Earth Magnetism
A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields

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E. Scott Hawley I~ Julia Richards I~ Catherine Mori 1999 Chemistry Connections Kerry Karukstis I~ Gerald Van Hecke Mathematics for Physical Chemistry. 2nd Edition Paul Davidovits Introduction to Relativity John Kogut The Human Genome.Complementary Science Series [m 2000/2001 The Physical Basis of Chemistry. House www.harcourt-ap. 2nd Edition Robert Mortimer Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics J. Warren Physics in Biology and Medicine. 2nd Edition Warren . 2nd Edition R.

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. . . Colorado [I/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Earth Magnetism A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields Wallace Hall Campbell Boulder. A Harcourt Science and Technology Company San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo . . .

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That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events. Albert Einstein . when my father showed me a compass. Something deeply hidden had to be behind things.A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch'). I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maxwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Finding the Fields 1. . Steady and Changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapman 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. . . Gilbert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Halley . . . . Faraday Gauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . .3. .1 1. .2 1. . . . . . . Locating the Fields . . . . . . . . .3.3. . . .1 1. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. . . . .2.

2. . . . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions . .7 2. . . . . 60 60 . . . 66 . . . . . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . . .9 .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .5 2. . Travel and Exploration . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.X Molecules . . . .2. Water Witching or Divining . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . . . 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . .1 2.. . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling 2. . . . . . . . Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medicine . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . and Frauds . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . Establishing Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration . . . . . . . . . . .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 .1. . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. Double Blind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2. . Biomagnetism . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . . . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . .4 2. . .1. . . . . . . Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . . . .3 Pseudoscience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation . . . . . . 64 65 . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Old Wives' Tales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . Magnetic Rocks . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 3. . . . . IGRF Main Field Poles . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measures of Activity . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Field Traces 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . . . . . . . . . . .6 Magnetic Poles Galore . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations . . 92 93 94 Induction . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . K p Index Ap Index 4. . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . Harvesting the Fields 5. . Conducting Blanket . . . . . . . . Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. .2 3. . . . .5. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . 127 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2.6 Pulsations . Sectors . . 121 . . . .1. . . . . . .4 3. . . . . .1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4.3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . Glamorous Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . Two Eccentric Axis Poles . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Inside Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pole M a r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1. . . . . . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2.1 3.1. . . . . .3 121 121 . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .xii 5. . .5 Contents . . . . . . . . Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l .2. . . . . . .1 5.4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 130 130 5. . . . . . . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . Magnetotellurics .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . .2. . . . . Index 143 .3 5. . . 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . .

He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review. interplanetary. His recent book. satellite operations. including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. magnetic fields. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete. is one of the most important references in our field. including telecommunications. Dr. Dr. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. yet easy-to-understand way. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. Campbell has authored several well-known books. not just geomagnetism. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. and radio propagation. It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. Thus. Dr. Dr. yet fun to read. In addition. in a way that is state-of-the-science. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism. satellite drag.

simplicity. Herbert W. Kroehl General Secretary. and practicality. He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields. the magnetic field of the Earth. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment. and he does so with superb clarity. Dr. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy .xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives. Dr.

In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms. guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics. Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies. global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. You will have a personal.1.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter.2. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives. To remedy this situation. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments. I have written this book for the interested nonscientist. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world. XV . Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age. See Figure C. Occurring every eleven years.) See Figure C. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour. just start with the second. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism.

helical windings. all involved in magnetic navigation. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand. and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life. . FIGURE C.FIGURE C. ready to misinterpret everything.1 I~. a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms. opposing fields. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation. These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force. Chinese compass. magnetic-dip instrument. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean.

. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole.Preface xvii FIGURE C. the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions.3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. Both wish to be involved in the trip. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction. See Figure C. Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time. explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles. In Chapter 3. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained. We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field. Together.3. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models.

how field records can be obtained. these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries. See Figure C.xviii Preface FIGURE C. and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information. In Chapter 4. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field. See Figure C. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured. field appearances on magnetic records. We will examine the storm impact at the Earth. .5. and indices of such activity.4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users.4. our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun. what researched is now in progress.

I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away.Preface xix FIGURE C. let us start the tour. November 2000 . Have no fear.C. Now. waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend. is prominently displayed. the modern father of space magnetism. W.H.5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk. A picture of Chapman. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf.

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the Space Environment Center of NOAA. W.H. Although most illustrations are of my own creation. I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily. Beth. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA. Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty. the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. I thank my wife. away from household duties. the Geomagnetism Section of USGS. for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer. Finally. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues. xxi .Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group. in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA.C. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book.

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1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly. this is not an unusual route to understanding. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction. indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour. . Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head. But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift. Fortunately. In contrast. In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths. acting as your guide.I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways. I1. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together. I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place. Along the way.

corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major). The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape. a Cantonese author of 1117. opposite the handle of the Big Dipper.2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11. Similarly. Si Nan. Written records show that a Chinese compass. a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC. the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1. had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces. Chu Yu.1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction. point toward the North Star. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl. the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction.21 Historical Tour Markers 1.1).1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia.2. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions. FIGURE 1. Then. .

Loadstone (or lodestone).Section 1. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips." was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses.2 Historical Tour Markers 1. But if it were given that name. In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone. had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole. By the early fifteenth century. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus). at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen.2. Peregrinus described the pole locations.2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners.2). for which the negative and positive charges can be separated). how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline. there would be even greater confusion. . He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles. and how similar poles repel (Figure 1. For our Western culture. The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star. This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite. an early word for "leading stone. A Frenchman.


Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism

FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.

declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about

Section 1.2

Historical Tour Markers


FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.

the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.

1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the


Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism

FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.

science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.

James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1. In addition.9). he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity. the original design for our present public electric power plants. in a time of significant English maritime expansion. He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes.6). Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges.8) of Goettingen. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes. a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution. In 1831. =. In 1838. He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1. Chapman Finally.7). In 1893. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth. he developed the first electric motor. who originally worked in England.Section 1. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances. . Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. but spent much of his productive life in the United States. the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1.10). Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. currents. Germany. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation. and fields. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman. In 1821.

Geomagnetism. who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name. The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage. With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany.8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1. Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms. .in 1940. Chapman became the father of space magnetism.6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley.

who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields. . devised the first electric motor and electric current generator.Section 1. FIGURE 1.8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth.2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1.7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867).

.10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies.9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today. FIGURE 1.10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1. used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. Steady and Changing Now. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet. when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our planet. to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject.11).5).1 Earth Fields.Section 1.31 Local Language Dictionary 1. as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth). popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism. the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1.3. the natural fields within and around the Earth. to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism. The prefix gee. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour. as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts. out of or into the Earth. points at different angles. Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1. However. This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent .11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle.

12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1. Examples of 12. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude.and 24-hour periods are shown. In addition. Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances. Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example.12). This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. The prefix paleo. the weaker the effect of that field becomes. but more dramatic appearance. . which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time. In contrast. meaning ancient. is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times. For example. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago.12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion. we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second. The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter. The inverse of the period is the frequency. is rapidly changing.13). the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period. As we shall see in our tour.

this control is measured by the force. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface. and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. Alaska.3. also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. . The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM. Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. or iron-rich rocks.13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks. Of course. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size. of course. For example.3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1. The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1. having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action. iron.2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current. at 2 inches from a magnet. magnetic observatory. that can move another magnet. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil.14). The effectiveness of this field.Section 1. there are many different sources of magnetic fields. At the place where a field exists. 1. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch.

2 0.8 e.00 1.0 .50 2.00 2.50 3.00 4.. What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive. slowing it to a stop. > .00 3... 1. 0. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized. A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding. Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper. 0. the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down. he discovered that magnetism was the problem.14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet. heavy iron bars.4 n- 0. When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate. The field ._ *.6 "o It. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1.50 5. the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum.15). To my dismay.0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0..14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. strong attracting magnetic field. By gently flicking the paper.00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1. I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home.. c !. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby. When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights. probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred.50 4.1 1. Somehow. The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet..

is the proper unit officially . and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities. current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine. we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source. the equivalent name. In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older.3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT). it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine.3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss). similar to that of the bar magnet. Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength. nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma).15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet. and from currents in the region of space above our planet.Section 1.3. The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material. from electric current sources deep within the Earth. 1. Nevertheless. Giant. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form.

