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A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields
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2nd Edition R.E. Warren Physics in Biology and Medicine.Complementary Science Series [m 2000/2001 The Physical Basis of Chemistry.harcourt-ap. 2nd Edition Paul Davidovits Introduction to Relativity John Kogut The Human Genome. House www. 2nd Edition Robert Mortimer Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics J. 2nd Edition Warren S.com . Scott Hawley I~ Julia Richards I~ Catherine Mori 1999 Chemistry Connections Kerry Karukstis I~ Gerald Van Hecke Mathematics for Physical Chemistry.
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. . . . . . . .Earth Magnetism A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields Wallace Hall Campbell Boulder. . . . A Harcourt Science and Technology Company San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo . . . . . . Colorado [I/ . . .
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which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct 'touch'). Something deeply hidden had to be behind things. Albert Einstein .A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events. when my father showed me a compass. I can still remember--or at least I believe I can remember--that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me.
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2 1. . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geomagnetism Patriarchs .4 1. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . Maxwell . . . . . . . Locating the Fields . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Finding the Fields 1. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . Halley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical Tour Markers Global Explorations xiii xv xxi 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 7 5 7 7 11 7 11 13 15 17 18 18 Compass Origin . . .2 1. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. Nature's Basic Particles Atoms . . . . .5 Local Language Dictionary Forces at Work Measuring Scales Earth Fields. . . . .3. . . . . Faraday Gauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . Chapman 1. . . . . .Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. . . . . ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . Steady and Changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gilbert . . . .
. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .4 Our Tour of the Fields . . Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1 Fields Making a Difference 2. . . .1 . . Magnetic Termites Body Magnets . . . . . . . .4 2. Old Wives' Tales. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents 19 20 22 Ions and Current 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . Travel and Exploration . .X Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . 44 44 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 T o u r to t h e B o u n d a r i e s 2.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Rocks .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . Establishing Significance . . . . . . Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space . . . . . . . Modeling 2. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 63 63 Focusing of Lightning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Correlations Weather and Climate H u m a n Responses to Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .8 2. . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipeline Corrosion 2. . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . Water Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Field Induction Responses Earth Conductivity 47 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 58 .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Double Blind . . . . . . and Frauds . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. Water Witching or Divining . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 25 25 25 30 35 37 40 41 42 44 . . .2 . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Sampling . . . 2. . . . . . . . Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields Earthquake Predictions . . . . . Sudden Field Changes in the Crust . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . Electric Power Systems Long-Wire Communications . . . . . .5 2. . . . . . . . . . . Interference with Communication and Navigation 2. . . . . . . . . . .3 Pseudoscience. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 Di s t u r b a n c e s in Sight 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 70 72 72 74 78 80 82 84 3. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3 3. . . . . . .2 3. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conducting Blanket . Sq 86 88 90 90 . . . . . Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter . . . . Early Record Keeping Modern Field Recording 122 125 125 Do-It-Yourself Systems . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . .5 A E Index Dst Index . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .1. .6 Magnetic Poles Galore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pole M a r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 121 . . . . . . . 127 . . . . . . . . . . . . Soda-Bottle Magnetometer Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . K p Index Ap Index 4. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents xi Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 3. . . . . . .2 Inside Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s 4.3 3. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . Two Eccentric Axis Poles . .1 3. . . . .1 Field Traces 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A Dynamo Solar-Quiet. . . . . .5. . . . .3 On the Sun In the Wind 97 97 97 101 102 102 103 . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harvesting the Fields 5. . . . . . . . . . .4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints Heating 4. . .2 5. . . . . . . . . Measures of Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 106 106 108 111 ] 15 115 115 115 117 119 Storm Explanations . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 A Space of Quiet Fields . . . . . . Glamorous Display . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations .5. Quietly F l o w i n g Currents 3. . . . . .2 4. 92 93 94 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles Locally Measured Dip Poles Satellite Evidence of Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . Sectors . . . . . . . . . IGRF Main Field Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 121 121 . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 5. . Magnetotellurics . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . Space Weather Disturbance Scales Information Kiosk D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l .2. .5 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Scientists at W o r k 5. Index 143 . .3 5. .2. . . .xii 5. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pulsations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polar Sector Currents 9 Dst Storm Index . . . . . . 128 130 130 5. . .6 5. . . 131 132 134 134 139 T r a c k and F i e l d R e c o r d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. .3 5. . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary . . . . . . . . . 128 128 128 Dipole Field Patterns .
and radio propagation. These events frequently cause significant changes in the near-Earth space environment that have been named magnetic storms and substorms. Dr. which he is willing and able to share with scientists and nonscientists alike. interplanetary. Thus. The Earth's main field and its origin and changes are simply and clearly presented. not just geomagnetism. satellite drag. It provides a wealth of scientific information about a relevant topic. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. Campbell carries an unbridled enthusiasm for geomagnetism. Dr. He presents the state of the science in a wonderful and meaningful way. and he XIII ~ 1 7 6 . Campbell discusses the effects of particles and fields of solar. Campbell has authored several well-known books. In addition. national and international agencies and corporations routinely seek his advice. and near-Earth space origin on measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. magnetic fields. He presents these external currents as the result of both normal and unusual solar emissions. in a way that is state-of-the-science.Foreword This book is written by a world-renowned scientist. He presents this information with respect to its impact on technology in space and on the ground. The relevant principles and physics of magnetism are discussed in a complete. Campbell is a respected leader in geophysics and space physics. including large solar flares and coronal mass ejections spewing copious fluxes of charged particles with their associated magnetic and electric fields. including telecommunications. He has also authored numerous articles published in scientific journals in which his peers subject papers to critical review. is one of the most important references in our field. satellite operations. yet fun to read. Dr. His recent book. yet easy-to-understand way. Dr.
and practicality. Dr. Dr. simplicity. the magnetic field of the Earth. Kroehl General Secretary. Campbell has accepted the difficult task of talking to all of us about a complex and difficult-to-understand part of our environment.xiv Foreword relates these effects to events that occur in our daily lives. and he does so with superb clarity. Herbert W. International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy . He also tackles the controversial false science as it relates to geomagnetic fields.
I have written this book for the interested nonscientist. spectacular sporadic solar outbursts of particles and fields bombard our Earth's space and continue at a high level for several years. with fields that penetrate our environment and affect our lives. You will have a personal.) See Figure C. guided tour through these Earth field effects in just five chapters. Explanation of magnetism facts and study results will replace mathematics. (If you feel secure about the review topics in this first chapter. We will discuss how correlations are established and then debunk some popular misconceptions about magnetism. See Figure C. Occurring every eleven years. My purpose for Chapter 1 is to describe some historical details and to refresh our definitions of a few science words that we will need to use in our tour. Earth magnetism has been of public interest for centuries but with the recent onset of the space age. In this time of majestic auroras and satellite-destroying magnetic storms. XV . just start with the second. To remedy this situation. Here I introduce you to the ways that natural magnetic fields impact our daily lives~from navigation to high-tech satellites to communications and power supplies.Preface The year 2000 ushered in a major sunspot maximum period. global interest focuses upon the curious Earth magnetism that guides the solar particles. Chapter 2 concerns the more exciting topic of magnetic applications in today's world.2. the magnetic field study has become so scientific that the general public often seems to have been excluded from the developments.1.
Chinese compass. NATURE'S MAGNETISM: Guidebook in hand. . opposing fields. all involved in magnetic navigation.FIGURE C. magnetic-dip instrument. a tourist starts out on a path through Earth fields as indicated by the multitude of dipole magnetic-field flowers. FIGURE C. We see his route through the subject matter of the chapter: atoms. ready to misinterpret everything.1 I~. FishyStuff (Nonsense) is watching nearby in the ocean.2 I~ VISTAS OF LIVES IN FIELDS: Our tourist finds herself at the center of the Earth's magnetic field effects--amazed by the consequences of magnetism (real and imagined) upon her daily life. These chapter topics are seen dispersed about her on the great Earth dipole field lines of force. helical windings. and ghosts of patriarchs rising from their tombstones. In the distance are ships and satellites and the big-dipper constellation.
In Chapter 3. Both wish to be involved in the trip.3. Earth's polarregion field that gives indirect evidence of the Sun's magnetic field direction. Patterns on the successive sails follow the time evolution of the scientific field models.Preface xvii FIGURE C. our tour visits the deep-Earth source of the principal magnetic field and its surface image. Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) believes that a magnetic mountain exists at the pole. Together. and Bear Facts (Good Science) is worrying about the many pole positions. the quiet-time "everyday" variation levels and the main field form a "bottom line" from which scientists measure the magnificent geomagnetic storms. We will also view quiet-time daily variations that are regularly superposed on our main field. Our tour will also include an interesting quiet-time. The five different representations of the Earth's magnetic pole positions will be explained.3 I~ SAILING THE MAGNETIC SEAS IN CALM WINDS: Under conditions of calm solar winds. . explorer-tourists are aboard ships sailing toward a variety of north poles. See Figure C.
4 I~ UMBRELLAFOR MAGNETIC STORMS: Our tourist tries an umbrella for protection from the bombardment of particles and fields that attend magnetic storms. Chapter 5 ends our tour with questions and answers for those tourists who have developed a curiosity about how the fields are measured. We will examine the storm impact at the Earth. how field records can be obtained. these storms can affect the daily lives of all of us who live in modern developed countries. In Chapter 4. The destructive solar wind is driven from the Sun to the Earth's protective main magnetic field.xviii Preface FIGURE C. and what books and electronic Web sites are recommended for further information.5.4. field appearances on magnetic records. what researched is now in progress. our tour follows the spectacular field disturbances that start as blasts of particle ejections from our active Sun. Although such solar-terrestrial storms are of special interest to space scientists and satellite users. See Figure C. See Figure C. . and indices of such activity.
Fishy Stuff (Nonsense) has been relegated to the position of a stuffed bookend. Have no fear. our tourist has magnetic field questions that can be answered by a display of Web sites on the computer screen or the supply of references on his bookshelf. I will see that we stay clear of mathematical equations and focus our time on the important ideas about our Earth's magnetism.C. A picture of Chapman. W. let us start the tour.Preface xix FIGURE C.5 II~ HARVESTING THE FIELDS: Seated at his desk. Bear Facts (Good Science) is away. waiting for further discoveries by the next generation of researchers.H. November 2000 . is prominently displayed. the modern father of space magnetism. Now.
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for proofreading the manuscript and tolerating my time at the computer. Walter Page and my other nontechnical friends often asked questions about my lifelong specialty.C. Finally. I thank the many organizations that provided special figures for this book.Acknowledgments This small book began during a Wednesday hiking group. Although most illustrations are of my own creation. I thank my wife. away from household duties. and the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA.H. the Space Environment Center of NOAA. Beth. I had to find ways to explain these phenomena without equations and to answer types of questions that rarely arise from my more scientific colleagues. in particular the National Geophysical Data Center of NOAA. W. the natural magnetic fields of the Earth. xxi . I so enjoyed this regular Wednesday challenge that this book developed quite easily. the Geomagnetism Section of USGS.
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indirect indications of magnetic fields abound in nature--we examine that evidence in our tour. The closest direct sensation of magnetic fields for us is the push or pull we experience when we draw two magnets close together. In this guided tour we will explore some of the significant magnetic field effects and debunk some magnetic field myths. Fortunately. We know that there is a gravity field because its magnitude and direction are sensed as it pulls us down the stairs or restrains the weight we wish to lift. In contrast. . I1. acting as your guide. we have no obvious body sensors that can respond to magnetic fields to tell us its strength and direction. Along the way. But we also identify these familiar processes indirectly as we look through a window and see a flag waving in the wind or hear rain hitting the rooftop of our house.1 I Finding the Fields Although most of our knowledge of the magnetic field is acquired indirectly.I1 1 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism We live on this Earth in a magnetic field environment that influences our daily lives in a variety of ways. I will point out and illustrate how the sources of these natural magnetic fields change in time and place. this is not an unusual route to understanding. Natural phenomena such as wind or rain are sensed directly as the strong blast of air hits our face or the soaking rain covers our head.
the magnetic spoon balanced on its heavy rounded cup so that the lighter handle pointed toward a southward compass direction. Written records show that a Chinese compass. Plato wrote of the magnetic attraction of certain rocks that was well known to Greeks about 400 BC. Si Nan. had already been fabricated between 300 and 200 BE and used for the alignment of constructions to be magically harmonious with the natural Earth forces.1). Similarly. The Chinese fashioned their magnetized rock into a ladle-like shape. point toward the North Star. FIGURE 1. corresponding to our Big Dipper constellation (which the astronomers call Ursa Major). a place of natural abundance for magnetic material in a region of ancient Macedonia. . a Cantonese author of 1117. told of Chinese ship pilots using a compass for steering their ships in overcast cloudy conditions.2.2 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 11. Then. the Chinese designed their spoon compass so that the bowl's outer lip would point in the horizontal northward direction (Figure 1.1 Compass Origin The word magnet is thought to be derived from Magnesia. Chu Yu. For ages it had been known that the last two stars on the bowl. opposite the handle of the Big Dipper.21 Historical Tour Markers 1.1 II~ The Chinese spoon compass was carved from magnetite to resemble the Big Dipper constellation so that both bowls pointed in the northward direction.
had apparently seen the compass used in his ship travels to the Holy Land during (or immediately following) the Seventh Crusade of 1248-1254. The extensive ship's log that Columbus kept of his 1492 westward voyage of discovery to the Americas describes his curious observation of a growing misalignment between the magnetic north direction and the North Star. By the early fifteenth century. at least by the late-twelfth-century Mediterranean seamen.Section 1. how the opposite magnetic poles of a compass attract each other. Loadstone (or lodestone). an early word for "leading stone. That means the Earth's pole in the northern Arctic region is really a magnet's south pole because it attracts the compass magnet's north pole.2.2 I~ Force must be used to overcome the attraction of opposite magnetic poles.2 Historical Tour Markers 1. this was probably the first documented observation of the change in FIGURE 1. A Frenchman. and how similar poles repel (Figure 1." was the name for the natural magnets used as compasses. . In 1269 he wrote about his scientific investigation of pivoted magnets and a spherical loadstone. the compass was a typical fixture on Spanish and Portuguese ships trading along the West African coastline. Christopher Columbus's navigation experience came from such trips. For our Western culture. there would be even greater confusion. This force is a measure of the magnetic field strength and is the most direct evidence of the magnetic field's existence. The northward pointing pole has been named the magnet's north pole.2 Global Explorations 3 Some unknown early Arabic or European merchant caravans returning from China to Turkey along the famous Silk Road undoubtedly brought the compass design to the eastern Mediterranean region mariners. But if it were given that name. Geologists now call this loadstone material magnetite. for which the negative and positive charges can be separated).2). Peregrinus described the pole locations. Pierre de Maricourt (better known as Padres Peregrinus). He found that the magnetic poles always occurred in pairs of opposite signs (unlike electric charges.
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.3 I~ In the time of Columbus, the compass direction, when measured from the west coast of Spain and Portugal, pointed slightly west of the geographic north. Measured from the West Indies, the compass magnetic northward direction pointed considerably east of geographic north. Along an agonic line, magnetic northward coincides with the geographic northward.
declination (the angle between magnetic and geographic North Pole directions) with changing longitude. We now know that the Earth's magnetic North Pole is offset from the Earth's spin axis (geographic North Pole) by about a dozen degrees. It is presently tilted toward eastern North America and is gradually circling westward around the geographic pole, about once every two to three thousand years. In Columbus's time, if one looked northward from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the two poles were essentially in alignment with the compass, pointing no more than a few degrees west of true north. That was fine for the Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships plying a narrow longitude sector along the west coast of Africa. However, as Columbus sailed to distant westward longitudes, the angular difference in alignment of the two locations at first went to zero, and then became greater, with the compass pointing drastically east of north as he entered the Caribbean Sea (Figure 1.3). His log indicated so much concern regarding this strange behavior that he fabricated excuses about
Historical Tour Markers
FIGURE 1.4 I~ William Gilbert (1540-1603) produced the first scientific book about magnets and the Earth's magnetic field.
the North Star (rather than magnetic pole) location to his crew. The seamen were already distressed by the overdue landfall (Columbus's predicted Earth circumference was much too small). In those days everyone knew that the compass pointed northward to the fixed north pole location of a "magnetic mountain." Now, after the year 2000, due to the westward drift of the magnetic pole location, an alignment of magnetic and true north (agonic line) passes through eastern United States and the western Caribbean Sea rather than the east Atlantic Ocean of Columbus's time.
1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs
Let us pause now to talk about a few of the patriarchs of geomagnetism whose brilliant scientific contributions have brought us to our present level of magnetic field knowledge. We will start with the English physician to Queen Elizabeth I, William Gilbert (Figure 1.4), who is recognized as the father of the
Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism
FIGURE 1.5 I~ A dipole field pattern is superposed on Gilbert's picture of the Great Earth Magnet of 1600 in which he shows how magnets would naturally arrange about the surface.
science of magnetism. His book, De Magnete, published in 1600, is a summation of the knowledge of his time and of his own magnetic experiments. He was the first to describe the Earth's main field as a giant magnet with a horizontal field at the Earth's equator and with two oppositely directed vertical fields at the Earth's poles. That is, the Earth had the field configuration expected from a magnetized iron bar (Figure 1.5) that had a pair of north and south magnetic poles separated by a fixed distance (the arrangement that we now call a dipole). The multiplication product of the strength of one of the poles times their separation distance is what scientists call the dipole moment of a magnet. Dipole moment values let us compare magnetized material, a small compass needle or the giant Earth itself. Measurements over the last 400 years tell us that the magnetic dipole moment of our Earth has been steadily decreasing since Gilbert's time.
In addition. but spent much of his productive life in the United States. Maxwell By the middle of the nineteenth century many electromagnetic laws had been discovered for describing the separate behaviors of electric charges. the present age of geomagnetism arrived with the long lifetime of extensive publications by Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. =.10).8) of Goettingen. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation. he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances. Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. he constructed the first dynamo to generate electricity. Germany. published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth. Maxwell's mathematical equations for analysis and prediction remain to this day the best physical description of electricity and magnetism. the original design for our present public electric power plants.Section 1. in a time of significant English maritime expansion. who originally worked in England. In 1838. He focused his scientific curiosity on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. he developed the first electric motor.2 Historical Tour Markers 7 Halley Between 1697 and 1701. currents. Gauss My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes.9). In 1821.7). Edmund Halley (more famous for his prediction of the return of the large comet that now bears his name) was commissioned to captain the ship Paramour in two voyages through the Atlantic Ocean. all these relationships were brought together into a unified representation by a Scotsman. In 1893. He produced the first chart of the full magnetic direction pattern for a major region of the Earth (Figure 1. a self-educated son of a blacksmith who eventually became the director of London's prestigious Royal Institution. . mapping the magnetic field direction for navigational purposes. and fields. James Clerk Maxwell (Figure 1.6). Faraday The next group of major discoveries in magnetism came from Michael Faraday (Figure 1. Chapman Finally. In 1831.
6 I~ This 1701 chart of magnetic declination contours for the Atlantic Ocean was produced by Edmund Halley. The plotted declinations are inaccurate because of the difficulty in obtaining longitude at sea during the years of Halley's voyage.in 1940. Chapman produced the first completely modern two-volume textbook. . With help from the distinguished field observer Julius Bartels of Germany.8 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1. who is more famous for his prediction of the orbit for a comet that bears his name. Chapman became the father of space magnetism. Geomagnetism. applying Maxwell's mathematics to the natural processes of the upper atmosphere and magnetic storms originating from solar mechanisms.
2 Historical Tour Markers 9 FIGURE 1. who experimented with the relationship of electric and magnetic fields. FIGURE 1. devised the first electric motor and electric current generator.8 II~ Carl Friedreich Gauss (1777-1855) used mathematical techniques to distinguish between contributions to the surface magnetic fields from sources out in space (external) and sources below (internal to) the Earth.Section 1.7 l~ Michael Faraday (1791-1867). .
10 I~ Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was an early space-science pioneer and father of modern geomagnetic studies. .10 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIGURE 1.9 I~ James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) devised the mathematical formulation for the physics of electricity and magnetism that is still in use today. FIGURE 1.
3 LocalLanguageDictionary 11 FIGURE 1.11 I~ This is an early instrument for measurement of the Earth's main magnetic field dip angle. as has been done for the magnetic pole location found on global charts. 11. the dipping angle of a special compass needle that is freely suspended at its horizontal balance location (Figure 1. out of or into the Earth.Section 1.5). as in geographic (related to Earth mapping) and geophysical (related to the physical properties of the Earth).31 Local Language Dictionary 1.3.1 Earth Fields. This feature is still used in paleomagnetic studies to interpret the apparent . popular use has favored the shortened term magnetism. when the context of a sentence is clearly understood to relate to our planet. to identify global north and south magnetic dip latitudes (see also Figure 1. Steady and Changing Now. the natural fields within and around the Earth. Because the Earth behaves as a great dipole magnet.is used to identify our Earth combined with its following root word. However. points at different angles. to become fully attracted to our magnetic subject.11). The prefix gee. let us explore some word meanings and mildly technical terms that we use in this guided tour. Let us start with the meaning of geomagnetism. Our tour has its focus on geomagnetism.
Stronger fields usually seem to be generated by sources that are spread over greater distances.12 II~ When the amplitude of a measurement oscillates in a regular fashion. The prefix paleo.12).12 Phase Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism -8 < Time = I I Period = 24 hours FIGURE 1. we say that the daily temperature frequency is 1 cycle per day or that some magnetic fields have a frequency of 3 cycles per second. In contrast. is used in geophysics to indicate those distant prehistoric times. the weaker the effect of that field becomes. In addition. is rapidly changing. As we shall see in our tour.13). Examples of 12. a superposed natural field of much smaller amplitude. The strongest part of geomagnetic fields varies so slowly over the years that we call it the main or steady field. the laws of physics require that the further we go away from a magnetic field source. This variation field has some irregular amplitude-changing parts of limited duration and some parts with prescribed periods of oscillation. Why does the field have a rapid variation part when we thought that there was just a big dipole-like magnet that caused the Earth's field? Well. which is the number of oscillations (cycles) in one unit of time. meaning ancient. what we measure with our field instruments is a summation of all the natural fields that are at the place of measurement (Figure 1. paleolatitude locations of ancient rocks that became magnetized at their time of formation millions of years ago. but more dramatic appearance. the time for one oscillation to occur is called its period. For example. Researchers have found that the geomagnetic variation field amplitudes generally decrease in size as the characteristic duration or oscillation period becomes shorter. Geomagnetic variation fields have durations or oscillation periods from fractions of a second to many months. . The position of the first maximum (measured in degrees with respect to a 360 ~ full oscillation) is called the phase of the oscillation. the 24-hour oscillation period of daily temperature goes from a pre-dawn minimum to the following post-noon maximum and back to the next day's minimum (Figure 1.and 24-hour periods are shown. But what do the scientists mean by periods of oscillation? This is the time for something that changes to complete one cycle--for example. The inverse of the period is the frequency.
this control is measured by the force. to find out how special fields are tied to processes in space or below the Earth's surface. The irregular trace shows a magnetic field disturbance that varies over 1000 gammas (magnetic field units) in size.13 I~ A disturbance field variation at the Fairbanks.3. also depends on the special magnetic characteristics of the region in which the field exists. or iron-rich rocks. that can move another magnet. Scientists call this regional environment characteristic the magnetic permeability. at 2 inches from a magnet.3 Local Language Dictionary I 13 i m MAIN FIELD LEVEL 12677 GAMMAS I ~ O Q < 00 01 02 03 I 04 1 05 150 degrees West Meridian Time FIGURE 1. having both a pushing (pulling) strength and a direction of the action. and to discover what physical mechanisms can cause the various periods of field oscillation to occur. Alaska. the magnetic field is one-eighth of the field at 1 inch. magnetic observatory. of course. The horizontal axis indicates the local time from midnight to 5 AM. Of course. The field effect of a magnet held in the air has a different attraction on an intruding material if the magnet and material are submersed in oil.2 Forces at Work A magnetic field can be defined by the control that is exerted on certain substances that invade a region near a magnet or a steady electric current. The effectiveness of this field. the word "near" is relative to the strength of the magnet or current.Section 1. 1. Scientists try to separate these sources by special analysis techniques to determine where on our Earth the fields are similar. The strength of this magnetic field decreases with the cube of the distance from the magnetic source (Figure 1. . For example.14). At the place where a field exists. iron. there are many different sources of magnetic fields.
