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JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 26, 1011-1027 (2010

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Hybrid Image Compression Based on Set-Partitioning Embedded Block Coder and Residual Vector Quantization
SHENG-FUU LIN, HSI-CHIN HSIN* AND CHIEN-KUN SU+
Department of Electrical and Control Engineering National Chiao Tung University Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan * Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National United University Miaoli, 360 Taiwan + Department of Electrical Engineering Chung Hua University Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan
A hybrid image coding scheme based on the set-partitioning embedded block coder (SPECK) and residual vector quantization (RVQ) is proposed for image compression. In which, the scaling and wavelet coefficients of an image are coded by using the original SPECK algorithm and the SPECK with RVQ, respectively. The use of hybrid coding strategy by combining SPECK with RVQ for high frequency wavelet coefficients is to take account of the energy clustering property of wavelet transform. Experimental results show that, for gray-level still images, the proposed hybrid RVQ-SPECK coder outperforms SPECK, e.g. the peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) values can be improved by 1.67 dB and 0.69 dB at compression rate of 1 bit per pixel for the 256 × 256 gray-level Lena and Barbra images, respectively. The application for chroma subsampling images is also presented in this paper, and the proposed method usually outperforms color SPECK method. The PSNR values can be improved by 1.11 dB for the Y plane, 0.99 dB for the U plane, and 2.31 dB for the V plane at the bit budget of 81,920 bits for the test image Goldhill. In addition to high coding efficiency, the proposed method also preserves the features of embeddedness, low decoding complexity, and exact bit-rate control. Keywords: image compression, residual vector quantization (RVQ), set-partitioning embedded block coder (SPECK), chroma subsampling images, embeddedness

1. INTRODUCTION
For the needs of high quality images, fast transmission, and less storage space, image compression is demanding increasingly. Differential pulse code modulation, transform coding, subband coding, and many other image compression techniques have been developed [1-3]. State-of-the-art techniques can compress typical images by a factor ranging from 10 to 50 with acceptable quality [4]. The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) image standard [5] known as the most widely used transform-coding based algorithm shows good performances at moderate compression ratios. Recently, the wavelet based multiresolution representation has received a lot of attention to the compression applications, as manifested in the JPEG2000 standard [6, 7]. Many wavelet based image coding algorithms such as the embedded zero-tree wavelets (EZW) [8], set partitioning in
Received July 8, 2008; revised November 20, 2008; accepted February 12, 2009. Communicated by Liang-Gee Chen.

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18]. HSI-CHIN HSIN AND CHIEN-KUN SU hierarchical trees (SPIHT) [9]. Recently. increase exponentially. Abdel-Galil et al. vector quantization (VQ) can significantly reduce the coding bits of signals. a hybrid coder using SPECK and residual VQ (RVQ) is thus proposed for image compression. According to Shannon’s theory [17. an unconstrained full search vector quantizer usually uses small vectors. morphological representation of wavelet data (MRWD) [10]. . associated with the vector quantizer. such as residual vector quantization (RVQ) [22. hierarchical VQ [24]. Su et al. the significant high-frequency wavelet coefficients of an image are to be coded on the basis of coefficient vectors. which is known as subband hierarchical block partitioning (SBHP) [15]. e. utilized VQ to compress multispectral satellite images [19]. although both methods involve SPECK and VQ and have good performance. speech recognition. SPECK has been incorporated into the verification model of JPEG 2000. and image compression. and tree-structured VQ (TSVQ) [18]. the higher detailed components of an image are projected onto the shorter basis functions with higher spatial resolutions. and the lower detailed components are projected onto the larger basis functions with narrower bandwidths. the RVQ results in performance degradation. In SPECK. and the set-partitioning embedded block coder (SPECK) [12. Gupta et al. VQ plays an important role in many applications.g.1012 SHENG-FUU LIN. the distortion of the vector quantizer approaches the lower bound of the distortion-rate relation. They used very sophisticated VQ method to improve compression efficiency at the cost of added complexity. RVQ or multistage VQ [25] is a VQ variant with less computation complexity. group testing for wavelets (GTW) [11]. volume rendering. Each VQ variant makes a compromise between the computation complexity and performance. developed a hybrid coding system by using SPIHT and VQ for image compression in [20]. Specifically. 23. which can be efficiently located by using the significance coding procedure of SPECK. Hence. When the code vector and code book sizes become large enough. which combines SPECK with a context-based adaptive arithmetic coder to improve the compression performance. applied VQ to power systems for classifying power quality disturbances [21]. Hence. several variants of the original VQ had been proposed in literature. 25]. The proposed hybrid method in this paper and the vector SPECK method were developed independently and with many differences in implementation. However. Another variant of SPECK called the embedded zero block coding (EZBC) [16] is much more complicated. comparing to scalar quantization. 13] have been proposed with a great success. Chao et al. Because the decoder of a RVQ is constrained by a direct-sum codebook structure and the encoder typically uses a suboptimal stage-sequential search procedure. In wavelet domain. proposed a vector SPECK algorithm for gray-level still image compression [27] which is a variation on SPECK using VQ to code the significant coefficients. For reducing the computation complexity and memory requirements of VQ. For efficiently coding high-frequency wavelet coefficients with energy clustering and compromising the complexity and performance of an image coder. this matches the characteristics of a human visual system [14]. both the computation complexity and memory requirement. the well-defined hierarchical structure with energy clustering within high frequency subbands has been taken into account such that the significant wavelet transform coefficients of an image can be efficiently coded as early as possible.