01 0. The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below). with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second. and lasting from hours to a full day or more.000.16.000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator. t~ 0.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1. EARTH MAIN FIELD 10.000 gammas). The Earth's main field varies from about 60. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10.16 100.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-.000. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system. called SI Units. Another unit. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude.1 0. The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers.16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources. The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma. 1.000. the Gauss (1 Gauss =100.0 .001 0. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies. 100. occur during a geomagnetic storm. .0001 0. Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size. 1.

Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields


Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.

FIGURE 1.17 I~

Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.

18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles

Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism

To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell

Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary


FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.

becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two

20).19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. the molecule of table salt.19). . The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away.20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1. These parts are called ions. There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon. For example. Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1. and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe. leaving a positive ion. neon. That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1. Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral. to form sodium chloride. carbon dioxide. the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule. A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17). Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions. which has just seven electrons in its third shell. hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.18).

the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water. In that gaseous region. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere. The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +.21). If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow. the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field. the flow is called an electric current.3 Local Language Dictionary 21 . with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current.~. then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet. For example. An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region. How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. +. producing other characteristic auroral colors. called its conductivity. The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source. . produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule. can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. This is because the moving charges. We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere.Section 1. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction.p e" e" FIGURE 1. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. ions or electrons that compose the current. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current.. By convention. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth. described earlier.

Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space. 11. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules. nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer. generally linearly directed magnetic field. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current.. causing them to glow (e.g. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong.41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories. Rather.21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire. The sources of such fields . I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment.22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1. The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire.

and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. In subsequent chapters. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist.Section 1. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. in large measure. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives. due to currents flowing in our space environment. We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field. the main field at the Earth's surface. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution. magnetized materials. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. Natural currents. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field. We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep. . Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field. and electricity transmission lines. pipelines. and natural current systems above the Earth. liquid outer core of the Earth. Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet). Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface. We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks. from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface.4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth. However.

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Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious. which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger. guns. airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2.1.1). 25 . called magnetometers. from rings. We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1. watches.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices. for example. keys. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1. an oscillating field is generated.12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. Within the security passageway. IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2. coins. an alarm is sounded.7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials. If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected. At concourse entrances. Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6). The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames. knives. etc.

1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger. the map date. most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display. printed nearby. In addition to the magnetic northward direction. the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage. back-country travelers. (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top. By universal convention. Hikers.) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2. forest rangers. is also important for the traveler. from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships. and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass. have a compass as part of their navigation system. Ships at sea. On the modern vessels. Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2.26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.3).2).satellite-dependent .

1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~. '2200000 FEET'~ q... . . 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~.VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2....3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson.. I .. .. 14...5 A 4. ..30- "1" I ' ' I ... II|iIY(H(. .. Arizona.... 65 W i s~ii=E. along with the date. 5 .5--W 10437......~ ... . I I . y t l l l G i N J & .' ' 1'.. from 1910 to 1986...1 1960 1970 .... COLORADO 80225.~ J.. ~._~....5 -- 14.. . ~ . .Section 2.2 I~ Magnetic declination... ....5/37. f "' .. . DENVER... .* In m U.......tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922.0 - 13. ~ i " ... I 1990 1 1 . I .. 66 W. I" . is always displayed on the best maps.~" . . .. i .L . i ... OR RESTON.i-dC--~:-L~.. . Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS.~ .5X48 FOR SALE BY U.~oIr..I In q) Q) 01 13.5 - o o o o 12.0 -- % o C2 e 12... o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~. ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W . |g'22'30" 104o37. ... " ' ' -.. . I k 45' R.. " ..~. I"85.... 1980 1940 FIGURE 2.-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN.~. ~ .... ~ t ". ~ ~ . I iN~EIII~iI~-.S..0 - % ~. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY..~ .i ~ . ~ ' R .

p.. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2.9. It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude. Nevertheless. so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service. where the North Star cannot be seen.4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea. global positioning systems (see Section 2.1.D Q t _ t~ r-..=. 49) have replaced the older navigational aids. For years. longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed.4). Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere. In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2. . modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail. cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r . used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance.28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ .

navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean. small airplanes. a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea. Today.Section 2. on the voyage. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position. Between star sightings and in overcast conditions. . In this example. in an age of modern electronic navigation systems. 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich. longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses. In later years.5). For example. By international agreement. England.6).5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours. as well as many freighters and passenger ships. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock. so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2.

such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which .2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents.1. In the beginning years of space exploration.30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. 2. Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age. scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere.7). Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment. magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite. On a microscopic scale. Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface.6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. 87~ east of geographic north. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position. For many years. Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems. satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor.

1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2.8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization. all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction. the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2. When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment.Section 2. Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing.7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems. Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2. For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit). If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis. the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization. the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does. Paleomag- .8).

14). Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1. Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1. Although geophysicists. Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains. 2. By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass. and 3. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation.8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises. Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer.32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2. As this liquid rock material cools into igneous . Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized.3. Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains. By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field. p. continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature. who study these rocks. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle).2.

scrambled by the water currents. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens. Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation.9). While moving with the water. (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field. at first. the overall alignment of the many particles is. many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction. Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma.Section 2. Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes. Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2. The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone.9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago.10) or road cuts. When . The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock.

and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples.11). archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2. Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery. Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-.34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Studies of this type are called . Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed.10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. Utah. the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. silt-. Upon cooling and hardening. the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction. The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea. Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position. At high baking kiln temperatures.

Now. the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years. the geomagnetic main field has.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence. In addition. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1. on many occasions. archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures. 2. the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction. armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay. completely reversed its direction. rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- .1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2. Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern.Section 2. the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe.1. After allowing for continental drift.5).

forming the Himalayan Mountains. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge.0 inches) a year. ancient flora.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle. As this material cools. activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2. spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom. Australia.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10. and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified. have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth.12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples.12). Antarctica. In recent years. but are continuing to separate.13). The cooled magma. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom. In those two matched continental regions. similar geology. special crustal regions. it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern. The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. Africa is pushing into . This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder. with its field identification. often toward the middle of our major oceans. India is pushing up against Asia. and India were also once connected. The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2.

13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift.Section 2. 2. The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust. closing the Mediterranean Sea.14). Europe. Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2.1. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields .1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2. Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7). or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf.

Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves. During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances. All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements.13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings. Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers. The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys. 128).14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology. magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites. To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist. National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- . wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1. an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5.38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area. p.2.3.

We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4).1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2. Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament. In 1991. aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a . iron nails. Shading indicates contours of similar field strength. The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping. cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods.15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast. The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys.Section 2.15). Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2. just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico.

For their detection.16). mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles). a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). 2. This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. at least two measurement sites are used.1. For example. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0. Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days. or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2. This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations. As a result. after adjusting for geological site differences. Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity. In early North American land exploration and development.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process. Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1. requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist. a local effect is verified. For example. 2.40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause .1 gamma. field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other. Today. Unfortunately.

and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event. p.2.3. 2.6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions.Section 2. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed . this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material. Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal.1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2. but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2. 66).16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption. For example. At the time of earthquakes. changes in magnetization. apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers.1.

The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons.0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior.7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms.13). mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue. In other studies. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the .17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R.1. The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields. Blakemore. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1.42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. The well-known sea travelers whales. artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2. magnetic material in their stomachs. Inside these pond bacteria. These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction. The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation. the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction. spinning in random orientation. Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense.17). blue marlins. dolphins. green turtles. using a large loop antenna. and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism. Approximately 0. Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions. 2. Biological researchers.

.1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice. Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging. pull of a gravitational field). A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r.18).f. The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms. detected by magnetometers.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field.Section 2. and analyzed by computers.) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession. A brief radio frequency (r. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity. With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals.f. pulse. live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2. occasionally.

to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets. In March 2000.1. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2. The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed. In recent years.1.19). The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents. consider the fact that during major magnetic storms.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. or maglev for short. using these field techniques. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields. Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike. We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement. . allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields. For propulsion. However. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. For now. electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways. Wire resistance limits the current flow. 2. Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves. maglev trains have been developed. This suspension is called magnetic levitation. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets. at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away. Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr).

. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions.1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2. Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground. On occasions following a great magnetic storm. the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit. The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions. More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. Following magnetic storms. over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost. Everest use oxygen masks. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position. for example).Section 2.19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth. Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt.

naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field. Surrey Space Center. Energetic charged particles. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms. Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation. A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. upsetting program memory control. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2. A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite. During geomagnetic storm periods. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency. captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms. Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage. have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites. the increased number of particles in space. when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere.K. U. Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. such . During major geomagnetic storms. astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft.46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.20).20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood.

and its electronic configuration. manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region. During a mag- . engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field. The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation. Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS. the orbit and speed of the satellite. Particle impacts (Figure 2.21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth. To avoid unhealthy exposure. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas.21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean. Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields. principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles).Section 2.20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. To lessen the damage to its systems.1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly. Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere.

At such times. In recent years. These signals.22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere. fax. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out.22). Worldwide telephone. and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. and then degraded or lost. netic storm. the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered.48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms. . higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere. and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2. The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere). the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm. also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver.

and the U. latitude.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2. The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists. These clock-synchronized. fisherman. the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20. Defense Department which funded the system.23). radiowave-signal transmitter satellites.23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20.625 mi) above the Earth. hunters. together with the ground receivers.200 km (12.Section 2. Such . ship captains.1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites.S. longitude. hikers. commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. The GPS allows users to find their time. Soon U. For navigation purposes. Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth. constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS).200 km (about 12.S.

128). 127). A pair of electric field probes. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field. p. by nature. such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart.50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters. magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. during major magnetic storms. in some situations.1. At the surface of the conducting Earth.m. p. such as northern Europe.10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor. Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field. the nearer to the region of auroras. or em) fields. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor. With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field.3. We call the pair electromagnetic (e.1. Canada. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth.24). such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather. researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material. The science of physics tells us that. show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5. At high-latitude locations. naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations.25). the greater the induced fields. scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2.2. high energy-demand occasions. causing extensive electric power failures . Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times. 2. Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques.3. and the northern United States. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. In general.

3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I . geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way. and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States. at great inconvenience and expense to the public. . some messages have been reduced to whispers.5 FIGURE 2. Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms.4 I I I I . and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter.- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .:Section 2.1 . laboratory testing. Canada. Six million people were affected by that power outage. An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province. Using this conductivity information together with seismic records.1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 .2 . static. Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system. or complete blackout.24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth. At such times.- 500 600 700 0 - 0 . long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted.

gas. corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents.25). At low latitudes. The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits. and water (Figure 2. At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest. the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating. telephone lines. and water pipelines. gas. . improper FIGURE 2.26).52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions. and long oil.25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems. where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2.

2J Tour to the Boundaries 2. which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow. Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~. is particularly susceptible.Section 2.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o . J2. The central section of the pipeline. Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion.'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms. To avoid such problems. and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline.2.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena. alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour. We k n o w that two happenings can be related if .

8 (-0. Correlation values greater (less) than 0. as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena. Sometimes. there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile. Cause and Effect Third. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events. The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to . Further study would probably show . Statistical Sampling First.54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event. not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship. Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics. The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method. it has five important features: D. High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs. 4 ) encourage further study. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions. Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes. For example. it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. specific mathematical test techniques need to be used.1 ) . It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds. the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes.4 ( . A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile. Correlation Second. for the paired events. D. Just because Mr. A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. values 0. D.0 . On other occasions. the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous).

For convenience. and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of . when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation. Statistical significance is then required of the true item. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses. known from a secret list. Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10. when a true relationship is found. During the Sun's cycle. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation. giving off less radiation than the average solar surface. and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar latitudes. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. for ingested chemicals. the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle. Modeling Fifth. physical. Studies have shown that.2.Section 2. scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and. when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence. Double Blind Fourth.2 Magnetic Correlations l l. Sunspot regions are cooler. For example. cooler or hotter. 2.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather. the number of sunspots increase and then decrease. for unknown reasons.27). special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study.5. whether there are attending unwanted side effects).2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active. The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation. However. in tune with the 11-year cycle. Models of the biological. Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause.

27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation. They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum. A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions. Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum.56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Greece. the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens. . However. some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring. Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle.

28). We shall see. preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado.2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. beginning in 1276. there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate. result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere.Section 2. Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States.28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles. Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth. These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection. Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's . Geomagnetic storms. near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. recorded at world magnetic observatories. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand.

containing ferric iron deposits.29). Sensitive magnetometers. Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design. 111). Figure adapted from Williamson.29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger.4. p.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. Kaufman. Originating in the auroral region. and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews. In addition. . Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated. measuring the magnetic fields from the brain.1. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic. FIGURE 2. Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields. Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations. have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2.

the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. the number of convulsive seizures. 3. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. 5. seasonal. 4. the two can display a false correlation. specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. the number of admissions to mental hospitals. Random associations can occur. A famous and prolific space scientist. or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima. 2. will show a significant value.2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior. But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. .10). Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays. an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack. The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random. For example. scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields.Section 2. Also. However. Nevertheless. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. and 6. Also. there are certainly well-known. There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist. when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period). although a significant (0. the number of heart attacks. the number of publications by active scientists. variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. although unrelated.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2.

' I. The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year.ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q. in its yearly orbit about the Sun.lll ~ '.l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2. 2.~'. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite . oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2. India.31). is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S.2. at Arnhem Land. the Earth. %. and at the Cape York peninsula. t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ . Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967. One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin.-~ !.. it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense. Also. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall.I ~. Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD . and Frauds I. it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad. Old Wives' Tales. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes. ~ . A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community. magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects. therefore. Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields. .3 Pseudoscience. As another example.

Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season. P. mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery. All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains. B.31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- . Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night. In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds. increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun. these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2. The word mesmerize originated in that period.Section 2. constructions. not because of the magnetic field direction. For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J. A then-popular Viennese physician. about the time of the American Revolution. the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis.

. suppress coughing. shoe innersoles. newlyweds could spend their nuptial night.32). revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin). health-food stores. Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2. However. stop headaches. and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public. pillows. reduce food cravings. That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where. p. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2. Some department stores. creating heat that soothes pain and swelling.32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. 42). with the promise that "strong. bracelets." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy.29). for a princely sum. cervical collars. long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense. sleeping pads.g. alleviate arthritis. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten." Magnetic finger rings. There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e.. The magnets are said to be a time-honored. such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen. beautiful. vard University Press. direct-marketing outlets. knee braces. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets.1. It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. the MRI described in Section 2.7. cure insomnia. 1996).

" =.Section 2. Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because. shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L". or reference to a medical journal article. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod. Berkeley." Tests of the method. and desperation of the gullible public. who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. suffering. under tightly controlled field . The advertisements feed on the fear. trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure. called a divining rod. The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. In his hands. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect). untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories. Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge. Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment. is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger). say. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests. Held tightly in the hands of the witch. A similar add-on system for water pipes. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. by itself. when examined. The responsible American Medical Association requires careful.33). describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof. Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. statistically significant. which.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff. In their Health News Letter of May 1999." Some witches. allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices. using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home. the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies.

1See the website http://www. During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak. and local prevailing winds. predominant weather front directions. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said.html. when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths. The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography. conditions.skeptic. Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. recurring surface heating. While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. but magnetism is not the responsible agent. with a statistically significant number of examples.33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local "The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well known. have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense. Magnetism has no role in the divining." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that.64 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2. in truth. has nothing to do with rock magnetism. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water. The procedure is successful only by random luck. .

in fact.Section 2. . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area.34).2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2. 2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness. not unusual.34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda the number of lost ships and planes in that area is. following Columbus's voyage of discovery. hazily defined by Bermuda. given the weather and traffic. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept. ~. usually magnetic. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region. Serious researchers have proved that. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual. 2See the website http://skepdic. To create even more mystery. and Puerto Rico (Figure 2. Given the weather and traffic. Florida.html. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle.

Nicaragua earthquake photo by J.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville. Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2. They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. . Most likely. although the island's name remains. Australia. Earthquake Predictions In recent years. who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location. Captain James Cook. Dewey of the USGS.35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes. Unfortunately. Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. ~. some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem. workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes. their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices.