0 . slowing it to a stop.00 1.. Science teachers illustrate these invisible magnetic fields using a simple bar magnet placed just below a sheet of paper.50 4.14 I~ The strength of a field originating at a dipole magnet is shown to decrease rapidly with distance away from the magnet. 1.00 2.8 e.50 2.00 3. probably in shipping when the delivery box was sharply jarred. What I thought were large brass winding weights to drive the clock mechanism were really just decorative brass cans containing less expensive. the newly magnetized filings align with the magnetic field to display the dipole field pattern of the bar magnet (Figure 1. > .4 n- 0. Somehow.15). I had just purchased a new 6-foot grandfather clock for our home. 0. Not long ago I had an interesting personal magnetic field experience. Direct (not oscillating) current through a wire that is wound into a helix (as thread is wound on a spool) creates what is called an electromagnet.00 Distance to Dipole Center FIGURE 1. the magnetic field of the iron bars exerted an attracting force on the metal clock pendulum. When the manufacturer's representative came to investigate. strong attracting magnetic field.. heavy iron bars. c !. By gently flicking the paper..2 0.. When the metal pendulum of the clock traveled near one of the weights.00 4. A file is used to scrape an iron nail so that some filings fall on the paper just over the spot where the magnet is hiding. The clock problem was solved by replacing the magnetized iron weights with unmagnetized ones._ *.50 3.6 "o It..0 DIPOLE FILED DECREASE WITH DISTANCE 0. the iron bars had been accidentally magnetized. he discovered that magnetism was the problem.1 1. 0. To my dismay. The field .50 5.14 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 1. The stopping of a clock pendulum had provided the indirect evidence of a nearby.. the clock regularly stopped before the weight-winding system ran down.
The strong fields that we examine in this book come from natural magnetized material. and y is more in use by the Earth magnetism and space science communities.3 LocalLanguage Dictionary 15 FIGURE 1. nanotesla (one-millionth of a Tesla equals 1 gamma). Space scientists confuse the public by using two equivalent units for the field strength. and from currents in the region of space above our planet. 1. Nevertheless. similar to that of the bar magnet. the Greek letter honors a famous geomagnetician (Gauss). In this book we use the simpler Greek letter gamma (y) because it is older.15 I~ A magnetic field pattern is formed by iron filings on a sheet of paper that covers a dipole magnet. from electric current sources deep within the Earth. the equivalent name. Giant.3 Measuring Scales Although the dipole moment lets us compare the field sources. pattern from this winding has a dipolar form. current-driven electromagnets have been manufactured with a reputed capacity for lifting 75 tons--the weight of an entire train engine. we need some units for measuring how strong a magnetic field can be at any place away from the source.Section 1.3. it provides a convenient size for the natural fields that we examine. gamma (y) and nanotesla (nT). is the proper unit officially .
the Gauss (1 Gauss =100.01 0.000 gammas in polar regions to about half this size near the equator. occur during a geomagnetic storm. Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism AURORAL ZONE MAGNETIC STORMS CITY NOISE MID-LATITUDE MAGNETIC STORMS MID-LATITUDE QUIET-DAY CHANGES E E r "o t~ 10. Note that the gamma (nanotesla) scale is logarithmic (meaning that each step upward is 10 times larger than the step below). The Tesla units are preferred by physicists and engineers.16 I~ The size of magnetic fields originating from various sources.001 0.16. Another unit.000 gammas). Field variations from hundreds to several thousand gammas in size.000.1 0. We will be visiting all of these phenomena in our tour. and lasting from hours to a full day or more.000. 1. EARTH MAIN FIELD 10. 100. with oscillation periods ranging from several minutes to fractions of a second.16 100. The Earth's natural pulsation fields have been measured from about ten gammas to the tiny onethousandth of a gamma. called SI Units. 1.000. assigned by an International System committee for standardizing the world's scientific naming system.0001 0.O B GEOMAGNETIC PULSATIONS HUMAN HEART TYPICAL MAGNETIC SENSOR r-. . t~ 0. is a convenient size for paleomagnetic studies.0 . The field sizes of these and other sources are compared in Figure 1. Quiet-time daily variations of the field at mid-latitudes can be tens of gammas in amplitude.00001 HUMAN BRAIN SQUID MAGNETIC SENSOR FIGURE 1. The Earth's main field varies from about 60.
Section 1.3 LocalLanguageDictionary 1.3.4 Locating the Fields
Geomagnetism is a global phenomenon that shows differing behavior at various latitude regions (zones) of the Earth (Figure 1.17). These zones are specified by their relationship to a pair of principal regions: the auroral zone, where the Northern Lights (or their Aurora Australis companion in the Southern Hemisphere) are most commonly observed; and to the equatorial zone, where the Earth's main magnetic field is directed horizontally. Instead of delineating exactly where in the 0 ~ to 90 ~ north or south latitude something happens, geomagneticians use names of six latitude zones: 1. the polar caps, where the Earth's main field is nearly vertically aligned, 2. the auroral zones, regions of the most frequent northern and southern auroras, 3. the high latitudes, near enough to the auroral zones to be greatly affected during solar-terrestrial disturbances, 4. the equatorial region, within a few degrees around the magnetic dip equator, where the Earth's horizontal field creates special upper-atmosphere effects, 5. the low latitudes, just outside the equatorial region, and 6. the mid (middle) latitudes locations, between regions 3 and 5, where many of the populated countries of the world are found. Of course, although we have marked rather precise zones on the global map in Figure 1.17, the boundary markers of these regions are, in fact, rather inexact. For example, often the auroral zone activity expands into the polar cap, and on rare occasions the auroras appear at the middle latitudes.
FIGURE 1.17 I~
Generalized locations of geomagnetic study regions.
18 1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles
Chapter 1 Nature'sMagnetism
To understand the magnetic fields on our Earth we also need a quick review of the meaning of the words atoms, elements, molecules, ions, electric current, and conductivity. Let us start with an early model for the building blocks of all matter, often called the elements. This word clearly implies an inability for something to be further subdivided into other substances. Because this term appears in many nonscientific contexts, scientists use an equivalent but more specific term, atom. All atoms have a heavy central, positively charged part called the nucleus that carries almost all the weight and characteristic properties of the atom. In the simplest model design, electrons orbit around the nucleus. These electrons are small spinning particles, each carrying one negative electric charge. The electron paths are somewhat like planetsthat surround the Sun of our solar system; however, electron locations are not restricted to a unique plane but, rather, occur at prescribed orbital shell distances. Depending on the number of electrons, up to seven specific shells can be formed about the atom's nucleus. The nucleus of all atoms is composed of neutrons that have no charge and protons that are positively charged (except hydrogen, which has only one proton and no neutrons). The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so that the whole atom is electrically neutral (uncharged). Protons and neutrons each have about the same weight, almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Scientists call the total number of protons and neutrons the atomic weight of the specific atom. The number of protons (or electrons) in each atom is called the atomic number and fixes the sequential order of all the atoms" hydrogen = 1, helium = 2, l i t h i u m - 3 . . . . . n i t r o g e n - 7, o x y g e n - 8 . . . . . s o d i u m - 11 . . . . . chlorine = 17 . . . . . s i l v e r - 47 . . . . . gold = 79, . . . , lead = 8 2 , . . . , uranium = 92, . . . , and so on (Figure 1.18). At present more than 100 distinct atoms are known. The term atom was taken from the Greek word for indivisible because early studies implied that the atoms were the limiting segment of natural materials. We now know that there are radioactive atomic particles that are not indivisible but, rather, spontaneously decay into other atoms. Also, nuclear physicists have further subdivided the atomic structure of the nucleus using extremely complex techniques and a special mathematics of quantummechanical modeling. Nevertheless, the three principal parts of the atoms described here essentially define the chemical properties that we need as a starting point in our tour. The atom's electron shells are filled in order, starting with the innermost. The first shell of an atom can hold only two electrons. The second shell
Section 1.3 Local Language Dictionary
FIGURE 1.18 I~ The hydrogen atom has just one proton and one electron. The oxygen atom has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. The water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.
becomes full with eight electrons. The third shell is also full with eight electrons, by may carry up to eighteen when another outer shell exists. The atomic outer shells, after the first, are all considered full with eight electrons (but can contain more on rare occasions). Atoms with full outer shells are quite stable (they don't combine with other atoms). For example, helium has only two electrons in a single orbit, and neon has two electrons in its inner shell and eight in its second (outer) shell. P, M o l e c u l e s Molecules are special combinations of atoms that have become bonded together. One important way that this bonding occurs is by the sharing of electrons so that a full outer shell of electrons is formed while the molecule itself remains electrically neutral. Hydrogen (atomic number 1) with just one electron in its single shell is ready to react with other atoms. A hydrogen atom can share its electron with another hydrogen, forming a hydrogen gas molecule and completing the two-electron first shell for each. The oxygen atom (atomic number 8), with two electrons in its first shell and only six in its outer shell, is ready to take up two electrons. A water molecule has two
carbon dioxide. Our atmosphere near the Earth's surface (excluding considerable water vapor) is mainly a mixture of almost 78% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen (Figure 1. . That combination allows the completion of both two-electron and eight-electron shared orbits to be formed (Figure 1. and helium) in the smog-free air we breathe. which has just seven electrons in its third shell.19).19 I~ Composition of air and some examples of atoms that combine to form molecules. the molecule of table salt. For example.20). hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.18). These parts are called ions. Two oxygen atoms can join to share two electrons of their outer shells and form an oxygen gas molecule. There is only a relatively small amount of other molecules (such as argon. Ions and Current Atoms and molecules sometimes are broken into parts that are no longer electrically neutral. leaving a positive ion. Molecules can be split into groups of positively and negatively charged ions or into electrons and positive ions. A sodium atom (atomic number 11) with just one electron in its third shell readily shares this with a chlorine atom (atomic number 17). the Northern Lights (auroral displays) occur when the air molecules of nitrogen and oxygen have been ionized after being bombarded with incoming particles (Figure 1. to form sodium chloride. Nitrogen (atomic number 7) can share an outer electron with another nitrogen to form a nitrogen gas molecule.20 O+O ~ 02 Two oxygen atoms form oxygen gas N+N ~ N2 Two nitrogen atoms form nitrogen gas Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism 2 1 % 0 2 + 7 8 % N 2 + 1% other gases = air Molecular oxygen and nitrogen gases make up atmospheric air H+H+O ~ H20 Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom form water Na+Cl~ NaCI One sodium atom and one chlorine atom form table salt FIGURE 1. neon. The negatively charged electrons can be stripped away.
How easily the current flows in a medium naturally depends on some special characteristics of that flow region. When a stream of either all-negative or all-positive charged particles move together in a specific direction. By convention. That is why the helical winding of the electromagnet. .3 Local Language Dictionary 21 . +. described earlier. called its conductivity. can have their direction diverted by a magnetic field. In that gaseous region.Section 1. These fields flow around the axis of the current direction in a fashion that is called the right-hand rule. This convention means that negatively charged electrons flowing to the right would be called a current flowing to the left. The current in a metal wire consists of electrons that are pushed along by a battery or other power source. This is because the moving charges. the flow is called an electric current. We are interested in the conductivity of the ionized high atmosphere.21).p e" e" FIGURE 1. An electron is stripped from the outer shell of the N2 making it an excited ion (N+*) and doubling the number of electrons in the region. and the conductivity of copper wire is greater than all of these. the conductivity of rain water is less than that of the wet Earth. producing other characteristic auroral colors. All electric currents of moving charged particles produce their own magnetic fields. ions or electrons that compose the current. If you think of the fingers of your right hand as surrounding the current flow.20 II~ A bombarding electron (e-) from a solar disturbance hits a nitrogen molecule (N2) of the high atmosphere.~. the conductivity of air is a lot less than that of ocean water. The N2 releases its excited energy as auroral light (hv) in colors characteristic of N2 +. produces a strong one-directional field through the central region of its wire windings (Figure 1. the conductivity also depends on the direction of the current with respect to the Earth's local magnetic field. and the specific type of metal determines the conductivity for that wire current.. with the thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current. Similar ionizations occur from bombardment of the atmospheric oxygen molecules. the current direction is taken to be the direction that the positive ions would flow. For example. then the fingers of your hand point in the direction of the magnetic field that circles the current.
The magnetic field can be concentrated in a single direction by a toroidal winding of the wire.. Such behavior is often visible in auroras as field-aligned luminosity excited by the bombarding electrons that hit the air molecules. nor with the magnetic fields that concern engineers working in electronic information storage and transfer. causing them to glow (e. In a gas of energetic charged particles that are moving together in a strong.g. Rather. the charges will form tight spirals about the field lines and be guided along in an overall forward direction as a field-aligned current. I will describe the natural magnetic fields found in our everyday environment.41 OurTour of the Fields In our guided tour I will not trouble you with the special studies of physics laboratories. 11. generally linearly directed magnetic field. Plate 5) and marking the Earth's main field extension into space.22 Chapter 1 Nature's Magnetism FIELD ELECTROMAGNET current out current in FIELD FIGURE 1. The sources of such fields .21 I~ Electric currents flowing in a wire cause a magnetic field that circles the wire.
Section 1. due to currents flowing in our space environment. Naturally magnetized rocks are found broadly distributed about the Earth's surface. The part of the magnetic field from sources away from the surface is. . pipelines.4 Our Tour of the Fields 23 are strong currents deep within the Earth. in large measure. Some magnetic field fluctuations are also naturally generated by the motion of conductors in the Earth's large main field (in a manner similar to the hydroelectric generation of electricity by turbines that move wire through the field of a large magnet). and electricity transmission lines. We want to discover how these magnetic fields can affect our lives. and from natural magnetized materials in the Earth's crust. These external fields induce currents to flow in both the conducting Earth and in man-made conductors such as storage tanks. A magnetic mountain assumed to attract the compass needle of Columbus's time just doesn't exist. In our next chapter we will visit some of the many consequences that all the natural fields bestow on our modern lives. I will show that our measurements of the principal field that moves our compass needles. We will learn that the inside (internal) part mainly comes from currents flowing in the deep. magnetized materials. We will wait until the later chapters to describe how these geomagnetic field sources are generated. from currents induced to flow in the conducting Earth because of sources above the Earth's surface. is actually a summation of a field from sources inside the solid Earth and another field that is caused by field sources away from the Earth's surface. However. are a major source of variations observed in the surface measurements of magnetic field. flowing in the Earth's surrounding space. Two examples of these natural sources are the motion of conducting atmospheric ions in the Earth's main field and the motion of conducting ocean waves in the Earth's main field. the main field at the Earth's surface. Natural currents. and natural current systems above the Earth. Careful mapping of these field contributions show they fall far short of providing the major contribution to the observed Earth's main field. In subsequent chapters. liquid outer core of the Earth. in a subsequent chapter we will see how measurements of the Earth's crustal fields are important for understanding the natural history of our Earth's magnetic field evolution.
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Let us start the tour with the more familiar applications. We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1.1). called magnetometers. an oscillating field is generated. At concourse entrances.1. If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected. airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2. guns. IzlJ Fields Making a Difference 2. etc. for example. 25 . Here we will not only show you the magnetic effects that have become important to modern society but also refute some beliefs about magnetism that are completely fictitious. The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames. coins. from rings. watches.1 Travel and Exploration Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices. knives.7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials. which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger. an alarm is sounded.Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Our guided tour of magnetic fields now begins with some views of the ways natural magnetic fields about the Earth have influenced our environment and are impacting our daily lives (see Plate 6).12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. keys. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1. Within the security passageway. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects.
2). In addition to the magnetic northward direction. the map date. Because the declination changes slowly over the years (Figure 2. forest rangers.26 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.3). On the modern vessels. By universal convention. printed nearby.satellite-dependent . (Although some Australians have merrily rejected their "down under" status by producing a revised world map with south toward the top. from fishing vessels to luxury cruise ships. have a compass as part of their navigation system. Hikers. back-country travelers. Ships at sea. and small-boat captains all know the value of a map and compass.1 I~ The airport security magnetometer senses the effect of magnetic fields from small electric currents induced to flow in metal objects carried by the passenger.) Usually marked at the lower edge of a detailed map is a magnetic declination arrow showing the direction that a compass needle will point toward the magnetic north in that map area (Figure 2. the special navigation charts also indicate the declination adjustment expected for each year following the chart publication date so that a ship's captain can estimate the correction to be applied when using a compass direction for a voyage. most maps and charts indicate the geographic north as the direction toward the top of the display. is also important for the traveler.
0 -- % o C2 e 12.30- "1" I ' ' I . ~ i " .~ . I 1990 1 1 . I I .' ' 1'... ~ ( " sl$1n (iG W ..... . ~ ..~ J...~. 1900 1910 1920 1930 I ~~-~-~-i 1950 ~--~.... DENVER. . ... I . is always displayed on the best maps. II|iIY(H(.... y t l l l G i N J & .tD~I 9 FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR GREATER DENVER AREA COLORADO N3922... . . i .. ... 5 . COLORADO 80225. 1980 1940 FIGURE 2.. i .1 Fields Making a Difference 27 9 '~f~....2 I~ Magnetic declination... along with the date. .i-dC--~:-L~.. ....* In m U.. ~ t ".1 1960 1970 ... '2200000 FEET'~ q.5 - o o o o 12... ~ ' R . I k 45' R.0 - 13..i ~ .. 66 W.VIRGINIA 22092 FIGURE 2. ~ ~ .~ ...._~...5/37. I . " . f "' . o4LO~I(~AL ILiIIIYI[ ~. |g'22'30" 104o37.5X48 FOR SALE BY U.-~ ' ' Y 7S i3rdS'kN. .~....S... OR RESTON. I"85... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.~" .I In q) Q) 01 13...0 - % ~. from 1910 to 1986. 65 W i s~ii=E.. ..~ .3 I~ The change of declination at Tucson. I" .. .. Arizona.. ~ . Figure from the Geomagnetism Section of USGS.Section 2.. " ' ' -..5 -- 14. .. 14... ~.5 A 4... .~oIr. .5--W 10437.. ..L . I iN~EIII~iI~-. ......
longitude at sea was poorly determined from estimates of a ship's direction and speed..28 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields O r <D a L_ ~ t _ .4 I~ The North Star's elevation angle above the horizon equals the latitude of the ship at sea. 49) have replaced the older navigational aids. so the stately ship compasses are kept for reliable backup service. where the North Star cannot be seen. Nevertheless. In the years of global exploration the geographic northward direction and ship's latitude were always rather easy to determine using the North Star horizontal direction for northward and that star's elevation angle for latitude (Figure 2. global positioning systems (see Section 2. p.9. cO r E3 t_ CO co Z o Z r 0 r .=.D Q t _ t~ r-. used the Southern Cross constellation for guidance. .4).. It wasn't until the production of sea-worthy chronometers after 1757 that a ship's longitude could be found using the midday time of the maximum elevation of the Sun determined with a ship clock that was originally set so its noon hour corresponded to the port clock at the departure longitude.1. modern electronic systems have been known to occasionally fail. Horizontal North P01e 90' Latitude 45* Latitude o Z m 0 "1- L_ tO N 0* Latitude (Equator) 45* Latitude FIGURE 2. For years. Navigators in the Southern Hemisphere.
By international agreement. In this example. on the voyage. 12 noon was determined while the ship was anchored in port at Greenwich. England. . a ship's location longitude was determined using the timing of the Sun's highest position. so 15 ~ equals 1 hour (Figure 2. This method of naming runways accommodates the numerous small planes that fly on compass directions only. then the ship's location was 1 hour west of the original port or 15 ~ west because 360 ~ around the world means 24 hours. In later years. With the development of superior clocks that could accomodate the unstable motion at sea. For example.5 I~ After the invention of an accurate nautical clock in 1757.5). navigation directions were set with the ship's magnetic compass together with a chart of the declination values for that region of the ocean. in an age of modern electronic navigation systems.6). Today. small airplanes. airport runways are identified with their eastward magnetic declination value to the nearest degree (Figure 2. Between star sightings and in overcast conditions. fine adjustments were added for small variations in the North Star's location and for the seasonal change in Sun's position. if the shipboard measurement of the highest Sun position was observed to occur at 1 P M according to the ship's clock. still identify their course in magnetic directions from their onboard compasses.1 Fields Making a Difference 29 FIGURE 2. as well as many freighters and passenger ships.Section 2. longitude determinations improved in the time of Captain James Cook's voyages of discovery.
30 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.7).1. Although more sophisticated systems are now used for alignment. 87~ east of geographic north. such iron-rich rock materials show tiny separated magnetic domains in which . Man-made satellites have to be aimed to properly use their solar panels and to align their Earth sensors and communication systems. 2. Subsequent adjustment with star sensors then trimmed the final position. Field-line navigation in the magnetosphere has found a place in the modern space age.6 I~ Airplane runway number 87 is named for its magnetic compass alignment. Rocks such as magnetite (three atoms of iron joined to four atoms of oxygen--Fe304) contain so much iron that they are noticeably attracted to a magnet placed near their surface. satellite alignment was initiated using a magnetic sensor. For many years.2 Magnetic Rocks Most of the rocks that we find on the Earth's surface have some iron atoms among their constituents. scientists have known that the Earth's field in space influences the behavior of the charged particles populating that distant region and call it the magnetosphere. In the beginning years of space exploration. On a microscopic scale. magnetospheric field measurements are consistently near the t o p o f all lists of exploratory satellite equipment for mapping the main field and investigating the important physics of particle disturbances in space (Figure 2. An onboard device compared the observed and the desired values of the Earth's magnetic field to orient the satellite.
When most of these domains show a similar directional alignment. For each magnetic material at temperatures above a specific high level called the Curie Temperature (about 500 to 800 ~ Centigrade or 932 to 1472 ~ Fahrenheit). all the atoms with magnetic properties are aligned in a single direction.8). the rock is said to be magnetized (Figure 2. If such a magnetized rock is suspended with a thread near the middle of its long axis.8) have been modified to maximize and concentrate the magnetization.7 I~ The satellite magnetometer is located at the end of a long boom to avoid the noisy magnetic fields from satellite electrical systems. Paleomag- . Scientists studying the structure of magnetic rocks have been able to create new materials in which the field domain and boundary regions (Figure 2. the rock will align itself north-south as a compass needle does. Such materials find use in everything from refrigerator magnets to temporary fasteners to industrial magnets for production-line service in manufacturing.1 Fields Making a Difference 31 FIGURE 2. the microscopic magnetic domains become randomly oriented due to the heat so that the rock material loses its magnetization.Section 2.
8 I~ Areas enclosed by curved lines indicate the microscopic magnetic domains in a rock before and after magnetization. 2. As this liquid rock material cools into igneous . Try magnetizing an iron file by aligning its long axis with the Earth's main field direction and then sharply hit the end of the file with a hammer. By placing them adjacent to an extremely strong magnetic field (early sailing ships always carried a strong loadstone for the occasional remagnetization of the ship's compass needle). and 3.2. 14). Jarring is probably what accidentally magnetized the iron clock weights of my grandfather clock (see Section 1. neticians study the ways that rocks become naturally magnetized and what such rocks reveal about the paleo years of Earth formation. Arrows show the dipole field alignment within the domains. Hot lava (magma from deep within the Earth) is at temperatures higher than the Curie Temperature and therefore composed of many randomly oriented magnetic domains. By sudden jarring so that the magnetic domains realign with the Earth's strong local natural field--while holding the long axis of the material along the direction shown by a compass. Although geophysicists. p. continue to discover new ways that this remanent (leftover) magnetization occurs in nature. Rocks about the Earth are often found to be naturally magnetized. let us pause in our tour to look at how most natural rock magnetization arises.32 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 1 Before Magnetization After Magnetization FIGURE 2. By heating them and then letting them cool to below the Curie Temperature in a magnetic field.3. who study these rocks. Pieces of iron and those rocks that contain a considerable amount of iron atoms (called ferrous atoms) can be artificially magnetized several ways: 1.
10) or road cuts. While moving with the water. Such dust often has the remains of magnetic domains that were jointly oriented in their earlier rock formation. at first. Fine rock dust is dissolved in the water of streams and lakes. the paleomagnetician measures the rock sample to establish the ancient paleofield direction. The particles have time to align their magnetic domains with the Earth's local magnetic direction of that formation period for the sedimentary (formed by settling) rock.9 II~ Remanent magnetism of igneous rock results from the cooling of hot volcanic lava. When . the overall alignment of the many particles is. The rock dust eventually settles to the bottom and is gradually compacted to form sandstone and mudstone. Often many layers of these rocks are subsequently exposed by natural land uplift (Figure 2.9). Using either special radioactive dating techniques or historical information on the volcanic eruption to identify the age of the cooled magma.1 Fields Making a Difference 33 FIGURE 2. The rock thus formed is said to have a remanent magnetism indicative of the Earth's field at the time of the cooling--which may have been many thousands of years ago. many of the magnetic domains align themselves with that local field (Figure 2. scrambled by the water currents.Section 2. (formed-in-heat) rock in the Earth's main field. which preserves a record of the local main field at the time the magma hardens.
