Earth Magnetism
A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields

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Something deeply hidden had to be behind things. when my father showed me a compass. I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me. Albert Einstein .A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch'). That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . Chapman 1.4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . Maxwell . . . . . . . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .3. . . . . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .3. . . . .2 Finding the Fields 1. . . .1 1. . . . Faraday Gauss . Gilbert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locating the Fields .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steady and Changing . . . . . . . . . . ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . . . . . .2 1. . .2. . . . .

. . . . Medicine . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . .. . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .1 . . . . . .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Double Blind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2.. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . . . . . . Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Old Wives' Tales. . . . . 60 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomagnetism . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Sampling . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . .X Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Establishing Significance . . . . 66 . . . . . and Frauds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration . . . . . Correlation . 64 65 . . . .1. . .2 2. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Rocks .3 Pseudoscience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2. . . . . . . . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Modeling 2. . . . . .9 . . . .1. . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions . . . Water Witching or Divining . . . . . . . . Travel and Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .1. . . . . . .1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . . . . . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . . . . Cause and Effect . . . . . . .

.3 121 121 . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems . . . . . . . . . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . . . . . . . . .1 Field Traces 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4. K p Index Ap Index 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . Sectors . . . . . Pole M a r k e r s . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . .2. . . . . . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3.6 Magnetic Poles Galore . . . . . . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measures of Activity . . . . . . . . . .5. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3.1. . . . . . . .5.3 3.2 Inside Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Two Eccentric Axis Poles . . . . . .4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . 4. . . . . . . . . .2 5. Conducting Blanket . . . . .2. . .Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. . . . 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. 92 93 94 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . .1.5.2. . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . IGRF Main Field Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harvesting the Fields 5. . . .1. . . . Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . . Glamorous Display . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . . .2.xii 5. . . . . .2. . . 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . .5 Contents . . Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l . . . .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. .3 5.3 5. . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . . . . . . . . . 128 130 130 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . . 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns . . . Magnetotellurics . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . . Index 143 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .

and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . Campbell has authored several well-known books. His recent book. yet easy-to-understand way. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. is one of the most important references in our field. Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. including telecommunications. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. In addition. interplanetary. Thus. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. Dr. Dr. satellite operations. magnetic fields. and radio propagation. Dr.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. satellite drag. He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete. Dr. not just geomagnetism. He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. in a way that is state-of-the-science. including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. yet fun to read. It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic.

Herbert W. Dr. and he does so with superb clarity. He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment. and practicality. the magnetic field of the Earth. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy . Dr.xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives. Kroehl General Secretary. simplicity.

) See Figure C. I have written this book for the interested nonscientist. Occurring every eleven years. XV . See Figure C. In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms.1. global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period. You will have a personal. guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments.2. Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives. Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter. just start with the second. To remedy this situation. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world.

all involved in magnetic navigation. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean. These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force.1 I~. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand. FIGURE C.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life. opposing fields. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms. Chinese compass. a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers. . ready to misinterpret everything.FIGURE C. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation. and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones. helical windings. magnetic-dip instrument.

3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained. explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles. We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models. . Both wish to be involved in the trip.3.Preface xvii FIGURE C. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction. See Figure C. the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms. Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image. Together. In Chapter 3.

We will examine the storm impact at the Earth. and indices of such activity. In Chapter 4. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field.xviii Preface FIGURE C. See Figure C. See Figure C. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users. .4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms. these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries. field appearances on magnetic records. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured. how field records can be obtained.5. and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information. our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun.4. what researched is now in progress.

Have no fear. I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism.Preface xix FIGURE C.5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf. Now. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away. W.C. A picture of Chapman. waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers. the modern father of space magnetism. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend. is prominently displayed. November 2000 . let us start the tour.H.

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in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA. Although most illustrations are of my own creation. the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. xxi . the Space Environment Center of NOAA. for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer.H. Finally. away from household duties.Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues. I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book. W. I thank my wife.C. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA. the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty. Beth.

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I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways. indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour. In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths. . But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house. I1. Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction. acting as your guide. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift. In contrast. this is not an unusual route to understanding. Along the way. Fortunately. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together. I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place.1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly.

Written records show that a Chinese compass. FIGURE 1. point toward the North Star. .1). the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1. the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction. had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces. corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major). The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions. a Cantonese author of 1117.21 Historical Tour Markers 1.1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction. Chu Yu. opposite the handle of the Big Dipper. Then. Similarly.1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia.2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11. a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl.2. Si Nan. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC.

But if it were given that name. there would be even greater confusion.2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole. He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole. had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254.2. This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence.2).Section 1. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus). A Frenchman. how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other. Peregrinus described the pole locations. Loadstone (or lodestone). In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone. for which the negative and positive charges can be separated). The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star.2 Historical Tour Markers 1. at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips. an early word for "leading stone. and how similar poles repel (Figure 1." was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses. . By the early fifteenth century.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles. For our Western culture. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline.


Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism

FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.

declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about

Section 1.2

Historical Tour Markers


FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.

the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.

1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the


Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism

FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.

science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.

10). the original design for our present public electric power plants. Germany. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman. In 1831.8) of Goettingen. and fields. Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism. currents. who originally worked in England. mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes. a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution. In 1838. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances. in a time of significant English maritime expansion. he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity. he developed the first electric motor.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation.7). . He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1. Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges.6). In 1821.9). James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1. Chapman Finally. In addition. the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. =. but spent much of his productive life in the United States. Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth.Section 1. Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. In 1893.

8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley. who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name. . The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms. Chapman became the father of space 1940. With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany. Geomagnetism. Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook.

8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth. devised the first electric motor and electric current generator. .2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1.Section 1. FIGURE 1.7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867). who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields.

.10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies.9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today.10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1. FIGURE 1.

11).3. to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour. the natural fields within and around the Earth. This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent .3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1.Section 1.31 Local Language Dictionary 1.5). to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject. Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism.1 Earth Fields. The prefix gee. points at different angles. out of or into the Earth. popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism. as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth). as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism. when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1. However.11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle. Steady and Changing Now. 11.

the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period. is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times.13). which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example. The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation. In addition. For example. we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second.12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1. This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation. The prefix paleo. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter. The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field. Examples of 12. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude. but more dramatic appearance. In contrast.12). the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago. Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. The inverse of the period is the frequency. meaning ancient. .and 24-hour periods are shown. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. the weaker the effect of that field becomes. is rapidly changing.12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion. As we shall see in our tour. Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances.

The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM.3. iron. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch. or iron-rich rocks. there are many different sources of magnetic fields. having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action.14). The effectiveness of this field. magnetic observatory. this control is measured by the force. at 2 inches from a magnet. 1.3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1. Alaska. and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. At the place where a field exists. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current. For example. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil.2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current. also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. . Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. Of course.Section 1. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. of course. The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1. that can move another magnet. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size.13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks.

1 1. A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding. 0.14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet. slowing it to a stop.8 e. he discovered that magnetism was the problem. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience.50 5. 1. strong attracting magnetic field.4 n- 0.. 0. probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred. the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down..00 1. By gently flicking the paper. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby.2 0. To my dismay.00 3..14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. c !.00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1.0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0. > . When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate.50 4. I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home.6 "o It.50 3. Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper.. the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum._ *.. Somehow. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1. The field . heavy iron bars. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized..15).00 2.0 . What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive. When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights.50 2. The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones.00 4. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet.

3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT). Nevertheless. we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source. and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities. the equivalent name. is the proper unit officially . nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma). current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form.15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss). The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material.3. In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older. from electric current sources deep within the Earth. and from currents in the region of space above our planet. 1. it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine.3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1.Section 1. Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength. similar to that of the bar magnet. Giant.

1 0.16 100.001 0.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour. The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1.000. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below).000. .000 gammas). 1.000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator. EARTH MAIN FIELD 10. The Earth's main field varies from about 60. t~ 0.01 0.0 . 100. 1. The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma. Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies. and lasting from hours to a full day or more. Another unit.16.000. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude. the Gauss (1 Gauss =100. occur during a geomagnetic storm. with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second. called SI Units.0001 0. The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1.16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system.

Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields


Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.

FIGURE 1.17 I~

Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.

