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Physics Lab 9

To find the value of acceleration due to gravity by recording number of oscillations of a simple pendulum

Satish Ahuja XII-A Physics HL 2

3 12. uncertainty = 0. uncertainty = 0. IV. II.6 12.7 18. I. III. l ± 0. V.05/cm 1 20 Time for oscillation. I. I. III.4 15. uncertainty = 0.5 15.7 18. II. III.1 cm.5 9.4 21. V.9 15. IV. II.4 21. IV.5 2 40 3 60 4 80 5 100 6 120 7 140 .1 25.4 28.3 25. No. t ± 0.05cm Stopwatch: Least count = 1s. II.3 28. V.Aditya Sareen HL 1 Raw Data Meter Rule: Least count = 0. V. 9.7 9.5s Table 1 – DATA9 Sr. II. IV.3 25.7 15. Length of string. III.05cm Vernier Calipers: Least count = 0.5 9.05/s I.7 12. I. III. I.5 15. V.1cm. II.3 12.4 12. I. II. V.4 21.5 21.8 21.6 18.1 18.4 9. IV. III. IV.7 18.8 25 25.

the calculations were performed for other readings An average of the time values(in s) for each reading was taken The calculation for the average time for string of length 20 cm is shown below: Calculation 2 Averaging the uncertainties: .7 IV.05 cm) and half the uncertainty of the Vernier Caliper (± 0.Aditya Sareen HL 1 III. and need only its radius. The example calculation for the length of string 0. 28. 28. 28.525 cm Similarly.05/2 = 0.7 cm ± 0.7 V. the final value is: 21.2m is shown below: Example Calculation 1 Adding the uncertainties: Therefore.4 ± 0.05 cm) The number of oscillations = 10 Data Processing Uncertainty Calculation The uncertainty of the ruler (± 0.025) Half of the uncertainty for the Vernier Caliper has to be taken as we have the diameter of the steel bob.4 The length of the string does not include the diameter of the bob 3.

Aditya Sareen HL 1 Therefore.44 15.68 21.5/s 9.52 We then convert the time period for 10 oscillations to the time period for just one oscillation An example calculation using unitary method for the 1st time period is shown below Example Calculation 3 Similarly.54 18. our final answer stands as: 9. n ± 0.525/cm 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Average Time period for 10 oscillations.5 ± 0.22 28.5 12. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Length. t ± 0.6 25.5s Rest of the calculations have been noted in the table below Table 1. calculations were performed for the other values of average time period and noted in the table below: .2 – Total Length and Average time for 10 oscillations Sr.

which would lead to the uncertainty being squared. n ± 0.95 1.244 1. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Length. l l T T2 g g kl kl OR. k being a constant.3 – Total Length and Average time for 1 oscillation Sr. and also convert the values of length to metres. to obtain a value for g. we must square the time period for each length.554 1.5/s 0.525/cm 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Average Time period. t ± 0. which would also lead to the uncertainty being divided by 100: .Aditya Sareen HL 1 Table 1.868 2.852 Theory tells us that the calculation for the time period of a simple pendulum undergoing simple harmonic motion can be carried out by using a predefined formula: T = 2 l g Where T(s) stands for time period.160 2. g T So. l(m) for length and g(ms -2) for the gravitational acceleration experienced by the object undergoing the motion. T2 = g = 2 .522 2.

00525/cm 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 (Average Time period)2.4 Sr.06x .Aditya Sareen HL 1 Table 1.467 4.656 6.8811 7 6 5 Series1 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Linear (Series1) .902 1.547 2.371 3.360 8. n ± 0.25/s 0. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Length.133 9 8 y = 0.0. t ± 0.

8ms-2 can be found by studying the relationship between length of the pendulum string and oscillations As we can see from this experiment the theory is correct but not completely. which constitute a systematic error. Multiple readings were taken. we can assume that a variety of errors can be propagated in this experiment Aspect 2: Random errors are introduced into this experiment by holding the pendulum bob at uneven and unequal extreme positions at the start. and a rough estimate for the length of the string had to be taken. instead. along with an attached tape measure would reduce the random and systematic errors in this experiment More number of readings could be taken. But. because the value of g obtained is not close to that of the theoretical value.Aditya Sareen HL 1 Conclusion Aspect 1: Theory states that the value of g=9. These unnatural oscillations constitute a systematic error. and once again lead to either higher or lower readings for the value of time period Aspect 3 A proper apparatus with a rigid support to suspend the string. and once again lead to either higher or lower readings for the value of time period Because the time period for one oscillation was too hard to measure. and averaging them would negate most of the random errors in this experiment . this leads to a higher or lower reading being taken for the value of length of the string Because the string was roughly tied around its support. which lead to either higher or lower readings for the value of time period The ruler used could not be placed directly next to the string. and could lead to unnatural oscillations. and averaged out to reduce error The base of the holder was uneven. the oscillations of the bob were haphazard and all over the place. the time period for 10 oscillations was taken.

Aditya Sareen HL 1 .

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