THE PROPOSED HYBRID IMAGE COMPRESSION METHOD The SPECK algorithm. 2 shows the result of a 4-decomposition-level 2D DWT. 2. is a simple. For example.2. an input gray-level image is transformed by 2D discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to generate its transformed image for further processing. Section 2 describes the proposed hybrid image coder which combines SPECK and RVQ.HYBRID IMAGE COMPRESSION BASED ON SPECK AND RVQ 1013 The remainder of this paper proceeds as follows. 1. and experimental results showed that the proposed hybrid method is efficient in image compression. D. Since vector quantization is more efficient than scalar quantization according to Shannon’s rate-distortion theory. the coded bitstream can be obtained by the use of multiplex operation. 1 shows the block diagram which can be directly used for still gray-level image compression. On the other hand. In subsection 2. 2. RVQ was selected to be combined with SPECK to constitute the proposed hybrid codec.1 Application for Gray-Level Still Images A hybrid image coding system by combining SPECK with RVQ is therefore proposed to improve the compression performance. we will discuss the computational complexity and required memory of the proposed hybrid method in gray-level image compression. Finally. Experimental results are given in section 3. By recursively partitioning a significant block of a transformed image. LL subband Scalar SPECK Input image DWT SPECK with RVQ H. and conclusions are given in section 4. The scaling coefficients represent the lowest frequency component of an image. developing a hybrid image coder combining SPECK with VQ was motivated. and Fig. the wavelet coefficients in highfrequency subbands are coded by using the SPECK with RVQ. In the first block. . V subbands Mux Coded bit-stream Fig. and they can be coded efficiently by using the original (scalar) SPECK algorithm. Fig. The proposed hybrid image coder.1. and the other is the high-frequency subbands which include all the coefficients of the transformed coefficients excluding those in LL subband. The coefficients of the transformed image are classified into two parts.3. efficient image coder with coding scalability. For reducing the computational complexity. In subsection 2. One is the LL subband which contains the scaling coefficients. SPECK locates the significant coefficients in the block and performs scalar quantization on these significant coefficients to generate a coded bit-stream. and a chroma-subsamplingimage application of the proposed hybrid method will be presented in subsection 2. which was proposed by Pearlman et al. the application for still gray-level images will be discussed..