The pictured formations were deposited in lakes that existed about 70 million years ago. silt-. Magnetic rock materials also exist in the clay used for bricks and pottery. and sandstone rock samples can reveal the direction of the Earth's field that existed at the time of each layer formation. Laboratory measurements of magnetic fields from mud-. Studies of this type are called . Upon cooling and hardening.34 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. Utah.10 I~ Iron is responsible for the red color of these spires at Bryce Canyon. the paleomagnetician measures the remanent field of a vertical series of such rock samples. Because the bricks are fired horizontally and the molded clay pots are usually fired in an upright or upside-down position. Scientists have also identified metamorphic(form-changed) rocks in which gradual physical and chemical changes over time have altered their rock structure and composition along with their remanent magnetization. archaeologic relics can reveal the geomagnetic main field dip angle (angle of the field from the horizontal plane) at the time of pot firing (Figure 2. the randomly oriented magnetic domains in the clay become magnetized along the Earth's local field direction. he or she can determine the Earth's ancient field direction corresponding to the time that each sedimentary rock layer was formed.11). the Curie Temperature level of ferrous clay is exceeded. At high baking kiln temperatures. Sedimentary layers at the base of these formations were created about 150 million years ago by a shallow sea.
Section 2.5). rocks that cannot be dated in the laboratory by radio- . on many occasions. armed with rather accurate charts of the ancient field behavior. the geomagnetic main field has. In addition.1 FieldsMaking a Difference 35 FIGURE 2.11 I~ A Mayan pot from Mexico in which the local magnetic field was preserved during the original firing of the clay. archaeomagnetism because of the importance to those specialists interested in ancient man-made (archaeological) structures. Because the main geomagnetic field has a dipole-like field pattern. completely reversed its direction. 2. Now. the field direction evidence shows a continuous westward movement of the magnetic poles (with respect to the Earth's north and south geographic spin-axis poles) over millions of years. After allowing for continental drift. That angle determines the north or south magnetic latitudes and the apparent magnetic polar locations at the time of magnetization (recall Figure 1. the magnetization of rock samples from layers at the sample site (formed over a long period of time) can reveal the history of the Earth's changing field direction.3 P r e h i s t o r i c Fields a n d C o n t i n e n t a l Drift Often when scientists can date rock specimens from other evidence. the field makes a unique angle (dip) with the Earth's surface at each latitude on our globe.1.
special crustal regions. ancient flora.12 II~ The established record of main field polarity reversals that have been obtained from global rock samples. with its field identification. The cooled magma. Australia. activity techniques can be assigned an approximate formation time by matching their paleomagnetic direction pattern to the well-established field reversal pattern (Figure 2. but are continuing to separate.36 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. As this material cools.13). forming the Himalayan Mountains.12). Antarctica. In recent years. The dating of the ocean-bottom field-reversal patterns has revealed an oceanic plate motion spreading perpendicular to the ridge line at about 2.5 to 25 centimeters (1 to 10. The field directions have now been recorded with instruments towed near the ocean bottom. have been found to show long ridges where hot magma is slowly rising from deep within the Earth. Africa is pushing into .0 inches) a year. it becomes magnetized by the local field at the time of its emergence. This pattern-matching method is similar to tree-ring dating. In those two matched continental regions. The material is then recycled into the hot magma interior of the Earth's mantle. The process has been compared to an extremely slow-moving tape recorder. in which concentric rings of annual growth show a unique spacing pattern. Some of the moving oceanic plates collide with the continents before they are eventually pulled down by gravity into deep ocean troughs near continental margins. often toward the middle of our major oceans. becoming an oceanic plate that holds a recording of the reversals in field direction over the millions of years of Earth formation (Figure 2. similar geology. India is pushing up against Asia. and paleomagnetic field directions have been identified. spreads perpendicular to the ridge (called seafloor spreading) ever so slowly along the ocean bottom. The obvious coastal pattern fit in the South Atlantic between eastern South America and western Africa represents the continental drift of these two continents away from their common oceanic spreading ridge. and India were also once connected. The Earth's continents are moved as the oceanic plates push against and under the continental margins causing what is called a continental drift.
Section 2. By measuring short-period magnetic field fluctuations and their companion electric fields . The local steady (main) magnetic field background and the recurring regular daily variation fields are subtracted from the observations to reveal the pattern of the magnetic materials within the crust. 2. closing the Mediterranean Sea.13 I~ Seafloor spreading and magnetic field reversals provide evidence of the oceanic plate motion that causes continental drift. Earth satellites can now accurately measure the slow drifts of these continents.1.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration A first step in the mineral exploration of a region is a magnetic survey to reveal the Earth's crust structure below the exposed geology (see Plate 7).14). Europe. or by using ships with cables attached to sensors that are towed just above the continental shelf. Such measurements are made with sensitive magnetic field sensors carried through a grid pattern by researchers while walking over the area or by flying over it in airplanes (aeromagnetics) in low-altitude grid patterns (Figure 2.1 Fields Making a Difference 37 FIGURE 2.
Then the search is sharpened with complex seismic modeling of the region's responses to the passage of the explosion's sound waves. National solar-terrestrial disturbance forecasting centers provide the geophysi- . Seismologists set small explosions and read the delay time for the sound reflections from the subsurface layers. p. wise surveyors delay their work until the quieter periods return so that the natural magnetic noise (see Figure 1. an even greater resolution of the Earth's crust substructure is obtained (see Section 5.2.14 I~ Mineral exploration programs rely on aeromagneticmeasurements of the crustal magnetic anomalies to reveal the subsurface geology.13) does not dominate their magnetic recordings. magnetic and magnetotelluric charts show the deep crustal geological features and potential economically important mineral sites. All the information is assembled to reveal the location of major mineral emplacements. (magnetotelluric method) over a survey area. To the experienced eye of the exploration geophysicist. The valuable Alaskan north-slope oil fields were first delineated using aeromagnetic surveys.3. During naturally occurring magnetic disturbances.38 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. 128).
aeromagnetic surveys located the 120-mile-diameter crater carved by the asteroid that covered the Earth with a . iron nails. The search for and discovery of other than mineral deposits also depend on the magnetic surveys. and construction braces that were used on the old ships (Figure 2.15 I~ Example of an aeromagnetic map of ocean-surface field changes that revealed an ancient sunken sailing ship near the ocean's continental coast. Even sixteenthcentury sunken galleons of the Caribbean have been located using aeromagnetic charts responding to the field effects of metal armament. In 1991.15). cists with predictions of quiet magnetic periods. Buried archeological formations can be mapped (archaeomagnetism) when the ancient building materials have magnetic properties differing from the local environment. just north of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Shading indicates contours of similar field strength. The Roman walls in England have been outlined using surface magnetic survey mapping.1 Fields Making a Difference 39 FIGURE 2.Section 2. We will examine the sources of magnetic disturbances later in our tour (Chapter 4).
at least two measurement sites are used.1 gamma. Unfortunately. or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves (at different distances relative to the two observatories) before an eruption (Figure 2. Usually much shorter distances are used and the total-field component or the into-the-Earth component of magnetic field is measured with instruments sensitive to changes greater than 0. Movement of a rock's magnetic domain boundaries (or the rotation of the magnetization within the boundaries) under external stress can cause .16). Then when different size signals are recorded at the two sites. As a result. Two examples of small-amplitude (under 10 gammas) local field changes that have been reported as resulting from this tectonomagnetic effect are" 1. Magnetic signals arise from an alteration in the Earth's electrical conductivity. Today. field effects can be detected when there is a major change in the groundwater content at a deep subsurface fracture near one of the observatories but not the other.1. For their detection. For example. For example. requiring exact knowledge of the early geomagnetic field alignment and reference field models that need to be extended back to the original land survey date by the geomagnetic specialist. In early North American land exploration and development. This was particularly true in the gold and silver mining regions of the United States during the late nineteenth century. separated by a distance that is short with respect to the height of conducting upper-atmospheric layers near 100 kilometers (63 miles). a local effect is verified.40 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields vegetation-destroying dust and resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. skewed compass lines of ownership demarcation appear on the property maps of those days. a separation of one-tenth of the 100-km (63-mile) ionospheric height (see Chapter 3) gives a maximum suitable measurement separation of about 10 km (6 miles). mineral-rich mountain areas typically abound in magnetic field anomalies that arise from buried magnetic materials. 2. local boundaries often depended on directions given by compass readings alone. the reestablishment of the old mining boundaries is often a difficult process. 2.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust Some rare changes in the Earth's structure or composition that occur within a short period of time can produce corresponding changes in the locally measured magnetic field. after adjusting for geological site differences. This separation is designed to assure the observers that the flow of high-altitude localized variation currents and geomagnetic pulsations arising in the Earth's upper atmosphere are recorded similarly at the two locations.
For example. and such records have been misrepresented as a piezomagnetic event.1. Dissections show that honey bees have naturally formed . p.1 Fields Making a Difference 41 FIGURE 2.2. changes in magnetization. but have yet to be conclusively found (see Section 2. Magnetic effects associated with the stress buildup preceding an earthquake have been sought as a quakeforecasting signal. 66).16 I~ A change in the difference of field measured for two locations near a volcano can disclose conductivity changes due to magma motion preceding an eruption. At the time of earthquakes. apparent signals have been generated by the physical vibration of the quake-site magnetometers.Section 2. 2. this piezomagnetic effect could occur as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber pressure on the surrounding rock material.3.6 Biomagnetism Honey bees that have discovered a suitable flower patch perform a dance pattern upon returning to their hive to describe the new flower source location to their companions.
The well-known sea travelers whales. the crystals form long magnets with the north pole toward their front to orient their swimming direction.42 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. spinning in random orientation. magnetic material in their stomachs. The atomic nuclei of these hydrogen atoms are protons. Inside these pond bacteria. mainly in molecules of the body's soft tissue. pond bacteria have been discovered that naturally grow magnetic crystals aligned with the long axis of their body (Figure 2. The scientists concluded that the bees use the local magnetic field as one of their sources of orientation. These bacteria orient their swimming with respect to the Earth's local field direction.7 Medicine The human body contains a great many hydrogen atoms. In other studies. The oriented spinning protons behave as synchronized (resonant) microscopic magnetic dipole fields.17).1. Biological researchers. Blakemore. green turtles. which precess together with a period determined by the applied magnetic field (much like the familiar spinning-top precession in the . and tunas have brains containing magnetic crystals suspended by fine fibers that may be part of their navigation sensing mechanism.13).0003% of these protons can be made to align their natural spin when an intense magnetic field is applied about a patient for the imaging of the body's interior. Because of evidence that homing pigeons use the Earth's magnetic field as part of their navigation sense. using a large loop antenna. blue marlins. Salmon have been shown to alter their swimming direction when scientists artificially modified the local magnetic field directions. 2. organized rallies for homing pigeon races are cancelled when there is a forecast of natural geomagnetic field disturbances (such as Figure 1.17 1~ Magnetite crystals grown by aquatic bacteria were discovered in Massachusetts by R. dolphins. Approximately 0. artificially modified the magnetic field direction in the region of a hive and found that the returning bees make a corresponding flight change in their dance pattern.
live pictures of the functioning human body interior are obtained (Figure 2.Section 2.f. Physicists call this process nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning or imaging.) electromagnetic signal pulse is next introduced to purposely disturb the proton-aligned precession. With instantaneous computer modeling (called tomographic analysis) of the magnetometer received signals. pulse. The harmless MRI scans can reconstruct excellent patient soft-tissue pictures at almost any desired artificial body slice. A brief radio frequency (r.18). . occasionally. Hospitals call the procedure MR Imaging because.1 Fields Making a Difference 43 FIGURE 2. pull of a gravitational field). A large number of receiver magnetometer coils then measure the time for the protons to realign their spin precession and release energy obtained from that r. Each group of similar body cells has its own density of hydrogen atoms and characteristic strength of the precession response.18 I~ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the fields from the synchronous spinning protons in the body aligned by an intense magnetic field.f. apprehensive individuals wrongly associate the word "nuclear" with radioactivity. The applied magnetic field and the nuclear spin alignment are perfectly harmless to living organisms. and analyzed by computers. detected by magnetometers.
8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) We know that two dipole magnets attract or repel (see Figure 1. For propulsion.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. Electric current flow causes magnetic fields. The creation of extremely strong electromagnets depends on super-high electric currents. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. This suspension is called magnetic levitation. Fields from cryogenic electromagnets are used to support the weight of the train and provide lateral guidance along its channel guideway so that it experiences frictionless movement. Master controls excite the necessary electromagnets as the trains moves.19). An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2. 2.1. Fivecar maglev trains have obtained speeds of over 340 mph (550 km/hr). electromagnets spaced along the sides of the guideway provide attracting fields to pull and repelling fields to push the train along. For now. or maglev for short. consider the fact that during major magnetic storms. Draw the field directions for the two adjacent dipole magnets and see how the direction of the force on the poles means that similarly directed magnetic fields repel and two oppositely directed magnetic fields link together to attract the dipole magnets. maglev trains have been developed. The force of magnetic repulsion can be used to overcome the force of gravity so that a heavy magnetized object can be suspended in air over a magnetized base when the fields from the two are similarly directed.2) depending on whether the two adjacent magnet polarities are different or alike. NASA is experimenting with maglev propulsion for initial track launch of its space vehicles. . We defer our detailed look at these special solarterrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. Wire resistance limits the current flow. using these field techniques. However. In recent years. man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways. In March 2000.1. NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region. at the very lowest temperatures (called cryogenic temperatures) wire resistance fades away. to obtain a high speed before the ignition of the rockets. Recall that field directions are defined as the direction that an isolated north pole would move.44 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 2. allowing engineers to design electromagnets with immense fields.
On occasions following a great magnetic storm. over a 1000 working satellites and bits of space debris are temporarily lost. The resulting changed drag on the satellites makes them suddenly deviate appreciably from their expected orbital positions. . Everest use oxygen masks. Following magnetic storms. Our Earth's atmosphere is held in place by the same gravitational pull that holds our feet to the ground.Section 2. technicians at the tracking installations must scramble to correct the disrupted orbital predictions.1 Fields Making a Difference 45 FIGURE 2. for example). the high region of the Earth's ever-circling satellites contains enough atmospheric molecules to slightly slow the forward motion of a satellite and change its orbit.19 I~ Particlesand fields from the Sun initiate geomagnetic storms on the Earth. Engineers design onboard jets to regularly compensate for this normal air drag and reestablish the satellite's prescribed position. More than 9000 artificial objects in space are tracked to prevent collisions with working spacecraft and to warn nations of undesirable impacts with the Earth by fragments that will not disintegrate upon reentry through the lower atmosphere. Although the air thins rapidly with increasing altitude (most climbers of Mt. The heating of our distant atmosphere by magnetic storm currents during solar-terrestrial disturbances can modify the usual atmospheric density.
46 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. A solar-terrestrial disturbance in May 1998 temporarily disabled the Galaxy 4 satellite. Energetic charged particles. During geomagnetic storm periods. During major geomagnetic storms. U. when destructive very-high-energy particles are involved in the penetration of the magnetosphere. The bombarding particles can directly hit an onboard computer element (Figure 2.20 I~ Location of UoSat-2 satellite memory upsets recorded between September 1988 and May 1992. such . captured by the Earth's magnetic field during magnetic storms. Surrey Space Center. the increased number of particles in space. have caused failures that completely disable the electronics of expensive satellites. Solar panels provide electrical energy for most working satellites.K. upsetting program memory control. A spark from an accumulated static charge buildup on critical materials can ruin the satellite's electrical system. Less numerous upsets in the polar regions are caused by bombarding cosmic-ray particles guided by the Earth's field. astronauts are required to withdraw to the innermost regions of their spacecraft. blanking out 80% of telephone-pager customers in the United States. Figure supplied by Craig Underwood. naturally organized in their travel by the Earth's main magnetic field. More damage occurs near years of maxima in the 11-year solar activity cycles because of a corresponding increase in magnetic storms.20). Note the concentration near the South Atlantic-South America magnetic field anomaly region. The Apollo astronauts were lucky to not have received a lethal dose of radiation in their Moon voyage. Passengers of high-flying supersonic jet airplanes (such as the Concord) could be exposed to this unhealthy storm-time radiation. A prematurely aged power-supply panel shortens a satellite's effective lifetime. bombard the solar panels and erode the satellite's electrical production efficiency.
manned satellites are typically routed to avoid this main field region.1 Fields Making a Difference 47 FIGURE 2. Figure prepared by John Quinn of the USGS.21) concentrates trapped particles closer to the Earth. planes are required to descend to sheltering lower altitudes during threatening conditions. Particle impacts (Figure 2. To avoid unhealthy exposure. the Hubble Space Telescope instruments are switched off during passage through this anomaly. engineers are required to design measures that protect the satellite's operation from these induced currents and the resulting magnetic fields. Field levels are in gammas and contour lines are separated by 1000 gammas. To lessen the damage to its systems. the orbit and speed of the satellite.21 I~ A global representation of the total main magnetic field for the year 2000. principally from about 90 to 600 kilometers (56 to 375 miles). Electric currents are induced to flow in the conducting metal parts of a satellite as it moves through the natural space fields. and its electronic configuration. Interference with Communication and Navigation Radiowave communication around the world depends on the bouncing of signals between the conducting Earth and the ionized layer (ionosphere) that surrounds the Earth in the upper atmosphere.Section 2. The ionization represents positively and negatively charged particles that are usually produced from neutral air molecules by the arrival of the Sun's strong ultraviolet radiation. Note the significant minimum at the border of South America near the south Atlantic Ocean. During a mag- .20) can be particularly important in the upper atmospheric location over the western South Atlantic-South America region where the Earth's low-field anomaly (Figure 2. Using their knowledge of such things as the behavior of the Earth's main field.
In recent years. and pager service signals all have been scrambled or removed from effective operation during intense magnetic storms because of the satellite dysfunctions and signal transmission problems (Figure 2. These signals. netic storm. and then degraded or lost. Worldwide telephone. and at lower latitudes the quality of radio communications can be considerably decreased. The disturbance currents at the auroral and polar latitudes can even make a simple compass needle at the Earth's surface vary notfceably from its usual pointing direction. the developed countries have become more dependent on satellite signals for communication. fax. the local ionosphere is often greatly modified and becomes dominated by strong electric currents. At such times. high-latitude radiowave communication can be completely blacked-out. .22). Both communications routes can suffer when the ionosphere is disturbed by a geomagnetic storm. also can be scattered as they try to pass from the satellite through a disturbed ionosphere to the ground receiver. although at higher frequencies than radiowaves (and usually unaffected by the ionosphere).48 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2.22 I~ Long-distance radiowave signals bounce off the ionosphere. At high-latitude locations when auroral displays (Plate 5) accompany the geomagnetic storms. higher-frequency satellite signals pass through the ionosphere. the ionosphere can become so disturbed that radiowave signals are scattered.
fisherman. For navigation purposes. Severe geomagnetic storms can cause ionospheric effects that interfere with the reception of the satellite signals on Earth. The GPS is used by a variety of people--scientists. Such .1 Fields Making a Difference 49 FIGURE 2.S. together with the ground receivers.23 II~ A geomagnetic storm can degrade the location accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites circling at 20.200 km (about 12. the United States maintains a family of 24 satellites in orbit at 20. hikers. radiowave-signal transmitter satellites. The GPS allows users to find their time. and altitude at any spot on Earth via a reception from just four of the satellites. Soon U. constitute a Global Positioning System (GPS). Defense Department which funded the system.600 miles) above the Earth (Figure 2. commercial airplanes will be relying on GPS systems for flight directions and airport traffic control. longitude.Section 2.625 mi) above the Earth. These clock-synchronized.S. and the U.200 km (12.23). hunters. latitude. ship captains.
127). such as northern Europe. during major magnetic storms. p. a secondary field is induced to flow in the conductor.2. Earth Conductivity Applying special mathematical techniques. and the northern United States. magnetic field sensors detect the sum of the external (source) and the internal (induced) magnetic fields. show a voltage difference that can measure the electric counterpart of the magnetic changes (see Section 5. Canada.1.10 Field Induction Responses When a field variation occurs outside an electrical conductor. in some situations. The magnetic storm field variations induce undesirable currents to flow in these long conducting transmission lines (Figure 2. 128). researchers have used a combination of the measurements of the short period. with every changing magnetic field there exists a companion changing electric field. We call the pair electromagnetic (e. The longer the oscillation period of the source field. the deeper that this field penetrates into the conducting material.1. Electric Power Systems Electric power lines are interconnected throughout broad areas of the United States to share loads during special times. the nearer to the region of auroras.50 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields disturbances. causing extensive electric power failures . At high-latitude locations. by nature. With continental-size measurements of the daily variation field. The science of physics tells us that. the greater the induced fields. such as differing peak-power periods or local hot weather. Magnetotelluric surveys have become an important part of most crustal geology studies (see Section 5.25). naturally varying magnetic fields together with their companion electrical fields (magnetotelluric method) for local Earth-crust resistivity (1/conductivity) determinations. At the surface of the conducting Earth. such as the geomagnetic storm field above the conducting Earth. such as lead electrodes buried in the ground at a set distance apart. In general.24).m. the induced magnetic fields have damaged expensive transformers of the interconnected power systems. high energy-demand occasions. scientists have produced a profile of the increasing Earth conductivity reaching into the upper mantle to depths of about 650 km (410 miles)--a little over one-tenth the way to the Earth's highly conducting center (Figure 2. can produce position errors of up to several tens of meters.3. or em) fields. A pair of electric field probes. 2. Scientists call the source variation the external field and call the induced field the internal field.3. p.
some messages have been reduced to whispers. and a knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter.1 .4 I I I I .3 Conductivity (ohm-meter) "1 I .24 I~ The Earth's electrical conductivity increases rapidly with depth.1 Fields Making a Difference 51 I 100 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i m 200 A Upper Mantle E 300 a cI 400 . Six million people were affected by that power outage. geophysicists have learned the structure and composition of the Earth's regions that are completely inaccessible in any other way.2 . at great inconvenience and expense to the public. or complete blackout. Canada. .5 FIGURE 2. laboratory testing.- Lower Mantle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . long-distance telephone and fax communications (by overland and underwater cables) can be disrupted. static. Long-Wire Communications During severe magnetic storms. At such times.:Section 2. Using this conductivity information together with seismic records. Outage problems occur as the disturbed rapid variations in geomagnetic field induce undesirable stray currents in the long telephone-wire connections that are the typical part of the full origin-to-reception communication system.- 500 600 700 0 - 0 . An intense magnetic storm in 1989 was responsible for a 9-hour electric blackout throughout Qu6bec Province. and extensive power grid damage that spread through the northeastern Unitd States.
the induced storm currents can cause pipes to corrode at the ever-present small holes in the protective plastic pipe coating. gas. where the unwanted currents enter and leave the pipe (Figure 2. The size of the protective current is established by the corrosion engineers during their scheduled pipeline maintenance visits. If the engineer's measurements are made during magnetic storm conditions.26). and water (Figure 2. and long oil. . improper FIGURE 2. corrosion engineers purposely force protective currents on pipelines in a direction that will cancel undesirable corrosive currents. At low latitudes. and water pipelines. telephone lines. These transient currents add to those caused by a battery-like action from pipeline grounding in differing soil types and to the induced currents from man-made electrical systems. At high latitudes where the magnetic storm-time currents are strongest.52 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields Pipeline Corrosion We also find induced magnetic storm currents flowing in long regional steel pipelines for oil.25).25 I~ During a geomagnetic storm the upper atmospheric currents at high latitudes induce unwanted disturbance currents in electric power transmission lines. gas.
alert engineers first obtain g e o m a g n e t i c activity forecasts of quiet conditions from national space-disturbance monitoring centers before embarking on a m e a s u r e m e n t tour.2J Tour to the Boundaries 2. The central section of the pipeline.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53 0o . and possibly harmful correction currents can be applied to the pipeline.26 I~ The Alaska oil pipeline suffers enhanced corrosion caused by unwanted electric currents that are induced from the intense currents flowing in the region of the local auroras during geomagnetic storms.2. J2.1 Establishing Significance Let us pause in our tour to discuss how significant connections are established b e t w e e n natural phenomena. is particularly susceptible. We k n o w that two happenings can be related if . To avoid such problems. which almost parallels the latitudinal alignment of maximum auroral current flow. Geomagnetic latitude lines are shown from 60 to 70 ~.'~ PRUDHOEBAY ~O FAIRBANKS ~O PAXSON IPELINE ROUTE ~ OZo ~OOo GULF OF ALASKA FIGURE 2.Section 2. Local Earth-conductivity conditions are also an important factor in the corrosion.