18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles

Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism

To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell

Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary


FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.

becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two

That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1.20). For example. neon.19). The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away. to form sodium chloride. Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1.18). and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe. . which has just seven electrons in its third shell. carbon dioxide. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions.20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1. the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1. These parts are called ions. A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17).19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule. leaving a positive ion. There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon. Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule. the molecule of table salt. hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field. In that gaseous region. We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere. An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region. producing other characteristic auroral colors.. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules.p e" e" FIGURE 1. described earlier. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current.Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary 21 . the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water. If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow.~. with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current. ions or electrons that compose the current. The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +. . For example. can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. +. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth. then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current. This is because the moving charges. produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1. the flow is called an electric current. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet.21). called its conductivity. How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere. By convention. The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source.

causing them to glow (e. nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer. Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space. The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire..21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current. Rather. The sources of such fields . 11.41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules.22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1. I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment.g. generally linearly directed magnetic field. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong.

Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet). We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. However. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives. and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks. We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. pipelines. the main field at the Earth's surface. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. liquid outer core of the Earth.4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field. . magnetized materials. and electricity transmission lines. and natural current systems above the Earth. from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. In subsequent chapters. Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface. Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist. Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field. We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep. Natural currents. due to currents flowing in our space environment. in large measure.Section 1.

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7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials.1. knives. an alarm is sounded. Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious. watches. from rings.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6). Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications. coins. If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected. an oscillating field is generated. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1. called magnetometers.12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. keys. for example. At concourse entrances. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices. Within the security passageway. IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2.1). The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames. guns. 25 . airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2. We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1. etc. which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger.

from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships. (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top. forest rangers. the map date.) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2. most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display. is also important for the traveler.satellite-dependent .2).26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage.3). Hikers. have a compass as part of their navigation system. By universal convention. and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass. On the modern vessels. In addition to the magnetic northward direction.1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger. back-country travelers. printed nearby. Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2. Ships at sea.

Arizona. . I" . ..* In m U. I k 45' R. from 1910 to 1986. I .... y t l l l G i N J & ..... .0 - 13..tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922. '2200000 FEET'~ q..5--W 10437.i-dC--~:-L~... . 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~.... " ' ' -.. along with the date.~ .-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN.... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY... I"85.. . 65 W i s~ii=E..Section 2. I I . OR RESTON. i .~oIr.3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson..5X48 FOR SALE BY U..2 I~ Magnetic declination. o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~. I .30- "1" I ' ' I . f "' .. ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W .. is always displayed on the best maps. . ~ ~ .. COLORADO 80225.~" ...0 -- % o C2 e 12. II|iIY(H(. ~ t ". I iN~EIII~iI~-... .5 A 4.0 - % ~....._~...S..5 - o o o o 12.. ~ i " .. i ..1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~.~. |g'22'30" 104o37. .' ' 1'..... . Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. .i ~ .1 1960 1970 .L ... 14. .. " ... ~.~ . 1980 1940 FIGURE 2.I In q) Q) 01 13.... ...5/37..5 -- 14... 5 .. DENVER..VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2. .. ~ ...~.. 66 W.~ . ~ ' R . . ......~ J. I 1990 1 1 . ~ ... .

used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance.. longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed. . cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r . Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere.1.=.D Q t _ t~ r-. For years.4). Nevertheless.. p. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2.28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ . modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail. so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service. In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2.9. global positioning systems (see Section 2.4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea. It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude. 49) have replaced the older navigational aids. where the North Star cannot be seen.

so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2. a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. England. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2.Section 2. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position. small airplanes. longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours. 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich. In later years. Today.5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757.6). By international agreement. navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea. on the voyage. This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only. For example. In this example. in an age of modern electronic navigation systems. . as well as many freighters and passenger ships. Between star sightings and in overcast conditions.5).

Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface. For many years. Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment.2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents. On a microscopic scale. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position.7). Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age. scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere. 2. such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which . satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor.1. Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems.6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2. 87~ east of geographic north.30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. In the beginning years of space exploration. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite.

1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2.Section 2. the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does. If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis. Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2.8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization. Paleomag- . all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction. the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization. For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit). the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2. When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment. Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing.7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems.8).

8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle). By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass. p. Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains.32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2. 2. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises.3. By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field. Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized. 14).2. Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains. Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1. who study these rocks. Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1. and 3. Although geophysicists. continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation. As this liquid rock material cools into igneous . Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer.

The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone. Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation.9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava. the overall alignment of the many particles is. Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes.Section 2. Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2. (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field. scrambled by the water currents. The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock. While moving with the water. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens.9). at first. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago.10) or road cuts. When . Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma. many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2.

11). Studies of this type are called . Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization. The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea. and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation. Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery. Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-. archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2.34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction.10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. silt-. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples. the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed. At high baking kiln temperatures. Utah. Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position. Upon cooling and hardening.

on many occasions.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay. completely reversed its direction.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence.1.5). the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe. Now. armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior. 2. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1. the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction. Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern. the geomagnetic main field has. In addition. the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years. rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- . After allowing for continental drift. archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures.1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2.Section 2.

This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating. The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift.0 inches) a year.13). activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern. special crustal regions. ancient flora.12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples. often toward the middle of our major oceans. The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2. Antarctica. In those two matched continental regions. forming the Himalayan Mountains.12). Africa is pushing into . As this material cools. In recent years. with its field identification. it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. The cooled magma. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom. similar geology. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. India is pushing up against Asia.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle. have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth. and India were also once connected. and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified. spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom. Australia. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge. but are continuing to separate.

13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift.1. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields . The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust. Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2. Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents. 2. closing the Mediterranean Sea.14).4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7). or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf.Section 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2. Europe.

38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves.3. To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist.2. 128). (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area. National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- .14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology.13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings. During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances. magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites. an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5. All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements. p. Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers. The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys. wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1.

The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys. Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping.1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2. Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament. iron nails. aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a . We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4).15). just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico.Section 2. cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods. Shading indicates contours of similar field strength.15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2. In 1991.

Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity. requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles).1 gamma. Unfortunately. 2. or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2.16).5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field. Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause . For example. a local effect is verified. In early North American land exploration and development. 2. For example. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone. This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations. Today. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process. This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days. Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites.1. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0. For their detection.40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials. at least two measurement sites are used. field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other. As a result. after adjusting for geological site differences.

16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption.1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2. changes in magnetization. p. 2. this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material. For example.3. and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event.1. 66).6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions. At the time of earthquakes.Section 2.2. apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed . but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2. Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal.

the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1. The well-known sea travelers whales. magnetic material in their stomachs. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2.17). Inside these pond bacteria.0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior. green turtles. The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields. Approximately 0.17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R. Blakemore. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the . These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction.1. The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation.13). dolphins. Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions. mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue. using a large loop antenna. spinning in random orientation. and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism. Biological researchers. artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern. 2.7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms. blue marlins. The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons. In other studies.42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense.

1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2. A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r. With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals.f. occasionally. and analyzed by computers. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response.f. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice.18). The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field. Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity. pulse. A brief radio frequency (r. detected by magnetometers.Section 2. .) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession. live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2. pull of a gravitational field).

For propulsion. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. using these field techniques.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields. However. 2. Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr). The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed. maglev trains have been developed.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike. Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2. In March 2000. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region.1. at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away. The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents. For now. allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement. Wire resistance limits the current flow.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways.1. NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles.19). electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves. . consider the fact that during major magnetic storms. In recent years. to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets. We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. or maglev for short.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. This suspension is called magnetic levitation.

for example). Everest use oxygen masks. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions. the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit. over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost.Section 2. Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt. The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position. Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground. .1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions.19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth. More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. On occasions following a great magnetic storm. Following magnetic storms.

Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites. captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms. U.46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. the increased number of particles in space. Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region. Surrey Space Center. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage. A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. During geomagnetic storm periods. Energetic charged particles. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms. A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite.20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere.20). have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites.K. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. such . Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency. naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field. astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. upsetting program memory control. During major geomagnetic storms.