the coefficients. the thresholds for a 7-stage RVQ are: 2-1. such that the L2 norm of each vector is less than or equal to one. where max nmax = ⎢ c ∈LL log 2 (|cij |) ⎥ . they are classified into three categories which are H (horizontal). and V (vertical) types as shown in Fig. Because the vectors are normalized.1014 SHENG-FUU LIN. In the proposed hybrid method. For the quantization of the coefficients in LL subband. D. 2. all the coefficients in LL subband are normalized. before sorting. and the other H. 2. D (diagonal). and each 2 × 2 block forms a corresponding 4D vector (Fig. HSI-CHIN HSIN AND CHIEN-KUN SU Fig. the H. are located in the second pass. and 0. All the coefficients in high-frequency subbands are partitioned into 2 × 2 blocks. 2 max). respectively. D and V blocks in the 4th decomposition level (i. Hence. n n whose magnitudes are in interval [2 max-1. and the procedure goes on until all the coefficients are located or the bit-budget is exhausted. the normalized scaling coefficients with magnitudes in [2-1. and the procedure goes on till all the coefficients are located or the bit-budget is exhausted. original SPECK starts from the most significant nmax bit plane. The partition and assignment of a 4-decomposition-level transformed image. in the initialization step. 2-6. 2-4. Then. The coefficients with magnitudes in interval [2-2. then the vector is significant and the block or subband containing this vector is also significant. 2) form the S set (significant set). 2-5. and V are normalized by the maximum L2 norms of three categories. ⎢ ij ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (1) and cij represents a coefficient in LL subband. Those scaling coefficients.e. If the L2 norm of a vector is greater than or equal to the threshold. For a 4-decomposition-level transformed image. 2-3. on the left-top corner in Fig. 20) are located in the first pass. D and V subbands form the I set (insignificant set) in the RVQ-SPECK . 3). by the absolute value of the coefficient with the largest magnitude. For the coefficients in high-frequency subbands. The three types of vectors in H. 2-1) are located in the second pass. 2-2. whose magnitudes are greater than or equal to 2nmax are located in the first pass.

j+1] ci+1. Because the characteristics of H. The signal flow diagram of a p-stage RVQ is shown in Fig. ci. and xi is ˆi is xi+1 that is the code vector which has the smallest distance to xi. ci+1. Thus. of the RVQ-SPECK part in the proposed hybrid method. . Fig. binary output of SPECK. 3. one pass of the proposed hybrid method including two SPECK passes and one RVQ-SPECK pass. 5.j+1. The sorting pass of the significant vectors of the high-frequency subbands and the definitions of S and I in the proposed hybrid method are identical to the scalar SPECK except that the significance path of the SPECK with RVQ ends when the block is 2 × 2. D. 1). Fig. 3 RVQs are used for the H. At last. A 2 × 2 coefficient block and its corresponding 4D vector.e.j+1 A 4D vector A 2×2 coefficient block Fig. the output coded bit-stream contains the overhead. the transmission rate of the scalar SPECK is usually faster than that of the RVQ-SPECK. The residual of xi − x the input vector for the (i + 1)th VQ stage in the RVQ system. Generally speaking. i. 4. and V subbands are different. respectively. The signal flow diagram of a p-stage RVQ. D. 5. and V subbands. and the relation is shown in Fig. ˆ where xi (1 ≤ i ≤ p) is the input vector of the ith VQ stage in the p-stage RVQ. 4.HYBRID IMAGE COMPRESSION BASED ON SPECK AND RVQ 1015 ci. The coded bit-stream of the proposed hybrid method. and binary output of RVQ-SPECK.j. but RVQ was selected to be used in the proposed hybrid method because of its low complexity and acceptable performance. Based on the simulation results.j ci. block of the proposed hybrid method (Fig.j ci+1.j+1 [ci. Since the information of the lowest frequency subband LL of an image is usually more important than that of the high-frequency subbands. full-search VQ has better performance than RVQ. the bit-plane resolution in the scalar SPECK is set to be higher than that of the RVQ-SPECK. the transmission rate of the scalar SPECK is set empirically twice of the RVQ-SPECK transmission rate.j. ci+1.