High positive (negative) values indicate that when one thing happens the other always (never) occurs. Often it is found that the two correlated events are on different branches of a common tree. and more of those special clouds mean more admissions. Correlation Second. Smith's dog barked wildly an hour before the severe earthquake shook San Francisco does not mean that dogs can be used to predict earthquakes.4 ( . This is a value in the range from 0 to 1 (or 0 to . not that one phenomenon either causes the second to happen or is a precursor (early warning signal) of the second. the correlation technique produces only the probability that the corresponding happenings are not random (or fortuitous). Sometimes.8 (-0. D.8) or higher (lower) can point to a significant relationship. values 0. as a first step in developing the exact connection between the occurrences of two phenomena. for the paired events. Just because Mr. A zero correlation coefficient means that the two phenomena exhibit no connection at all. Cause and Effect Third. 4 ) encourage further study. it has five important features: D. For example. there must be a sufficient number of the data samples (or statistical significance) before the results can be considered worthwhile. Statistical Sampling First. On other occasions. Correlation values greater (less) than 0.1 ) . the scientists can exactly describe the physics and chemistry of the relationship and apply controlled tests to verify and understand the investigated processes.0 . The correlation coefficient can show the likelihood that either the paired events are an accidental occurrence or are co-related by some other phenomenon. In the special science of probability and statistics there are numerous methods for comparing characteristics.54 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields it is shown that when one occurs the other usually occurs and that the pair are coupled often enough that the joint happening most likely was not a random chance event. The simplest is the linear correlation coefficient method. Further study would probably show . it may be that whenever certain types of clouds appear on the western horizon there is a significant correlation with the number of admissions to city hospitals. D. A significant correlation coefficient only indicates the degree to which more research may be worthwhile. It would be silly to suppose that the clouds cause people to go to hospitals or that the hospital admissions cause the special clouds. specific mathematical test techniques need to be used. a correlation coefficient is computed from the accounting of coincident events.
for unknown reasons. 2.to l l.2 Magnetic Correlations =. However. and the solar regions of spot appearances move from higher to lower solar latitudes. The radiation changes reaching the Earth affect the climate in such a way that for many solar cycles some continental regions are dryer or wetter. during a number of consecutive cycles either the cooler spots or the activity regions remain dominant. For convenience. the sunspot recurrence is called the 11-year solar cycle. cooler or hotter. the number of sunspots increase and then decrease.27). when a personal judgment is involved in the correlation.2 Tour to the Boundaries 55 that the special clouds are indicative of imminent severe thunderstorms and that the increased hospital admissions are from car accidents related to poor visibility and slippery roads in the ensuing bad weather. For example. Statistical significance is then required of the true item. Such tests are designed to overcome biased psychological responses.2. Double Blind Fourth. special doubleblind tests are required in the acquisition of data because the human desire to show something does (or doesn't) happen can affect the apparent outcome of a study.2-year cycle of sunspots (Figure 2. for ingested chemicals. Models of the biological. the regions of the Sun's surface near the spots are more active. when there is a maximum in sunspot occurrence. The reason for the climate response has been ascribed to a change in the balance of solar radiation.5. giving off less radiation than the average solar surface. whether there are attending unwanted side effects). Scientists try to determine if the correlated phenomena are in a cause-and-effect relationship or whether they result from a common cause.Section 2. when a true relationship is found. During the Sun's cycle. known from a secret list. in tune with the 11-year cycle. Studies have shown that. physical. Sunspot regions are cooler. Weather and Climate Scientists have established a climate correlation with the 10. Both the person giving the test and those taking the test (the double-blind feature) do not know whether the given object is a valid test item or an imitation. Modeling Fifth. and chemical processes are examined for an explanation of the relationship so that its full understanding can become a useful part of world knowledge. the sunspot cycle appears in the amplitude of the annual flooding of . scientists concern themselves with the reason for such established connections between phenomena (and.
the Nile River and in the occurrence of special Ethesian winds over Athens. . Researchers have studied the increase in area of solar coronal holes (regions of singular solar field polarity) that occurs most often during sunspot minimum.27 I~ Sunspots and their nearby regions of granulation.56 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. However. They have found a correspondence with the cooling of the Earth's lower atmosphere by about 2 degrees below that region's temperature at sunspot maximum. some scientists have questioned whether a causeeffect relationship exists for this correlation because so many other solar changes are transpiring. Geomagnetic disturbances on Earth have a similar 11-year cycle. Greece. A part of the Earth's recurring climate change can be ascribed to a modulation of the solar radiation output associated with the 11-year cycle of sunspots and their adjacent active regions.
beginning in 1276. result from these solarterrestrial disturbances and represent the flow of a variety of strong currents of particles through locations prescribed by the unique design of the Earth's field in space and the upper-atmospheric ionosphere. Because low crop yields could not meet the population demand. Tree-ring dating (the measurement of the annual growth-ring spacing along a radius of the tree's trunk) tells us that in Mexico and southwestern United States.28 I~ Mesa Verde Indian sites were abandoned because of an extended drought that lasted two full sunspot cycles.28). Intense electric currents are guided along the Earth's . recorded at world magnetic observatories. We shall see. are now both a major tourist attraction and stark evidence of the sunspot-climate connection. Geomagnetic storms. These ancient dwellings (Figure 2. Some scientists have looked at these processes as triggers for weather changes on Earth.Section 2. Unique low-pressure areas in the polar regions often develop a few days following magnetic storms. near the end of that long drought period the Anasazi Mesa Verde Indians abandoned their cliff dwellings and migrated to other more fertile farmlands. in Chapter 4 that the solar-terrestrial outbursts of particles and fields coincide with the l 1-year sunspot activity cycle.2 Tour to the Boundaries 57 FIGURE 2. there occurred two consecutive l 1-year solar cycles of dry climate. preserved by their unique cliff locations in southwest Colorado.
4.1. containing ferric iron deposits. .29 I~ Circles show the magnetic field pattern resulting from stimulation of the little finger. Human Responses to Magnetic Fields It is well known that electric currents and fields are part of the human biological design. careful dissections have shown that bones from the sinus regions of humans are magnetic. Sensitive magnetometers. 111). and Brenner in 1997 Naval Research Reviews.58 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields field lines at high latitudes and cause heating in the high atmosphere and a world-traveling pressure wave. Such evidence has encouraged medical scientists to search for possible physiological or psychological human reactions to the natural magnetic field and its variations. an infrasonic (much below audible frequencies) pressure wave moves in the atmospheric region near the Earth to low-latitude locations (see Section 4. In addition. measuring the magnetic fields from the brain. Figure adapted from Williamson. p. Kaufman.29). Originating in the auroral region. have identified response regions corresponding to stimulated areas of the body (Figure 2. Large arrow indicates the assumed current direction consistent with the observed fields. Other brain locations corresponding to stimulated areas of the body are indicated. FIGURE 2.
There was no biomagnetic field effect on this scientist.2 Tour to the Boundaries 59 Articles have appeared in the scientific literature indicating that relationships have been found between magnetic field disturbances and human behavior.10). the increase in psychiatric patient agitation at a mental asylum.30) was established because of Chapman's research interests. when magnetic field recording instruments showed large solar-terrestrial storms with spectacular magnetic field displays. although unrelated. . an equinoctial (March and September) enhancement of magnetic activity occurs because of the seasonal alignment of the Earth with respect to solar particle outflow. l 1-year solar-cycle changes in geomagnetic activity. 2. Random associations can occur. specialized in studies of ionospheric and solar-terrestrial effects during his long lifetime. 5.5) correlation between the number of his publications and magnetic activity (Figure 2. Sydney Chapman (Figure 1. A famous and prolific space scientist. the number of publications by active scientists. there are certainly well-known. the two can display a false correlation. the number of heart attacks. Also. However. Here are two illustrations of misleading biomagnetism correlations. will show a significant value. But that may be jumping to an easy but incorrect conclusion. the number of convulsive seizures. The tests have only tried to establish a probability that the correspondence of two events is not random. He was most interested in publishing journal articles during those years near sunspot maxima. the number of admissions to mental hospitals. or annual change for some simple reason (other than geomagnetism) the computation of the correlation coefficient for the two processes. although a significant (0. and 6. And there is a summer-to-winter change in the magnetic field level due to the changing solar exposure of the Earth's field in space. When a behavior that is to be compared to magnetic activity has a solar-cycle. The implication of all these correlations is that the magnetic field modifies the human mental and biological processes. Nevertheless. scientific tests under controlled environmental conditions have yet to show conclusively that humans can detect magnetic fields. when two phenomena have similar cycles in activity for unrelated reasons (and the two are investigated over that same time period). variations in the global geomagnetic field level has been correlated with: 1. the number of ambulance calls for stroke or heart attack. For example. Also. 3.Section 2. seasonal. 4.
2. 2. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite . Magnetic Termites Although bees respond to fields. Chapman's publications and the yearly means of sunspot numbers from 1910 through 1967. and at the Cape York peninsula.ID t I''lll''l "TII 20 iI ~_ :3 z loo E I I o Q.31). The false relationship appeared because there was an unrelated seasonal similarity in the magnetic activity and the labor demands on the farmers.-~ !. there is a corresponding increase in magnetic activity near the equinoxes. As another example.lll ~ '.l 1960 ~/! "~ 0 o 0 1910 tl 1920 R 1930 llll 1940 Years 1950 FIGURE 2.3 Pseudoscience.. India. A positive correlation was reported between the geomagnetic activity index and heart-attack admissions to hospitals serving that farming community.I ~. oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 ~ east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2. One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin. ~ . in its yearly orbit about the Sun.~'. . t %ISsI ~ r \ ~ I~ la ~ . the Earth. magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects. it was found that more hospital admissions for heart attacks occurred near Hyderabad. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall. is better aligned to the particles and fields coming from the Sun during March and September each year. Old Wives' Tales. Also.30 I~ A correlation of the yearly number of S. it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense. when farmers were working hard at special agriculturally demanding (planting and harvest) seasons of the year. at Arnhem Land.' I. and Frauds I.60 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the I'llll30 Fields 300flll'l'lllll'tllllllll'''llll'l'''lllllll 2001-tD . therefore. %. Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north.
these termites deal with the large daily above-ground temperature fluctuations with a mound orientation that keeps the eastern face of each mound near an optimum temperature. The word mesmerize originated in that period. constructions. P. Unable to escape to the more uniform temperature of underground galleries during the wet season. For entertaining reading about history of this magnetic fad see J. In shaded regions (with more trees or regular cloud cover) or regions with locally prevailing winds.Section 2. mixed the application of magnets with hypnosis to convince patients of miraculous magnetic cures--until more reasonable minds (including Benjamin Franklin) exposed his fakery. increasing the eastern-face warming by the morning Sun. Livingston's The Driving Force (Har- . allowing it to rapidly warm after sunrise following a cold night. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). Body Magnets Magnetic therapy reached a peak in Europe in the late eighteenth century. A then-popular Viennese physician. All the cemetery-like mounds are restricted to regions of seasonally flooded alluvial plains.2 Tour to the Boundaries 61 FIGURE 2.31 I~ Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 ~ east of geographic north because of climatic conditions. about the time of the American Revolution. B. not because of the magnetic field direction. the mounds are oriented on a more north-south axis.
stop headaches. creating heat that soothes pain and swelling.7. shoe innersoles. pillows. However. ." The advertisements promise that magnets "free up the flow of energy. p. bracelets. beautiful.32 I~ Healthmagnets are part of a recurring fad and are said to alleviate pain ("without a knife or a pill") in spite of the fact that the application of magnets has yet to be shown to be a valid health remedy using the type of controlled testing that meets established scientific medical standards. 1996). the MRI described in Section 2. The magnets are said to be a time-honored. It is true that a small electric field properly applied across a bone fracture can speed the healing process. There are indications that external magnetic fields can have minute responses in the body (e. with the promise that "strong.29). That author tells of London's "Celestial Bed" (containing 1500 pounds of magnets) where. sleeping pads. vard University Press. and even remove facial wrinkles (Figure 2. revitalizing the area" and "induce current into iron-rich red blood cells (hemoglobin). for a princely sum. health-food stores." Magnetic finger rings." In recent years there has been a resurgence of health-magnet nonsense.1. such evidence has yet to translate into the glorious remedies promised by the health-magnet salesmen. reduce food cravings. and tabloids have focused on the selling of "the healing power of magnets.g. and body plasters are all for sale to a gullible public.32).. cure insomnia. alleviate arthritis.62 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields FIGURE 2. nay doubly-distilled children must infallibly be begotten. suppress coughing. knee braces. newlyweds could spend their nuptial night. direct-marketing outlets. Magnetic fields have also been associated with our brain and nerve activity (Figure 2. long-proven treatment by world physicians to increase blood circulation. Some department stores. cervical collars. 42).
statistically significant." =. Such advertisements are a clear warning that a strong sales pitch is being used to support faulty conclusions. the divining rod would tap out the depth (in feet) to the water source. Sales depend on questionable testimonials. Water Improvement Magazines of modern gadgetry advertise special magnets to be applied to household plumbing as an inexpensive replacement for costly water-softener equipment." Tests of the method. and desperation of the gullible public. I talked to one witch who had an interesting capability. Health improvements do occur for some users--simply because. shaped either like a large letter "Y" or "L". When I asked whether his divining in France would tap out feet or meters. the prestigious School of Public Health at the University of California. who profess to have the ability to locate groundwater. is a wooden branch or a metal wire rod (often a wire coat-hanger). The advertisements feed on the fear. The responsible American Medical Association requires careful. or reference to a medical journal article. "Everyone knows that water can conduct electricity. using "radio frequency electromagnetic (em) induction energy" to remedy hard water problems was also found (by thorough Consumers Union tests) to be a worthless addition to the home. called a divining rod. he replied "I don't know about that meters stuff.33). Berkeley. Tests in 1996 by the Consumers Union in United States showed that the application of such magnets to reduce water scaling and promote soft water does nothing of the sort. double-blind testing to validate and approve new health remedies.Section 2. when examined. describes a test that fails to meet adequate standards of proof. allusions to ancient "proven" oriental medical practices. Not one of the magnetic health devices has passed such tests. the individual faith in an application produces some favorable reaction (placebo effect). Held tightly in the hands of the witch." Some witches. Water Witching or Divining The universal tool of almost all water witches or diviners. trying to establish a pseudoscientific basis to the procedure. untraceable references to endorsements by some "respected" foreign medical testing laboratories. say. by itself. A similar add-on system for water pipes. The search is usually for a waterwell site or a location of buried water pipes. under tightly controlled field . the pointing end is said to be magnetically pulled down toward the region of the ground where the desired water is located (Figure 2. which. so it is the magnetism of the water that pulls the divining rod. advises readers to "Put your magnets on the fridge. suffering. In his hands.2 Tour to the Boundaries 63 Health magnets have all the features of a pseudomedical hoax. my rod always gives the feet down to the 89 for a 89 tap water depth. In their Health News Letter of May 1999.
The gathering of thunderstorm clouds near a particular region can depend on the unique mountain range topography. 1 Focusing of Lightning While visiting Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. has nothing to do with rock magnetism. I joined a ranger-led group for an explanation of the local geology. "The special magnetic properties of that mountain's rocks are well known.html. the ranger pointed to a particular peak to the west and said. 1See the website http://www.33 1~ Water witching works when there is prior knowledge of local water depths or when any spot in the area would be equally successful.com/dousing. with a statistically significant number of examples. predominant weather front directions. While discussing the beautiful mountain backdrop of Jackson Lake. . in truth. have all shown that water witching is pure nonsense.64 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields f J FIGURE 2." Such a belief is another old wives tale to explain a process that. Such effects often concentrate the thunder clouds and lightning strikes toward certain peaks. The procedure is successful only by random luck. but magnetism is not the responsible agent. Magnetism has no role in the divining. During a thunderstorm there is always a clear focusing of the lightning strikes to that particular peak. or when choosing any spot in the area would be equally successful in finding water. conditions.skeptic. recurring surface heating. Each of the mountain peaks in that area of the park is made of the same geological material. when the witch has prior knowledge of local waterwell depths. and local prevailing winds.
34 I~ No unique magnetic fields occur in the region of the Bermuda Triangle. 2See the website http://skepdic. in fact.Section 2. writers have also grossly distorted the incidence of military plane loss in that triangle. Florida.html.34). 2 Responsible analysis of the evidence shows that the only true mystery is why some of the public persists in believing this foolishness. usually magnetic. the number of ships and planes lost within the Bermuda Triangle is not unusual. To create even more mystery. have caused the disappearance of ships and planes since records have beeen kept. hazily defined by Bermuda. This is the region where overzealous authors have insisted that mysterious forces. Serious researchers have proved that.2 Tour to the Boundaries 65 FIGURE 2. and Puerto Rico (Figure 2. following Columbus's voyage of discovery.com/bermuda. . ~. not unusual. Modern magnetic charts show that there is most certainly no unique geomagnetic field observed in that ocean region. given the weather and traffic. the number of lost ships and planes in that area is. Given the weather and traffic. Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields The Bermuda Triangle is an ocean area.
They explain that because fields are induced into the Earth at depths corresponding to the earthquake region. their written reports indicate to other scientists that fields from various upper-atmospheric current sources and site noise are being identified as the earthquake precursors. although the island's name remains. Dewey of the USGS. some temporary shifting of metal objects aboard Cook's ship caused his compass problem. Unfortunately. magnetic field sensors should show the precursor conditions that cause destructive earthquakes.66 Chapter 2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields A Magnetic Island is located just offshore from Townsville. ~. Australia. . who thought his ship's compass behaved wildly near that location. Chinese prediction proponents have admitted that the method cannot be exactly described because only "experienced" personnel can make the fore- FIGURE 2. Captain James Cook. Most likely. It was named in 1770 by the famous explorer. Earthquake Predictions In recent years. Nicaragua earthquake photo by J. Scientists have found no unique field in the region to justify Cook's report. The people making the predictions use regional differences in the level changes of the field component into the Earth to determine numbers that they relate to induction mathematics and magnetic disturbance indices. workers at the Chinese State Seismological Bureau have professed their ability to use magnetic field variation records to predict earthquakes.35 I~ Neitherbarking dogs nor magnetic fields predict earthquakes.
including the even greater nonsense that there is a magnetic signal for the prediction of droughts and floods. Occasionally. 63-67. but the many failures are rarely mentioned. the Chinese blame numerous causes. although a clearly random coincidence. Earthquakes are such a chaotic process that long-term prediction is "an inherently unrealizable goal"* (Figure 2. monies that could more realistically satisfy valid community needs.2 Tour to the Boundaries 67 cast. 1997. Am. The mass media favor the predictor because there is a promise of disaster relief. the occasional fortuitous prediction success. Union 78. signals that forecast earthquakes.Section 2. is published and touted in the news media. Eos Trans. almost all quake predictions are unfulfilled. . The public suffers from the misuse of public funds on pseudoscience. The threat of natural disasters in populated areas has generated a willingness for funding agencies to support such pseudoscientific forecasting efforts. Geophys. Therefore. For these.m. J. *Geller. Distinguished seismologists at international meetings have shown that all such earthquake warnings have about the same success rates as that expected from matched random occurrences. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable. Of course. citizens of other nations have "discovered" magnetic or e. R.35).
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in some regular and predictable fashion when the stormy winds of activity are absent. The word "dynamic" is used because we have evidence that the source of the Earth's main field is slowly changing. every day of the year. Generated by dynamic processes. this main field extends out into surrounding space and has the shape of a distorted dipole field. We will look at the magnetic pole locations marked on global maps and learn why there are so many different reported positions. We will sail into this part of our tour with an examination of the cause of the Earth's main field. Our visit to the regularly appearing fields includes an examination of the second most important undisturbed field. The principal field contributor arises deep in the Earth's interior. This chapter ends with a description of special polar-region fields. Sq arises from a daily variation of current systems driven by winds and tides in the sunward side of the upper atmosphere. a variation called Sq for the solar quiet conditions during which this field is most prominent. Our Earth's quiet field seems to be almost alive. so that the pole locations gradually move westward over the years. changing in differing ways at the many special regions about the Earth.Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Our magnetic tour will now look at those natural magnetic fields that are expected to occur everywhere about the Earth. the magnetosphere. 69 .
35) has shown that the north and south magnetic poles have reversed many times over the last hundred-million-year record of continental Earth history. the seismologists have been able to prove that the outer-core region of the Earth. between depths of about 2700 and 5200 km (1700 to 3200 miles). They describe a gravitational accretion process near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that drives electric currents to become organized into a giant loop by the Earth's spin and spherical shape. Using the recordings of earthquake signals that have traveled through the Earth. 4. There is sufficient reason to believe that the main magnetic field we observe at the Earth's surface and in near space must be due to current systems deep within the Earth. Paleomagnetic evidence (see Section 2. Crustal magnetization cannot give rise to the main field. The field from such an outer-core current loop has the same form as a dipole magnet (Figure 3. Although a simple reversal of ring current in the conducting Earth material can reverse the poles. 3. a rigid Earth magnet cannot model such a change. the Curie Temperature (see Section 2. Recall that this is the temperature at which any large-scale solid-magnet properties are scrambled. p.3. is a hot and dense liquid of highly conducting nickeliron (Figure 3. but the absence .2 and Plate 8). Researchers continue to create elaborate computer models of the Earth's internal dynamo region.1). 2. An inventory of all magnetized materials in the Earth's crust shows them to be of insufficient magnitude to account for the Earth's main field. there are five good reasons given by scientists to show that a solid magnet cannot cause that field: 1. 31) is reached for iron and magnetite. A dipole field has the same form whether it comes from a solid bar magnet with separated north and south poles or from a ring of current flowing about a given area. but not solid material.5). p. it has been apparent that the pole locations have been drifting westward. Paleomagneticians have devised a dynamo theory for the generation of the main field in this region. Since the time when the first records of magnetic declination were kept. a solid magnet in the Earth cannot move itself. 5. The Earth becomes more conducting and hotter toward the center at about 6371 km (3959 miles) deep. Fluids could cause this.1. Approximately 25 km (16 miles) into the crust.70 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ! 3"1 ! Inside Sources Although the shape of the Earth's main field is much like that of a giant dipole magnet (Figure 1.1.2.
Jupiter. Our Moon has no liquid core and no main field. with a direction dependent on the initial startup conditions. Disruptive eddy currents within that region can. and Neptune all have main fields and magnetospheres. destroy the organized loop current. in time. Although Mars has no such field now. of critical information about the outer core and lower mantle regions only encourages disputes. Uranus. Using the more recent main field evidence. in cycles averag- .1 I~ Regionsof the Earth's interior are identified from seismic evidence of the density (given in megagrams per cubic meter). However. scientists have found that.Section 3.1 Inside Sources 71 FIGURE 3. rock samples indicate an internal dynamo main field existed in that planet's early history. Ganymede. a moon of Jupiter. Planets and moons in our solar system display magnetic dipole fields when they are spinning and have fluid core regions. The current generated in the Earth's outer core is slowly varying. Venus also has no permanent main field. seems to display such a field. Saturn. present surface temperatures there preclude the gathering of rock samples to provide the necessary evidence of ancient magnetism. Planets Mercury.
3).2. a major outer-core current can arbitrarily form again with effective current flowing either westward or eastward--defining the same or opposite polarity pole to which our compass needle now responds.72 Chapter3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.2 I~ A loop of westward electric current at the liquid outer core creates a southward field within the Earth. For example. . we see a problem immediately. which forms the northward-directed dipole main field of the Earth. 13. There are many magnetic poles used by different groups. but instead compare a few poles that are available in the literature.1 Magnetic Poles Galore A great way to understand the main field of the Earth is to examine the magnetic pole positions that are marked on global maps. ing 200 to 250 thousand years. We are now in a period of declining main dipole field strength and overdue for a reversal. possibly the event will occur within the next few thousand years. scientists often refer to a pair of locations they call the "Geomagnetic Poles" and use the geomagnetic latitude and longitude coordinates about these poles to organize their upper atmosphere and space data (Figure 3. If we don't stop at the first chart viewing.21 Pole M a r k e r s 3.
most certainly. Rand McNally.. Most commercial world maps (e.2 Pole Markers 73 FIGURE 3." a false explanation that is reminiscent of the "magnetic mountain" model of Columbus's time.5) showing the Earth's field as an Earth-centered dipole magnet. not the important . those by National Geographic.3 I~ Curvesof geomagnetic latitude and longitude lines converge at the Geomagnetic North Pole in northwest Greenland.4) and the other is just off the Antarctic continent toward the Australian island state of Tasmania.5).g. The cartographers and news media tell us that these poles are "the locations toward which all world compasses point. It is now known that in reality there are five candidates for this important "Magnetic Pole" designation (Figure 3. it appears that the cartographers' vertical-field locations are.Section 3. To further confuse this situation. For many years following a famous 1831 discovery of the "Magnetic Pole" in northern Canada by James Clark Ross. and Hammond) indicate two unique "Magnetic Pole" positions. expensive polar magnetic expeditions have set out for the sole purpose of establishing these distant spots where the Earth's magnetic field points directly into the ground. The basis for this effect has its roots in Gilbert's 1600 textbook (Figure 1. One is in the Queen Elizabeth Islands region of northern Canada (Figure 3.
2 IGRF Main Field Poles After World War II.74 110 Chapter 3 1O0 Sailing the 90 Magnetic Seas in Calm W i n d s 80 70 ~" ' Pole . 3. pronounced "eye-yah-gah"). scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF).2." So that we can better understand this universal misconception... This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values . pole locations "to which all world compasses point.4 I~ A map of northern Canada with a dubious "North Magnetic Pole" marked in the Queen Elizabeth Islands. Figure adapted from Citation Worm Atlas. Hammond Inc. let's tour along with the scientists who measure the main field of the Earth. BAFFINBAY \ 70 ~ 5 ' t TERRITORIES FIGURE 3. a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA. As part of a special IAGA working group.