21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000. The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly. To avoid unhealthy exposure. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean. the orbit and speed of the satellite. Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere. engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields. Particle impacts (Figure 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2.20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions. During a mag- . principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles). Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS.21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth. To lessen the damage to its systems. and its electronic configuration. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas. manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region. Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields.Section 2.

The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction. netic storm. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out.22). and then degraded or lost. and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. Worldwide telephone. higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere. also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver. fax. Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm. the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms. In recent years.48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere. . the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered. At such times. the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. These signals. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere). and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2.

1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2. together with the ground receivers. hunters. latitude. Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth. For navigation purposes. ship captains. and the U.23). Soon U. the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20.23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20. hikers. The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists.Section 2. Such . commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS).S.200 km (about 12.200 km (12.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2. These clock-synchronized. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites. Defense Department which funded the system. The GPS allows users to find their time. longitude.625 mi) above the Earth. radiowave-signal transmitter satellites.S. fisherman.

such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field. With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field. At the surface of the conducting Earth. can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters.3.1.24). Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5. in some situations.m. causing extensive electric power failures . magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. We call the pair electromagnetic (e. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material.3.2. In general. A pair of electric field probes. Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times.50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. such as northern Europe.25). 128).10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor. during major magnetic storms. Canada. At high-latitude locations. 127). 2. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth. or em) fields. The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather. researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period. and the northern United States. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field.1. scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2. p. p. by nature. naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations. The science of physics tells us that. Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques. the nearer to the region of auroras. high energy-demand occasions. show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems. the greater the induced fields.

Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system.- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .- 500 600 700 0 - 0 . some messages have been reduced to whispers.5 FIGURE 2.4 I I I I . Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms.1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 . geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way.24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth. Six million people were affected by that power outage.2 . At such times.:Section 2. An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province. or complete blackout. and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter. Canada. static. laboratory testing. at great inconvenience and expense to the public. Using this conductivity information together with seismic records.1 . . and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States.3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I . long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted.

gas.25). where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2. and water pipelines. corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents.52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil. and water (Figure 2. At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest. and long oil. improper FIGURE 2.25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. . telephone lines. the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions. At low latitudes. gas. The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits.26). These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems.

The central section of the pipeline.'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2. To avoid such problems. We k n o w that two happenings can be related if . and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline. J2. which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow.2.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o . is particularly susceptible.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms. Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion. alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour. Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~.Section 2.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena.2J Tour to the Boundaries 2.

On other occasions. values 0.8 (-0. Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes. The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. Cause and Effect Third. the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes. This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to . specific mathematical test techniques need to be used. Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. Correlation Second.1 ) . For example. High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics. not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second. 4 ) encourage further study. for the paired events. The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method. the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous). Further study would probably show . D.0 . as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena. there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship. A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions.54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event. A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. Sometimes. Just because Mr. It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds.4 ( . D. Correlation values greater (less) than 0. it has five important features: D. Statistical Sampling First. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events.

Models of the biological. 2. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses. Double Blind Fourth. known from a secret list.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather. and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar l l. the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and. Statistical significance is then required of the true item.2. the number of sunspots increase and then decrease. The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. in tune with the 11-year cycle. Modeling Fifth. Sunspot regions are cooler. During the Sun's cycle. For example. Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10. when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence. physical. for unknown reasons.Section 2. when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation. for ingested chemicals. special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study. when a true relationship is found. cooler or hotter.5. whether there are attending unwanted side effects).2 Magnetic Correlations =. Studies have shown that. Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause. giving off less radiation than the average solar surface. the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of .2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2. However. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active.27). and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. For convenience.

56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation. some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring. Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle. A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions. However. Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum. Greece. . They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum. the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens.

near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. beginning in 1276. We shall see. These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado. recorded at world magnetic observatories. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle.28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth.Section 2. there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate.28). result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection. Geomagnetic storms. Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms.2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand. Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's . Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States.

FIGURE 2. 111). Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations. and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews. Sensitive magnetometers. have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2. In addition.29). Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic. Kaufman. Figure adapted from Williamson. measuring the magnetic fields from the brain. p. containing ferric iron deposits.29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger. . Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4. Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields.1.4. Originating in the auroral region.

But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. Also. 5. although unrelated. and 6. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima. Nevertheless.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. seasonal. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. However. Also. scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays. there are certainly well-known. the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack. the number of heart attacks. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. the two can display a false correlation.2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior. A famous and prolific space scientist. 4. Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. the number of admissions to mental hospitals.10). variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow. 3. will show a significant value. The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2. 2. There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. Random associations can occur. when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period). the number of publications by active scientists. although a significant (0. . specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. the number of convulsive seizures.Section 2. the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum. For example.

' I. is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year. . and at the Cape York peninsula.lll ~ '. at Arnhem Land. ~ . As another example. magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects.-~ !. in its yearly orbit about the Sun. Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year.2.3 Pseudoscience.~'. t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ . These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall. and Frauds I.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD . 2. India.. the Earth. The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers.ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q. Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north. therefore. Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967. it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad. One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin. A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community. oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes. it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense.31). %. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite .I ~. Old Wives' Tales.l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2. Also.

constructions. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- . increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun. the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis. For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J. B. not because of the magnetic field direction. Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. A then-popular Viennese physician. All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains. allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night. mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2. The word mesmerize originated in that period. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). P. about the time of the American Revolution.31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions.Section 2. In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds. these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature. Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season.

.. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation. 42). It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process. p. Some department stores." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy. health-food stores. vard University Press. creating heat that soothes pain and swelling.g. reduce food cravings. alleviate arthritis. knee braces.32).7.29). Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2. suppress coughing. stop headaches. for a princely sum. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten. However. with the promise that "strong." Magnetic finger rings. The magnets are said to be a time-honored. 1996).32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public. the MRI described in Section 2. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2. There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e. revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin). such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense. That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where. cervical collars. bracelets. beautiful. direct-marketing outlets. pillows. cure insomnia. sleeping pads. shoe innersoles.1. newlyweds could spend their nuptial night.

statistically significant." =. the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California. Held tightly in the hands of the witch. Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment. by itself. the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect). shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L"." Tests of the method. trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. The advertisements feed on the fear. Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. Berkeley." Some witches. say. which. In his hands. is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger). The responsible American Medical Association requires careful. when examined. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories. and desperation of the gullible public.Section 2. "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. under tightly controlled field . called a divining rod.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff. or reference to a medical journal article. Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. In their Health News Letter of May 1999. describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof.33). allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices. A similar add-on system for water pipes. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod. who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater. suffering. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests.

33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful. but magnetism is not the responsible agent. and local prevailing winds. 1See the website http://www. The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography.skeptic. "The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well known. While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local geology. recurring surface heating. Magnetism has no role in the divining. During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. has nothing to do with rock magnetism. . when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks. The procedure is successful only by random luck. predominant weather front directions. Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2. in truth. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water.html. have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense. with a statistically significant number of examples. Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material.

2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual. Florida. ~. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region. To create even more mystery. in fact. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle. 2. Given the weather and traffic. hazily defined by Bermuda. not unusual. and Puerto Rico (Figure 2. given the weather and traffic.34). the number of lost ships and planes in that area is. Serious researchers have proved that.34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda Triangle. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept. following Columbus's voyage of discovery. 2See the website http://skepdic. usually magnetic.2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2. Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area.

Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. .35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes. They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices. Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville. Australia. some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem. Unfortunately. Earthquake Predictions In recent years. their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors. although the island's name remains. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes. Captain James Cook. who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location. workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes. Dewey of the USGS. ~. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. Most likely. Nicaragua earthquake photo by J.

but the many failures are rarely mentioned. *Geller. Occasionally. Therefore. citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief. 63-67.m.Section 2.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast. is published and touted in the news media. the Chinese blame numerous causes. almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled. For these. although a clearly random coincidence. including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods. R. Am. the occasional fortuitous prediction success. Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. . signals that forecast earthquakes. J. Of course. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs. Eos Trans. The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience. 1997. Union 78. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable.35). The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. Geophys.

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changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth. 69 . We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. the magnetosphere. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years. Generated by dynamic processes. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields.Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior. every day of the year. in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere. Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive. We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent.

