power plant. 111. 110 equatorial. 70 source. 18 current. 22 induction responses. 130 storm currents. 84 Ecliptic plane. 114 Franklin. 90 Electromagnet. 25 Ferrous atoms. 76. 21. 13. Antarctica. 20 solar. 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. 50. 22 ionization and. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. 7. 94 conductor. 44 use in maglev. 81 field representation. 81 current in a wire. 71 outer core. 104 Elements. dipole field. 9. 22. 19. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 77 analysis. 87. 32 clay. 54 prediction. 9. Alaska. 101 Eights Station. 40. 92. 26. 18 atomic number and. 88 Force of magnetic field. 134 Electric charge. 18 molecule. 98. 37 Field-aligned current. 66-67 signals. 23. 90-92 current. 20. 130-131 Dynamo. 47.
50 Infrasonic pressure waves. 138 Gilbert. 9. 79 North Pole. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 16 netism and Aeronomy). 18. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 49 Geomagnetism. 66. 74 regions (zones). 114. 48. 58. 72 GPS and. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 49 Grand Teton National Park. 115. 48. 12. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. 84. 89 solar wind. 17 Igneous rock. 75. 92 high latitude. 78 2000 coefficient values. 64 Joule heating. 48. 62 Heliospheric boundary. 58 low. 53. 110. 111 Jupiter main field. 61 Humbolt. 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 8 Geostationary satellites. 94 of pulsations. 57. 92 Ions. 89 electron density. 75. 25. 50. 72-86. 94 field responses. 74. 115 lunar quiet-day. 114 Intergalactic fields. 45. William. England. 95 poles. 44. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. 123 Hyderabad. 90 dip equator. 78. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. 119. 121 coefficients. 16. 49 main phase. 79 main field poles. India. 15 Ganymede main field. 102 Ionosphere. 92-94. 128 coordinate system. Edmund. 49 high. 92. 78. 44 Indices. 8. 86 High latitudes. 52. 97-120. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 132 Internal field. 64 Great Earth Magnet.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 78-80. 77-80 multipoles. 76 Induction. 8 Health magnets. 115 equatorial. 16 Geologic exploration. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 132 pulsation. 113 Greenwich. 107 recovery phase. 58. 73. 28. Canada. 75-77 field units. 89. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 29 Halley. 80 table. 77 IMAGE spacecraft. 111. 7. 75. 7. 5.) of oscillation. 32 . 131 storms. 47. 116 Land survey. Wyoming. 11 from North Star. 130 field models. 46 Gamma (y). 134 GPS and. 74. 28 geomagnetic coordinates. 20-23. 17 Hubble Space Telescope. 16. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 90. 11 first textbook on. 40 Latitude. 5. 84. 40. 86 INTERMAGNET. Baron Alexander von. 109 current. 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 130 auroral. 107 satellites and. 128. 108 Jackson Lake.
3 Magnetic charts. 102. 114 currents. 28 Lower mantle. 49 ship's. 87. 31 randomly oriented. 6. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 75 movement of. 111 magnetic storms and. 42 Curie point. 3 Locally measured dip poles. 26 dipole. 23. 115 envelope. 3 polarities. 72 types of. 3 crystals. 88 field measurements. 44 mountain. 66 levitation. 41 rubidium. 14. 43 cryogenic. 43 rocks. 44 termites. 87. 45 particles and. 123 Magnetopause. 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 13 poles. 87 tail. 31 SQUID. 46 satellites and. 32 field human response to. 88 tail boundary. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and. 102 Magnetosphere. 123 medical uses. 103 heating of. 123 satellite. 92 Maglev. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 6 domains. 130 . 70 Magnetometer. 102 field and charged particles. 44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 87. 123 quake-site. 95. 61-63 Earth's main field. 30. 102 tail of. 118 currents in. 2 Magnet. 70 field effect of. 78 dipole moment. 44 seasonal differences.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 26 declination. 3 Eccentric axis dipole. 23 permeability. 30-35 storms. 88 Van Allen belts. 2. 2 body "health" magnet. 5. 71. 111 solar wind path within. 35 positions of. 102 Magnetosheath. 77 locally measured. 79 IGRF. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 42 in animal brains. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 102 sunward boundary. 58 Island. 104 outer boundary. 60-61 Magnetite. 78. 82-84 Longitude. 84 axis. 69 alignment with solar wind. 30 microscopic. 44 simple bar. 25 coils. 93 airport. 42. 106. 71 positions. 58 proton. 4 clocks and. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 13 north pole. 72 GPS and. 32 realignment. 107. 30 field-aligned current. 15 south pole. 123 fluxgate. 124 variometer. 46 satellites and. 111 fields. 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current.