and V subbands) of the transformed Y. First.2 Application for Chroma Subsampling Images The chroma subsampling format is used for balancing efficiency and quality in sampling. U. and V subbands. and the sizes of the two chrominance planes are 176 × 144. one quantization cycle of the proposed hybrid method includes two CSPECK quantization passes of the LL subbands and one RVQ-CSPECK quantization pass of H. For CIF. however. The scaling coefficients of each LL subband.22 dB at compression rate of 1 bpp by using SPECK with arithmetic coding [26]. 2. the operation of arithmetic coding is not performed in our experiments. and V planes are processed by CSPECK. Besides the overhead of the compression file. and we will discuss how to use the proposed hybrid method for the compression of the popular YUV 4:2:0 images. After normalization and coefficient classification.1016 SHENG-FUU LIN. and the similar method is used in picture format to save bandwith (memory) and maintain good quality. the size of the luminance plane is 352 × 288. and the other coefficients (i. respectively. so the proposed method is embedded. Y. The transformed coefficients of each plane are partitioned into LL. and V planes are transformed by using 2D discrete wavelet transform. Another three positive base values which are determined from the L2 norms of the 4D vectors in H. HSI-CHIN HSIN AND CHIEN-KUN SU The decoder of the proposed method can be implemented by simply reversing the processing steps of the encoder. H. respectively. and V planes are coded by CSPECK with RVQ. D.261. are used to normalize the vectors in their corresponding subbands such that the L2 norm of each normalized 4D vector is not greater than 1. and V subbands (Fig. Hence. 13]. As an example. V. The image sequence format of MPEG-4 is CIF or 4:2:0. Similar to the quantization of the monochrome application. U. Then. the bits in the compression file are ordered in importance. D. or V subbands do. the PSNR value of the decoded 512 × 512 Lena image can be improved by 0. so it can achieve the exact bit-rate control which is an important requirement of modern codecs. CIF (Common Intermediate Format) and QCIF (Quarter CIF) are two such formats in H. D. D. Each of the two chrominance planes only contains one quarter data (pixels) of the luminance plane’s. 6 shows the block diagram of the application of the proposed hybrid method for chroma subsampling images. H. the three LL subbands of the transformed Y. . at the cost of increasing computational complexity. The proposed encoder (decoder) can terminate the coding (decoding) process at any point. are normalized by the maximum-amplitude of the coefficients in this LL subband. For system simplicity. since the scaling coefficients in LL subbands contain more important information than the coefficients in H. which will be processed by color SPECK (CSPECK) [12.e. Fig. 12 base values used in normalization have to be stored and transmitted for the decoder of the proposed method. U. and D subbands. 7). since the human eye is less sensitive to the chrominance information than to the luminance information. each transformed YUV plane is processed like the transformed image in the still gray-level image case. The compression performance can be improved by the use of arithmetic coding after SPECK.

The block diagram of the application of the proposed method for chroma subsampling images.HYBRID IMAGE COMPRESSION BASED ON SPECK AND RVQ 1017 Fig. . 6. Fig 7. One quantization cycle of the proposed hybrid method which includes two CSPECK quantization and one RVQ-CSPECK quantization.

For the computational complexity in encoding. When the proposed hybrid method locates a significant vector. and V subbands are much more than the scaling coefficients in LL subband. Hence. (2) is 6.1018 SHENG-FUU LIN. Assume that three p-stage RVQs are used and the codebook sizes of H. HSI-CHIN HSIN AND CHIEN-KUN SU 2. and V subbands for the ith VQ stage are the same and equal to mi words. on the lengths of the list of significant vectors and the list of in-significant sets. Although SPECK can use a simple bitwise operation for significance test. the proposed hybrid method needs extra memory for storing codebooks and parameters. SPECK needs one more quadtree partition and 4 significance test to complete the significant path. Then. The proposed hybrid method also needs i =1 p memory to store the 12 base values for normalization and threshold information. the computation complexity of the proposed hybrid method can be approximated by that of the RVQ-SPECK part. Although the significance test complexity of the proposed method is more complicated than SPECK’s. D. If an N × N gray-level test image with nmax = 11 is coded by SPECK and the proposed hybrid method with p-stage RVQs. The proposed hybrid method outperforms the scalar SPECK. Then. all the codebooks need 3 ⋅ ∑ mi words. no significance test needed for SPECK or the proposed hybrid method. the proposed hybrid method use L2 norms for significance test of the vectors for each stage. Both SPECK and the proposed hybrid method use the same algorithm to locate significant coefficients.3 Memory Requirement and Computational Complexity of the Proposed Hybrid Method In this section. LSP and LIP).9. the significance-test-number ratio of SPECK to the proposed hybrid method can be estimated by: N × N × nmax 4n = max . For the decoding part. and SPECK uses 1-bit comparison to test significance for each bit-plane. but the proposed method usually has shorter significant paths because of the use of a 4D vector instead of a single pixel (coefficient). or the RVQ-SPECK is the dominant part of the proposed hybrid method. and the computational complexity of both methods is greatly reduced. the computational complexity of the proposed hybrid method for significant vector test is several times more complicated than the significance test in SPECK. for this example. it suffers from the growth of the number of significance tests for large images. for the memory issue. Since each vector in RVQ-SPECK contains 4 coefficients. For the memory issue. ( N/2) × ( N/2) × p p (2) For a 512 × 512 gray-level test image with nmax = 12 and p = 7. the SPECK encoder needs 6. The proposed hybrid method is implemented as simple look-up tables and the total amounts of significant vectors are about one quarter of the amounts of the significant pixels in . the memory requirement and computational complexity of the proposed hybrid codec will be discussed. Therefore.g. the significance-test ratio of Eq. Hence. the proposed hybrid method has the advantage that its total significance test number is smaller than that of SPECK.9 times of the significance tests of the proposed hybrid encoder. D. assuming that the coefficients in H. the length of a RVQ-SPECK list is about one fourth of the length of the corresponding list in SPECK (e.