Section 3.2 Pole Markers 75 FIGURE 3. the scientists use a special mathematical technique. Field values from the irregular distribution of world observatories are connected in a way that allows an interpolated representation for all latitudes and longitudes. spherical harmonic analysis (SHA).5 I~ Five magnetic pole pairs are marked on this global map: I = International Geomagnetic Reference Field Poles. The SHA global analysis of the field uses all the reliable magnetic measurements around the Earth.6).8) of Germany. called Gauss coefficients. The work is revisited every five years to accommodate the gradual changing main-field behavior. The SHA analysis method fits that representation of the magnetic field with the harmonic series of spherical oscillations (Figure 3. Because the magnetic measurements surround the Earth (inside this surface is a volume that contains all the internal field contributions). To prepare the model fields. when additional recovered data become available. intelligently adjusted to a common date. called the analysis epoch. and L = Locally Measured Magnetic Poles. that group of geomagneticians regularly reanalyze past IGRF field models to construct retrospective corrections. E = Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles. which was devised in the early nineteenth century by Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. D = Eccentric Axis Dip Poles. The revised final table of values is called the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). the mathematical methods used in the SHA analysis permits the researcher to separate the field sources above (external to) the Earth from those within (internal to) . G = Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles. Also. Each observatory measurement is a summation of the magnetic field sources arising from locations both exterior and interior to the Earth at the measuring site.
6 I~ For modeling the Earth's field. a large set of spherical harmonic functions (examples of four are shown) are adjusted in magnitude so that. External field sources are discarded when determining the main field because ionospheric and space currents are unimportant for understanding the fields from deep in the Earth's interior. The number of oscillations that appear in these figures along circles of latitude and longitude are determined from the harmonic indices. which are Gauss coefficient multipliers for the Earth's field . when all are added together. Display program from P. The IGRF table (Figure 3.7) represents the main field of internal sources indexed for paired SHA coefficients. McFadden of AGSO. the Earth. n and m.76 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. g and h. a smooth and compact representation for the global surface magnetic field measurements can be computed.
n o a a .7 I~ A portion of the table of the IGRF and DGRF values that model the Earth's main field every five years. less accurate.9 1. We call these IGRF Field Poles--an initial candidate for our designation of "Magnetic Poles". Internal field models have been established back to 1945.7 -4.6).4 4.2 ff'h g g h g g h g h g g h g h g h g g h g h g h g h Pole Markers DGRF 1960 -30421 -2169 5791 -1555 3002 -1967 1590 206 1302 -1992 -414 1289 224 878 -130 957 800 135 504 -278 -394 3 269 -255 77 DGRF DGRF 1970 1975 -30220 -2068 5737 -1781 3000 -2047 1611 25 1287 -2091 -366 1278 251 838 -196 952 800 167 461 -266 -395 26 234 -279 -30100 -2013 5675 -1902 3010 -2067 1632 -68 1276 -2144 -333 1260 262 830 -223 946 791 191 438 -265 -405 39 216 -288 n 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 m 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 DGRF 1965 -30334 -2119 5776 -1662 2997 -2016 1594 114 1297 -2038 -404 1292 240 856 -165 957 804 148 479 -269 -390 13 252 -269 DGRF 1980 -29992 -1956 5604 -1997 3027 -2129 1663 -200 1281 -2180 -336 1251 271 833 -252 938 782 212 398 -257 -419 53 199 -297 DGRF 1985 -29873 -1905 5500 -2072 3044 -2197 1687 -306 1296 -2208 -310 1247 284 829 -297 936 780 232 361 -249 -424 69 170 -297 DGRF 1990 -29775 -1848 5406 -2131 3059 -2279 1686 -373 1314 -2239 -284 1248 293 802 -352 939 780 247 325 -240 -423 84 141 -299 1995 -29682 -1789 5318 -2197 3074 -2356 1685 -425 1329 -2268 -263 1249 302 769 -406 941 782 262 291 -232 -421 98 116 -301 IGRF SV(nT/yr) 17. Only approximately one-third of the full table length is displayed here.21 was created from year 2000 IGRF tabular values.0 -18.1 -12.8 0. The total field map shown in Figure 2. computation and are identified with the spherical harmonics. with associated pairs of superscripts and subscripts that go from 0 to 12.6.6 -1. are indexed as types g and h. m and n.5 2.2 0. depicted in Figure 3. These poles are determined from a global field.7 -15.2 2. The numbers (Gauss coefficients).9 1.Section 3. special analyses have been carried out back to 1600. scientists can compute. matching the n and m spherical harmonics (see Figure 3. The full table can be found at the website h t t p : / / w w w .8 -6.8 1.1 -0.2 3. From a full IGRF or DGRF table. for the given epoch.0 -0. a best representation of the main magnetic field strength and direction at any location on Earth and the field's extension into nearby space. n g d c .1 0.3 -13.5 -6. The SV (secular variation) column gives the estimated change per year for projecting the last IGRF coefficient values into future years.6 13. With this table and special formulae. scientists can compute two magnetic pole positions (north and south) where the angle of the internal field (dip) is vertical to the Earth's surface.2 -8.html.8 -8. g o v / s o g / p o t f l d / geomag.0 FIGURE 3. but still suffer from the problem that our pole concept refers to a position for just the T .
Earth-centered coordinates.. As we shall see below.8 I~ Fields from these arrangements of magnetic poles form dipole.8). the full IGRF analysis fits features other than a dipole in its modeling. shown in Figure 3. The symmetrically S 17.w // S octupole N FIGURE 3.7) define the centered dipole terms. The first three internal field g and h coefficients of the IGRF table (Figure 3. . The dipole terms in the IGRF table are used to establish a Geomagnetic Coordinate System (Figure 3. Each one of the IGRF multipole patterns.9).78 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds magnetic dipole part.3). and further multipole terms of the data-fitting process (Figure 3.8. a rearranged latitude and longitude pattern about the globe. quadrupole. This means that successive groups of terms produce field patterns just like those from an arrangement of electric charges at the corners of the multipole geometric arrangements. but uses the north and south magnetic dipole positions instead of the normal geographic spin-axis poles. S i I j dipole quadrupole / v / / / S . This grid is spaced like the familiar geographic pattern.? N N 1 I''~. quadrupole. The great circle of geomagnetic longitude that intersects the geographic north pole is labeled 180 ~.2. 3. and octupole configurations that are represented by succeeding groups of g and h coefficients in the IGRF. From these values we obtain a measure of the dipole field that allows us to compare its strength to other magnets and to see how our Earth's main field has been changing over the years--becoming rapidly smaller (Figure 3.O I N v .3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles The spherical harmonic mathematical computation for determining the reference fields is carried out in geographic. is symmetrical about the Earth's geographic center. The tabular values for the IGRF and DGRF coefficients can be grouped to represent the best-fitting dipole. octupole. The multipole terms have all been computed with respect to the Earth's spin axis and geographic center.
128).2 Pole Markers 79 FIGURE 3. Successive IGRF models show a westward magnetic pole drift at a rate that would cause them to circle the geographic poles in approximately 2000 to 3000 years. We call the pole locations of the IGRF-dipole-term field the Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles--the second candidate for "Magnetic Poles". All the IGRF and DGRF field models show us that.3). Many geophysicists use the geomagnetic coordinate system to organize upper atmospheric and magnetospheric phenomena displays. Davis of NGDC/NOAA. about 90% of the main (internal) field energy resides in these dipole terms. the remainder (the nondipole field) shows patterns that. Note that if the representation of the dipolar part of the IGRF is subtracted from the model. on average. However.9 I~ The constant decrease of the Earth's dipole field strength is shown by the measurements that have been made since the time of Gilbert in 1600. drift westward slightly faster than the dipole fields. located geomagnetic dipole field positions are presently offset about 11 ~ from the geographic axis poles (Figure 3.2.2.Section 3. on average. Figure from M. p. All these special features challenge the paleomagneticians' modeling and explanation of the deep internal current flows within the Earth (see Section 5. it should be remembered that this high percentage of dipole contribution to local field differs at each world location because of the varying sizes of the fields from the other multipole terms in the SHA fitting. Their research includes studies of the source differences for the dipole and multipole parts of the internal main field. interactions at the core-mantle boundary of the deep Earth. gravitational accretion at the Earth's solid inner .
Two procedures have been used to find the best eccentric axis dipole location. attracts world compasses and is essentially the guiding field affecting a charged particle as it nears the Earth. The Eccentric Axis Dipole field of the Earth represents the bulk of the main field energy. The dipole field eccentricity contributes to their problem. the geographic axis field IGRF coefficients were given a second special mathematical analysis that let the dipole tilt and eccentricity (the distance from the Earth geographic center) to be varied until the new dipole terms of the IGRF table were maximized at the expense of all the nondipole terms.80 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds core. 3. a slightly different. If we instead analyze that hypothetical dipole about the Earth's spin axis and center. introduced by the researcher. simpler analysis method is now typically used. That method determines what dipole tilt and eccentricity can best maximize the dipole terms while minimizing just the quadrupole terms. a significant part of our IGRF multipole coefficients are introduced by our selection of an analysis position that is offset from the natural Earth dipole. the eccentric dipole field line in the polar region that is perpendicular to the Earth's surface is not the field line that traces the dipole axis. Because the eccentric axis dipole location is away from the Earth's geographic center (Figure 3. Because the quadrupole terms are the second largest multipole field-strength group. on average. and radioactive heating.2. In one. To understand this fact.4 T w o E c c e n t r i c A x i s Poles It became evident to early geomagneticians that not only was the Earth's dipole field tilted. The locations where the eccentric axis itself breaks the Earth surface are called the Eccentric Axis Dipole Poles--a third candidate for our . The remaining parts of the IGRF low-order multipoles are thought to be due to the nondipole currents within the Earth's outer core (or at the core-mantle boundary) or due to fields from the Earth's magnetized crustal materials. Because of their short spacial dimensions. If we analyzed our surface data about this dipole-field axis and center (rather than the spin axis and center). Thus. It is important to remember that the IGRF computation procedure of selecting the centered-Earth analysis axis is an arbitrary one. the high-order multipoles are considered to come only from crustal field sources or noise in the original data.10). This model provides the simplest representation of the directing field that. we would obtain essentially only the dipole coefficients of the spherical harmonic analysis--no others. consider a situation in which the Earth has only a simple tilted dipole field that is offset from the Earth's center and there is no Earth-crust magnetization. we would have a full set of multipole coefficients necessary to represent this simple tilted dipole field. it was offset from the Earth's geographic center.
the tilt of the eccentric dipole. Southern Hemispheric eccentric axis poles are noticeably further from the Earth's spin axis than their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. Bombarding auroral electrons follow field lines that are organized with respect to the dipole axis. from about 250 km (156 miles) to about 530 km (331 miles) toward the northwest Pacific. The completely different locations where the eccentric dipole fields are vertical are called the Eccentric Axis Dip Poles--a forth candidate for "Magnetic Poles".11). "Magnetic Poles" definition. the dipole center position has moved away from the Earth's geographic center. The eccentric axis pole positions have a pronounced hemisphere asymmetry. . its distance from the geographic Earth center. and its westward rotation about the Earth's center have been changing (Figure 3. That position is exaggerated here to show how the eccentric dipole axis exits the Earth surface at an angle and how two off-axis field lines (north and south) are perpendicular to the surface when they exit.Section 3. not the Earth's surface. Similarly. the Eccentric Axis Dip Pole locations would be the place where the special magnetic pole search expeditions find their goal. Were it not for some other difficulties.2 Pole Markers 81 FIGURE 3. Since the 1800s. The main geomagnetic field changes with time.10 I~ The eccentric axis dipole center is offset from the Earth's center.
Fraser-Smith.12) are known to have crustal geological conductivity features that modify the locally measured fields. Also.2. which are typically dependent on local geological characteristics.11 I~ The drifting position of the Earth's eccentric axis dipole pole from 1650 to 1985 is shown for the northern Arctic region. Figure adapted from A. 3. Positions on or near the islands of northern Canada (Figure 3. aeromagnetic measurements of field anomalies led to the discovery of oil-bearing regions in northern Alaska. Expeditions to the north and south magnetic poles supposedly are searching for the locations where the main field points directly into or out of the surface. There is no concern with measurements elsewhere about the Earth. C. The second problem is that the magnetic pole expedition's vertical field measurement adds together all the local fields from both above and below . Three principal local problems affect the explorer's attempt to define this "place toward which world compasses point.82 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3.4) or off the coast of Antarctica (Figure 3." The first is that the explorers have local measurements only. For example. at locations near a lateral change in conductivity (such as at the ocean boundaries of continents or islands) induction causes the observed field fluctuations to follow a sloping surface (called the Parkinson's vectors phenomenon).5 Locally Measured Dip Poles So far we have discovered four possible poles from our modeling of the full global field measurements.
Figure adapted from Atlas of Continents. there are seasonal. p.8ol 14. Rand McNally & Company. In addition.Section 3. and sector-effect (Section 3. the arrival of . diurnal (24-hr cycle).1 . New Zealand. whereas. what is expected is a unique pole of the Earth's main (internal only) field.4. As we shall see shortly.2 Pole Markers 83 . the Earth's surface.5. ~'N NEW ~ " ~ ZEALAND / $ ANTARCTICA Magnet 150 J N D i 1 OCEAN 120 I 90 FIGURE 3. and Tasmania shows the strange position for a South Magnetic Pole.12 I~ This map of the region between Antarctica. 94) distortions of the Earth's high-latitude external (magnetospheric) quiet main field in space that are influencing the surface vertical field measurements.
84 Chapter 3 Sailingthe Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds energetic particles from the Sun introduces strong currents that flow in the upper atmosphere at the polar regions on nearly every day of the year. The third problem is that the desired internal main field can only be separated from the external field by a complete global analysis for which the single polar expedition has no data. Charged particles.13). for some strange reason. which is our fifth and poorest candidate for that important designation as the "Magnetic Pole. It takes a full global internal field pattern obtained from a global network of observatories to establish the best dipole location.14 and Plate 4). in the Northern Hemisphere and somewhat northeast of Vostok Station. arriving from the Sun. not from overenthusiastic polar explorers. follow paths toward the ionosphere defined by the Earth's distant field with its activity. Thus. p. it is the eccentric axis dipole that is guiding the charged particles as they spiral closer to the Earth to excite a visible aurora. and day-night distortions. although we know that the magnetic field patterns are drifting steadily westward. 3. fully quiet. seasonal. ." Another difficulty is the dates that the poles were measures are rarely printed on world charts.2. Most of this distortion of the Earth's dipole field disappears in the stronger field region inside 3 Earth radii. solar-terrestrial conditions. 88) are quite different in the long sunlit days of summertime polar expeditions than they are in the long nights of winter. just northwest of Thule. Greenland. Nevertheless. cartographers for major map publishing companies still indicate this spot where some high-latitude expeditions have found a Locally-Measured Dip Pole (Figure 3. the average patterns (allowing for small day-night and solar-wind distortions) circle the eccentric axis dipole pole location. the ionospheric currents (see Section 3.6 Satellite E v i d e n c e of Poles Satellites that photograph high-latitude auroras have given us a visual record of the effective Earth magnetic dipole locations--they are not anywhere near the marks on most world maps. Fields from the multipole terms of the main field decrease faster with altitude than fields from the dipole terms. With the great cost constraints and time limitations imposed on high-latitude research operations. (I will explain this further in Chapter 4. Antarctica. When solar-terrestrial disturbances are ripe for an entire polar auroral oval to be illuminated (Figure 3.) Also. it is highly unlikely that the summertime exploration team remains long enough at the selected site to obtain a record of the rare. the "place toward which all world compasses point" cannot be obtained from just one polar location measurement.4. The map publishers can obtain their information on the best pole positions from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy scientists.
induced currents in the Earth. The region where there are major satellite-memory upsets caused by bombarding particles (Figure 2.Section 3.2 Pole Markers 85 FIGURE 3.13 I~ The polar region's locally measured vertical field position does not indicate the Earth's internal main field pole. A magnetometer positioned there also responds to the magnetic fields of high-latitude field-aligned currents. auroral region (ionospheric) currents.20) is identified with the low field values in the South Atlantic-South America region. in the Southern Hemisphere. This anomalous region (Figure 2. and special ocean-coast effects (in addition to the main field). These are the pole locations with significant meaning.21) is a clear manifestation of the eccentric axis offset from the Earth's spin axis-- .
.14 I~ Every satellite picture of Earth's northern auroral oval appears to be centered near a pole location for the eccentric axis dipole.31 A Space of Quiet Fields Astronomical measurements of light polarization have shown that our Milky Way Galaxy can exhibit magnetic fields of nearly 0. Our Sun's field is thought to extend to a heliospheric boundary at nearly 100 times the Sun-Earth distance. an important reason for recognizing the significance of the eccentric axis field representation. A coastline map of North America and Greenland is superposed on the image. The midnight meridian is close to the right of this figure.86 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds FIGURE 3. 13.1 gamma. Similar magnetic fields have been detected at places in the intergalactic space. sunlight can be seen as a crescent at the left. Figure from NASA.
The main field distortion at such times at low latitudes can reach 40 gammas. but. that stand-off position is approximately 11 or 12 Re (Figure 3. the direction of the magnetospheric tail boundary can stretch far past the moon's orbit (60 Re). The magnetospheric tail is always extended toward the downwind. opposite to the apparent seasonal . two or more times the Moon's orbital distance at 60 Re. This solar wind bounds the entire region of space dominated by the Earth's main field and forces the magnetospheric outer boundary into an extended tear-drop shape. primarily because of a strong and varying assault of charged particles and fields from the Sun. which defines the ecliptic plane. the tilt of the Earth's axis gives us our seasonal climate changes. away from the Sun. called the solar wind. out to a distance of several Earth radii (1 Earth radius. the Earth's field becomes distorted beyond that distance. During major blasts of the solar wind. Shaded regions represent the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts where charged particles accumulate. the sunward boundary of the magnetosphere can extend to 25 Re. the tail appears to shift seasonally north and south of the geomagnetic equator.15 II~ The boundary of the magnetospheric field pattern can extent from about 6 to 25 Re toward the Sun. Thus. the sunward boundary can be compressed to 6 Re. in times of extreme quiet.Section 3. In the yearly path of the Earth about the Sun. the main field has approximately the form of the eccentric axis dipole.3 A Space of Quiet Fields 87 FIGURE 3. This constant deformation of the magnetosphere is detectable at the magnetic observatories located about the world. However. On the day side. Downwind. on average. A long tail of the magnetosphere is blown outward. = 6371 km or 3959 miles). The solar wind further restricts the full magnetospheric envelope on the night side. antisolar direction. depending on the compression by the solar wind. In the space around the Earth. Re. from our viewpoint on Earth.15).
which recombine to produce ozone (03) molecules and form a layer about the Earth that is concentrated near the 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 miles) level. verified by satellite measurements. that travel throughout our Milky Way galaxy. the molecules that have been broken into charged ions and electrons can recombine quickly because there are so many nearby particles of opposite charge.5 to 6. there are still enough molecules of nitrogen and .20). Man-made satellites are usually routed to avoid the potential damage by the concentration of belt particles in that region (Figure 2. The presence of man-made chemicals has initiated a depletion of this fragile layer that protects us from much of the UV radiation.0 Re and 4. particularly where the Earth's main field is weak. during strong solar winds.21).88 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds Sun position. scientists detect a decrease in arriving cosmic rays at such times (Forbush effect). This shift. That field also arranges the many special current patterns that attend bursts of solar-terrestrial activity that we will examine in Chapter 4. From about 90 to 1000 km (56 to 625 miles).15). Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes. In addition. the cosmic rays are swept away from the Earth by that wind. This solar ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to break apart the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of our atmosphere into ions and electrons. Some of these particles drift to much lower altitudes. can be detected at the Earth-surface magnetic observatories as an apparent seasonal change in the night-time field level of about 10 gammas at mid-latitudes. At higher altitudes. to about 90 km (56 miles). toward the South America-South Atlantic Ocean region (Figure 2. Far above the Earth. Curiously. a great number of solar-terrestrial charged particles organized by the magnetospheric field gather to form two donut-like girdle patterns about the Earth. Principally at the two distances of approximately 1. The shorter the wavelength of light.0 Re.2 Re to 4.41 Conducting Blanket The Sun's visible light colors range from long-wavelength deep-dark red through the rainbow spectrum to short-wavelength violet. called the inner and outer radiation (Van Allen) belts (Figure 3. The route for the arrival of the many charged particles that the Earth encounters in space is determined by the Earth's magnetospheric field. 13. the higher the radiation energy. Past the violet colors of the spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. called galactic cosmic rays. the Earth is bombarded by very high-energy particles. Very close to the Earth a major portion of the UV energy is used to split oxygen molecules (02) of the air into atoms of oxygen. against which we all try to protect our skins with sunscreen and our eyes with sunglasses. there are too few air molecules to stop much of the UV radiation.
the region that can carry strong currents is near 100 km (63 miles). The maximum electron density is usually found to be near 300 km (188 miles). which is profiled by the electron density (Figure 3. In the lower half of that region an ionized layer of electron and ions forms (various combinations of nitrogen and/or oxygen) as a conducting blanket (the ionosphere). at mid-latitudes.16). The electron density values shown here are for midday. oxygen to absorb some UV and be broken into ions and electrons. Gravity holds our atmosphere near the Earth.4 ConductingBlanket 89 FIGURE 3. upper-atmosphere composition. although. Therefore. The reason for this difference is that the electrical conductivity of . summertime.16 I~ A high concentration of electrons in the ionized air forms the ionosphere. but too few molecules to provide a substantial recombination rate.Section 3. above 900 km (560 miles). the lighter atoms of hydrogen and helium dominate over the heavier atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in this higher. Radiowaves bounce between the ionosphere and the Earth--higher frequency signals are returned from the higher electron density regions.