130 daytime field variations. 108 magnetic. 30. 69 Ganymede. 4 geomagnetic. 6. 36 plates. 71 Moon. 42-43 Mercury main field. 120 molecule. Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). 88. 110 northern high-latitude. 10 Medicine. 130 chain of.148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. 71 Jupiter. 138 northern hemisphere. 89. 5. 35 satellites and. 26. 71 size of. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 117 Northern Lights. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. 17. 88. 71 Mesa Verde. 29 Northern auroral zone. 71 Neptune. 43 spin alignment. 88 Molecules. 109 auroral zone. 115 Magnetotail. 115 Milky Way Galaxy. 26-29 Neptune main field. 23 alignment. 32 at poles. 47 Saturn. 57 Mesmer. 34 Mid latitude. 71 mapping. 34 extension into space. 15. 107 Maricourt. 11. 3.) tail current. 23 . 105 Novaya Zemlya. 71 Venus. 7. 23 dip angle. 71 Maunder.. 4 Star. 20. 36 waves. 92. Russia. 17. 19-20 Moon main field. 113. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 17 changing source. 106 auroral and polar regions. 75. 71 Main phase. 79. 36 troughs. 129 Natural magnetic noise. 12. 92 global network. 18. 132. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR). E. 16 solid magnet and. 43 Nucleus.W. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 18 hydrogen atom. 113. 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). 132 low latitude. 30 Mars. 18 Observatories. 84 high latitude. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 28. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). 22. 131 method. 116 Australian. 131 Multipole. 49 ships. 71 Mercury. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). 73 magnetic. 40. 3. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 71 reversal of. 70 Uranus. 2. 3 Mars main field. 38 Main field. 81 North Pole. 42 satellites. 98 Maxwell. 71 Neutrons. 106 major worldwide. 38 data. 61 Metamorphic rock. 134 INTERMAGNET. 57. 128-129 charts. 4 geographic. Franz Anton. James Clerk. 43 Non-dipole field.
43 explorers. 16.Index 149 magnetic drift. 50 Prehistoric fields. 16. 11 damage. 82 magnetometer. 70 subsonic. 102 Satellite sector currents. 41 Quake-site magnetometer. 95. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 81 electrical noise. 32-34 cap. 99 Paramour ship. 84 Right-hand rule. 84. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 123 effects of current. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 114 field. 90. 71 current loop. 37. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 46. 18 corrosion. 32. 77 dysfunction. 114 dynamo theory. 35 of Dst index. 73 drag. 74 magnetic south. 88. 72. Permeability. 116 auroral oval. 52. 23. 32. 47. 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen). 95. 83 north geomagnetic. 103 precession. 98. 131 Oscillation period. 130 alignment. Washington State. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 7 Proton. 98 Plasma. 69 Ring current. 79 Prominences. 114. 79 magnetic north. 123 Partial ring currents. 70. 108 latitudes. 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. 12. 57. 74 Placebo effect. 17 Recovery phase. 44. 119 Quadrupole. 128 magnetic. 132 Port Augusta. 18. 111 regions. 17 Reversal of field. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 123 Outer core. 70 region of Earth. 108 Plato. 80. 48. 34 explosive. 70 Ozone layer. 46. 35-37 Pressure waves. 103. 94 Ross. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 53 Quebec blackout. 92 Plages. 70. 11. 106. 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. 40. 112. 73 auroral field. 134 Polar. 13 131 Phase. 72-86 communication signals. 58. 16. 42. Australia. and main field strength. 87. 31 Octupole. 23. 85. 130 Power lines. 43 Peregrinus. 141 sonic. 88 . 78. 84 Remanent magnetization. 140. 45 IGRF field. 112. 119. 50. 67 Periods of oscillation. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 114 Paleomagnetism. 21 field description. 41 Pipelines. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 111 internal currents. 48 partial. 48 search expeditions. 3. 60. 2 Radiowaves. 108. 114 Paleomagnetician. 123 square of. 117 3 Pseudoscience. 30 Poles. 111 atmospheric. 36. 80 Piezomagnetic effect. 72 observatory. 51 grounding. James Clark. 11. 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 48 chart location of.