For the coefficient vectors of H. Fig. and the proposed hybrid method are coded by Matlab. 9-11 show the PSNR-bpp curves for the 3 test images. Therefore. and that of the other RVQ stages is 32 words. we will compare the proposed hybrid method with SPECK and SPIHT image codecs by encoding and decoding some test images (Fig. but need to decode images fast. which do not include the three test images. The first application. 30 and 21 codebooks are trained by using the K-means algorithm for 256 × 256 and 512 × 512 monochrome images. where the horizontal and vertical axes are the compression rates in bpp and PSNR values in dB. The proposed hybrid method and SPECK are compared by using 256 × 256 test images first.0 bpp. Linear phase biorthogonal wavelet filters with 9/7-coefficients are used in this paper. we empirically choose the stage number. bit-allocation of codewords and so on. The platform for simulation is an IBM PC with Windows XP. and V subbands. The compression rate is measured in bits per pixel (bpp). respectively. Both 256 × 256 and 512 × 512 test images are used for testing. V. For the simulation of 256 × 256 monochrome images. respectively. each category has its own codebooks. and D subbands are different.67 dB at 1. To summarize. codebook size. and D. For the 256 × 256 monochrome image Barbra. The wavelet coefficients in subbands of types H. 8). The codebook size of the first RVQ stage is 64 words. 41 images. the proposed hybrid coder outperforms the SPECK coder by 1. The lowest frequency coefficients in subband LL are normalized such that their magnitudes are in the range of [0. Because the characteristics of H. two applications of the proposed hybrid compression method are presented. Table 1 shows the simulation results of the 256 × 256 test images. V. V.23 dB at 1. and the other is the compression of chroma subsampling images in subsection 3. is the gray-level still image compression. respectively. and then.HYBRID IMAGE COMPRESSION BASED ON SPECK AND RVQ 1019 SPECK. The number of wavelet decomposition levels in our experiments is 4. 3. From above discussion. three methods (including SPIHT) are compared for 512 × 512 test images. and D are coded by using SPECK with RVQ. the proposed hybrid coder outperforms the SPECK coder by 1. in the RVQs. and the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) measured in dB is utilized to evaluate the decoded image quality.1 Grey-level Still Image Compression In this subsection. as 10 and 7 for 256 × 256 and 512 × 512 test images. and SPECK.2. 2 shows the classification of a 4-level transformed image whose coefficients are classified into four types: LL. are used to train the codebooks of the RVQs of the proposed method. and this is consistent with our experiment results. and 0. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS In this section.1 bpp.1. The actual computational complexity depends on the image characteristic. H. 1).5 bpp.48 dB. For the 256 × 256 monochrome image Lena. and Figs. and 0. 3. For the third 256 × 256 gray-level image . D. on average. and these coefficients are coded by using the scalar SPECK. Each codeword is a 4D vector in R4. the propose hybrid decoder is as efficient as SPECK. in subsection 3. SPIHT.1 bpp to 1.49 dB on average. from 0. the proposed hybrid method is suitable for asymmetric complexity applications that we can encode images off line.