For these.Section 2. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences. J. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs. The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience. Am. signals that forecast earthquakes.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast. 63-67. R. Union 78. The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. Geophys. Of course.m. almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled. including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods. Therefore. Eos Trans. the Chinese blame numerous causes. . *Geller. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable. but the many failures are rarely mentioned. the occasional fortuitous prediction success. although a clearly random coincidence. 1997. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief. citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. Occasionally. Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. is published and touted in the news media.35).

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so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years.Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields. every day of the year. We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing. 69 . We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior. the magnetosphere. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent. changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth. Generated by dynamic processes.

Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1.3. 5. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field. a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change. An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field. They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape. the Curie Temperature (see Section 2. p. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep. There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth. 31) is reached for iron and magnetite.1). Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept. a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. but the absence . the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth. 3.5). Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region. but not solid material. Fluids could cause this. is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3. between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles).1.2. 2. A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area. p. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth. Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust. 35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. 4. The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3.1.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1.2 and Plate 8).

Ganymede. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism. Venus also has no permanent main field. in cycles averag- . and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres. with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions. scientists have found that. Although Mars has no such field now.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. Planets Mercury. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions.1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying. seems to display such a field. Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field. Saturn. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. in time. Uranus. destroy the organized loop current. Using the more recent main field evidence. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes.Section 3. Disruptive eddy currents within that region can. a moon of Jupiter. However. Jupiter.

2. 13.1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps. which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth. we see a problem immediately. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds.3). There are many magnetic poles used by different groups. For example. .72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature. ing 200 to 250 thousand years.2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3. possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years. We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal. If we don't stop at the first chart viewing.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3.

it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are.g." a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time. Most commercial world maps (e. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3. and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions.4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet.Section 3. most certainly. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground. To further confuse this situation. The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point. Rand McNally..3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland.2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3. One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3. The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1.5). not the important . those by National Geographic.

2. Hammond Inc." So that we can better understand this universal misconception. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3. pronounced "eye-yah-gah").74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole . This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values .. pole locations "to which all world compasses point. Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas. a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA.4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands.2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II. let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth. 3.. As part of a special IAGA working group. scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF).

spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Also. The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth. intelligently adjusted to a common date. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior.8) of Germany. which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles. the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) . Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site. To prepare the model fields. the scientists use a special mathematical technique. E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles. when additional recovered data become available.Section 3. called Gauss coefficients. that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections. called the analysis epoch. The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF).6). Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions).5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles. Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes.2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3.

6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field.7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients. a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that. when all are added together.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. Display program from P. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field . External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed. n and m. the Earth. McFadden of AGSO. The IGRF table (Figure 3. The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices. g and h.

7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years. m and n. are indexed as types g and h.6. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600. scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface.6). We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles".6 -1.0 -0.2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17.1 -0.9 1. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years.2 3.5 2.1 0.2 0.21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values. g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag. The numbers (Gauss coefficients).2 -8. less accurate.2 2. depicted in Figure 3.Section 3. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12.4 4.8 1. a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space.html.8 0. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics.0 FIGURE 3. scientists can compute.3 -13.8 -8.0 -18. With this table and special formulae.1 -12. The total field map shown in Figure 2. Internal field models have been established back to 1945.9 1.7 -4. These poles are determined from a global field. for the given epoch. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w . but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T . From a full IGRF or DGRF table.6 13.5 -6. n o a a . Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here.8 -6.7 -15. n g d c .

The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3. and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3. The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3.? N N 1 I''~. .8).O I N v . 3.w // S octupole N FIGURE 3. and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF. but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles.2. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3. The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~. a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe. As we shall see below.8. quadrupole.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic..7) define the centered dipole terms. octupole. is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center. shown in Figure 3. The symmetrically S 17. quadrupole. S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S . the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole. Earth-centered coordinates. This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements. Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns.78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part.9).3).8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole. This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern. The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center.

2. Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that. about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms. All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that. 128). Davis of NGDC/NOAA.Section 3. interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth. However.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600. p. drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields. Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field. it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting. on average. located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3. We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles". Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model. All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5. on average.2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner .3).2. Figure from M.

a slightly different. the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data. introduced by the researcher. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one.4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others. and radioactive heating. Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location.10).2. Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. Thus. The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. To understand this fact. the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms. This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that. In one. If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center). Because of their short spacial dimensions. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis. That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization. attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our . it was offset from the Earth's geographic center. Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group. simpler analysis method is now typically used. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials. 3. on average.80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center.

from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific. the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal. the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles". That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit. not the Earth's surface. "Magnetic Poles" definition. Similarly. Since the 1800s. Were it not for some other difficulties. .11). and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. the tilt of the eccentric dipole.Section 3. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. its distance from the geographic Earth center. The main geomagnetic field changes with time. Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis.2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry.10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center.

The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below .11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region. C. aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska. For example. There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth. Also. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon).12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields.5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements. Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point. 3.2. Fraser-Smith. Figure adapted from A. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics.4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3.

the Earth's surface.2 Pole Markers 83 . diurnal (24-hr cycle). New Zealand.12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica. there are seasonal. whereas. ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3.Section 3. Rand McNally & Company. As we shall see shortly. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole. 94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements. and sector-effect (Section 3.4. the arrival of .1 . what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field. In addition.5. p. Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents.8ol 14.

it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement. 3. Antarctica. cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare.4. solar-terrestrial conditions. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps.) Also. Charged particles. just northwest of Thule. . the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location. arriving from the Sun. When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3.13). The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data.84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii. fully quiet. not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. seasonal.14 and Plate 4). With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations. for some strange reason. Nevertheless." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location. and day-night distortions.2. Thus. in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station. Greenland. Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter. the ionospheric currents (see Section 3. p.

21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- . auroral region (ionospheric) currents.Section 3. and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field).20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region. This anomalous region (Figure 2. induced currents in the Earth.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3.13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. These are the pole locations with significant meaning. The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents. in the Southern Hemisphere.

86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. Figure from NASA.14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole. Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space. 13.31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. . Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance. sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation. The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure.1 gamma.

which defines the ecliptic plane. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re).15). called the solar wind. Downwind.Section 3. depending on the compression by the solar wind. the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole. Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate.3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward. The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. In the space around the Earth. = 6371 km or 3959 miles). opposite to the apparent seasonal . primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re. but. On the day side. that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3. In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun. out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius. from our viewpoint on Earth. Re. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance. in times of extreme quiet. However. the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. antisolar direction. the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator. During major blasts of the solar wind. away from the Sun.15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. on average. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind. Thus.

0 Re and 4. the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles. In addition. called galactic cosmic rays.2 Re to 4.41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet.15). there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4. verified by satellite measurements. Curiously. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3.5 to 6. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. to about 90 km (56 miles). scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect).0 Re. which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level. the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind. Principally at the two distances of approximately 1.20). The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field. 13. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak. Far above the Earth. Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes. Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and .88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2. From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles).21). the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge. This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons. the higher the radiation energy. Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen. Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes. This shift. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes. during strong solar winds. that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy. a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation. Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2. At higher altitudes. The shorter the wavelength of light.

The electron density values shown here are for midday.16). the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher. The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth. the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles). The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles). upper-atmosphere composition. above 900 km (560 miles).16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3. oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons.4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3. summertime. at mid-latitudes. In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions. although. but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate. Therefore.Section 3.

However.22). such as: 1. the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient). 13. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3. As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. In this way. not all the ionosphere goes away at night.1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. For example. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2.16). Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization. there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance. Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow. the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region. and 3.51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large. 2. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town. Of course. summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness.90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features.5. Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground. Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears. One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface. how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). The water moves a . Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur.

They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field. Of course.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth. and the conducting properties of that wire. fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here. or the conductor is stationary and the field moves. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves.Section 3. as far as the current flow is concerned. The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field. The daily heating and FIGURE 3. through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel.17). This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet. . the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved. Commercial. electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3. When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field.

typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. the two motions cancel out the current. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. At much higher altitudes. there are global winds. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet). Use Figure 1.5.92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction. . surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory.2 S o l a r Q u i e t . where collisions are rare. causing a current to flow near 100 km (62. Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. At lower altitudes.21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex. the wind system within the ionosphere. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories. where the main field is horizontal. changing with solar activity and season. However. where the ionospheric conductivity is large. due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans). a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator. The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction. Also. and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex. Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. the direction and strength of the Earth's main field. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq).5 miles) in altitude. This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another. As you might guess. 3. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere.18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere.