As we might expect from the changes in Sun exposure around the Earth. However. That field direction causes the ionospheric gas conductivity to become extremely large. let us first recall what happens in a hydroelectric plant that delivers electricity to a town. 2. the collisions of the ions and electrons above 200 km (125 miles) in altitude are rare enough that some of the ionization slowly decreases until the start of the next day. such as: 1.90 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds the ionosphere depends on some special features. summer days at polar locations can be in full daylight and winter days in full darkness. Bombarding particles that produce the auroras (a subject we will explore in Chapter 4) produce extra local ionization and conductivity so that strong auroral electrojet currents flow. Any electric currents arriving in this region are channeled into a narrow ionospheric current band (called the equatorial electrojet) causing an enhanced field effect at the ground. how often the ions and electrons collide (the collision frequency). not all the ionosphere goes away at night.51 Quietly Flowing Currents 3.1 A Dynamo To understand the daily ionospheric currents. The water moves a . and 3. Another unique feature happens in the high-latitude ionosphere where auroras occur. One unique feature occurs at the magnetic dip equator ionosphere--where the Earth's main field near 100 km in altitude is directed horizontally to the Earth surface.5. 13. Of course. information can be transmitted to the opposite side of the Earth (see Figure 2. For example. Radiowave signals that are transmitted through the atmosphere can be reflected at the ionospheric conducting surfaces (Figure 3. In this way. The reflection depends on the radiowave frequency at which the transmitting station sends the signal and on the special nature of the conductor that is encountered. there are latitude and seasonal constraints on the ionosphere's appearance. Our distant radiowave communications to locations that are not as close as our local radio stations depend on bouncing the radiowave signals between the conducting Earth and the conducting ionosphere. the rising and setting of the Sun each day (our source of UV radiation) provides a daily variation in the ionization.22). the suitability of the ions and electrons to recombine (recombination coefficient). the Earth's magnetic field strength and direction in the region.16). Although the 100-km night-time ionization almost disappears.
as far as the current flow is concerned. or the conductor is stationary and the field moves. Of course. . This is a result of the requirements of basic physics for the moving charges (here.Section 3.17 I~ A hydroelectric plant uses a water turbine to move conducting wires through the field of a strong magnet. Commercial. free electrons flowing along a copper wire) in a field.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 91 paddlewheel connected to a mechanical dynamo. electric current flows in the wire (Figure 3. the velocity with which the wire conductor is moved. This is the same principle of physics that causes naturally oscillating fields to induce electric currents in the conducting Earth. fuel-burning electric plants produce electricity similarly. They just use the fuel-burning engine to turn the conductors through the field.17). The current that is created has the direction that a screw would progress when turned clockwise from the direction of the wire velocity toward the direction of the magnetic field. The amount of current depends on the strength of the field from the dynamo magnet. This dynamo is just a large magnet that produces a strong magnetic field. and the conducting properties of that wire. The daily heating and FIGURE 3. it matters not whether the field is stationary and the conductor moves. through which copper wires are moved by the connected paddlewheel. When an electrical conductor (the copper wire) is forced through the magnetic field.
there are global winds. the electric conductivity of the lower ionosphere. Use Figure 1. Geographic latitude effects in Sq behavior are largely dependent on the Earth's main field and the Sun's elevation angle at the magnetic observatory. and the atmospheric expansion or contraction cause seasonal changes in the Sq current. But because they have fewer collisions to impede their forward direction. where collisions are rare.18) and in the opposite direction in the Southern Hemisphere. The lunar-caused ionospheric currents are typically less than 10% of the Sq field size. where the main field is horizontal. Also.2 S o l a r Q u i e t . the direction and strength of the Earth's main field. that occur at the ionospheric altitudes. due to the lunar-tidal motion in the atmosphere (similar to lunar tides in our oceans). Studies in the early twentieth century have shown that Sq fields can be modeled by two global vortices of dynamo currents in the ionosphere that flow counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 3. where the ionospheric conductivity is large. 3. changing with solar activity and season.5 miles) in altitude. The size of a local Sq field change in daytime depends on the ionospheric movement. surface fields there can be as much as six times that of the nearby low-latitude values. Together the two motions force a daily motion on the ionospheric charged particles (the dynamo conductor) in the Earth's main field (the dynamo magnet). the two motions cancel out the current. This causes a special high equatorial ionospheric conductivity that concentrates daytime Sq dynamo currents.5. Seasonal changes in both the ionospheric conductivity. typically 10 to 30 gammas for mid-latitudes. the smaller electrons dominate the current flow near the 100-km level. and the location of the observing station with respect to the subsolar Sq vortex. As you might guess. At lower altitudes. The difference in the sign of the charge causes the negative electrons to move in one direction and the positive ions in another. there is also a lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. At much higher altitudes. a special effect occurs in an equatorial band within approximately 6 ~ north and south of the magnetic dip equator.92 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds cooling of the atmosphere of the Earth as it spins on its axis causes a daily cycle of atmospheric expansion and contraction. Sq The 100-km-high ionospheric current is given the name solar quiet-day variations (Sq).21 to visualize the surface fields from this vortex. However. the wind system within the ionosphere. . causing a current to flow near 100 km (62. there is little or no ionization for significant conductivity. Such current is responsible for the recurring regular form of the daytime field variations seen at world observatories.
or sudden heating by auroral-related currents. jostling of the ionosphere by traveling pressure waves that arrive from volcanic eruptions.5. flows counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.Section 3. All these special effects are used by the upper-atmospheric physicists to determine and monitor the nature of distant source regions. 2. increased ionization caused by an exposure of the day-side ionosphere to x-rays from a sudden disturbance on the Sun. The currents are enhanced at the magnetic dip equator. All currents are more intense in the summer months than in winter.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 93 FIGURE 3. Such events include" 1. Occasionally special disruptions modify the ionosphere sufficiently that the normal Sq currents are upset. 3. decreased ionization in the narrow path of a solar eclipse. and 3. magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) not only respond to the Earth's main field but also to the summation of the external .18 I~ The principal ionospheric current system. atmospheric atomic explosions. on the Sun side of the Earth.3 Induction At the Earth's surface.
for the conductivity determinations.19). Because the polar region field lines in space connect to the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary.19 I~ Oscillatingprimary (source) currents above the Earth's surface cause secondary (induced) currents to flow within the conducting Earth. The time variation and scale of the ionospheric quiet currents limit the penetration depth. a corresponding field change occurs. The sector effect is seen as FIGURE 3.4 Sectors When magnetic records from polar regions on quiet days are inspected. The penetration of the magnetic fields within the Earth decreases with increasing frequency of the oscillation and decreases with an increase of the Earth's conductivity. Geomagneticians use the separated. surface field measurements of the quiet-day external and internal Sq current signals to measure the upper-mantle electrical conductivity of the Earth. 3. special mathematical techniques allow them to compute how the Earth's conductivity must change with depth to allow the observed induced currents to flow there and contribute to the observed surface field behavior. Once they establish the ionospheric source current size and patterns. there is a correspondence of the interaction of the weak tail field region with the toward or away direction of the prevailing solar wind. . Depending on the direction of the field component attending the solar wind. a special daily solar sector effect is found. toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun. from the surface to the start of the Earth's lower mantle (Figure 2.94 Chapter 3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds ionospheric current fields and to the fields of induced internal currents that flow within the conducting Earth (Figure 3.5.24).
20 I~ Toward and Away solar-sector effects can be observed at the north geomagnetic pole station.2. p. Thule. .20). a phase shift in the 100-gamma daily oscillation of quiet condition variation field at a polar cap observatory (Figure 3.4. 130. Traces of these sector-field effects can extend down to the middle latitudes (see also Section 5. Greenland I I I' I f I '1 ' I I ~ I 95 Toward Sector June 8 OI C) 04 E E t~ Away Sector June 12 l 00 I ! 06 I I J 12 i i i 18 ~ 24 Universal Time FIGURE 3.Section 3. Greenland.5 Quietly Flowing Currents Thule. There is a complete change in the phase of the sine wave that best represents the two records (light smooth curve).
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Umbrella for Magnetic Storms
Magnetic storms were so named because of their similarity to severe weather changes. Storms are major disturbances, upsetting the calm of our normal, seasonal, day-to-day world. Under the umbrella name Magnetic Storms, scientists have included all the disturbance phenomena of particles and fields that distress our quiet magnetosphere. Let us start this part of our tour with a few words about the disturbed Sun, the source of geomagnetic storms.
Disturbances in Sight
4.1.1 On the Sun
The Sun's surface is constantly boiling out particles from small and large eruptions, especially in the regions near the sunspots (Figure 2.27) and at places where the solar magnetic field provides a guiding outward path. Solar disturbances (Plate 1) cause most of the large transient changes in the Earth's magnetic field. We know that the Sun has an activity cycle, just under 11 years on average, that corresponds to the sunspot number, R. The spots are somewhat cooler regions (about 3600~ or 2000~ on the visible solar surface (photosphere), which is about 10,500~ (5800~ The R index is related to the area size of all the visible spots. The solar activity cycle begins with the first spots at about 35 ~ north and south latitudes. The number of spots and their size increase as their locations move equatorward toward about 10 ~ to 15 ~ solar latitudes (Figure 4.1). The cycle ends with just a few small spots near the Sun's equator. The most recent sunspot maximum (number 23) occurred in
Umbrella for Magnetic ~torms
FIGURE 4.1 I~ E.W. Maunder's original 1922 plot of the central locations for sunspots from 1874 until 1913 (larger letters for years and latitudes have been added). Although the Sun's southern hemisphere has more spots in the years depicted here, the hemisphere dominance changes in other years. Note the limitation of sunspots to latitudes below about 40~ and the overlap of the ending of one sunspot cycle with the beginning of another.
the year 2000. Irregularities in a smooth growth and decay of an R cycle often repeat in another cycle when similar solar latitude regions contribute sunspots. Sunspots provide evidence of a slowly rotating solar surface (once every 27 days near 20 ~ solar latitudes) in the same direction as the Earth's yearly path about the Sun. The general persistence of active areas for several or more rotations of the Sun provides some monthly predictability of solar activity. Those who track solar disturbances and the Sun's mass ejection of energetic particles identify (Figures 4.2):
1. Plages, which are uniformly bright areas on the solar surface.
2. Solar flares, usually near sunspots, which are brilliant outbursts of particles and radiation. 3. Spectacular prominences, which are grand glowing arches of solar gases seen on the solar limb (called filaments when viewed on the solar disk). 4. Large coronal holes of singular magnetic field polarity, where concentrated streams of particles, corotating with the solar surface, are observed leaving the Sun.
and arches of solar gases.4) and very strong fields associated with the spots and disturbance areas.2 I~ The active Sun seen through a filter that emphasizes plages.3). The Sun also has both an overall magnetic dipole field (Figure 4. . The Sun's dipole field switches its north and south poles every 11-year cycle. prominences. That alternation is also found in changes of the special fields within sunspot and coronal hole regions. 5.1 Disturbances in Sight 99 FIGURE 4. which surrounds the solar surface with a luminous glow of the outward-streaming particles (Figure 4. The solar corona. filaments.Section 4. Photo from SEC/NOAA. The Sun displays unique magnetic field patterns that often provide a guiding path for the gas of high-energy charged particles (called plasma) which leaves the Sun as a solar wind usually taking 2 to 3 days to reach the Earth.
The coronal energy delivered to the solar wind represents approximately one-millionth of the total radiation from the Sun. Such motion can be compared to the spiral we see in the water path from a rotating lawn sprinkler.3) that moves outward at about 300 to 350 km/sec (190 to 220 miles/sec).100 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. CME.1.4).3 I~ Image of an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon. determined by the outward radial speed of the ejected particles and the rotation of the Sun's surface (Figure 4. Although each particle of water is shot out radially. see Plate 2) travels outward faster to cause a shock wave as it encounters the slower. The pattern of outflowing water or solar particles forms what is called an Archimedes spiral.2 In the W i n d In the solar wind. Photo by the High Altitude Observatory of NCAR. the sprinkler head has moved a little before the next particle leaves. The solar plasma describes an immense spiral pattern. The matter exploding from the Sun (called coronal mass ejection. . more constant plasma stream. showing the glowing corona of outward-streaming particles. the bursts of high-energy charged particles and fields from the especially active solar regions are superposed on a constant stream of the solar plasma (Figure 4. 4.
Section 4. At differing solar longitudes. carries along a magnetic field that is determined near the Sun itself. creating the toward or away field patterns carried to the Earth by the solar wind radial outflow of particles (see Section 3.4 I~ The Sun's dipole-like field at quiet times is illustrated by this hairy ball. we explore some of the magnetic effects of the solar-wind bursts of particles and fields when they arrive at the Earth to cause major disturbances.4). Low-latitude fields are mostly closed on the solar surface. 4.1. The most important direction for the wind interaction with the Earth is the north-south component of wind field. Its interaction with the Earth's main field. 94). p.4. The solar rotation produces an Archimedes spiral pattern of particle flow in the ecliptic plane. determines the severity of a resulting magnetic storm.4.3 Storms Overhead Earth Field Encounter As the sunspot number changes through its l 1-year cycle. 94). which has the opposite direction. in both quiet and active times. either the Sun's northern or southern high-latitude fields dominate the ecliptic plane.5. p. This locked-in solar-wind magnetic field is described in terms of a vector (an arrow with a magnitude and a direction) that can be resolved into three perpendicular components. high-latitude fields are mostly open. The toward-away (from the Sun) component defines what are called Toward and Away Sectors (Figure 4. In this chapter. so changes the radial outflow of solar plasma (magnetic fields and ionized particles).5.1 Disturbances in Sight 101 FIGURE 4. which affect the Earth's polar region field (Section 3. The . The rectangular surface represents the ecliptic plane (defined by the Earth's annual path about the Sun). slightly tilted with respect to the Sun's equator. The outward flow of solar plasma.
5 I~ Configurationand table of the principal currents in the magnetosphere during a major geomagnetic storm. Earth responds to this activity. When the solar wind burst IMF at the stand-off region turns southward with respect . space scientists establish the wind's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction at the magnetospheric stand-off (encounter) position. with a similar l 1-year cycle of magnetic disturbances. seem to be responsible for this delay. The sunward boundary (standoff position) of the magnetosphere (Figure 4.102 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. The bursts of solar-eruption particles encounter the magnetic field of the Earth at almost a 45 ~ Archimedes spiral angle. The maximum occurrence of geomagnetic storms is usually delayed by about 1 or 2 years after a sunspot maximum. The magnetosheath is the region between the bow shock and the magnetopause.1).5 and Plate 3) is forced inward by the bowshock and the solar wind reconfigures the full magnetospheric envelope into the extended teardrop shape. The outer boundary of the magnetosphere is called the magnetopause. Using measurements from special satellites. The gradually changing latitude of the solar active regions during the cycle (Figure 4. and the alignment of the Earth's orbit nearer to a plane that includes the solar active regions.
near the 100.6 and 4. and solar particles then enter the magnetosphere to start a magnetic storm. other effects of this magnetic storm are magnetospheric shape change. and the shape of the Earth's field. when the high-latitude northern and southern hemispheres have similar darkness periods. releasing energy. highlatitude thermospheric (atmosphere above 90 km or 56 miles in altitude) heating. During the equinoxes. where field-aligned currents of charged particles flow to (and from) the highlatitude ionosphere. powerful field-aligned currents. These paths are defined by the distribution of particle types.3. Special currents (called partial ring currents) form gathering locations near 3 to 7 Re.5 illustrates the six principal currents around the Earth during magnetic storms. The almost mirror-image patterns in the two high-latitude regions are called Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights). intense ionospheric currents. Solar particles gradually accumulate in the Van Allen belts (see Section 3. yellow. In addition to the auroras. they hit and break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules. Glamorous Display As precipitating energetic particles of field-aligned currents encounter the denser upper atmosphere of the Earth. their energy. 88). During the magnetic storm. photographs show that the disturbance particles arriving from the far magnetosphere are about equally likely to spill into both hemispheres of the Earth. charged particles (primarily solar electrons.1 Disturbances in Sight 103 to the Earth's northward main field. green. and a little helium) originating in the solar wind can follow complicated paths within the magnetosphere. and induced currents in the Earth. The resulting ions release the excess energy from the collision as auroral lights (Plate 5) with red. Let us look at some of these effects as detected at the Earth's surface observatories. This process is somewhat similar to the glowing of gas in a neon sign as electrons of the electric current bombard the special gas within the tube.7).to 190-mile) ionosphere at high latitudes. particles are dumped into the highlatitude regions of the Earth as field-aligned currents to cause more magnetic storms. p.Section 4. and purple colors that are characteristic of the air molecules and the excitation energy (Figures 4. Figure 4. protons. The interaction causes a considerable quantity of energy to be stored in the magnetospheric tail region. . growth and decay of intense magnetospheric tail currents.to 300-km-high (63. thermospheric pressure waves. strong partial ring currents. the oppositely directed field lines interconnect. When the loading of this tail energy becomes a sufficient size.
bombard the local oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Figure adapted from L. . which release their newly acquired extra energy as auroral lights (wavelengths given in nanometers. Combs and R. Viereck of NOAA Space Environment Center.6 I~ Electrons.104 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. arriving in the upper atmosphere as part of the magnetospheric field-aligned current. nm).
Field strengths during large storms can reach several hundred gammas at mid-latitude stations and above 1000 gammas at the auroral zones (recall Figure 1. Magnetic observatories around the world record the amplitude and direction of disturbance fields that are superposed on the internal main field of the Earth.1 Disturbances in Sight 105 FIGURE 4.9) that has been identified with the compression of the Earth's Sun-facing side of the main field. On the records. at the onset of a geomagnetic storm.4 Agitation in the Fields Storm Fingerprints The most outstanding features in a collection of geomagnetic records are the storms. there often occurs a sudden spike-like change in field strength shown by the northward (H) component. Figure 4. The disturbances span a range of periods from seconds to many hours.1.8). 4. This spike is thought to represent the shock from the arrival of the solar-wind disturbance at the day side of the magnetospheric boundary. The magnetospheric stand-off position (Figure 4.5) can be estimated from the size of this positive field increase . Then there typically follows a slower.13). with larger amplitudes generally associated with the longer periods (Figure 4.Section 4.7 I~ Auroral display over the Antarctic region photographed May 1985 from Spacelab Challenger. Photo by R. H-component increase (called the initial phase. Overmyer of NASA.
10).106 30 MIN Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 60 MIN 116 53 FIGURE 4. producing field changes that are detectable at the Earth's surface. a main phase and recovery phase of the storm follow (Figure 4. at the Earth's surface. constant latitude lines indicate the location of the observatories.1. a special circulation forms in the magnetospheric tail. Storm Explanations In the early years of the first man-made satellites.9) as a summation of the many different current systems that have been newly created. the geomagnetic latitude locations are all north of the equator in the American continents. Of course. the magnetotail current position changes seasonally to a downwind location. The growth and movement of this tail current is a primary contributor to the observed surface fields at low-latitude locations near the midnight hours during a storm (Figure 4. In these displays. This tail current is roughly perpendicular to the Earth's eccentric dipole-field axis (see Figure 4. with a considerably intense internal sheet current.15). in response to the solar wind direction.and 60-minute-period components of the horizontal variation of the geomagnetic field on a magnetic storm day of high daily activity index (Ap = 149. =. 116).8 I~ Example of the spectral amplitudes of the 30. it was believed that the large negative field seen during a magnetic storm at low-latitude observatories was simply a feature of the particle radiation belts circling the Earth (see Figure 3.5). After this compression. Subsequent direct measurement by satellites found this ring-current model to be a general representation of an ensemble of source . p. The amplitude scale of the particular spectral component (30 minutes or 60 minutes) is in proportion to the peak value (in gammas) indicated on each display. Note the principal auroral zone activity for this event near 65 to 75 ~ latitude and the daytime enhancement at the magnetic equator (local time there is about 5 hours earlier than Universal Time). The arriving solar-wind disturbance modifies the currents on the outer magnetospheric boundary. north or south of the magnetic equator. A gigantic Saturn-like ring current was thought to grow with the arrival of solar wind ions and decay as the charged l~articles disappeared upon recombination. see Section 4. During the storm development. and forms the north and south tail lobes.5.
current patterns.1 Disturbances in Sight ~ Main~ v i l l i l l l V l ~ll'V 107 Commencement San Juan-H Sudden ~.5) that dominates the magnetic fields in that region. many currents were found that stayed briefly in part of the ring region.9 II~ Example of a typical geomagnetic storm variation for the northward (H) component of fields recorded a four low-latitude stations (listed at left).12). Closing currents within the conducting ionosphere form a westward auroral electrojet current (current F of Figure 4. In the region of approximately 3 to 8 Re. For convenience in representation.lnitial V i l l i V i l l i Phase TPhase . but dumped their particles as field-aligned currents (see B and C in Figure 4. 1980 Universal Time 18 00 06 12 18 24 Dec. The storm field pattern is so reproducible that special names (indicated at the top of the figure) have been assigned to each part. a part of these electrojet currents is led away from the auroral zone into the day-side lower latitude ionosphere. spaced in longitude around the Earth.11) is another principal contributor to the storm fields sensed by magnetometers from the polar regions to the middle latitudes. i i i J I | A | J i J | | i A J t & il i & i i Ji J i jli i iLil J A I Jk Ik & II I 00 06 12 Dec. Because of the ionospheric conductivity. 9Recovery Phase l i l y IV V l V I l l i ' V i l l i -- Honolulu-H Kakioka-H " ' a~. 19. 1980 FIGURE 4. all the magnetic fields of the auroral electrojet current and the field-aligned currents measured at observatories in the auroral and polar regions can be represented as contours of current flowing parallel to the Earth's surface in the ionosphere. Field-aligned current (Figure 4. A concentration of these currents .Section 4. creating a major contribution to the storm-time fields at low and equatorial latitudes.5) into and away from the auroral latitude ionosphere of both the northern and southern auroral zones. The contribution of the quiet-day field variation has been removed from each record. Such displays are called equivalent storm currents (Figure 4. k I 250 Gamma Hermanus-H J. 20.
attending the growth of a westward auroral electrojet current in the ionosphere. The northward magnetic field at the surface decreases. modifies this seasonal shift of tail current depending on the Earth's magnetic dipole location during the midnight field observation. count the electrons that are arriving. during the geomagnetic storm. December. Because of the solar wind flow. measuring the radiation from the individual bombarding electrons as they encounter atmosphere molecules.108 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. These currents produce a disturbed field with a specific direction at low-latitude observatories on the midnight side of the Earth. Instruments on highaltitude balloons. Figure 4.5). typically occurs in the post-midnight to pre-dawn hours and is called an auroral electrojet. southward. The magnetic disturbance is always accompanied by a sharp increase in the field pulsations with periods of seconds. In the auroral region. away from the spin axis. strong cross-tail currents flow (see D in Figure 4. the magnetotail extends away from the Earth into a downstream direction that shifts seasonally (June. the number of ions increase in the ionosphere. That ionization causes the region to become more conducting and opaque to the reception of constant cosmic noise emitted by our galaxy in radiowave frequencies. The cross-tail currents move similarly. northward) with the antisolar location.13 illustrates the simultaneous occurrence of all these phenomena. An offset of the Earth's eccentric dipole axis.10 I~ During a magnetic storm. a number of related processes occur that can be detected simultaneously. . As the air molecules are split apart.
that high-conductivity property shields an observatory on one side of the Earth from sensing field variations that occur on the other side of the Earth. field-aligned currents.1 Disturbances in Sight 109 FIGURE 4. The variations in the two fields would be completely symmetrical were it not for the offset of the eccentric magnetic dipole axis with respect to the spin axis of the Earth and the summer-winter differences that distort the magnetosphere and change the conductivity of the ionosphere.Section 4. Figure 4. and ionospheric currents observed at the Earth's surface are mostly those whose current sources are near the same Earth side as the observatory itself. These currents travel into the ionosphere (+. . Therefore. Because the Earth's electrical conductivity increases quite rapidly with depth below its surface. positive) and away from the ionosphere (-. During a magnetic storm. negative). fields from the partial ring currents. the surface magnetic fields all around the Earth are disturbed.11 I~ Here we see a typical pattern for some field-aligned currents at the polar region auroral oval during geomagnetic storms.14 shows how magnetic records appear at conjugate auroral latitude stations during a disturbed period near equinox. Although much of the auroral region is affected during the hours of major disturbance. Both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth receive the field changes. At high and auroral latitude locations that are identified as lying at the opposite Earth-bound feet of a main field line (called conjugate positions) the field disturbance changes are quite similar in appearance because of the symmetrical way that the particles and fields from the Sun enter the Earth's environment. Local time is indicated around the circumference. only a few of these currents might be seen at any one time.
pro- . at just under sonic speed.110 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. The sudden Joule heating during storms expands the atmospheric gasses in the auroral storm current region with two effects. Heating Strong field-aligned currents flowing between the magnetosphere and the highlatitude ionosphere cause intense heating. Figure adapted from Akasofu and Chapman. =. This process (called Joule heating) arises in much the same way as the heating from strong electric currents flowing through a given resistance in the wires of home electrical heaters.15). This wave disrupts the high ionosphere.12 1~ The equivalent ionospheric current contours (higher current represented by closer contour lines) for fields of a single storm at Northern Hemisphere observatories are plotted in geomagnetic latitude and geomagnetic time (local time adjusted for the geomagnetic longitude) coordinates. A faint pressure wave travels through the atmosphere at the sonic speed of about 300 m/sec (675 miles/hr) to be detected at the Earth's surface with ultrasensitive barometers (Figure 4. travels equatorward in the thermosphere (mainly just above the ionosphere maximum) from the conjugate auroral zones. Another stronger pressure wave.
1 Disturbances in Sight 111 FIGURE 4. the increase in ionospheric density causing absorption of radiowaves. Alaska. the field from the westward auroral electrojet current. top to bottom.Section 4. and the increase in geomagnetic field pulsations. the traces.13 I~ For a geomagnetic storm measured at Fairbanks. illustrate the simultaneous occurrence of the arriving auroral electrons. .
Canada. Hours at bottom are given in Universal Time (UT) for a March event. and downward (Z) directions at the conjugately located. which are not traceable to solar sources.! 12 I .112 Chapter 4 U m b r e l l a for M a g n e t i c S t o r m s H I'" I 1 I ' I I ' I I N GWR ~'100~. . Pressure waves from volcanic explosions often reach the ionosphere and move the charged particles . Some phenomena. Antarctica. these are the field changes in the northward (H). Scale sizes are indicated by the arrows to the right of the field traces. 14 UT FIGURE 4. eastward (D).14 I~ During a magnetic storm day.. auroral zone stations of Great Whale River (GHW). and Byrd Station. !. N t Byrd 08 10 12 14 UT GWR D E E t l00~/ 08 10 I "1" I ' ~ 1007 Byrd 12 i I 14 UT Z I I I DN ~ 1007 GWR DN ~1007 I 08 . ducing a storm-time ionization change and modifying the day-side quiet-time ionospheric dynamo currents. Byrd ! _! 10 I. can also agitate the atmosphere sufficiently to cause magnetic fields.