92 24. The experimental results of the 256 × 256 gray-level image Lena.87 34.56 29.9 0.2 1. The experimental results of the 256 × 256 gray-level image Barbara.59 31.5 0.48 31.24 35.29 26.97 28.14 25.79 37.7 0.44 27.39 32.89 40 Proposed SPECK bpp 1.22 25.90 30. Three 8-bit gray-level 256 × 256 test images.11 24. Lena SPECK Proposed 40.10 30.3 1.44 28.21 38.38 36.19 36.56 30.09 29.51 40.4 1.59 28.01 28.96 38.84 25. Fig.85 33.44 35.63 36.74 34.77 26.48 39.31 32.60 38. 9.48 33.89 26.92 32.22 33.93 27.68 40.6 0.76 26.49 35 PSNR (dB) 30 25 0 0.58 25.19 32. .89 41.80 30.49 25.85 31.54 29.58 39.1 1. 10.55 32.99 28.1020 SHENG-FUU LIN. Fig.48 28.98 29.33 30.72 30.72 28.95 29.8 0.07 39. Simulation results of 256 × 256 test images.0 0.44 PSNR (dB) Barbara SPECK Proposed 39.41 35.61 29.79 30.65 31.84 26. Table 1.3 0.20 35.4 0. HSI-CHIN HSIN AND CHIEN-KUN SU (a) Lena.5 1.2 0.02 35.08 35.03 24.97 30.71 36.89 26.43 31.5 bpp 1 1.78 36.00 27.59 39.64 31.02 39.25 25.46 24. (b) Babara. 8.09 40.33 25.125 0.21 37.64 34.41 37.05 39.34 33.53 32.46 34.37 33.09 28.00 34.25 0.82 40.10 32.5 Fig.68 39.1 Goldhill SPECK Proposed 33. (c) Goldhill.56 38.61 34.43 29.34 33.74 26.

SPECK and SPIHT are two state-of-the-art techniques. The experimental results of the 256 × 256 gray-level image Goldhill. Three types of VQs (full search VQ. and SPIHT are shown in Fig. the proposed hybrid method. A large . According to the results in Table 2. tree-structured VQ. It is shown that the proposed hybrid coder is preferable to the SPECK coder in terms of the PSNR-bpp curves. The average improvements of the proposed hybrid coder compared with the original SPECK on more 256 × 256 test images. Goldhill. SPIHT is selected for comparison because it is a wavelet-based method with very good performance and used in JPEG2000. The experimental results of more test images obtained from the USC (University of Southern California) image database are shown in Fig.43 dB on average. 13. and SPIHT (with arithmetic coding) are simulated and compared with each other. The 7 thresholds of the 3 RVQs in the proposed hybrid method are: 2-1. and the vector dimension and vector entries depend on the subbands and quantization levels where the vector is located. The stages of a RVQ of the proposed hybrid method were empirically reduced to 7 stages. The vectors used for 512 × 512 images are also 4D vectors (Fig.73 dB at 1. Chao et al. SPECK. and which one has better performance usually depends on the image characteristic. it seems that the proposed hybrid method can improve the SPECK codec for most images. Table 2 shows the simulation results of the proposed hybrid method. 3) in the vector space R4. although we can not guarantee that the proposed hybrid method can always has the best performance. downloaded from USC image database. and 0. and 0. the proposed method. we found that the image of SPECK codec is smoother than the others and the proposed hybrid codec preserves more small details of the original images. 2-2. and it is difficult to find difference among these images by our eyes instantly. 2-5. 12. proposed a vector SPECK [27] for still gray-level image compression. the proposed hybrid coder outperforms the SPECK coder by 0. By carefully inspecting the reconstructed images in Fig. and the K-means method. In Fig. since using fewer stages in a RVQ usually obtains better performance (higher PSNR values) for low bit-rate cases. 13. 2-6. Three 0. especially under low bit-rate conditions. and entropy constrained VQ) were used in their method at the same time. 12 the curve denotes the average improvement by using the proposed hybrid coder compared with the pure SPECK coder. For the experiments of 512 × 512 gray-level still images. 2-3. SPECK. 12.25-bpp decoded images of SPECK. Fig. A set of codebooks were trained by using 8 training images. and SPIHT (with arithmetic coding) on 512 × 512 test images.HYBRID IMAGE COMPRESSION BASED ON SPECK AND RVQ 1021 Fig.5 bpp. 2-4. 11.