3 Induction At the Earth's surface. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse. 3. 2. Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Such events include" 1. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator. atmospheric atomic explosions.18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system. All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions. magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external . on the Sun side of the Earth. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun. or sudden heating by auroral-related currents.Section 3.5. and 3. jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions.

3.5. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior. surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth. Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind. toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun. Geomagneticians use the separated. for the conductivity determinations. The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth. The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3. from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2.4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected. Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary. Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns.19).19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth. . there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind.24). a special daily solar sector effect is found. The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity. a corresponding field change occurs.

20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station.Section 3. a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3. p. .5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule.20). Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5. Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3.4. There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve). Thule. Greenland.2. 130.

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Chapter 4

Umbrella for Magnetic Storms

Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.

i4' 1

Disturbances in Sight

4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in


Chapter 4

Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms

FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.

the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):

1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.

4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas. That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions. Photo from SEC/NOAA.Section 4. which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4.2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages. filaments. The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth.3). The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. 5. The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle. and arches of solar gases.1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4. . prominences. The solar corona.

The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection.100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. more constant plasma stream. The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun. determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4. Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR. Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler.4). 4. . CME. Although each particle of water is shot out radially. the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves. the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower.3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec).1.3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon. showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles. The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral.2 In the W i n d In the solar wind.

in both quiet and active times. Its interaction with the Earth's main field.3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle.Section 4.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball. 94). The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4. p.5. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components.1. 94). either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane. slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator.5. determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm. The outward flow of solar plasma. The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane. At differing solar longitudes. Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface. The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field.4.4). p. In this chapter. The . which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3. which has the opposite direction.4. high-latitude fields are mostly open. creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances. 4. carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself.1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4. so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles). The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun).

The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum. The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4. When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect . Earth responds to this activity. Using measurements from special satellites.1). The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause. seem to be responsible for this delay.5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm.5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape. space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances. The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle.102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions. The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause.

6 and 4. yellow. .3. and the shape of the Earth's field. When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size. Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. 88). charged particles (primarily solar electrons. During the equinoxes. near the 100.7). other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. powerful field-aligned currents. p. and induced currents in the 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. protons.5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights). growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic storm. where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere. intense ionospheric currents. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. green. releasing energy. their energy. In addition to the auroras. thermospheric pressure waves. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods. photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. During the magnetic storm. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with 300-km-high (63. Figure 4.Section 4. Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3. they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the tube. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere. strong partial ring currents. and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4.

which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers. arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current.104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center.6 I~ Electrons. Combs and R. Figure adapted from L. bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms. . nm).

The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours.5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase .Section 4. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary. Then there typically follows a slower.4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4. Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth. 4.1. Overmyer of NASA. H-component increase (called the initial phase.8).9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field. On the records. there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component. Figure 4. at the onset of a geomagnetic storm. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4. with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4. Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1.7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger. Photo by R.13).

A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination. p. in response to the solar wind direction. After this compression. the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. In these displays. Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites.106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4. 116).and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149. a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail.8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30. north or south of the magnetic equator. Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time). This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4. Of course. constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories. the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location. producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface. and forms the north and south tail lobes. with a considerably intense internal sheet current. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source .5). see Section 4. =. The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary.10). The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4.9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created. it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3.15).5. The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display. at the Earth's surface.1. During the storm development. a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4.

Field-aligned current (Figure 4. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region. current patterns. Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4.Section 4. 20. Because of the ionospheric conductivity. 19.9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left).lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase . all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere. A concentration of these currents .12). 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~. For convenience in representation. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J.5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region.5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones. Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec. but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. spaced in longitude around the Earth. i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec. a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere. 1980 FIGURE 4.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~. In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re. The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record.11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes. The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part.

13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June. attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere. measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules. a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously. That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies. during the geomagnetic storm.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. northward) with the antisolar location. Instruments on highaltitude balloons. .5). December. count the electrons that are arriving. strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4. The cross-tail currents move similarly. In the auroral region. away from the spin axis. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere. As the air molecules are split apart. An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis. southward. typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth. Figure 4.10 I~ During a magnetic storm. The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. Because of the solar wind flow.

fields from the partial ring currents. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself. Local time is indicated around the circumference.14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox. Figure 4. the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere. field-aligned currents. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+.1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4.11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms. only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time.Section 4. Therefore. that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth. . During a magnetic storm. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes. negative). Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment.

Another stronger pressure wave. A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters. Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating.110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. This wave disrupts the high ionosphere.15). at just under sonic speed. travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones. =. pro- .12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates. Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman. The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects.

illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons. and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations. top to bottom. Alaska. the field from the westward auroral electrojet current.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks. the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves. . the traces.Section 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4.

. Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles . can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields. and Byrd Station. !. these are the field changes in the northward (H). Byrd ! _! 10 I. which are not traceable to solar sources. Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces..14 I~ During a magnetic storm day.! 12 I .112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. Canada. eastward (D). Some phenomena. auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW). N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 . Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event. and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located. ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents. Antarctica. 14 UT FIGURE 4.

_~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~. it is possible to point out some generalizations.... . A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds..5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units). Alaska. in that region. The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3.15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave. ~ 2045 .. Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon. .. Alaska.Section 4. .1 Disturbances in Sight 113 . 2055 _~ . the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds. However.16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya.. What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated. . causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth. The pressure waves.16).. 1962. were detected at Fort Yukon.. There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally. The light and dark traces indicate north-south.. That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4. initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed....and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction.. which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds.... / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T.. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August. ~ 2110 FIGURE 4. At the po- ... ... Russia.. N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4.."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L...

At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions. field-aligned currents. magnetometers register a large. and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4. storm-time. The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination. .114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important. at the low and equatorial latitudes. Therefore.17). At low and equatorial latitudes. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. For each Universal Time hour. Thus. 4. As a result. All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position. The strong nightside.8). some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes. and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents.1. a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4. field-aligned (Figure 4. eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator.11). the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents.12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations. the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate. nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger.5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras. but more distant. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. Extending to the equator.

NGDC/NOAA. Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements. such stations are not uniformly . the planetary form of the index. (Figure 4.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century. An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp. The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours. Kp. K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed.18). AU) and the lowest (lower envelope. of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index. Unfortunately.Section 4. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket. Kp Index A third magnetic index. Dst (Figure 4. 1974. The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times.17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope. The small short-period variations contribute little. AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index. for 4 and 5 July. In this example. called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index. Illustration from World Data Center A. magnetospheric currents.

the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index). Statistically. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4. Each contributing station has a different K indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp. The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. distributed around the Earth. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms. the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each location.19). the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4. fixed so that. Because a large number of the index . and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. and . there is a concentration in Europe. More are in the Northern Hemisphere. The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change. in a long-term average.116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. +. The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period. the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above.9. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes.

.2+ 3+ 4 4 2.--.__--_.42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11.4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 .3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__.----..1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2.12 13 .2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3.. daily Ap.----. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998.------.2 2+ 1 2 .4. There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods.. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4.64.--.20).O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6.. lalallalal..Section 4.2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____.lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4.3 2 3+ 4. Coffee at NGDC/NOAA.2 1.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71.O+|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1.1+ 1.. stations are at high-latitude locations.16 65+ 6 2.2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2.=--.--0.-----------------------. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described.2 1 O+ 2+ 1.6 5+ 4 .36 85.3+ 3. large magnetic storms are more likely to occur. Table provided by H. A study of . At such times.1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23.1 3 3.19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K.2+ 0 0 1.1.------------------___----.1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3...1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm. Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes.1+ 3.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .

20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997. . On the charts.118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere. the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous. Erwin of NGDC/NOAA. Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4. 131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface.22).16).6. Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4. p.21). Figure from E.001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur. Other pulsations.2.1 to 0. upon arriving at high latitudes.1. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4. Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields.6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances. 4. quite oscillatory form (called Pc). small (0. Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5.

on 23 August.1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4. Antarctica. Figure from J. 1966.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station.Section 4.21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40. Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA.22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0. H. FIGURE 4. Allen and D. . C.

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Germany. Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be.Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the fields. of Goettingen.8). At prearranged times. In those times. Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally. I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism. The 121 .1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries. the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1.1). Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask. The first question I expect is. 15-1 I Field Traces 5. I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter. it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. investigated the global distribution of field disturbances. He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred.1. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory. It is time now for tourists' 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5.