55 ecliptic plane. 83 Southern Cross. 53. 87 surface rotation. 30 power supply. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 29 plasma. 45. 75. 77 Sedimentary rock. 99 flares. 92 vortices. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 44--46. 92 magnetic field. 55. 97. 69. 98 eclipse. 2 SI units. 6. 107 disturbance. 46 geostationary. 56. 85. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 49 magnetometer. 131 Seismologists. 60. 107 Statistical significance. 9. 80 functions. 94. 70. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 93 elevation angle. 26. 88 Sunspot. 1. 17 Storm explanations. 12. 46. 130 cycle. 54 Steady field. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center. 98 quiet (Sq). 47. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 13-15. 55 rotation. 77 Sun. 82. 55 . 30. 84 failure. 56. 34. 88. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 56 activity. 101 visible light from. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 87 elevation angle. 13. 88. 46 plasma. 101. 98 panels. 57. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 129 South Magnetic Pole. 44 maximum elevation. 28 navigation by. 94-95. 36 Sector effect. 92 wind. 69. 6. 66 Si Nan. 134 Spectral analysis. 132 variations (Sq). 86 orientation by field. 132 Secular variation (SV). 92 field polarity. 108-111 fingerprints. 107 field. 22 of main field. 88. 46 navigation and. 99. 33. 95. 48--50. 130 ions. 98 cycle. 37 memory upset. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). 87. 125. 119. 55. 124 Stand-off position. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. 59 Strength of magnetic field.) evidence of poles. 46 radiowave-signal transmitter. 57 cycles drought and. 16. 106--107 geomagnetic. 102 direction. 118. 49 Saturn main field. 93 SQUID magnetometer. 108 magnetic field. 97-101. 114. 126 Solar corona. 52. 16. 101 prominences. Chinese earthquake prediction. 128. 3. 31 measurement of drift. 39. 57 eleven-year. 95. 101 sectors. 71 Sea-floor spreading. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 102 burst IMF. 92 radiation.150 Index Satellite (cont. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 57 disturbances. 99 coronal holes. 102.
46 Upper mantle. 16 magnetic field. 39 Zone auroral. 27 Units gamma (y). 106-108 field. 84. 15 Gauss. 15 nanotesla. Greenland. 102 maximum. 132. 133. Arizona. 50. 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 59. 95 lobes. 44. 56. 106 Thule. 130 Tree-ring dating. 108 Variation field. 71 Vostok Station. 87. 35 World Data Centers. 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 46 Tesla unit. 63-64 Weather. 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect.Index 151 number (R). 95 Tomographic analysis. 118 minimum. 111 heating. 43 Toward and Away sectors. 40 Telephone. 2 Van Allen radiation belts. 15 Thermosphere. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 138 X-rays. 134 Westward drift. 17 polar caps. 60. Antarctica. 102. 52 pager. 5. 106 pressure waves. 12 Variometer. 84 Water divining/witching. 97. 55. 17 equatorial. 123 Venus main field. 17 . 57 region temperature. 88. 17 high latitudes. 51 lines. 94 Uranus main field. 57 Tucson. 17 low latitudes. 77 Tail currents. 46 SV (Secular Variation). 55-58 space. 48.
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Illustration from NASA. .PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth. A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image. PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona.
PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail. PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles. Figure from SEC/NOAA. . Figure from NASA. A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown. guided by the Earth's field. This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field. enter our atmosphere.
PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. J. Lucent Technologies. Bell Laboratories. note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles. Lanzerotti.ptialaska.PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle.html).net/Nhutch/aurora. . Alaska. Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www. Figure from L.
and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary. organized by the Earth's spin. Hastings. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels. Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D.PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits. PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth. .
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