33 (a) (b) (c) Fig.39 39. Experiment results of SPECK.72 30.31 29.03 27.2 0. 1.3 0. JPEG2000.59 31.39 33.39 27.42 35.54 27.18 30.5 0.23 36.25bpp condition. Since the conditions of Tables 2 and 3 are different.62 35.96 32.65 32. the proposed hybrid method has the features of low complexity and a wide bit-rate range.96 34.00 28.49 34.03 39.1 Table 3.98 27. and they used 5 decomposition levels. Table 3 shows some experiment data form [27].26 29.0 0.60 26.32 32.48 30.14 37.00 35.55 31. (b) the proposed hybrid method.25 SPECK 30.46 34.69 30.61 30.25 0.62 31.78 33.4 0.36 31.31 33.71 32.99 24. Hence.66 23. but it does not handle the lower bit planes for n = 3.75 24. and 0.03 Lena JPEG2000 30.92 32.7 0.52 34.87 37.6 0.2 0.29 32. and (c) SPIHT under 0.03 31.62 27.46 35.20 30.82 34.63 29.89 39.07 35. the vector SPECK .67 34. Lena SPECK Proposed SPIHT 40.83 35.38 36.40 38.72 33.25-bpp case.79 29.8 0.30 27.01 37.74 38. HSI-CHIN HSIN AND CHIEN-KUN SU Table 2.89 39.53 36.40 33.89 35.03 36.09 Vector SPECK 31.95 28.32 35.99 34.15 32.78 36. 2. Bit rate 0.25 33.125 0.92 26.1022 SHENG-FUU LIN.82 34.49 26.06 34.00 34. Simulation results for 512 × 512 test images.64 33.16 33.00 32. the results of Tables 2 and 3 of the same method are not equal.75 33.42 33.46 39.15 28.99 34.18 36. amount (1. and arithmetic coding in SPECK. Vector SPECK can outperform the JPEG2000 codec under low bit-rate conditions at the cost of added complexity.37 Goldhill SPECK Proposed SPIHT 34.88 31.10 30.68 30.54 39.96 34.82 PSNR (dB) Barbara SPECK Proposed SPIHT 35.33 28.01 32.85 33.72 30. 9/7 DWT.71 29.500) of training images and Lloyd splitting method are used for training codebooks.69 29.77 34. For the Lena image under 0. we only compare the difference values of SPECK and the proposed hybrid method in Table 2 with the difference values of SPECK and JPEG2000 (or the vector SPECK) in Table 3. and vector SPECK from [27].47 34. 13.69 38.44 40.9 0.29 39. Decoded images of (a) SPECK. Compared with vector SPECK.02 31.61 34.99 40.63 bpp 1.