There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth.2 and Plate 8).1. 3. They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape. 2. The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3. p. Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. 4.5). the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth. Fluids could cause this. is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3. Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep. 31) is reached for iron and magnetite.3.2. a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region.1.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1. Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. but the absence . between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles). p. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. 35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region.1). An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field. Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust. 5. but not solid material. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field. the Curie Temperature (see Section 2. there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1. a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself. A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area.

with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions. Saturn. Ganymede.1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). Disruptive eddy currents within that region can.Section 3. scientists have found that. However. Although Mars has no such field now. Planets Mercury. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes. in time. Using the more recent main field evidence. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. seems to display such a field. The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying. Jupiter. Venus also has no permanent main field. Uranus. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions. and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres. destroy the organized loop current. in cycles averag- . a moon of Jupiter. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field.

2. possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years.72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps. For example. which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3. If we don't stop at the first chart viewing. 13. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds. . ing 200 to 250 thousand years. but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3. we see a problem immediately. There are many magnetic poles used by different groups.2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth.3). We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal.

Rand McNally.g. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross. and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions. One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3. those by National Geographic.2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3. The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet.Section 3. Most commercial world maps (e. most certainly. it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are. The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground. not the important .5).3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3.4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania. To further confuse this situation.." a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time.

. a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA. pole locations "to which all world compasses point. scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). Hammond Inc. As part of a special IAGA working group. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3. This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values . 3. pronounced "eye-yah-gah").4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands. Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas." So that we can better understand this universal misconception. let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth..74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole .2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II.2.

intelligently adjusted to a common date.2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3.6). Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. the scientists use a special mathematical technique. E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles.8) of Germany. called the analysis epoch. The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth. called Gauss coefficients. Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions). The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior. and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles. Also. The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). To prepare the model fields.5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles.Section 3. that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections. Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site. the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) . when additional recovered data become available. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. spherical harmonic analysis (SHA).

the Earth. The IGRF table (Figure 3. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field . The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices. a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that. Display program from P. External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior. n and m.7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. g and h. when all are added together. McFadden of AGSO.6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed.

g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag.1 0. for the given epoch.6 -1. With this table and special formulae. a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space.2 0. are indexed as types g and h. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w .0 FIGURE 3. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12.8 0. Internal field models have been established back to 1945.6).9 1. n o a a .1 -12. These poles are determined from a global field.2 3.2 2.6 13.7 -15.2 -8. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3. scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface.8 1.7 -4.4 4.0 -18. scientists can compute. less accurate. n g d c .2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics.1 -0.9 1. The total field map shown in Figure 2. From a full IGRF or DGRF table. m and n. Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here.8 -6. depicted in Figure 3.6.5 -6. We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles".Section 3.3 -13.html.21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600.0 -0. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years.7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years.8 -8. but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T . The numbers (Gauss coefficients).5 2.

shown in Figure 3. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3.8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole. . The symmetrically S 17. the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling.2. is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center. Earth-centered coordinates. The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center. The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3. S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S . The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~.8.9).3). but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles. quadrupole.? N N 1 I''~. octupole.O I N v . This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements. This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern.8). a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe. and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF..7) define the centered dipole terms.78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole. Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns. and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3.w // S octupole N FIGURE 3. As we shall see below. 3. quadrupole. The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3.

drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields. p. about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms. All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600. on average. However. 128). We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles". interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth. on average. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that.Section 3. Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field. Davis of NGDC/NOAA.2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3. All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that. Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model. located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3. it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner .3). Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years.2.2. Figure from M.

4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted. The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our . the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms. and radioactive heating.10). That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one. Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. Thus. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others. To understand this fact. This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that. it was offset from the Earth's geographic center. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization.80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core. The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials. introduced by the researcher. In one. the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data.2. If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center). simpler analysis method is now typically used. a slightly different. Because of their short spacial dimensions. 3. on average. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center. Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location.

and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. "Magnetic Poles" definition.11). its distance from the geographic Earth center. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles". the tilt of the eccentric dipole. The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry.Section 3. the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal.2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific. Similarly. the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center. not the Earth's surface. That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit. Were it not for some other difficulties.10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. The main geomagnetic field changes with time. . Since the 1800s. Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis.

4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface.2. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon). Fraser-Smith. Also.11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. For example.12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only. There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3. The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below . aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska. C. 3.5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements. Figure adapted from A. Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point.

New Zealand.1 . the Earth's surface. and sector-effect (Section 3.4.5. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole. ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3. the arrival of .2 Pole Markers 83 . there are seasonal. what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field. 94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements. Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents. As we shall see shortly.12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica.Section 3. whereas. diurnal (24-hr cycle).8ol 14. In addition. Rand McNally & Company. p.

and day-night distortions." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts.84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. arriving from the Sun. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location. Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii. Charged particles. cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3. the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location. When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3. solar-terrestrial conditions. Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms. in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station. With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations. it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter. just northwest of Thule. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement.14 and Plate 4). fully quiet. it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. the ionospheric currents (see Section 3. Thus. Greenland.4. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. 3. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps. Nevertheless. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. Antarctica. . p.2. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists. not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data. for some strange reason. seasonal.13).) Also.

in the Southern Hemisphere. induced currents in the Earth.21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- .20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents. auroral region (ionospheric) currents. The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2.13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field). These are the pole locations with significant meaning.Section 3. This anomalous region (Figure 2.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3.

13. A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation. Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance. The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure.31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. Figure from NASA. sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left.14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole. Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space. .86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.1 gamma.

Downwind. on average. opposite to the apparent seasonal . out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius.15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance. but. the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. in times of extreme quiet. from our viewpoint on Earth. away from the Sun. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward. which defines the ecliptic plane. During major blasts of the solar wind. Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate. depending on the compression by the solar wind. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole.15). In the space around the Earth. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. called the solar wind. antisolar direction. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re).3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. Re. The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun. The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind. the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. = 6371 km or 3959 miles). The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. However. primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. Thus. On the day side.Section 3. that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3. the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator. two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re.

The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field. there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation. In addition. the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind. Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen.20).15). This shift. the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles. a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth. Curiously. Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes.0 Re and 4. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and .2 Re to 4. verified by satellite measurements. scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect). the higher the radiation energy. toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2. Far above the Earth. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation. 13. From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles).88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3. The shorter the wavelength of light. during strong solar winds. Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light.41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet. which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak. called galactic cosmic rays. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes.5 to 6. This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons. Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4.0 Re. Principally at the two distances of approximately 1.21). to about 90 km (56 miles). that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy. the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge. At higher altitudes. Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2.

The electron density values shown here are for midday. above 900 km (560 miles). The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons. Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions.16).16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3.Section 3. summertime. at mid-latitudes. the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles). Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth. Therefore. upper-atmosphere composition. although. the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher. In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate.4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3. The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles).

For example. the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient).16). 13. The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. such as: 1.22). 2.1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur. Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. In this way. there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance. Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town.90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features. That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3.51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3. not all the ionosphere goes away at night. As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. and 3. Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground. the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region. Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow. Of course. One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface. However.5. summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness. how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). The water moves a .

through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel. fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here.Section 3. This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth. . as far as the current flow is concerned. Commercial. Of course. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet. and the conducting properties of that wire.17). or the conductor is stationary and the field moves. electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3. When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves. The daily heating and FIGURE 3. the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo. They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field. The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field.

18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere. Use Figure 1. where collisions are rare. However. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories. the wind system within the ionosphere. where the main field is horizontal.5 miles) in altitude. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 3. Also. changing with solar activity and season. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity. typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. At lower altitudes.5. The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory. causing a current to flow near 100 km (62. surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values.2 S o l a r Q u i e t . The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. there are global winds. . At much higher altitudes.92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another. a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator.21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex. the two motions cancel out the current. due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans). where the ionospheric conductivity is large. Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq). This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents. and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex. the direction and strength of the Earth's main field. and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. As you might guess. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet).

jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions. 2.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse.18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system. 3.3 Induction At the Earth's surface. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter. and 3. on the Sun side of the Earth. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun. Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator.Section 3. atmospheric atomic explosions. or sudden heating by auroral-related currents. magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external . Such events include" 1.5. All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions.