5 dynes/cm 2 (pressure scale units)..16). causing electric currents whose signature is seen at the Earth. .... The light and dark traces indicate north-south. 1962.. 2055 _~ .. .15 I~ Heating from auroral currents caused this atmospheric pressure wave.Section 4.. That blast disturbed the ionosphere sufficiently to cause global dynamo electric currents whose fields were detected at the Earth's surface (Figure 4... There are no clear latitude boundaries for the many storm effects and parts of many sources are spread globally... ~ 2110 FIGURE 4. / : i I _ ]_~L 1 GAMMA T. At the po- ... N-S PULSATIONFIELD FIGURE 4.. What the local magnetic records show for a solar-terrestrial disturbance depends on the location of the observatory because so many differing storm processes have suddenly been initiated. The pressure waves.. Russia. Alaska.. which originated in the region of auroral displays on 17 August. Upon its arrival at Fort Yukon. which oscillates in the period range of 10 to 50 seconds.. .. A Russian high-altitude nuclear explosion above Novaya Zemlya in August 1962 initiated a pressure wave that traveled around the world at sonic speeds. were detected at Fort Yukon.and east-west-directed microphones that are used to determine the arrival direction. the explosion pressure wave produced an infrasonic disturbance and generated small ionospheric dynamo currents that were recorded as geomagnetic field pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds.. . initiated an Earth-circling pressure wave that traveled at sonic speed. However.1 Disturbances in Sight 113 ..."/:-" FOR T = 110 sec _L... ... Alaska. The maximum amplitude shown here is approximately 3. in that region.16 I~ An atmospheric nuclear explosion in August 1962 at Novaya Zemlya.. ~ 2045 . _~300~_150~ 10dynes/cm 2 " l " m i n j ~. it is possible to point out some generalizations.
the field-aligned currents (on the same Earth side as the observatory) and auroral ionospheric currents dominate. field-aligned currents. At low and equatorial latitudes.5 Measures of Activity AE Index In the ionospheric regions of the active auroras.12) flowing there change the horizontal field (often by 100 to 1000 gammas or more) at the nearby ground locations. and auroral electrojet currents (Figure 4. the night-side fields are dominated by the magnetospheric tail current behavior and the day-side fields are dominated by ionospheric currents. At mid-latitudes some magnetospheric currents. the storm-time currents are then concentrated east-west by the narrow band of high conductivity that follows the day-side equatorial dip-latitude position (see Figure 4. Therefore. 4.8). Extending to the equator. For each Universal Time hour. but more distant. storm-time. others return to the magnetosphere as field-aligned currents. Thus.114 Chapter 4 Umbrellafor Magnetic Storms lar regions the effects of magnetospheric boundary currents and field-aligned currents are most important. magnetometers register a large. a special global auroral electrojet index (AE) of the magnetic storm strength is calculated from the maximum range (amplitude between the most positive and most negative) of values obtained in an overplot of the horizontal variation component values from a collection (typically 5 to 12) of observatories in the northern high-latitude auroral-zone circle (Figure 4. Dst Index Many of the currents flowing in the auroral electrojet close in a loop through the conducting lower-latitude region of the ionosphere. .11). As a result.1. The current-carrying region of the ionosphere has its conductivity significantly enhanced both by the auroral process and by the ionization attending the day-side solar illumination. some of the night-hour auroral zone storm-time ionospheric currents become gradually redirected toward the more conducting day side of the Earth while spreading toward the lower latitudes. the electrical conductivity of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is greatly enhanced by the bombardment of particles associated with the storm process. and high-latitude ionospheric currents all contribute to the magnetic recordings. nearby ionospheric currents often have a proportionally greater effect at the Earth's surface at daytime than the stronger. At the high latitudes of auroral and subauroral regions. The strong nightside. field-aligned (Figure 4. at the low and equatorial latitudes.17). eastward electrojet current at the day-side dip equator. All magnetic fields decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the source current to the measurement position.
(Figure 4. NGDC/NOAA. The small short-period variations contribute little. The 3-hr range scaling discriminates against gradual field changes that are longer than 3 hours. magnetospheric currents. An average of the K indices at selected global stations is Kp.1 Disturbances in Sight 115 FIGURE 4. Kp Index A third magnetic index.18). the planetary form of the index. for 4 and 5 July. Cross-tail magnetospheric currents dominate the night-side measurements. K values at an observatory are obtained from average 3-hr ranges (highest minus lowest values) of the northward field components after an estimate of the quiet-time variation is removed. the fact that there were nine contributing observatories is indicated in a bracket. of the type illustrated by the recovery phase of the Dst index.Section 4. AU) and the lowest (lower envelope.17 I~ The AE (auroral electrojet) index is the measure (in gammas) of the range of field between the highest (upper envelope. such stations are not uniformly . called the Planetary Magnetic Disturbance Index. A global collection of four to six magnetic records from low-latitude stations are averaged to form an hourly Disturbance StormTime Index. 1974. Illustration from World Data Center A. In this example. Dst (Figure 4. The expected quiet-day values of Sq have first been removed so that the zero index levels occur at quiet times. AL) values determined from an overplot of the horizontal field (change from its quiet-time level) for hourly values measured at a group of auroral zone magnetic observatories. Kp. Unfortunately.19) has been in use since the early part of the twentieth century.
The K index has values from 0 to 9 (with subscripts of 0. there is a concentration in Europe. Ap Index A special scale is used to convert the Kp back to an equivalent gamma level (ap for planetary activity) that would be a typical field size in the middle latitudes. in a long-term average.116 50~ Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms ~" E E m ol -50 -100 m E -150 <r -2001 -250 00 19 DEC 1980 06 12 V 18 00 20 DEC 1980 06 12 18 24 Time (UT hours) FIGURE 4. Statistically. the letter "K" refers to a German word for a logarithmic index). and many index stations are located at high latitudes just south of the northern auroral zone. Major storms produce indices of 8_ and above. The index is formed as a latitude-adjusted average of the four low-latitude station records illustrated in Figure 4. distributed around the Earth.19). the most Kp values occur near a value of 20. The daily average of the eight ap values becomes Ap. Each contributing station has a different K table.9.to indicate intermediate units in thirds) that are assigned from tables that convert gammas to Kp. Values of 5_ and above are usually magnetic storms. More are in the Northern Hemisphere.18 I~ Dst Index values for two days of a magnetic storm period. The K numbers are selected so that approximately a 10times field (in gammas) increase occurs for each whole K number increase (called a pseudologarithmic change. +. fixed so that. and . the equivalent daily amplitude index (Figure 4. the number of occasions that each index value appears is the same for each location. Because a large number of the index .
.=--.--.__--_.Section 4.3+ 3..16 65+ 6 2.2 1 O+ 2+ 1.2+ 2 1+0+4-2 2.----.--0. An l 1-year solar activity related maximum (coming 1 or 2 years after the sunspot number maximum) is clearly evident in the monthly mean Ap values (Figure 4. There is a favorable alignment between the arriving solar wind disturbance and the Earth's magnetosphere at the March and September equinoctial periods. A study of . stations are at high-latitude locations.1..20)..1 3 3..--.3+ 5 5 4 4 3+ 36 5+ 71. lalallalal. Table provided by H..2+ 0 0 1.-----------------------.__--m------o~--~--~ 2 .4.1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 23.2+ 3+ 4 4 2.2 1.----.12 13 . Coffee at NGDC/NOAA.lalalslmalnlualalalallalalBB~=~lsmsnBssmms~ FIGURE 4. the ap and Ap values are well correlated with the AE index already described. large magnetic storms are more likely to occur. and monthly mean Ap for November 1998.1+ 1.2 2 2 2+ 2+ 3..1 2+ 2+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 3.1+ 3.3+ 4+ 8 11 2+ 1 2+ 43+ 3+ 50 2262+ 3 3O+ 21 3+ 1+ O+ 3+ 33 1+ 1+ 4+ /~o 4 4 6 6 8 20 26 66 75 6 3 4 64 41 10 ? 6 7 7 10 6 6 11 16 13 10 9 6 8 19 16 o--__.2 2+ 1 2 .1 O+ 2+ 1+ 2 2 2+ 1+ 2 1 3+ 2-2+ 1 1 2.O+ 1 1-O+ 1 4+ 6.19 I~ Tableof planetary magnetic activity values of 3-hr K.------------------___----.6 5+ 4 ... Average daily and monthly values of Ap are used for long-term comparisons to other solar-terrestrial processes.O+ 1.au|mnnonnnmannnmnnmannnnu|mnnnunllllnnn||m||||||| 117 Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mean Kp Three-Hourly Indices 2 3 4 5 6 7 0+ 0 11+ 1+ 4+ 3 7+ 71+ O+ 1+ 64+ 1 22 2+ 22+ 1+ 2+ 22 2+ 3 2 11+ 41O+ 2223 4 56+ 21+ O+ 5 62+ 212 2 31+ 1+ 2 32 3 2 0+ 23 0 1.42 3+ 2 2+3-1-11.4 3 2+ 3+ 1+ 2 .2+ 2+ 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 3 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 0+4 ____.36 85.64.3 2 3+ 4. At such times.------.1 Disturbances in Sight NOVEPBER 1996 auaulnm. daily Ap.
small (0. 60 years of magnetic storms clearly illustrates this seasonal preference (Figure 4. Erwin of NGDC/NOAA.6 Pulsations During periods of disturbances. p. On the charts.001 gamma in size) pulsations of the field often occur. the pulsations are seen as either a jagged irregular trace (called P i) or a smooth continuous.16). Other pulsations are associated with the bundling of the electrons that make up the field-aligned currents (described previously) and cause pulsating auroras (Figure 4.6.22). . 131) with the hope that someday the recordings can monitor the continuing physical change of magnetospheric regions far from a recording station at the Earth's surface. Some field pulsations are associated with the motion of the conducting ionosphere (Figure 4.21). Other pulsations.118 Chapter 4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms FIGURE 4. Figure from E.2. 4. Some pulsations arise in the magnetosphere as a result of the arrival of the solar-terrestrial storm particles and fields. upon arriving at high latitudes. travel rapidly around the Earth in a duct of the high ionosphere. Scientists are still studying the initiation and resonance processes that produce all these pulsation phenomena (see Section 5.1 to 0.20 I~ Comparison of sunspot number and number of days in each year that the Ap index exceeded 40 for the period of 1930 to 1997.1. quite oscillatory form (called Pc).
Section 4. Antarctica.22 II~ Geomagnetic field pulsations (peak values of about 0. 1966. Wilkinson of NGDC/NOAA. H. Allen and D. on 23 August.2 gamma) and the photometer response to auroral light intensity (nitrogen emissions) recorded at Byrd Station. . FIGURE 4. Figure from J.21 1~ A seasonal preference of major magnetic storms is shown as the percent of 1129 events between 1932 and 1991 for the Ap index values greater than 40. C.1 Disturbances in Sight 119 FIGURE 4.
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It is time now for tourists' questions. investigated the global distribution of field disturbances. The 121 . of Goettingen.1.1 Early Record Keeping Although compasses had been the tool of navigation for centuries. Germany. At prearranged times.8). He organized the cooperative effort of several European magnetic observatories to try to understand why small variations in the northward magnetic direction often occurred. I have provided a reading list for those who want to further enrich their knowledge of Earth magnetism. Where are field records archived? Is there a scale for space weather activity ? How can we access geomagnetic information ? and What are the important magnetic field websites ? Finally.to 2-foot magnetized needle that moved over fine angle marks to indicate the pointing direction (Figure 5.1). How and where are geomagnetic fields measured? The next question might be.Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields With Chapter 4 we have ended our formal tour of the fields. it was not until about 1836 that Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1. Because we cannot discuss geomagnetism face to face. I must guess what you might ask and try to answer as coherently as possible in this final chapter. In those times. Can you show us some examples of what scientists are presently studying ? Then someone might ask. 15-1 I Field Traces 5. The first question I expect is. the research magnetometer was simply a compass with a long 1. each scientist used a magnifying lens to observe and record the angular change in the end of the northward-directed compass needle at his national observatory.
By applying special torsional biases and separate axis suspensions.2).1 1~ Until the mid-nineteenth century. These magnetometers were given the more specific . It wasn't until the development of photography in the early nineteenth century that the Gauss magnetometer became a modern self-recording device. With the improved instrument in a darkened room.1.122 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. when photography came into general use. the instruments could measure field changes separately in the magnetic northward. the measurement of geomagnetic field changes depended on the visual observation of a compass needle direction. the light spot deflected by the mirror was directed to photographic paper attached to a drum. A ray of light directed toward the mirror cast a spot onto a far wall to allow an easier deflection measurement. capturing a continuous record of the daily change in field (Figure 5. 5. Gauss attached a mirror to the magnetic pointer needle axis.2 Modern Field Recording To simplify the field detection system. collaboration by Gauss and his colleagues verified that most of the observed magnetic field variations were simultaneous at all locations and therefore such fields were of natural origin and not just a local anomaly. which rotated once a day. and vertical directions. eastward.
The strength of the main field causing this oscillation varies inversely with the square of the oscillation period. many other systems are used to record the field.Section 5. Notice how your home compass needle. He made the significant discovery that the main field magnetic intensity decreased toward the equator. moving with the magnet. shines on a slowly turning drum covered by photographic paper. Fluxgate magnetometers use the distortion properties of saturated fields in special magnetic material. . Cryogenic magnetometers (Figure 5. The exact strength of the Earth's main field. Scientists can determine the Earth's field strength by comparing the period of oscillation of a compass needle in the Earth's field with the oscillation measured at a fixed distance from a calibrated magnet. A second light beam is reflected from a stationary mirror to inscribe a simultaneous baseline on the photopaper.2 I~ The simple variometer.4 6 0 ~ F). could be obtained from a knowledge of the oscillation period resulting from the restoring force on the needle after it is manually pushed away from its rest position.1 Field Traces 193 FIGURE 5. name variometers to indicate that only the variations in field were recorded. Proton magnetometers use the aligned precession of the spinning hydrogen atom nucleus to find the total main field strength. after being moved. consists of a light beam focused on a mirror attached to the suspension of a bar magnet.3) use the unusual quantum-wave conditions occurring in materials near absolute zero temperatures ( . Rubidium optically pumped magnetometers use special unique atomic energy-level light stimulation and emission properties. whose force tugs the compass magnetic needle northward. developed by the mid-nineteenth century. Records of compass needle oscillations were used by Baron Alexander von Humbolt to determine the Earth's field strength in his 17991803 surveys of the American continents. not the full main field strength. The light beam. Today. oscillates before coming to rest northward.2 7 3 ~ C or .
is immersed in liquid helium for cryogenic cooling.3 I~ Modern..RF Shield Can --Capacitor Contact Screw . The niobium metal sensor. .. which uses some unique properties of quantum physics to detect minute magnetic fields as small as 0..6 inches) in diameter.Fractional-Turn SQUID FIGURE 5. :':L! Llil I Liquid Helium . Zimmerman of NIST. which is only approximately 1.5 cm (0.124 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields RESET Location Amplifier Recorder Output Synchronous Demodulator Field Moculation Oscillator AM Detector Output AM Detector RF Amplifier RF Bias Adjustment RF Oscillator Spun-Glass Epoxy Vacuum Walls Vapor-Cooled Radiation Shields ....00001 gamma.. but complex SQUID (super-conducting quantum interference device) magnetometer.Coaxial Line -.Coil -. Figure from J.
1. . The spot that you made in the center of the mirrored sequin should be visible so that it can be used to accurately mark the pointing direction of the magnet from day to day.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems =. 1 This soda-bottle magnetometer (Figure 5. You will need: REQUIRED MATERIAL: One 2-liter clear soda bottle with cap 2 pounds sand 2 feet sewing thread One 3 x 5-inch index card One 1-inch piece of soda straw One small bar magnet (1 inch • 1 inch x 88 inch) One high-intensity lamp One mirrored dress sequin One marking pen 2-inch wide clear packing tape One ruler with a meter scale Super glue Build the magnetometer by cutting the bottle in half about midway from its base. Place the soda-bottle magnetometer on a level surface. With the 2-inch-wide tape. Then cut the index card so that when it is suspended inside the bottle it does not touch the sides. Thread the other end of this suspension thread through the inside of the top part of the severed soda bottle and through the threaded part of the bottle where the bottle cap screws on.nasa. point its light toward the mirrored sequin at an angle to the mirror spot so that the light from this spot is reflected onto a wall located about 2 meters (about 6 feet) from the bar magnet. Add the sand to the bottom half of the soda bottle. gsfc. Some 1See the website http://image. and thread the sewing thread through the straw and tie it to make a small triangular loop. Rejoin the top part of the bottle with its bottom. Feed the remaining suspension thread through the inside of the bottle cap. for school demonstrations. Soda-Bottle Magnetometer NASA scientists have designed. Glue the mirrored sequin to the front of the index card and. put a dot near its center. making sure that the length of the suspension thread is adjusted so that the bar magnet and mirrored sequin spot hang below the tape seam.4) is sensitive enough to detect solar-terrestrial magnetic storms. Turn on thehighintensity lamp and.gov/poetry/workbook/page9. with a marking pen.html. carefully tape the top and bottom of the bottle together.1 Field Traces 125 5. Glue the magnet to the top edge of the card. making sure that the index card swings freely and that the magnet remains parallel to the floor and the tabletop. a simple magnetometer (copying the Gauss variometer plan) for measuring the changes in the Earth's field. Glue the piece of soda straw to the top of the magnet.Section 5. Tie a 1-foot piece of sewing thread to the loop of thread that goes through the soda straw.
25 ~ change in the direction toward magnetic north. and reflected spot are in accessible positions on a table.4 I~ This soda-bottle magnetometer was designed by GSFC/NASA. magnetometer. deflections of several degrees. If the distance between the mirror and the spot on the wall is exactly 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches). During geomagnetic storms. or other fiat surface. a 1-cm (7/16 inch) shift in the spot location equals about a .126 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields FIGURE 5. lasting many hours or even days. can . near a wall. effort may be required to find a location that is undisturbed and where this setup can be arranged so that the lamp.
the spot will remain in the same location.1 Field Traces 127 be seen with this device. however.19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. In typical soil. Reversing _~ _ _ Switch Battery Variable Resistor Ground Probe Near Resistor Recording Meter To F I G U R E 5. . . Most of the time. . A steady but adjustable Far Groun d Probe Variable Resistor . Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing magnetic field there is a corresponding changing electric field. The equivalent electric fields induced in the ground are called Earth Currents. Moving metal or magnetized material near the magnetometer will deflect the spot. That is about equivalent to a 30-second magnetic field pulsation reaching approximately 0. . Note that if any of the parts are moved. . two probes. The probes are buried approximately 1-foot (0. a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations can be constructed (Figure 5. Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity. can sense the natural field pulsations as voltages of about 0.1 millivolt. Stout plastic-coated copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder. the measurements will be affected. For those readers who are adept at electronics. About 2 square feet (0.5) for measurements in an area that is far from city electrical noises.Section 5.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations. Geomagnetic storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that are seen at all latitude locations. separated by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more. .3 meters) deep into the ground and covered with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe).05 gamma (for most locations).
2. it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis poles depicts the anomaly region best. Using the 1995 IGRF field model data.21 Scientists at Work Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper atmosphere and space about the Earth. The models are then matched to the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges. 78) and the eccentric axis dipole (Section 3.128 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady voltage difference that may arise between the probes. The necessary variable resistors.2. Geophysicists use these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about 100 km (63 miles).21. One such model is depicted in Figure 5.3. amplifiers.1 Dipole Field Patterns Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2. a small battery. 5. Using special mathematical modeling of the measure- . 5. one researcher compared the field patterns for two dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geomagnetic coordinate poles (Section 3.3 Magnetotellurics Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose penetration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source fields and the conducting properties of the interior region.7. 80). using information on the Earth's structure and the physics of electromagnetism. 1. 5.2.2. Let us now examine a few examples of recent work.5. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these motions from the observed surface fields.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within the Earth's interior.6 with Figure 2.20) has led scientists to consider various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region.2. switch. The purpose was to see which display best illustrated the main field patterns in the anomaly region. Comparing the results in Figure 5. and recorders can be purchased at most electronics stores. p.4. p.
The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis dipole. R. tilted dipole. 60 30 "0 Scientists at Work 129 = 0 --I -30 -60 -90 50000 -180 90 60 30 I0 .l. Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South American anomaly by the eccentric dipole. The total field contours are in gammas (nanoteslas).2 90 --. Figure 5.Section 5. ments taken along a fixed line on the surface.8 illustrates the results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding the source of local earthquakes."56000 I = = I = = I = = I = = ! = = ! = t i' -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude FIGURE 5.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered. . the scientists can produce a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure. Figure from J. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA. Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model.a -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Longitude = m _I 0 -30 -60 -90 .
4 Polar Sector Currents The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on the wind's particle composition and speed.4.9) in the polar regions at low activity times.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10-3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and the direction is given by the arrows.2. 94) with the downstream magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase (Figure 3. Using a chain of observatories. p. Quinn of USGS.2. it was possible to establish the equivalent polar ionospheric current system behavior (Figure 5. the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were . Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth crust locations. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T) and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3.5.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions. 5. Using records from a 1990 longitude line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) together with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that country. 5. as well as the direction of its accompanying magnetic fields. The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors.130 Chapter5 Harvestingthe Fields FIGURE 5. Figure from J.5 Dst Storm Index Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geomagnetic storms by the Dst index.
Section 5. p. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations. The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km.2 Scientists at Work 131 FIGURE 5.6.1. When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied. There were often large local storm field differences from the index.6 Pulsations The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field conditions in space are responsible for their generation.2. The storm fields throughout that country were quite similar in appearance. Both the Pi and Pc geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4. Figure 5. 119) occur at magnetospherically disturbed times. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS. The west end of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget Sound at Bremerton. That means the data are investigated for the intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations. The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic rocks. More conductive rocks of less than 100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks.8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington state. thus.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsations that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude stations. 5. which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters. the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec- .10). determined (Figure 5. In this figure. let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how similar they appear at conjugate locations. they were not due to local anomalies. it is typical to carry out a spectral analysis.
duplicate records are archived at six World Data Centers. Today. Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET. Note the difference in position of the vortex center of approximately 2. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere.132 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields TOWARD 12 14 ~ AWAY ~ 12 10 '. and darkening represents the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency. ond. and solar-terrestrial disturbance investigation.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric currents. 15.. there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share information (Figure 5. Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribution. globally distributed collection points.5 hours in local time for the two conditions. the horizontal axis represents the time in hours. These polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the magnetosphere. which uses satellites for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed by less than I hr) to several special.12). chart preparation. By international agreement. .3[ Track and Field Records Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observatories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital (electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form. so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic information for field modeling.\ 45_" 6 18 6 22 0 2 FIGURE 5.
. .. . . . Kyoto University. . . fax: 7-095-930-5509 9 In Japan: World Data Center C2. . JAPAN. fax" 81-75-7227884. i . tel: 81-75-753-3929. . Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science.World Data Center A. . Academy of Sciences of Russia. .10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field observatories.gov 9 In Russia: World Data Center B. 60 | . NGDC/NOAA. . Molodezhnaya 3. . . .. 325 Broadway. . tel: 1303-297-6761. . 7O -150 80 FIGURE 5. .. . . . i . Note the similarity of the overlaid station values and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group).Section 5. . mailstop EGC2. . . . . Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomagnetic data from the observatories in Figure 5. Boulder. RUSSIA.3 150 "~" ~ E = E 100 ~= Track and Field Records 9. . . .12 and in providing convenient methods for user access to the archives" 9 In the United States. 0 10 20 ! . USA. . . . e-mail: info@ngdc. . . Moscow 117 296.. Kyoto 606-8502. 30 40 50 Hours from start of storm day . consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country (see station code letters at the upper right of the figure). . tel" 7-095-930-1762 or -5619. . These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the division by the cosine of that latitude).noaa. . . . | . . . Colorado 80305-3328. . . 133 ~ | = ~ OAR GNA DYW CTA TCK LRM MTD CNB 2 50 50 -50 E E t~ O ~ -100 (/) ~ l::l . fax: 1-303-497-6513. . . field differences were determined. .
Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields
FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated. Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near 1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75~ West Meridian Time.
15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales
In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial environment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently devised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomagnetic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave disturbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in providing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.
15.51 Information Kiosk
For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices, there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:
FIGURE 5.12 I~ Majorgeomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world. Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section, USGS.
9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http:// swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, ac.jp 9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh. ac.uk 9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag. usgs.gov 9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: http://maxwell.gi. alaska.edu 9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc. noaa.gov--select Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed locations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on
TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms
Category Scale Descriptor G5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c 4 per cycle (4 days per cycle)
Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage. Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and
tracking satellites. Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator Severe Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective devices trip. Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the aurora seen as low as the tropics. Strong Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely. Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and orientation problems need corrections. Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes. Moderate Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected. Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit predictions Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees. Minor Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations. Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.