2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system. These magnetometers were given the more specific . Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis. when photography came into general use. It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device. eastward. and vertical directions. 5.1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction. the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward.2). collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly. A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum.122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions. which rotated once a day. With the improved instrument in a darkened room. capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5.1.

A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper. Today. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet. Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material. moving with the magnet. many other systems are used to record the field. The exact strength of the Earth's main field. developed by the mid-nineteenth century.Section 5. shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength.2 7 3 ~ C or . Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents. Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet. The light beam. The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period.4 6 0 ~ F).3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties.2 I~ The simple variometer. after being moved. oscillates before coming to rest northward. could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position. . whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5. not the full main field strength. He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator. Notice how your home compass needle.

Coaxial Line -. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium .00001 gamma.. The niobium metal sensor.6 inches) in diameter..Coil -.3 I~ Modern. which is only approximately 1.RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw .Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5.. Zimmerman of NIST.5 cm (0. is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling.. ... Figure from J. which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0.. but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer.124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields .

Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card. 1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5. with a marking pen. Some 1See the website http://image. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap. .nasa. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface. With the 2-inch-wide tape. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on. for school demonstrations. making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular loop. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam. Turn on thehighintensity lamp and.html. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and. gsfc. You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet.Section Field Traces 125 5.4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw. put a dot near its center.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom. carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together.1. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed.

a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a . deflections of several degrees.126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5.25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north. If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches). near a wall. and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table.4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA. magnetometer. or other fiat surface. During geomagnetic storms. effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp. can . lasting many hours or even days.

a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5. Note that if any of the parts are moved. A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor .3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations.1 millivolt. can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0. Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder. the measurements will be affected. The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0.Section 5. About 2 square feet (0. Most of the time. Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity. Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. however. The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. two probes. For those readers who are adept at electronics. . .5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises. Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations.1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. . . Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field. the spot will remain in the same location. .19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot. In typical soil.05 gamma (for most locations). . separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more.

p.21. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work.5. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles).2. 80).3. 5. Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- .2. 5. Comparing the results in Figure 5. switch.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region. a small battery.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data.4. and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges. 5. one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior. The necessary variable resistors.2. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best. amplifiers. 78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3. One such model is depicted in Figure 5. 1.128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes. p.21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth.6 with Figure 2.1 Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2. using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism.

the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered. Figure 5.8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes. The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas)."56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5. ments taken along a fixed line on the surface. tilted dipole.Section 5.l. Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA. R. Figure from J.2 90 --. The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole. Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model.a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 . . 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 .

Quinn of USGS. 5.5.2. the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were .2.4.4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed. The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields. Figure from J.5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index.9) in the polar regions at low activity times. Using a chain of observatories. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows. 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3. p. Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3. Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5. 5.

thus.8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations.Section 5.1. 5. 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times. determined (Figure 5. p. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4. That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations.2. The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. they were not due to local anomalies.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations.6. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters. it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis. There were often large local storm field differences from the index.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5. Figure 5. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS.10).6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- . The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. In this figure.

the horizontal axis represents the time in hours.\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents. By international agreement.5 hours in local time for the two conditions.12). there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5. chart preparation.. so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling. ond.3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form.132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '. Today. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere. 15. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2. duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers. and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation. which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere. . Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET. globally distributed collection points.

. . . fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2. . .. e-mail: info@ngdc. . . . . . . . . . Academy of Sciences of Russia. . . .3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9.noaa.. i . . . . tel: 1303-297-6761. . .Section 5. 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. RUSSIA. .World Data Center A. . .. .12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United 9 In Russia: World Data Center B. . | . tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619.10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories. mailstop EGC2. field differences were determined. Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science. . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group). Molodezhnaya 3. . Boulder. . consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure). . . Kyoto University. . Kyoto 606-8502. i . . fax: 1-303-497-6513. . fax" 81-75-7227884. Moscow 117 296. . NGDC/NOAA. . . . 60 | . Colorado 80305-3328. These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude). 0 10 20 ! .. . . . 325 Broadway. tel: 81-75-753-3929. 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day . . USA. . JAPAN. . 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l . .


Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.

15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.

15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:

Section 5.5

Information Kiosk


FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on

TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)


Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and






tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.

including a9-

100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)


200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)




600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)

t.,rl "I"
< r


1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)


~r "11

a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).

Q. W


Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA..l s t e r . these events can last more than one day). star-trackers unable to locate sources. bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions).~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA. and solar panels degraded. and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult. Satellite operations: none. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days. Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days. 103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible. serious noise in image data. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors.. Satellite operations loss of some satellites.4 . _.t ".2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). Satellite operations: memory device problems. and decrease of solar panel currents. Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets. permanent damage to solar panels. o . elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays). high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays). Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray). star-trackers cause orientation problems. Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted. noise on imaging systems.l c m -2. memory impacts cause loss of control. Biological: none. noise in imaging systems. Biological: none. 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m. permanent damage to exposed components/detectors. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. Flux levels are 5 min averages. Flux in particles: s . Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions.TABLE 5.

-i. bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux. X20 (2 x 10 . Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days).1--0. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators.. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. -r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m.3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 . HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth. measured in the 0.3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _..4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 . HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators.t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours. ~r -rl r o. causing loss in positioning. Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth.TABLE 5.8 nm range. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. a Some or all of these effects are possible. . which may spread into the night side.. HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth. in Wm-2). Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators. HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals.3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 . Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth.

fax: html 9 Space Environment Center.ips.Section 5. republication by Dover Publications. USA: http://www. in the order of their original publication date. also http://www. U. Denver. gov/UVI/current_image. NOAA.sec.pfrr.doc3.gsfc. USA: http://sohowww. nasa. Sydney. .edu 9 GoddardSpaceFright 15.E Mattelay. English translation in 1893 by P. USA: http://www. USA..spaceweather.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle. NASA. alaska. Mailstop 306. Australia: http://www. g ov/$tp/stp. magnetic field.html 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA.alaska.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services.nascom. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories. New York.HTML. NASA. noaa. also http://www. 1958. Box 25286 Federal e-mail: info. University of Alaska. USA: http://www. USA: http://uvisun. Such Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales. 368 pp. also nasa. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical @usgs. Geological Survey. gi. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern life. 9 W. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center. ngdc.S. De Magnete. and radiation information to monitor the space environment.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX. Colorado 80225.61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended books. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback.nasa. also http://image. with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams.msfc.

Livingston.. 433 pp. 1996.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. 1983. Jacobs.. Geomagnetism. 9 S. Stacy. An up-to-date. compact yet complete. Massachusetts. 9 R. 2545 pp. 4 vols. Campbell. Piper. 9 J. 1987-1991. 2 vols. A fine. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies.. Bartels. 311 pp. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. auroral descriptions. Oxford University Press. 1050 pp. 2 vols. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate. Brisbane Brookfield Press. New York. 1398 pp. 1967. beautifully written. eds. Academic Press. 513 pp. Academic Press. detailed references. Oxford. Cambridge..D. 323 pp. 1940.. American Geophysical Union...H. Geomagnetism. Chapman and J. 9 J. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book). 1992. and the Arts. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time. 9 W. 9 J.. 1987. Harvard University Press.. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust. New York. Although our subject is only a small part of this book. ed. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists.A.D. Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. It was last republished in 1951. . Edinburgh. Physics of the Earth.C. Brisbane.. Washington D. Introduction to Geomagnetism.. Parkinson. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age.. This classic. application. Eather.. the Natural Magic of Magnets. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage. Matsushita and W. 434 pp. Open University Press. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information. 9 W.D.. and history of magnets. and thorough description of analytical methods. Scottish Academic Press Ltd.. Majestic Lights.A..H. Driving Force. Milton Keynes Pub. thorough review of the technology. History. 1980.D. the Aurora in Science. and beautiful illustrations.

. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations. The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism. McFadden.T. McElhinny. Merill.Section 5. and the Deep Mantle. M. and EL. Academic Press. Cambridge.6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R..H. . 531 pp. the Core. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. Written by well-respected researchers. 1997. My own compact but comprehensive textbook. San Diego. Cambridge University Press. Campbell.W. 1996. 304 pp. 9 W. with many illustrations.