4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected. .24). from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2. surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth. Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns.19). The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3. Geomagneticians use the separated.19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth. The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity. toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun. Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary. for the conductivity determinations.5. there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind. 3. The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3. a special daily solar sector effect is found. Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior. a corresponding field change occurs.

. Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3. a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3. There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve).20). 130. p. Thule.20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station. Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5.Section 3.4. Greenland.5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule.2.

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Chapter 4

Umbrella for Magnetic Storms

Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.

i4' 1

Disturbances in Sight

4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in


Chapter 4

Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms

FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.

the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):

1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.

The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth. filaments. .2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages. Photo from SEC/NOAA. prominences.3). 5. The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle. The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4. That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions.Section 4. The solar corona.1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4.4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas. and arches of solar gases.

the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves. showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles.1. CME. the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4. The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection.4). Although each particle of water is shot out radially. The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun. Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower. The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral.100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler. determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4.3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon.2 In the W i n d In the solar wind. The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. more constant plasma stream.3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec). . 4.

so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles). In this chapter. Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface.1.Section 4. The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane. The .4). 4. creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3. carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball.3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle.5. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components. Its interaction with the Earth's main field. The outward flow of solar plasma. p. p.1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4. The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun). The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field. 94). At differing solar longitudes. 94).4.5. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances. The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4. in both quiet and active times. high-latitude fields are mostly open. determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm. which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3. either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane. slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator. which has the opposite direction.4.

The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4. seem to be responsible for this delay.1). The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions.5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm. The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum. with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances. When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect . space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle. The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause. Using measurements from special satellites.102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Earth responds to this activity.5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape.

their energy. Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. strong partial ring currents. growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. yellow. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods. powerful field-aligned currents. and the shape of the Earth's field. where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere. green. other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. charged particles (primarily solar electrons. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with red. During the magnetic storm. thermospheric pressure waves. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights).5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types. This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the tube. Figure 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes. 88).3. . near the 100. protons. In addition to the auroras. Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth. releasing energy. they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. intense ionospheric currents. p. During the equinoxes. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms.Section 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic 300-km-high (63. and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4. and induced currents in the Earth. Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3.7). When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size.6 and 4.

which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers. Combs and R. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center. . arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current.6 I~ Electrons. nm). Figure adapted from L.104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms.

5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase .9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field. there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component. Overmyer of NASA. with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4. Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1. Then there typically follows a slower. Photo by R. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4.Section 4.13).7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger. On the records. The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours. at the onset of a geomagnetic storm.8). H-component increase (called the initial phase. 4. Figure 4. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4.4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms.1. Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth.

the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location.8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30. Of course. producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface. it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3.5. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source .10).106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4. During the storm development. This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4. and forms the north and south tail lobes. A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination. constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories. p. at the Earth's surface. In these displays.15). in response to the solar wind direction. see Section 4. Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites. Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time).1. with a considerably intense internal sheet current.9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created. a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail. a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4. The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary. north or south of the magnetic equator. 116). the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display.5). =. After this compression. The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4.and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149.

Field-aligned current (Figure 4. 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~. For convenience in representation.lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase . i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec. a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere.5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones. current patterns.12). 20.11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes. but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec. Because of the ionospheric conductivity. In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes. 19. The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part.9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left). The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region.Section 4. 1980 FIGURE 4. Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4.5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region. Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4. A concentration of these currents . spaced in longitude around the Earth.

strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4. southward. attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere. away from the spin axis. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth. . An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis. measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation. Figure 4. That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies. Because of the solar wind flow. December.10 I~ During a magnetic storm. The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June. typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet.13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena. In the auroral region. As the air molecules are split apart. northward) with the antisolar location. during the geomagnetic storm.5). Instruments on highaltitude balloons. The cross-tail currents move similarly. count the electrons that are arriving.

At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment. fields from the partial ring currents. Therefore. field-aligned currents. only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth. Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself.Section 4.11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes. the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed.14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox. Local time is indicated around the circumference.1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4. . Figure 4. negative). During a magnetic storm.

Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating. This wave disrupts the high ionosphere.12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates. A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. at just under sonic speed. =. This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters. The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects.110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. pro- . Another stronger pressure wave. travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones. Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman.15).

top to bottom. . the field from the westward auroral electrojet current.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks. illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons.Section 4. the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves. Alaska.1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4. and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations. the traces.

Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces. . and Byrd Station. N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 . Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event. auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW). can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields.. and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located. !. Antarctica. Byrd ! _! 10 I.! 12 I . Canada.14 I~ During a magnetic storm day. which are not traceable to solar sources. Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles . these are the field changes in the northward (H). eastward (D). ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents.112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. 14 UT FIGURE 4. Some phenomena.

~ 2045 ... 2055 _~ . it is possible to point out some generalizations. A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds... ~ 2110 FIGURE 4. . The pressure waves."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L...... That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4. Russia. initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed... What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated. N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4.. Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon. . However..Section 4... in that region.15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave.. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August. causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth..and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction..5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units). the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds. _~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~. . At the po- .. ... Alaska.1 Disturbances in Sight 113 .. were detected at Fort Yukon..16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya. / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T. There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally.. The light and dark traces indicate north-south. The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3. which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds.16). Alaska.. 1962.. .

the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. storm-time.8). 4. The strong nightside. some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes. at the low and equatorial latitudes. Therefore.11).12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations.5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras. nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger. a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4. magnetometers register a large. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. Thus. At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions. The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination. and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. At low and equatorial latitudes. As a result. others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents. All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position. the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate.114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important. For each Universal Time hour.1. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator. Extending to the equator. the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. field-aligned currents.17). and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4. field-aligned (Figure 4. At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents. but more distant. .

Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements. 1974. magnetospheric currents. the planetary form of the index. AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index. The small short-period variations contribute little. Kp Index A third magnetic index. for 4 and 5 July. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket.Section 4. NGDC/NOAA. Illustration from World Data Center A.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century. The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4. An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp. such stations are not uniformly . K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed.17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope. AU) and the lowest (lower envelope. of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index. (Figure 4. The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours.18). A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index. Kp. Dst (Figure 4. Unfortunately. In this example.

More are in the Northern Hemisphere. there is a concentration in Europe. and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period. in a long-term average. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms. distributed around the Earth. +. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4. and .9. The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. Statistically. Because a large number of the index . the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes. The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0.19). Each contributing station has a different K table. The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above. fixed so that.116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index).

1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3. stations are at high-latitude locations.1+ 1.--0.2+ 0 0 1..------------------___----.3+|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1.2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4.3 2 3+ 4. lalallalal.2 1 O+ 2+ 1.64.--.3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described.2 1..2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3. Coffee at NGDC/NOAA.12 13 . Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes.1 3 3.20).--.2+ 3+ 4 4 2.1. large magnetic storms are more likely to occur. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998. Table provided by H.36 85.2 2+ 1 2 .-----------------------.Section 4.__--_.O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6.4..1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71.. There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods.=--.O+ 1.6 5+ 4 . A study of .1+ 3.----.lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4..------..----.1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23.4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 .42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11... daily Ap.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____. At such times.1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2.16 65+ 6 2.19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K.

quite oscillatory form (called Pc). 4.21). travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere. Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5. Erwin of NGDC/NOAA.1. p.2.001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur.1 to 0. On the charts. Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4. small (0. Figure from E. upon arriving at high latitudes.20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997.6. .22). Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4. Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields. Other pulsations.6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances. 131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4. the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous.16).118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4.

Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA. Figure from J. C. Antarctica. H. FIGURE 4. 1966.1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4.22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0. Allen and D.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station. . on 23 August.21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40.Section 4.

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investigated the global distribution of field disturbances. At prearranged times. In those times.8).to 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5. I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism. of Goettingen. How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be. it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally. 15-1 I Field Traces 5. Germany. the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1. The first question I expect is.Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the fields.1). Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory. He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred.1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries. I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter. The 121 .1. It is time now for tourists' questions.

It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device. when photography came into general use. the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum. capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5.2). Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis. A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. and vertical directions. By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions. collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly.2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system. With the improved instrument in a darkened room. 5.1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction.122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. eastward.1. the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward. which rotated once a day. These magnetometers were given the more specific .

