1) excavations techniques, strategies, guidelines 2) estimation of time since death, cause of death, manner of death 3) role of forensic anthropologist

as expert, goals of forensics 4) Differentiation between animal and human material 5) age determination (subadults and adults) (methods, criteria, pros/cons, best elements/methods) 6) sex determination (subadults and adults) (methods, criteria, pros/cons, best elements/methods) 7) population affiliation (methods, criteria, pros/cons, best elements/methods) 8) aspects of individuation (pros/cons of various methods, application of metho ds) 9) trauma (differentiating among the different types (e.g., blunt vs. sharp) an d time of occurrence (perimortem vs. postmortem) head and other portions of the corpse - skeletonized parts underwater - flesh intact (adipocere) associated bones were scattered Chemical analysis confirmed remains did not come from cemetery. How would the M. E. have reached this conclusion? Using isotopic analysis the medical examiner may compare soil samples of the cem etery to the soil samples attached to the body or the skeleton itself. If the is otopes were drastically different the body probably did not come from the cemete ry. male over the age of 50.What specific features might have led her to arrive at t his estimate? Pubic symphyses, auricular surfaces, sternal rib ends, cranial sutures & histolo gical methods. Pubic symphyses - from fine grained bone to flat area with porous, rough, older looking bone. pubic face <20 has ridges and furrows. >50 erosion and erratic oss ification. (features: ventral(no bevel to bevel and lipping), dorsal (lipping), Upper (no form, fully formed), lower (no form, fully formed). auricular surface and sternal rib ends similar - youthful to old and pitted. auricular surface (Age): 20-24(billowing, very fine granular, no apical activity , no retroauricular, no porosity). 60+ (No transverse organization, destruction of bone (dense), marked apical activity, retroauricular marked with osteophytes, macro porosity). sternal rib ends: <19 ( smooth, flat with billows, rounded rim) older (lighter a nd more porous, u-shaped surface, sharp rim with thin walls, irregular projectio n rim contour). endocranial sutures thought to be more accurate in age estimates than ectocrania l.Depending on the stage of suture closure you can determine age. scores are add ed up for vault and lateral-anterior. COMPOSITE SCORES:vault: stage 1: 17-43. st age 6: 34-60 cortical bone remodeling (secondary osteons, non-haversian canals, primary lamel lar bones). Uses regression formulae. Dental changes a number of cranial and infracranial features pointed to an African-American anc estry. What might these have been? Table 7.2 on page 135 A triangular perforation was found in the left frontal bone. It had penetrated t

he inner table of bone.chopping instrument to make triangular cuts? clefts? (Page 289) someone attack ed this individual and wanted them dead. fractured left ribs were antemorte. . There were also six other small. sin ce there was evidence of healing. parallel incisions in the frontal bone and similar cuts on the ribs of the right chest area. Two fractured left ribs showed signs of healing. What is your assessment of these findings and how did you arrive at these conclusions? . Immediately above the perforation was a narrow incision in the bone.

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