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109. R. 38 Agonic line. 18 Atoms. 105 high-latitude. Qu6bec. Washington State. 123. 115. 21. 113 magnetic observatories. 17. 120 143 . 8. Antarctica. 45 temperature. Paul. 106. Julius. 25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields. 38 Analysis epoch. 20 electrojet current. 39 map. 134 Bar magnet. 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. 18-19 Auroral displays.Index Activity index. 82 surveys. 117 Apollo space craft. 17. 15. 116 Aeromagnetism. 148 oil discovery. 56 upper. 139-141 Bowshock. 37 charts. 61-63 Books. 84 pulsating. 113. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index. 40 Atomic number. 102 Archives. 42 Body magnets. 39 Atmosphere lower. 84. 106 values. 34 Byrd Station. 119 Baie St. 41-42 correlations. 18 weight. 59 Blakemore. 101 angle. 39 Archeological formations. 60. 109. 105 bombarding particles. 35. 39 Archimedes spiral. 65 Big Dipper. 4 Airport magnetometer. 109 zone. 102 Bremerton. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights). 110 oval. 118 Addresses. 90. 14. 2 Biomagnetism. 131 Bryce Canyon. 8 Bermuda Triangle. 125 Bartels. 17. 116 Aurora. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 20. 133 Asteroid.. 17. 70. 22 Australis (Southern Lights).

59 Charts. 80 field alignment. 38 navigation. 6. 3 magnetic island and. Sydney. 36-38. 111 electrical. 70 moment. 130 Corona. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 10. 53 Earth. 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 51 radiowave. 23. 55 modeling. 101 Correlation cause and effect. 8. 17. 75. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 72. 26. copper). 92. 90 pole eccentric axis.144 Index Chapman. 101 Columbus. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 77 Dip angle. 54 coefficient. 139 Declination. 111 Continental drift. 23. 109 Conjugate positions. 70 magnetism. 63 Drift contintental. 89. 54 double blind. 88 sunspot connection. 11 main field. 3. 6 eccentric axis. 14 Earth. 82 ionosphere. 66 main field and. Australia. 36--41 resistivity. 56. 55. 32. 130 De Magnete. 48 long-wire. 29. 7. 108 Crust. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 2 Climate. 122 airport runway declination. 4. 115 ionosphere. 98 mass ejection (CME). 70. 70 distorted. 35 magnetotelluric. 18 comparative (air. 34 equator. 94 geological features. 69 strength. 44 magnetometers. 55 ecliptic plane and. 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 81 locally-measured. 90 Compass. 29 Chinese. 103. 75. 11. 31. 94 Darwin. 13. 99 Coronal holes. 70 Tucson. 34. 124 electromagnets. 25 right-hand rule. 6. 39 ancient field behavior. 26 aeromagnetic. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 2 declination and. 15 induction. 108 Double-blind test. 84 . 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 35-37 Cook. Captain James. 92. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 26 lodestone. 6 magnet Earth as. 27. 26 Chu Yu. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). 15 Disturbed field. 60. 50-51. water. 40. 79 field pattern. Arizona. 23 origin. 21 secondary. 4. 84 Dipole. Christopher. 93. 20-23 direct. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. 123 temperatures. 32 bar magnet. 9. 82. 48 Conductivity. 3 Communications. 70. 21 corrosion and. 70 Current. 25 source and induced. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays.

130 storm currents. 23. 3. 50-53 mapping. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 23 Electrical conductivity. 114 Franklin. 90 sharing of. 66-67 signals. 90 region. 70 source. 77 analysis. 7. 102-104. Michael. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 71 outer core. 28 External field. 13. 21. 22 field. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 127 probe. 80. 13. 75. 7. 92. 104 Elements. 89. 123 Forbush effect. 19 Electrojet auroral. 90. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 20. 111. 79 non-dipole field vs. 70. 9. 90 . 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. Alaska. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 98. 84. 70 Earth current. 76. 19. 40. 109 Ethesian winds. 101 Eights Station. 50. 79 particle. 44 use in maglev. 84 Ecliptic plane. 41. 115117. 111. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 127 Electrons. 22 ionization and. 70 theory. 50. 9. 21. 3. 7. 87. 36. 21. 110 equatorial. 75. 134 Epoch. 7. 9. 26. 94 conductor. 44 Electromagnetic field. 20 solar. 70. 44 Fort Yukon. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. Benjamin. 48 and magnetic fields. 90-92 current. 32 clay. 50 systems in satellites. 88 Force of magnetic field. 22. Antarctica. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 34 Field in space. 87. dipole field. 79 lower mantle. 99 Flares. 18. 25 Ferrous atoms. 55 Energetic particle events. 75 Equatorial electrojet. 13. 127-128 dipole field strength. 18 atomic number and. 18 molecule. 134 Electric charge. 7 transmission lines. 18 aurora and. 37 Field-aligned current. 114 models. 84. 130-131 Dynamo. 81 current in a wire. 22 induction responses. 44 in wire. 37 power lines. 112 Faraday. 18 current. 85. 71 Earthquake. 14. 81 field representation. 115 Filaments. 54 prediction. 84 Fairbanks. 56 Exploration (global). 81 dipole.Index 145 magnetic pole. 102 upper atmosphere and. 50 power plant. 47. 37 reversal. 92. Alaska. 109. 128 dipole poles. 3. 90 Electromagnet.

74. 11 from North Star. 84. 40. 94 of pulsations. 94 field responses. 92-94. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. 115 lunar quiet-day. 64 Great Earth Magnet. 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 58. 7. 114 Intergalactic fields. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. 109 current. 108 Jackson Lake. 132 pulsation. 115. 16. 74 regions (zones). 12. Baron Alexander von. 114. 61 Humbolt. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 92. 28 geomagnetic coordinates. 20-23. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 110. 72 GPS and. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. 89 solar wind. 5. 49 Geomagnetism. 134 GPS and.) of oscillation. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. 29 Halley. 102 Ionosphere. 95 poles. 79 North Pole. 16 Geologic exploration. 89. 130 field models. 115 equatorial. 90. 78 2000 coefficient values. 86 INTERMAGNET.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 78-80. 119. 73. 76 Induction. 58 low. 113 Greenwich. 116 Land survey. 48. 89 electron density. 92 Ions. 44 Indices. 62 Heliospheric boundary. Canada. 25. 44. William. 123 Hyderabad. 28. 107 satellites and. 52. 78. 50. 9. 121 coefficients. 32 . India. 17 Hubble Space Telescope. 49 Grand Teton National Park. 46 Gamma (y). 75. 128 coordinate system. 97-120. Wyoming. 8 Geostationary satellites. 11 first textbook on. 8 Health magnets. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 130 auroral. 8. 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 53. 131 storms. 48. 16 netism and Aeronomy). 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 17 Igneous rock. 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 138 Gilbert. 75. 77 IMAGE spacecraft. 45. 79 main field poles. 84. 90 dip equator. Edmund. 57. England. 49 main phase. 74. 5. 80 table. 86 High latitudes. 66. 7. 128. 47. 78. 64 Joule heating. 111. 18. 92 high latitude. 48. 132 Internal field. 75-77 field units. 15 Ganymede main field. 16. 77-80 multipoles. 107 recovery phase. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 111 Jupiter main field. 72-86. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 40 Latitude. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 58. 49 high. 75. 50 Infrasonic pressure waves.

5. 79 IGRF. 123 satellite. 103 heating of. 15 south pole. 84 axis. 77 locally measured. 23 permeability. 43 rocks. 32 realignment. 58 Island. 66 levitation. 13 north pole. 106. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 75 movement of. 13 poles. 130 . 104 outer boundary. 107. 87. 26 declination. 44 seasonal differences. 123 quake-site. 32 field human response to. 78. 41 rubidium. 3 crystals. 71 positions. 72 GPS and. 6 domains. 71. 43 cryogenic. 82-84 Longitude. 44 simple bar. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 87. 44 mountain. 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 30 microscopic. 30 field-aligned current. 111 solar wind path within. 102 Magnetosphere. 35 positions of. 88 tail boundary. 45 particles and. 88 field measurements. 70 Magnetometer. 111 magnetic storms and. 49 ship's. 26 dipole. 46 satellites and. 30. 23. 31 SQUID. 72 types of. 87 tail. 60-61 Magnetite. 69 alignment with solar wind. 102 sunward boundary. 42 Curie point. 46 satellites and. 102 field and charged particles. 70 field effect of. 61-63 Earth's main field. 78 dipole moment. 92 Maglev. 115 envelope. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 93 airport. 124 variometer. 118 currents in. 3 Eccentric axis dipole. 42. 44 termites. 44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 123 fluxgate. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 102. 123 Magnetopause. 25 coils. 87. 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 28 Lower mantle. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 2 body "health" magnet.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 102 tail of. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and. 123 medical uses. 95. 3 Locally measured dip poles. 42 in animal brains. 4 clocks and. 111 fields. 31 randomly oriented. 3 polarities. 102 Magnetosheath. 58 proton. 114 currents. 2 Magnet. 30-35 storms. 14. 88 Van Allen belts. 2. 3 Magnetic charts. 6.