3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . Today.2 7 3 ~ C or .Section 5. after being moved. many other systems are used to record the field. .2 I~ The simple variometer. shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper. The light beam. could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position. He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator. The exact strength of the Earth's main field. Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties. Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. Notice how your home compass needle. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded. Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet. A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper. whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward. moving with the magnet. The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period. Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material. Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents. not the full main field strength. developed by the mid-nineteenth century.4 6 0 ~ F). oscillates before coming to rest northward.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength.

124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields ..5 cm (0.. but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer.6 inches) in diameter.00001 gamma. Zimmerman of NIST. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium ..RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw .. which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0.Coil -.Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5... Figure from J. . which is only approximately 1.Coaxial Line -.3 I~ Modern.. The niobium metal sensor. is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling.

Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet. . Turn on thehighintensity lamp and. The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day. With the 2-inch-wide tape. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and. Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card. carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together. Some 1See the website http://image. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =.1 Field Traces 125 5. for school demonstrations.html. 1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap.nasa. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw. gsfc. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. put a dot near its center. making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed. with a marking and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular loop. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet. You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam.Section 5.1. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom.4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms.

lasting many hours or even days. a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a . or other fiat surface. can . magnetometer. and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table. During geomagnetic storms. effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp. deflections of several degrees.25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north.126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5.4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA. near a wall. If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches).

however. The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot.1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. About 2 square feet (0. Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field.Section 5. A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor . separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more.1 millivolt. can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0. the spot will remain in the same location.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations. Most of the time. The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0. Note that if any of the parts are moved. Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. . Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations. . the measurements will be affected. . two probes. . a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5. . .19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity. For those readers who are adept at electronics.05 gamma (for most locations).3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). In typical soil. That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0. Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder.5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises.

3.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region. Comparing the results in Figure 5. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields.1 Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2.5.2. p. 5.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior.6 with Figure 2. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges. using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region. a small battery. One such model is depicted in Figure 5.21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth. and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores. 5. 5. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles).21. 1.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region. 80).128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes. Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- .2. switch.2.2. p.2. 78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3. The necessary variable resistors. one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section 3.7. amplifiers.4.

l. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA. Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole. Figure 5. tilted dipole. the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure. 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 ."56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5. The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole.Section 5. Figure from J.2 90 --. R. The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas).a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 . . ments taken along a fixed line on the surface.8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered. Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model.

7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows. Quinn of USGS. The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions. Figure from J. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields.4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed. p. Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country.5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index.9) in the polar regions at low activity times. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5. 5. Using a chain of observatories. the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were . Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations. 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5. 5.

More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks.6. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations. The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- . it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations.8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state. 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times. thus.2. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations.1. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton. p. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance. There were often large local storm field differences from the index. determined (Figure 5.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5.6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation.10). In this figure. That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations. The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. 5. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. Figure 5. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4. they were not due to local anomalies.Section 5.

132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents.3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form. . the horizontal axis represents the time in hours. These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere. By international agreement. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution.. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere. chart preparation. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET. and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation. which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special.\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5. ond. there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5. 15. globally distributed collection points.5 hours in local time for the two conditions.12). duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers. Today. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2. so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling.

. . . e-mail: info@ngdc. . . 60 | .gov 9 In Russia: World Data Center B. . i . . JAPAN.. field differences were determined. . fax: 1-303-497-6513. mailstop EGC2. | . . . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group). Molodezhnaya 3. . . 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day . Moscow 117 296. tel: 81-75-753-3929. 325 Broadway. . . Academy of Sciences of Russia.. . . These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude). . consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure).10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories. . 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. . Kyoto University. .Section 5. USA. . NGDC/NOAA. Kyoto 606-8502. . Boulder.noaa. .. . RUSSIA. . Colorado 80305-3328. . . . . i .. .World Data Center A. . Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2. . . . . tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619. . . 0 10 20 ! . . . . . fax" 81-75-7227884. . . . tel: 1303-297-6761. 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l .3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9.12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United States. Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science. . .


Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.

15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.

15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:

Section 5.5

Information Kiosk


FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on

TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)


Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and






tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.

including a9-

100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)


200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)




600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)

t.,rl "I"
< r


1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)


~r "11

a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).

Q. W


103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible. _. permanent damage to exposed components/detectors. Biological: none. Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions. bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions). elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays). star-trackers unable to locate sources. noise in imaging systems. Satellite operations: none.. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors. and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult.t ". Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. permanent damage to solar panels. passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray). star-trackers cause orientation problems. noise on imaging systems.4 . Flux in particles: s . Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA. Satellite operations loss of some satellites. memory impacts cause loss of control. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets.l s t e r . Satellite operations: memory device problems. high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays).~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA. and solar panels degraded. these events can last more than one day). 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m. Flux levels are 5 min averages.l c m -2. serious noise in image data. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days. and decrease of solar panel currents. o ..TABLE 5. Biological: none. Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted.2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days.

. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour.-i.4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 . ~r -rl r o. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators.1--0. measured in the 0. loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators. causing loss in positioning. bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux.TABLE 5.. a Some or all of these effects are possible.. -r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth. Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. X20 (2 x 10 .8 nm range. HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators. HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals. HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days). in Wm-2). HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. . which may spread into the night side.3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _.3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 . Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth.t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours. loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth. affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 .

Such data. English translation in 1893 by @usgs.nasa. 9 W. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories. USA: gov/UVI/current_image.E Mattelay. ngdc. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical Institute. e-mail: info. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback. USA: http://sohowww. noaa. Geological Survey. USA: http://www.pfrr. gi. 1958. USA: http://www.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle. De Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales. 368 pp.msfc. Gilbert. nasa. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern html 9 Space Environment Mailstop 306.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services.ips. University of 9 GoddardSpaceFright Center. also http://www. republication by Dover Publications. 1600. also http://www-spof. Colorado 80225.. with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams. fax: 1-303-202-4693. magnetic field.nasa. Sydney. Australia: http://www.spaceweather.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX. NOAA. . also http://www.Section 5. in the order of their original publication date. Denver.S. USA: http://uvisun. Box 25286 Federal Center. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center. and radiation information to monitor the space environment.HTML. g ov/$tp/stp. also http://image. nasa. alaska. NASA. New York. U.noaa.html 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA.61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended books.sec. 15. USA.

Chapman and J. 513 pp.. Brisbane Brookfield Press. 434 pp. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate. 1996.. Parkinson. beautifully written. application. and thorough description of analytical methods. 1940. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information. ed. 1398 pp. 9 W. 9 J. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists. and beautiful illustrations.D. thorough review of the technology. eds. Oxford University Press.. 2545 pp. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage. 1987.A.. History.H. 2 vols. 1980. Stacy... 9 W. Washington D.. Academic Press. 433 pp. 323 pp. Scottish Academic Press Ltd. American Geophysical Union... Introduction to Geomagnetism. Oxford. An up-to-date. A fine. 9 S. Massachusetts. It was last republished in 1951. auroral descriptions. Edinburgh.. Milton Keynes Pub. Piper.C. 9 J. Brisbane. Majestic Lights. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. the Aurora in Science... Geomagnetism.. 1992.D. . 1987-1991. detailed references. the Natural Magic of Magnets. 1983. Bartels. Open University Press. This classic. 2 vols. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time.. 1050 pp. 311 pp. Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena. 9 R. Harvard University Press. Geomagnetism. Academic Press. Matsushita and W. Cambridge. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book).A. New York. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. 4 vols. and history of magnets. Although our subject is only a small part of this book.. Eather.H. 1967.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. Jacobs. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust.D. Livingston.D.. Campbell. Driving Force. and the Arts. New York. Physics of the Earth. compact yet complete. 9 J.

. San Diego. the Core. Campbell. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. 304 pp.. 1996. 1997. McFadden. 531 pp. Cambridge University Press. 9 W. M. The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism. McElhinny. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field.H. with many illustrations. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations.W. . Academic Press. Written by well-respected researchers. and EL.6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R.Section 5.T. Merill. and the Deep Mantle. My own compact but comprehensive textbook. Cambridge.