The test image is originally 256 × 256 size in the R.22 dB in Y. Because the human eye is less sensitive to the chrominance information than to the luminance information. so they had to be preprocessed before simulation. 3. the test image was transformed to the YUV space.e. the average PSNR values (from 0. D. and 2. the other coefficients (in H. 14-16 show the simulation results.0 ebpp). H. (3) is used for representing the compression rate for decoding a coded YUV 4:2:0 image: ebpp = number of bits used 256 2 + 2 × 1282 .1 ebpp to 1. V. The equivalent bit-per-pixel (ebpp) value defined in Eq. First. U. respectively. JPEG2000 outperforms SPECK 0. 55 color images are used to generate 90 codebooks for the proposed codec.31 dB for the V plane at the bit budget of 98. V. used in the simulation. 10th) stage of the RVQs. We compare the PSNR values of the proposed hybrid method with those of the CSPECK coder in Y. and the curves in Figs. and V planes. For a CSPECK codec. The same basis vector arrangement as that used in the H subband is used in the D and V subbands in Y plane. Then. U.21 dB. .66 dB. HDV. For the vectors in H subbands of Y plane. and 2. since the RVQs are 10-stage and there are three YUV planes that each has three types (H. we can choose a proper coder for applications with such a format. where the downsampleing method was to calculate the arithmetic mean of the adjacent four-point values. DVCAM. and V planes.304 bits (1. the decoder needs to know the maximum number of binary bit planes (nmax) that is used for coding the transformed image.5 ebpp) of the proposed method are higher than those of CSPECK by 0. Based on the simulation results. and the proposed hybrid method outperforms SPECK 0. For the same image.7 dB (Table 2). 32 basis vectors are used in the highest (i. it shows that the proposed hybrid method is very competitive and efficient. have 256 × 256 Y (luminance) plane and 128 × 128 U and V (chrominance) planes.5.3 dB.g.2 Chroma Subsampling Image Compression The goal of the simulation is to compare the performance of the proposed hybrid coder with that of the CSPECK coder for YUV 4:2:0 images. and V planes. the U and V planes were downsampled to 128 × 128 pixels. MPEG-4. and D subbands of each Y. or V subbands of plane U or plane V. and the number of decomposition level is four. and B planes (true color space). The test images. (3) The 256 × 256 color test image Goldhill is used for simulation. G. respectively. 0. In our experiments. and each of the other 9 stages has 16 basis vectors. For the vectors in H.99 dB for the U plane. and MJPEG. It can be seen that the PSNR values can be improved by 1.06 dB (Table 3). 1. or V plane) of the transformed image are coded by using the CSPECK with three 10-stage RVQs. and D) of 4D coefficient vectors. Hence. fewer basis vectors are used in U plane or V plane. JPEG/JFIF. and each of the other 9 codebooks of the H subbands in Y plane has 64 codewords. U.11 dB for the Y plane. VC-1. e. 1).HYBRID IMAGE COMPRESSION BASED ON SPECK AND RVQ 1023 outperforms SPECK 0. Excluding the three LL subbands of Y. U. 128 vectors are selected to be the basis vectors for the vectors with L2 norms in [0.261. The 9/7-tap biorthogonal wavelet transform is performed on each plane separately. PAL DV. All the codebooks are trained by using the simple K-means method.

The U-plane experimental results of the chroma subsampling image Goldhill. 14. because of sharp edges and corners. Even though. the proposed hybrid method is efficient in time and bit-budget. for still gray-level and chroma subsampling images. According to the applications that we are interested in. Since the most time consuming codebook design can be done off-line and the codebook sizes of the RVQs are small. The V-plane experimental results of the chroma subsampling image Goldhill. the luminance values are more probable to change abruptly than the chrominance values are.1024 SHENG-FUU LIN. HSI-CHIN HSIN AND CHIEN-KUN SU Fig. which is based on SPECK and RVQ. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. Based on the simulation results. we propose a hybrid image coder. 16. Compared with SPIHT and SPECK (two state-of-the-art algorithms). Fig. The major added cost of the proposed method is the needs of training codebooks and determining parameters before encoding. On the other hand. Fig. 4. since the colors (chrominance information) of the four neighbors in a 2 × 2 block are usually similar. 15. The Y-plane experimental results of the chroma subsampling image Goldhill. the experimental results have shown that the proposed hybrid method is efficient for image compression. the flexible proposed hybrid codec can be designed to improve its low . it is obvious that the proposed method has superior improvement in the two chrominance planes (U and V). the proposed method also achieves good results in the Y planes.

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respectively. His research interests include wavelet transform. and Ph.S. Taiwan. in 1989.S. U. DSP architectures and system on chip. Hsinchu. image processing. PA. degree from the University of Southern California. Taiwan. and Chinese Automatic Control Society. and the Ph. Taiwan. Professor Lin is a member of the IEEE Control Society. CORDIC.S. automatic target recognition. Taiwan since 1995. Taiwan.HYBRID IMAGE COMPRESSION BASED ON SPECK AND RVQ 1027 of Electrical and Control Engineering at National Chiao Tung University. His research interests include image processing and computer vision. in 1992. Chien-Kun Su (蘇建焜) was born in 1962. in 2008. Pittsburgh. Hsinchu. . He is a Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering at National United University. scheduling. Chinese Fuzzy System Association.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh. His research interests include fuzzy theory. and image recognition. M.A. degree from National Chiao Tung University.S.D. image processing. degree from National Taiwan University. He has been on the faculty of the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chung Hua University. in 1992 and 1995. He received the B.. Hsi-Chin Hsin (辛錫進) received the M.