100 per cycle (60 days per cycle)
200 per cycle (130 days per cycle)
600 per cycle (360 days per cycle)
1700 per cycle (900 days per cycle)
a Some or all of these effects are possible. bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours. CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).
o . star-trackers unable to locate sources. Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions. bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions).~ o w $4 Severe 104 3 per cycle $3 Strong Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA. permanent damage to exposed components/detectors. high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 100 chest x-rays). and decrease of solar panel currents. Biological: none. Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets. Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA. memory impacts cause loss of control. Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased navigation errors over several days. 10 5 Fewer than i per cycle 8' 3 m m.l s t e r . serious noise in image data. Satellite operations: none. Satellite operations loss of some satellites.. Biological: none. 103 10 per cycle $2 Moderate 102 25 per cycle $1 Minor 10 50 per cycle a Some or all of these effects are possible.2 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms Category Scale Descriptor $5 Extreme Effect a Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity). noise on imaging systems. permanent damage to solar panels. Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions. Satellite operations: memory device problems. Flux in particles: s . Flux levels are 5 min averages. _. and position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult. noise in imaging systems. these events can last more than one day).t ".l c m -2. star-trackers cause orientation problems. elevated radiation exposure to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays).4 . CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days. Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors. and solar panels degraded..TABLE 5. Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets. Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the polar cap impacted. passengers and crew in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray).
causing loss in positioning.3 ) Less than 1 per cycle R4 Severe X10 ( 10 . . Minor disruptions of satellite navigation possible on the sunlit side of Earth. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours. in Wm-2). loss of radio contact for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators. HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side.. affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. ~r -rl r o. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators..4 ) 175 per cycle (140 days per cycle) O R2 Moderate M5 (5 • lO -5) 350 per cycle (300 days per cycle) "(3 t'D O'1 . Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour. HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side of Earth.3 ) 8 per cycle (8 days per cycle) R3 Strong X1 ( 10 .3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts Category Scale Descriptor R5 Extreme Effecta Physical measure b Average frequency (1 cycle = 11 years) c _. Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime and general aviation positioning. measured in the 0.1--0. bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux.-i. Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth..t HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth lasting for a number of hours. CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days). loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth. HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals. Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime and general aviation positioning.TABLE 5. X20 (2 x 10 . HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. which may spread into the night side. a Some or all of these effects are possible. HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side. -r M1 R1 Minor (10 -5 ) 2000 per cycle (950 days per cycle) < tD ta m. occasional loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators.8 nm range.
9 W.ips. Australia: http://www. USA: http://uvisun.com.S. e-mail: info. Denver. 1600. USA: http://www. also http://www-spof.msfc.gov 15.noaa. Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a paperback. also http://www. Such data.gsfc. also http://www. nasa.pfrr. in the order of their original publication date.nasa. Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites: 9 Geophysical Institute. USA: http://www. New York. are used by Space Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solarterrestrial storms that impact modern life. . fax: 1-303-202-4693. gov/UVI/current_image.HTML. NASA.html 9 IPS Radio and Space Services.gov/poetry. Sydney. gi.sec.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX. all 9 Marshall Space Flight Center. alaska. noaa.nasa. nasa.html 9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA. NOAA.Section 5.alaska.6 Directionsfor Further Travel 139 the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle. USA.gov Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models can be obtained from: 9 Map and Book Sales.doc3. and radiation information to monitor the space environment. also http://image.edu 9 GoddardSpaceFright Center. republication by Dover Publications. 1958.gsfc.61 D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r T r a v e l For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomagnetism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several recommended books.spaceweather.gov/Education/Intro. Box 25286 Federal Center. De Magnete. together with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories. Colorado 80225.services @usgs.. ngdc. 368 pp. Gilbert. University of Alaska. Geological Survey. g ov/$tp/stp. USA: http://www. NASA.gov/gallery/LASCO. U. magnetic field. with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams.gov. USA: http://sohowww.nascom. Mailstop 306. English translation in 1893 by P. html 9 Space Environment Center.E Mattelay.
Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena. to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book)... 1996. American Geophysical Union. Numerous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at the beginning of the space age. Chapman and J. Washington D. the Aurora in Science. The fundamentals of magnetism are beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time. 433 pp. 1940. It was last republished in 1951.D. and history of magnets. 1967. first modern textbook about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information.. 9 W. Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust. Don't let the older date discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleomagnetism. Livingston. 2 vols.. application. New York. 1992. 9 J. 311 pp. Although our subject is only a small part of this book. 2545 pp. 1980. detailed references. ed. Academic Press.D. graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. 9 J. thorough review of the technology. Bartels. beautifully written.. compact yet complete. 434 pp.. Geomagnetism. 9 W. 1987. and thorough description of analytical methods.. Driving Force. Campbell.. Oxford. 1983. the author provides an excellent exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field studies. Academic Press. Milton Keynes Pub. 9 S. auroral descriptions. 1987-1991. 2 vols. A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the specialist readers with its broad historical coverage.140 Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields 9 S. Although the space magnetism presentation is inadequate. 513 pp. A fine..A. History. Brisbane Brookfield Press.. This classic.. 9 J. Open University Press. Oxford University Press. Majestic Lights. 323 pp.D. 1050 pp.D. . Massachusetts.. eds. Piper. An up-to-date. and beautiful illustrations. Stacy. Harvard University Press. 1398 pp. Jacobs.. the Natural Magic of Magnets. Edinburgh.C. New York. Scottish Academic Press Ltd. Cambridge.. Matsushita and W. Physics of the Earth..A.H. Eather. Introduction to Geomagnetism. and the Arts. 9 R. Brisbane.. 4 vols. Parkinson. Geomagnetism. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed by reliable research specialists.H.
W. McElhinny. 531 pp. San Diego. McFadden.T. for students and researchers who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capability with mathematical equations. My own compact but comprehensive textbook. . Merill. Cambridge. Written by well-respected researchers.Section 5. 1997. the Core. 304 pp. and EL. this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the Earth's internal field. and the Deep Mantle.. The Magnetic Field of the Earth: Paleomagnetism. 1996.6 Directions for Further Travel 141 9 R.. M. with many illustrations. Campbell.H. Cambridge University Press. Academic Press. 9 W. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields.
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70.Index Activity index. 34 Byrd Station. 120 143 . 15. 90 Borealis (Northern Lights). 22 Australis (Southern Lights). 119 Baie St. 18-19 Auroral displays. 56 upper. 18 Atoms. 42 Body magnets. 84 pulsating. 131 Bryce Canyon. 61-63 Books. 40 Atomic number. Antarctica. 60. 113 magnetic observatories. 37 charts. 117 Apollo space craft. 148 oil discovery. 133 Asteroid. 105 high-latitude. 102 Bremerton. 39 Archeological formations. 39 Archimedes spiral. 102 Archives. 17. 17. 46 Archaeomagnetism. 45 temperature. 115. 59 Blakemore. 20 electrojet current. 82 surveys. 17. 4 Airport magnetometer. 18 weight. 17. 133-139 AE (Auroral Electrojet) index. 110 oval. 90. 39 Atmosphere lower. 21. 84. 8 Bermuda Triangle. Julius. 65 Big Dipper.. 14. 116 Aeromagnetism. 123. 118 Addresses. 139-141 Bowshock. 125 Bartels. 38 Analysis epoch. 75 Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index. 116 Aurora. 134 Bar magnet. 113. 101 angle. 109. 35. 41-42 correlations. R. Paul. 106. 20. 25 Alaskan north-slope oil fields. 109. 38 Agonic line. Qu6bec. 105 bombarding particles. Washington State. 39 map. 8. 106 values. 2 Biomagnetism. 109 zone.
36-38. 70 moment. 31. 82 ionosphere. 130 De Magnete. 123 temperatures. 50-51. 69 strength. Captain James. 3. 90 Compass. 70. 4. 44 Curie (point) temperature. 36--41 resistivity. 9. 26 Chu Yu. 63 Drift contintental. 25 right-hand rule. 108 Crust. 27 Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). 13. 99 Coronal holes. 26 aeromagnetic. 111 Continental drift. 6. 15 induction. 17. 27. 98 mass ejection (CME). 90 pole eccentric axis. water. 75. 66 main field and. 92. 109 Conjugate positions. 89. 130 Corona. 26. 115 ionosphere. 66 Core-mantle boundary (CMB). 70 Tucson. 70 magnetism. 70 Current. copper). 54 coefficient. 40. 32. 23. 2 variation in geomagnetic storms. 139 Declination. 122 airport runway declination. 51 radiowave. Australia. 50 Cryogenic cooling. 84 . 2 declination and. 108 Double-blind test. 81 locally-measured. 55 Corrosion in pipeline. 23 origin. 38 navigation. 70. 48 Conductivity. 103. 34 equator. 48 long-wire. 29 Chinese. 11. 72. 21 secondary. 29. 101 Correlation cause and effect. Christopher. 23. 79 field pattern. 11 main field. 88 Cosmic Noise Absorption. 3 magnetic island and. Arizona. 3 Communications. 15 Disturbed field. 21 corrosion and. 7. 39 ancient field behavior. 77 Dip angle. 55. 94 geological features. 70 distorted. 6 magnet Earth as. 92. 6. 101 Columbus. 25 source and induced. 88 sunspot connection. 57 CMB (Core-mantle boundary). 94 Darwin. 20-23 direct.144 Index Chapman. 59 Charts. 53 Earth. 75. 84 Dipole. 60. 80 field alignment. 124 electromagnets. 8. 35-37 Cook. 111 electrical. 55 ecliptic plane and. 18 comparative (air. 6 eccentric axis. 93. 130 CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). 54 double blind. 2 Climate. 10. 56. 34. 52 Cosmic (galactic) rays. 4. Sydney. 32 bar magnet. 35-37 magnetic field pattern. 14 Earth. 44 magnetometers. 55 modeling. 111 Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current. 82. 35 magnetotelluric. 26 lodestone.
115 Filaments. 13. 28 External field. 90 . 114 Franklin. 20 solar. 88 Force of magnetic field. 7. 115117. 22 ionization and. 114 models. 44 use in maglev. 18 molecule. 3. 130-131 Dynamo. Alaska. 54 prediction. 90 sharing of. 37 Field-aligned current. 81 dipole. 84 Ecliptic plane. Michael. 19 Electrojet auroral. 102-104. 46 Electrically neutral atom. 13. 9. 99 Flares. 111. 129 Eccentric axis dip pole. 50. 36. 28 Eleven-year solar cycle. 71 Earthquake. 56 Exploration (global). 70 source. 123 Forbush effect. 81 current in a wire. 37 reversal. 98 Fluxgate magnetometer. 66-67 signals. 102 upper atmosphere and. 48 and magnetic fields. 55 Energetic particle events. 70. 75. 79 non-dipole field vs. dipole field. 110 equatorial. 134 Epoch. 84. 79 lower mantle. 18 atomic number and. 50 systems in satellites. 84 Fairbanks. 37 power lines. 21. Alaska. 87. 89. 61 Frequency of ion collisions. 26. 14. 90. 75. 70 Earth current. 7. 84. 75 Equatorial electrojet. 21 field-aligned luminosity and. 101 Eights Station. 90 Electromagnet. 134 Electric charge. 23 Electrical conductivity. 47. Benjamin. 7 transmission lines. 3. 44 in wire. 92. 18 current. 13. 20. 21. 111. 40. 85. 70. 44 Electromagnetic field. 17 Equivalent polar currents. 104 Elements. 130 storm currents. 90-92 current. 18 aurora and. 50. 25 Ferrous atoms. 18 Elevation angle of North Star. 32 clay. 81 field representation. 9. 88 Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index. 127 probe. 50 power plant. 80. 87. 70 theory. 23. 22. 94 conductor. 7.Index 145 magnetic pole. 41. 22 field. 112 Faraday. 71 outer core. 44 Fort Yukon. 9. Antarctica. 19. 76. 22 induction responses. 34 Field in space. 50-53 mapping. 7. 127 Electrons. 3. 77 analysis. 21. 127-128 dipole field strength. 128 dipole poles. 90 region. 109. 18. 98. 92. 109 Ethesian winds. 79 particle.
17 Hubble Space Telescope. 75. 80 table. 111. 72-86. 107 satellites and. 6 Great Whale River (GHW). 75. 62 Heliospheric boundary. 132 pulsation. 48. 53. 12. 79 main field poles. 130 field models. 40. 88 Galaxy 4 satellite. 92 Ions. 94 field responses. 58. 89. 115. 47. 111 Jupiter main field. 74. 78. 132 Internal field. 77 IMAGE spacecraft. 15 Ganymede main field. 9. 86 High latitudes. 64 Joule heating. 49 high. 32 . 134 GPS and. 75-77 field units. 115 equatorial. 110. 58 low. 40 Latitude. 121 coefficients. 134 Galactic cosmic rays. 46 Gamma (y). 102 Ionosphere. 78 2000 coefficient values. 60 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field). 49 Grand Teton National Park. 86 INTERMAGNET.) of oscillation. 16. 44 Indices. 50. 8. 16. 16 netism and Aeronomy). 71 Gauss Carl Friedreich. 20-23. 114. 90 dip equator. 94 of pulsations. 131 storms. 119. Baron Alexander von. India. 89 solar wind. 48. 47 Human response to magnetic fields. 29 Halley. 95 poles. 25. 76 Induction. 45. 50 Infrasonic pressure waves. 50 Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). 66. 114 Intergalactic fields. 89 Ionospheric conductivity. 115-119 spherical harmonic. 18. 28. 79 North Pole. 49 Geomagnetism. 97-120. 74 regions (zones). 48. 78. 5. 72 GPS and. 64 Great Earth Magnet. 11 from North Star. 52 IAGA (International Association of Geomagmid. 71 Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index. 76 geomagnetic coordinates and. 73. 84. 16 Geologic exploration. 92. 108 Jackson Lake. 57. 115 lunar quiet-day. 92 high latitude. 77-80 multipoles. 74. 37 Geomagnetic coordinate poles. Canada. William. 73 Global Positioning System (GPS). 58. 78-80.146 Inclex Frequency (cont. 116 Land survey. 92-94. 75. 113 Greenwich. 49 main phase. 8 Health magnets. 44. 89 electron density. 128 coordinate system. 138 Gilbert. 90. 8 Geostationary satellites. 7. 130 auroral. England. 109 current. 7. 17 Igneous rock. 52. 11 first textbook on. Wyoming. 107 recovery phase. 61 Humbolt. 84. Edmund. 128. 123 Hyderabad. 5. 28 geomagnetic coordinates.
44 termites.moex 147 Lightning focusing of. 44 simple bar. 118 currents in. 107. 49 ship's. 114 currents. 42. 78. 3 Eccentric axis dipole. 26 declination. 6. 42 in animal brains. 2 Magnet. 31 SQUID. 14. 87. 58 proton. 123 quake-site. 69 alignment with solar wind. 26 dipole. 77 locally measured. 30. 30 microscopic. 43 rocks. 93 airport. 30-35 storms. 42 Curie point. 44 Magnesia (Macedonia region). 4 clocks and. 102 field and charged particles. 111 solar wind path within. 95. 88 Van Allen belts. 71 positions. 88 tail boundary. 43 cryogenic. 123 medical uses. 58 Island. 13 north pole. 87. 102 sunward boundary. 3 polarities. 72 types of. 61-63 Earth's main field. 70 field effect of. 88 field measurements. 46 satellites and. 31 randomly oriented. 45 particles and. s e e Geomagnetic storms orbital predictions and. 92 Maglev. 82-84 Longitude. 30 field-aligned current. 3 Magnetic charts. 130 . 32 realignment. 60-61 Magnetite. 87 tail. 32 field human response to. 111 magnetic storms and. 72 GPS and. 2. 72 Resonance Imaging (MRI). 78 dipole moment. 35 positions of. 30 and lodestone (lodestone). 106. 29 geomagnetic coordinates. 102 Magnetosheath. 71. 23 permeability. 25 coils. 102 Magnetosphere. 111 fields. 41 rubidium. 2 body "health" magnet. 123 satellite. 46 satellites and. 79 IGRF. 102 tail of. 94 Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current. 5. 70 Magnetometer. 6 domains. 15 south pole. 3 Locally measured dip poles. 87 Magnetospheric boundary. 102. 23. 124 variometer. 84 axis. 123 Magnetopause. 123 fluxgate. 103 heating of. 75 movement of. 44 seasonal differences. 66 levitation. 104 outer boundary. 115 envelope. 87. 3 crystals. 28 Lower mantle. 81 Geomagnetic coordinate. 13 poles. 64 Loadstone (lodestone). 44 mountain.
3 Mars main field. 75. 57 Mesmer. 84 high latitude. 110 northern high-latitude. 16 solid magnet and. 20. 43 MT (magnetotelluric) data. 71 mapping. 36 plates. 40. 36 waves. 130 daytime field variations. 17. 134 INTERMAGNET. 34 extension into space. 19-20 Moon main field. 47 Saturn. 105 Novaya Zemlya. 36 troughs. 115 Magnetotail. 4 geomagnetic. 17. 108 Magnetotellurics (MT). 71 Neptune. 132 low latitude. 35 satellites and. 42-43 Mercury main field. 71 Moon. Franz Anton. 73 magnetic. 128-129 charts. 130 chain of. 71 reversal of. 114 magnetic resonance (NMR). 30 Mars. James Clerk. 29 Northern auroral zone. 23 alignment. 22. 106 major worldwide. 78-80 Nanoteslas (nT). 42 satellites.148 Index Magnetospheric (cont. 18 Observatories. 89. 79. 132. 88. Russia. 98 Maxwell. 2. 92. 43 Non-dipole field. 12. 120 molecule.) tail current. Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus). 61 Metamorphic rock. 115 Milky Way Galaxy. 70 Uranus. 26-29 Neptune main field. 71 Maunder. 71 size of. 115 Oceanic bottom dating. 18 hydrogen atom. 6. 38 Navigation homing pigeon. 43 spin alignment. 26. 38 data. 21 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). 38 Main field. 69 conducting atmospheric ions. 71 Venus. 114 Nuclear explosion (Novaya Zemlya). 92 global network. 109 auroral zone. 30. 34 Mid latitude. 7. 3. 23 dip angle. E. 131 method. 5. 71 Mercury. 116 Australian. 69 Ganymede. 18. 107 Maricourt. 32 at poles. 71 Mesa Verde. 88. 4 geographic. 23 . 71 Main phase. 28. 108 magnetic. 4 Star. 129 Natural magnetic noise. 43 Nucleus. 88 Molecules. 106 auroral and polar regions. 19 Nitrogen emissions. 71 Neutrons. 49 ships. 10 Medicine. 113. 57. 117 Northern Lights. 123 quantum-mechanical modeling of. 113. 81 North Pole. 71 MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). 131 Multipole. 138 northern hemisphere. 11. 3. 71 Jupiter.W. 15. 17 changing source..
114 field. 7 Proton. 60. 52. 109 Rubidium magnetometer. 45 IGRF field. 111 internal currents. 72. 102 Satellite sector currents. 78. 108 Plato. 41 Quake-site magnetometer. 42. 84 Right-hand rule. 3. 103. 90. 17 Reversal of field. 40. 53 Quebec blackout. 74 Placebo effect. 88. 123 Outer core. 114. 102 Parkinson's vectors. 111 atmospheric. 16. 58. 80. 73 drag. 48 search expeditions. Washington State. 51 grounding. 72-86 communication signals. and main field strength. 130 alignment. 88 . James Clark. 41 Pipelines. 16. 114 dynamo theory. 87. Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt). 2 Radiowaves. 32-34 cap. 82 magnetometer. 70 subsonic. Permeability. 117 3 Pseudoscience. 12 Pi and Pc pulsations. 130 Power lines. 84 Remanent magnetization. 23. 12. 63 Quiet-day variations (Sq). 114 Paleomagnetism. 34 explosive. 134 Polar. 16. 98. 57. 17 Recovery phase. 79 magnetic north. 128 magnetic. 74 magnetic south. 140. 95. 112. 48 partial. 35 of Dst index. 35-37 Pressure waves. 31 Octupole. 106. 70. 52 Quantum mechanical modeling. 131 Oscillation period. 72 observatory. 119 Quadrupole. 123 square of. 30 Poles. 108 latitudes. 81 electrical noise. 69 Ring current. 112. 107 apparent magnetic locations. 84. 11 damage. 79 Prominences. 32. 70 Ozone layer. 94 Ross.Index 149 magnetic drift. 103 precession. 78 Olympic Peninsula. 95. 21 field description. 52 Queen Elizabeth Islands. 77 dysfunction. 73 auroral field. Pseudo-logarithmic change. 13 131 Phase. 98 Plasma. 50 Prehistoric fields. 141 sonic. 123 Partial ring currents. 119. 116 auroral oval. 71 current loop. 37. 23. 50. 123 effects of current. 32. 11. 99 Radiation belts (Van Allen). 70 region of Earth. 47. 114 Paleomagnetician. 132 Port Augusta. 83 north geomagnetic. 48. 99 Paramour ship. 80 Piezomagnetic effect. 12 Pulsations (geomagnetic). 43 Peregrinus. 48 chart location of. 46. 44. 43 explorers. Australia. 67 Periods of oscillation. 18 corrosion. 92 Plages. 85. 36. 70. 111 regions. 18. 11. 95 RF electromagnetic signal. 108. 46.
131 Seismologists. 6. 86 orientation by field. 31 measurement of drift. 130 ions. 59 Strength of magnetic field. 49 Northern auroral oval picture. 107 field. 34. 134 Spectral analysis. 97-101. Chinese earthquake prediction. 114. 30 power supply. 71 Sea-floor spreading. 132 solar wind (see Solar wind). 84 failure. 39. 97-119 Quebec blackout. 46. 54 Steady field. 132 variations (Sq). 126 Solar corona. 55 rotation. 105 Space Environment Forecast Center. 3. 57 disturbances. 130 cycle. 92 field polarity. 46 navigation and. 99. 52. 56 activity. 57 eleven-year. 36 Sector effect. 12. 101 prominences. 119. 85. 101 visible light from. 139 Space Weather Disturbance Scales. 88 Sunspot. 118 Solar-terrestrial activity. 88. 97. 46 radiowave-signal transmitter. 6. 98 panels. 46 plasma. 70. 26. 125. 102 burst IMF. 28 navigation by. 49 Saturn main field. 45. 125 Source of magnetic fields. 88. 102. 82. 106--107 geomagnetic. 56. 92 vortices. 28 Southern Lights (Aurora Australis). 107 Statistical significance. 93 elevation angle. 13-15. 95.) evidence of poles. 51 solar-terrestrial activity. 53. 55. 16 Soda-bottle magnetometer. 77 Sun. 66 Si Nan. 2 SI units. 77 Sedimentary rock. 60. 75. 118. 57. 22 of main field. 88. 95. 16. 107 disturbance. 13. 47. 87 elevation angle. 93 SQUID magnetometer. 98 cycle. 30. 55. 129 South Magnetic Pole.150 Index Satellite (cont. 87 surface rotation. 55 ecliptic plane. 128. 99 coronal holes. 108-111 fingerprints. 94. 98 quiet (Sq). 9. 1. 49 magnetometer. 87. 46 geostationary. 69. 92 radiation. 101 sectors. 98 eclipse. 56. 48--50. 80 functions. 44 maximum elevation. 17 Storm explanations. 94-95. 138 global positioning system (GPS). 33. 69 South Atlantic/South America anomaly. 16. 76 Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations. 29 plasma. 83 Southern Cross. 92 magnetic field. 102 direction. 37 memory upset. 57 cycles drought and. 131 Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). 132 Secular variation (SV). 92 wind. 69. 44 Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers. 101. 55 . 99 flares. 44--46. 108 magnetic field. 124 Stand-off position.
52 pager. 43 Toward and Away sectors. 102. 71 Ursa Major (Big Dipper). 133. 138 X-rays. Antarctica. 102 maximum. 50. 106 pressure waves. 71 Vostok Station. 35 World Data Centers. 16 magnetic field. 123 Venus main field. 51 lines. 59. 94 Uranus main field. 48. 108 Variation field. 15 nanotesla. 17 mid (middle) latitudes. 46 Upper mantle. 118 minimum. 39 Zone auroral. 106-108 field. 134 Westward drift. 46 SV (Secular Variation). 17 low latitudes. Greenland. 87. 107 Tectonomagnetic effect. 84 Water divining/witching. 12 Variometer. 93 Yucatan peninsula crater. 5. 130 Tree-ring dating. 106 Thule. 97. 46 Tesla unit. 95 Tomographic analysis. 132. 15 UoSat-2 satellite. 17 . 17 equatorial. 15 Gauss. 17 high latitudes. 57 Tucson.Index 151 number (R). 77 Tail currents. 55-58 space. Arizona. 40 Telephone. 57 region temperature. 63-64 Weather. 17 polar caps. 55 Supersonic jet airplanes storm-time radiation risk. 88. 56. 27 Units gamma (y). 111 heating. 2 Van Allen radiation belts. 15 Thermosphere. 55. 44. 95 lobes. 84. 60.
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A black disk blocks the Sun's bright image.PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona. Illustration from NASA. . These solar particles and fields cause magnetic storms upon their arrival at the Earth.
Figure from SEC/NOAA. enter our atmosphere. A passing cloud of particles ejected from a solar disturbance is also shown. PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles. guided by the Earth's field. . This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field.PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole field in space is compressed by the wind from the Sun and is dragged far from the Earth into a downwind tail. Figure from NASA.
. J.ptialaska.PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle. Alaska. Lanzerotti. Figure from L. Bell Laboratories. PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. Lucent Technologies. Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site http://www. note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides the bombarding auroral particles.net/Nhutch/aurora.html).
Hastings. Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by D. organized by the Earth's spin. PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field levels. .PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and in the search for mineral deposits. and generated by a gravitational accretion process at the core-mantle boundary.
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