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110 oval. 39 Archeological formations. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 39 Atmosphere lower. 105 high-latitude. 106. 123. 45 temperature. 40 Atomic number. 90. 102 Bremerton. Qu6bec. 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. 35. 60. 34 Byrd Station. 106 values. 113. 8. 17. 116 Aeromagnetism. 134 Bar magnet. 56 upper. R. 82 surveys. 84 pulsating. 18 weight. 39 Archimedes spiral. 120 143 . 84. 21. 8 Bermuda Triangle. 22 Australis (Southern Lights). 109. 115. 70. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights).Index Activity index. 139-141 Bowshock. 113 magnetic observatories. 37 charts. 109. Julius. 14. 18 Atoms. 4 Airport magnetometer. 61-63 Books. 41-42 correlations. 17. 25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields. 17. 119 Baie St. 65 Big Dipper. 20. 2 Biomagnetism. 42 Body magnets. 101 angle. Antarctica. 15. 148 oil discovery. 38 Agonic line. 20 electrojet current. Washington State. 17. 102 Archives. 117 Apollo space craft. 116 Aurora. 39 map. 118 Addresses. 105 bombarding particles. 133 Asteroid. 109 zone. Paul. 125 Bartels. 18-19 Auroral displays. 38 Analysis epoch. 131 Bryce Canyon. 59 Blakemore.. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index.

144 Index Chapman. 50-51. 34. 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 109 Conjugate positions. 4. 108 Crust. 3 Communications. 69 strength. 36--41 resistivity. 90 pole eccentric axis. 77 Dip angle. 92. 34 equator. 48 long-wire. 124 electromagnets. 27. 26 aeromagnetic. 29 Chinese. 7. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays. 3. 35 magnetotelluric. 130 De Magnete. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 92. 6 eccentric axis. 26 Chu Yu. 103. 123 temperatures. 9. 4. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. Christopher. Captain James. 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 15 induction. 26 lodestone. 84 . 2 Climate. 25 right-hand rule. 70 moment. 53 Earth. 55. 90 Compass. Sydney. 108 Double-blind test. 29. 25 source and induced. 36-38. 13. 44 magnetometers. water. copper). 111 electrical. 80 field alignment. 101 Correlation cause and effect. 2 declination and. 39 ancient field behavior. 70 magnetism. 70 Tucson. 88 sunspot connection. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 21 secondary. 6 magnet Earth as. 23. 54 coefficient. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 17. 75. 98 mass ejection (CME). 66 main field and. 23 origin. 35-37 Cook. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 94 Darwin. 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 32 bar magnet. 23. 11 main field. 70. 14 Earth. 6. 70 distorted. 11. 111 Continental drift. 79 field pattern. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). 101 Columbus. 84 Dipole. 26. 130 Corona. 93. 8. 40. 72. 55 ecliptic plane and. 89. 20-23 direct. Australia. 56. 38 navigation. 75. 54 double blind. 6. 60. 48 Conductivity. 70 Current. 139 Declination. Arizona. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 18 comparative (air. 59 Charts. 10. 51 radiowave. 3 magnetic island and. 82 ionosphere. 63 Drift contintental. 81 locally-measured. 70. 21 corrosion and. 99 Coronal holes. 115 ionosphere. 55 modeling. 31. 32. 82. 122 airport runway declination. 94 geological features. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 15 Disturbed field.

25 Ferrous atoms. 123 Forbush effect. 32 clay. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 55 Energetic particle events. 7. 111. 94 conductor. 28 External field. 14. 75 Equatorial electrojet. 9. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 70 source. 79 non-dipole field vs. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 134 Electric charge. 37 power lines. 115 Filaments. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 18 aurora and. 13. 19. 81 current in a wire. 84. 90 sharing of. 109. 90 region. 114 Franklin. 50-53 mapping. 130-131 Dynamo. 127 Electrons. 22 induction responses. Antarctica. 48 and magnetic fields. 81 dipole. 19 Electrojet auroral. Benjamin. 104 Elements. 3. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. 44 Fort Yukon. 79 particle. 37 Field-aligned current. 112 Faraday. 18 molecule. 34 Field in space. 110 equatorial. 76. 7. 18 atomic number and. 85. 23. 47. 70 theory. 22 field. 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. 50 systems in satellites. 7 transmission lines. 9. 13. 66-67 signals. 87. 13. 90-92 current. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 77 analysis. 75. 9. 22. 7. 18. 127 probe. 88 Force of magnetic field. 81 field representation. 87. 50. 21. 111. Alaska. 101 Eights Station. 89. 26. 84 Fairbanks. 127-128 dipole field strength. 3. 3. 134 Epoch. 44 Electromagnetic field. 114 models. 102-104. 36. 21. 90 Electromagnet. 44 in wire. Alaska. 37 reversal. 98. 21. dipole field. 50. 41. 50 power plant. 23 Electrical conductivity. 22 ionization and. 75. 128 dipole poles. 71 outer core. 70.Index 145 magnetic pole. 56 Exploration (global). 79 lower mantle. 70 Earth current. 109 Ethesian winds. 70. 92. 40. 90. 71 Earthquake. 44 use in maglev. 92. 84 Ecliptic plane. 80. 90 . 115117. 54 prediction. 102 upper atmosphere and. 84. 18 current. 130 storm currents. 20 solar. Michael. 99 Flares. 20. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 7.

75-77 field units. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. 45. 86 INTERMAGNET. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 48. 78. 119. 16 Geologic exploration. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. 18. 28 geomagnetic coordinates. Edmund. 77-80 multipoles. 15 Ganymede main field. 79 main field poles. 97-120. 44 Indices. 115 equatorial. 8 Geostationary satellites. 138 Gilbert. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 92 Ions.) of oscillation. 58. 132 Internal field. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 44. 17 Igneous rock. 89. 78 2000 coefficient values. 128 coordinate system. 11 first textbook on. 50. 52.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 5. 90 dip equator. 76 Induction. 132 pulsation. 46 Gamma (y). 92-94. 116 Land survey. 48. 73. 134 GPS and. 48. 16 netism and Aeronomy). 29 Halley. 84. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 7. 75. 90. 47. 9. 107 recovery phase. 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 92 high latitude. 49 Grand Teton National Park. Baron Alexander von. 114 Intergalactic fields. 84. 58 low. 113 Greenwich. 110. 111 Jupiter main field. Wyoming. 78-80. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 5. 86 High latitudes. 115 lunar quiet-day. 8 Health magnets. 72-86. India. 108 Jackson Lake. 74 regions (zones). 79 North Pole. 109 current. 16. 40 Latitude. 50 Infrasonic pressure waves. 49 main phase. 123 Hyderabad. 89 electron density. 75. William. 72 GPS and. 57. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 75. 12. 74. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. 25. 130 auroral. 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 58. England. 77 IMAGE spacecraft. 8. 61 Humbolt. 17 Hubble Space Telescope. 53. 121 coefficients. 20-23. 111. 64 Great Earth Magnet. 102 Ionosphere. 40. 62 Heliospheric boundary. 107 satellites and. 78. 32 . 74. 130 field models. 95 poles. 80 table. 64 Joule heating. 94 of pulsations. 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 89 solar wind. 128. 28. 115. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. 94 field responses. 49 Geomagnetism. 7. 131 storms. 16. 66. 92. 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 49 high. 114. 11 from North Star. Canada.

42 in animal brains. 102. 3 Locally measured dip poles. 79 IGRF. 111 solar wind path within. 102 Magnetosheath. 88 Van Allen belts. 92 Maglev. 124 variometer. 115 envelope. 30-35 storms. 30. 23. 82-84 Longitude. 103 heating of. 69 alignment with solar wind. 30 microscopic. 43 cryogenic. 87 tail. 3 polarities. 88 tail boundary. 130 . 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 2 Magnet. 123 quake-site. 123 satellite. 44 mountain. 102 field and charged particles. 44 termites. 114 currents. 30 field-aligned current. 118 currents in. 43 rocks. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 41 rubidium. 46 satellites and. 46 satellites and. 13 north pole. 25 coils.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 15 south pole. 26 dipole. 70 field effect of. 44 seasonal differences. 49 ship's. 72 GPS and. 2 body "health" magnet. 123 Magnetopause. 78 dipole moment. 87. 5. 104 outer boundary. 70 Magnetometer. 58 Island. 95. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 60-61 Magnetite. 32 field human response to. 6. 102 sunward boundary. 87. 3 Magnetic charts. 44 simple bar. 3 Eccentric axis dipole. 42 Curie point. 44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 75 movement of. 13 poles. 88 field measurements. 31 randomly oriented. 35 positions of. 6 domains. 66 levitation. 84 axis. 31 SQUID. 14. 111 fields. 102 Magnetosphere. 106. 28 Lower mantle. 102 tail of. 23 permeability. 93 airport. 123 medical uses. 77 locally measured. 111 magnetic storms and. 71. 72 types of. 123 fluxgate. 87. 71 positions. 45 particles and. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 61-63 Earth's main field. 2. 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 3 crystals. 78. 26 declination. 4 clocks and. 42. 107. 58 proton. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 32 realignment.