4 Star. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. Russia. 23 dip angle. 113. 130 daytime field variations. 57 Mesmer. 7. 30. 131 method. 71 mapping. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). 107 Maricourt. 42-43 Mercury main field. 19-20 Moon main field. 88. 3. 134 INTERMAGNET. 26-29 Neptune main field. 88 Molecules. 89. 6. 22. 36 troughs. 29 Northern auroral zone. 4 geographic. 43 spin alignment. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 12. 42 satellites. 11. 30 Mars. 92. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). 35 satellites and. 34 extension into space. 71 Main phase. 71 Mercury. 17. 110 northern high-latitude. Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). 36 waves. 106 auroral and polar regions. 116 Australian. 115 Milky Way Galaxy.W. 69 Ganymede. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 61 Metamorphic rock. 28. 5.. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 128-129 charts. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 17 changing source. 71 reversal of. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 4 geomagnetic. 130 chain of. E. 2.) tail current. 79. 132. 106 major worldwide. 40. 10 Medicine. 75. 71 Jupiter. 84 high latitude. 26. 138 northern hemisphere. 71 size of. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 17. 71 Venus. 15. 57. 88. James Clerk. 131 Multipole. Franz Anton. 16 solid magnet and. 34 Mid latitude. 18 Observatories. 113. 3. 109 auroral zone. 120 molecule. 3 Mars main field. 32 at poles. 73 magnetic. 38 Main field. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR). 115 Magnetotail. 81 North Pole. 47 Saturn. 129 Natural magnetic noise. 71 Mesa Verde. 49 ships. 132 low latitude. 71 Maunder. 18. 38 data. 18 hydrogen atom. 117 Northern Lights. 71 Neptune. 71 Moon. 36 plates. 20. 92 global network. 98 Maxwell. 71 Neutrons. 43 Non-dipole field. 43 Nucleus. 105 Novaya Zemlya. 23 alignment. 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). 23 .148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. 70 Uranus. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 108 magnetic.

72. 12. 114 dynamo theory. 34 explosive. 67 Periods of oscillation. 46. 11 damage. 103. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 32-34 cap. 99 Paramour ship. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 81 electrical noise. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 70. 45 IGRF field. 123 effects of current. Washington State. 78. 130 Power lines. 119 Quadrupole. 16. 48. 111 regions. 23. 114 Paleomagnetism. 32. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. 77 dysfunction. 92 Plages. 46. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 69 Ring current. 17 Recovery phase. 40. 73 auroral field. 80. 35-37 Pressure waves. 47. 32. 90. 88. 117 3 Pseudoscience. 82 magnetometer. 36. 74 Placebo effect. 74 magnetic south. 119. 102 Satellite sector currents. 23. 131 Oscillation period. 48 partial. 51 grounding. 87. 123 square of. 108 Plato. 80 Piezomagnetic effect. 95.Index 149 magnetic drift. 94 Ross. Australia. 53 Quebec blackout. 84 Right-hand rule. 41 Quake-site magnetometer. 108 latitudes. 44. 123 Outer core. 43 explorers. 58. 114. 18. 98. 48 chart location of. 83 north geomagnetic. Permeability. 13 131 Phase. 70. 85. 130 alignment. 98 Plasma. and main field strength. 52. 72 observatory. James Clark. 60. 95. 2 Radiowaves. 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 70 region of Earth. 43 Peregrinus. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 71 current loop. 141 sonic. 128 magnetic. 111 internal currents. 114 Paleomagnetician. 112. 123 Partial ring currents. 106. 37. 50 Prehistoric fields. 140. 21 field description. 50. 112. 84. 73 drag. 41 Pipelines. 17 Reversal of field. 84 Remanent magnetization. 70 subsonic. 70 Ozone layer. 3. 72-86 communication signals. 57. 16. 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 103 precession. 48 search expeditions. 79 Prominences. 114 field. 42. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 7 Proton. 18 corrosion. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 11. 11. 108. 132 Port Augusta. 79 magnetic north. 16. 88 . 111 atmospheric. 35 of Dst index. 116 auroral oval. 30 Poles. 134 Polar. 31 Octupole. 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen).

17 Storm explanations. 98 eclipse. 130 cycle. 106--107 geomagnetic. 92 wind. 48--50. 87 surface rotation. 46 navigation and. 26. 128. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center. 46 plasma. 119. 98 cycle. 16. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 108 magnetic field. 3. 101 visible light from. 57 disturbances. 114. 97. 84 failure. 134 Spectral analysis. 45. 98 panels. 130 ions. 92 magnetic field. 95. 56. Chinese earthquake prediction. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 46 geostationary. 124 Stand-off position. 99 flares. 13-15. 33. 56 activity. 66 Si Nan. 92 vortices. 75. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 30 power supply. 53. 28 navigation by. 57. 95. 88 Sunspot. 88. 12. 36 Sector effect. 88. 107 disturbance. 77 Sedimentary rock. 52. 93 SQUID magnetometer. 30. 80 functions. 13. 55. 86 orientation by field. 99 coronal holes. 39. 101 sectors. 31 measurement of drift. 37 memory upset. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). 55 . 132 Secular variation (SV). 98 quiet (Sq). 87 elevation angle. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 125. 16. 70. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 22 of main field. 108-111 fingerprints. 55 rotation. 101. 83 Southern Cross. 87. 93 elevation angle. 77 Sun. 34. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 92 radiation. 94. 107 Statistical significance. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 102. 131 Seismologists. 69. 85. 6. 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 92 field polarity. 56. 57 eleven-year. 60. 29 plasma. 94-95. 107 field. 44--46. 54 Steady field. 71 Sea-floor spreading. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 46 radiowave-signal transmitter. 6. 46. 57 cycles drought and. 88. 129 South Magnetic Pole. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. 55. 59 Strength of magnetic field. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 126 Solar corona. 132 variations (Sq). 47. 69.) evidence of poles. 118. 102 burst IMF. 49 Saturn main field.150 Index Satellite (cont. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 1. 97-101. 55 ecliptic plane. 99. 2 SI units. 9. 44 maximum elevation. 102 direction. 82. 49 magnetometer. 101 prominences.

88. 50.Index 151 number (R). 108 Variation field. 40 Telephone. 17 high latitudes. 46 Tesla unit. 130 Tree-ring dating. 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 5. 44. 63-64 Weather. 17 polar caps. 56. 59. Greenland. 87. 95 Tomographic analysis. 60. 35 World Data Centers. 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk. 57 Tucson. 106 Thule. 118 minimum. 138 X-rays. 15 Thermosphere. 27 Units gamma (y). 2 Van Allen radiation belts. 95 lobes. 132. 111 heating. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect. 84. 123 Venus main field. Antarctica. 17 equatorial. 84 Water divining/witching. 134 Westward drift. Arizona. 55. 39 Zone auroral. 102 maximum. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 94 Uranus main field. 17 . 133. 16 magnetic field. 71 Vostok Station. 15 Gauss. 15 nanotesla. 97. 77 Tail currents. 106 pressure waves. 46 Upper mantle. 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. 48. 17 low latitudes. 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 52 pager. 51 lines. 12 Variometer. 102. 55-58 space. 106-108 field. 43 Toward and Away sectors. 57 region temperature. 46 SV (Secular Variation).

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PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona. These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth. A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image.PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. . Illustration from NASA.

guided by the Earth's field. This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field. . PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles. enter our atmosphere. A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown.PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail. Figure from SEC/NOAA. Figure from NASA.

PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. Alaska. note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles.html). Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www. J. Lucent Technologies. Figure from L. .net/Nhutch/aurora.PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle. Lanzerotti.ptialaska. Bell Laboratories.

PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits. Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D. and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary. Hastings. organized by the Earth's spin. PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth. . Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels.

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