11. 19-20 Moon main field. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 57 Mesmer. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR). 49 ships. 115 Milky Way Galaxy. 57. 34 extension into space. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 71 Mesa Verde. 132 low latitude. 30 Mars. 71 size of. 108 magnetic. 131 Multipole. 106 major worldwide. 92 global network. 134 INTERMAGNET. 88 Molecules. 16 solid magnet and. 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). 129 Natural magnetic noise. Franz Anton. 130 daytime field variations. 4 geomagnetic. 32 at poles. 130 chain of. 71 Mercury. 75. 71 Jupiter. 84 high latitude. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 132. 88. 17 changing source. 4 geographic. 69 Ganymede. 70 Uranus. 2. 71 Neutrons. 105 Novaya Zemlya. James Clerk. 61 Metamorphic rock. 43 spin alignment. 26.) tail current. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 38 data. 3 Mars main field. 116 Australian. 38 Main field. 120 molecule. 47 Saturn. 138 northern hemisphere. 23 . 117 Northern Lights. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 22. 71 Maunder. 92. 3. 18 hydrogen atom. 7. 71 Venus. 29 Northern auroral zone. 26-29 Neptune main field. 131 method. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. 73 magnetic. 71 mapping. 79.148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. E. 88. 30. 20. 36 troughs. 71 Neptune. 113.W. 12. 23 alignment. 115 Magnetotail. 5. 43 Non-dipole field.. 36 waves. 71 reversal of. 107 Maricourt. 42 satellites. 81 North Pole. 71 Moon. 71 Main phase. 42-43 Mercury main field. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). 28. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 35 satellites and. 4 Star. Russia. 17. 10 Medicine. 128-129 charts. Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). 110 northern high-latitude. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 113. 3. 18. 43 Nucleus. 40. 89. 34 Mid latitude. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). 18 Observatories. 98 Maxwell. 23 dip angle. 15. 17. 6. 106 auroral and polar regions. 36 plates. 109 auroral zone.

46. James Clark. 41 Quake-site magnetometer. 94 Ross. 70 region of Earth. 23. 32-34 cap. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 43 explorers. 111 regions. 70 Ozone layer. 88. 108 Plato. 17 Reversal of field. 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. 108. 112. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 60. 18 corrosion. 98. 41 Pipelines. 71 current loop. 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. 11. 88 . 77 dysfunction. 114 field. 7 Proton. 52. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 32. 117 3 Pseudoscience. and main field strength. 23. 114. 73 drag. 141 sonic. 70 subsonic. 84. 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 123 effects of current. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 134 Polar. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 30 Poles. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 51 grounding. 58. 35 of Dst index. 53 Quebec blackout. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 131 Oscillation period. Washington State. 82 magnetometer. 123 Partial ring currents. 92 Plages. Permeability. 130 alignment. 99 Paramour ship. 72. 79 magnetic north. 43 Peregrinus. 31 Octupole. 114 dynamo theory. 72-86 communication signals. 11 damage. 69 Ring current. 114 Paleomagnetism. 95. 78. 83 north geomagnetic. 50. 103. 16. 140. 70. 11. 119 Quadrupole. 72 observatory. 42. 85. 46. 18. 74 Placebo effect. 102 Satellite sector currents. 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen). 37. 13 131 Phase. 95. 16. 12. 17 Recovery phase. 119. 3. 103 precession. 45 IGRF field. 112. 80 Piezomagnetic effect. 73 auroral field. 2 Radiowaves. 123 Outer core.Index 149 magnetic drift. 57. 74 magnetic south. 21 field description. 81 electrical noise. 114 Paleomagnetician. 44. 132 Port Augusta. 84 Remanent magnetization. 47. 111 atmospheric. 34 explosive. 67 Periods of oscillation. 130 Power lines. 128 magnetic. 16. 40. 98 Plasma. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 48 search expeditions. 79 Prominences. 106. 32. 35-37 Pressure waves. 84 Right-hand rule. 48. Australia. 50 Prehistoric fields. 90. 123 square of. 36. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 111 internal currents. 80. 108 latitudes. 48 chart location of. 87. 48 partial. 116 auroral oval. 70.

46 radiowave-signal transmitter. 102. 101. 56. 46 plasma. 46 geostationary. 88. 37 memory upset. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. 99 flares. 94-95. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 30. 85. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 71 Sea-floor spreading. 99. 108 magnetic field. 130 cycle. 44 maximum elevation. 57 disturbances. 107 Statistical significance. 60. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 99 coronal holes. 87. 55 ecliptic plane. 16. 128. 87 elevation angle. 101 prominences. 119. 129 South Magnetic Pole. 92 magnetic field. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 101 visible light from. 49 Saturn main field. 88. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 16. 13. 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 56. 45. 49 magnetometer. 101 sectors. 39. 98 panels. 47. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 130 ions. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 3.) evidence of poles. 88. 102 burst IMF. 6. 132 Secular variation (SV). 124 Stand-off position. 57 cycles drought and. 44--46. 83 Southern Cross. 55 . 2 SI units. 92 vortices. 6. 77 Sun. 97. 86 orientation by field. 75. 48--50. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 94. 92 field polarity. 108-111 fingerprints. 57. 95. 134 Spectral analysis. 30 power supply. 87 surface rotation. 12. 131 Seismologists. 125. 34. 107 field. 66 Si Nan. 31 measurement of drift. 92 wind. 29 plasma. 98 cycle. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). 46 navigation and. 33. 13-15. 55. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 69. 26. 93 SQUID magnetometer. 77 Sedimentary rock. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 56 activity. 17 Storm explanations. 126 Solar corona. 106--107 geomagnetic. 28 navigation by. 97-101. 36 Sector effect. 55 rotation. 55. 9. 88 Sunspot.150 Index Satellite (cont. 80 functions. 70. 22 of main field. Chinese earthquake prediction. 107 disturbance. 118. 54 Steady field. 82. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center. 102 direction. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 92 radiation. 1. 98 quiet (Sq). 84 failure. 59 Strength of magnetic field. 52. 93 elevation angle. 69. 114. 53. 98 eclipse. 46. 95. 132 variations (Sq). 57 eleven-year.

60. 56. Arizona. 5. 2 Van Allen radiation belts. 84 Water divining/witching. 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 55. 130 Tree-ring dating. 102 maximum. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 15 nanotesla. 97. 50. 46 SV (Secular Variation). 123 Venus main field. 27 Units gamma (y). 133. 95 lobes. 40 Telephone. 17 polar caps. 106 pressure waves. 35 World Data Centers. 59. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect. 39 Zone auroral. 106-108 field. 17 . Antarctica. 16 magnetic field. 43 Toward and Away sectors. Greenland. 57 Tucson. 51 lines. 46 Tesla unit. 15 Thermosphere. 87. 17 equatorial. 46 Upper mantle. 94 Uranus main field. 84. 77 Tail currents. 63-64 Weather. 118 minimum. 88. 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk. 111 heating. 102. 71 Vostok Station. 132. 106 Thule.Index 151 number (R). 138 X-rays. 95 Tomographic analysis. 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 44. 15 Gauss. 134 Westward drift. 55-58 space. 17 high latitudes. 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. 12 Variometer. 52 pager. 108 Variation field. 57 region temperature. 17 low latitudes. 48.

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These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth. .PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. Illustration from NASA. PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona. A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image.

Figure from NASA. enter our atmosphere. guided by the Earth's field. Figure from SEC/NOAA. . This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field. A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown.PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail. PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles.

Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www.ptialaska. Figure from Lucent Technologies. J. Alaska.html). .PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle. PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles. Lanzerotti. Bell Laboratories.

PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels. Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D. Hastings. organized by the Earth's spin. and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary. .PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits.

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