PENERIMAAN DAN PENOLAKAN SOSIAL TERHADAP ANAK BERKEBUTUHAN KHUSUS DI SEKOLAH DASAR INKLUSI (SD NEGERI BEDALI 5 LAWANG

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Oleh: Nissa Retno Andini ( 03810047 ) Psychology
Dibuat: 2009-04-15 , dengan 7 file(s).

Keywords: Penerimaan dan Penolakan sosial, Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus, Sekolah Dasar Inklusi ABSTRAK Sekolah inklusi merupakan terobosan pemerintah dalam 5 tahun terakhir ini, untuk memberikan pelayanan khusus bagi anak berkebutuhan khusus (ABK) di sekolah reguler agar dapat berkembang secara optimal, namun pada kenyataannya aspek sosial masih cenderung menjadi masalah, seperti sikap dari sekolah reguler atau dari teman-teman yang normal. Dilihat dari survei awal di salah satu sekolah dasar inklusi di Malang, teman-teman normal ada yang mengolok, tidak mau dan menolak, namun ada juga teman normal yang membantu teman ABKnya ini. Penerimaan sosial sangat penting dibutuhkan, terlebih lagi pada anak yang memiliki kelainan ataupun kecacatan karena berdampak positif terhadap harga diri, begitu juga dengan penolakan sosial akan mempengaruhi diri anak. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana penerimaan dan penolakan sosial terhadap anak berkebutuhan khusus di sekolah dasar inklusi serta faktor-faktor yang melatarbelakangi penerimaan dan penolakan sosial tersebut. Penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif yang dilaksanakan pada tanggal 24 Juli sampai dengan 29 Agustus 2008. Dengan subyek penelitian sebanyak 10 orang dan memiliki karakteristik anak berkebutuhan khusus yang berbeda-beda, yaitu 2 subyek tunanetra, 2 subyek tunarungu wicara, 1 subyek tunagrahita C1, 2 subyek autis, 1 subyek tunadaksa, 1 subyek low vision dan 1 subyek cerebral palsy. Lokasi penelitian adalah di sekolah dasar inklusi SD Negeri Bedali 5 Lawang. Data ini diambil menggunakan teknik sosiometri, wawancara dan observasi. Data yang didapat dianalisis menggunakan analisa kualitatif. Dari hasil penelitian di dapat data bahwa anak berkebutuhan khusus di sekolah dasar inklusi SDN Bedali 5 Lawang pada umumnya diterima secara sosial oleh teman-teman sebaya mereka yang normal, namun ada juga beberapa diantaranya ditolak secara sosial. Dilihat dari karakteristik subyek ABK bahwa empat diantaranya diterima dan ditolak secara sosial, yakni tunanetra, tunarungu wicara, tunagrahita C1 dan low vision, dua yang diterima secara sosial saja, yakni autis dan cerebral palsy, untuk penolakan sosial yakni ABK yang tunadaksa, dengan bentuk penerimaan sosial, yaitu suka membantu, diajak mengobrol, bercanda dan bermain, sedangkan bentuk penolakan sosial, yaitu suka mengganggu, menggoda, tidak diajak bermain dan tidak menghargai teman ABKnya ini. Faktor-faktor yang melatarbelakanginya, yaitu pola kepribadian, kemampuan akademik, kemampuan sosial dan dari daya tarik penampilan. ABSTRACT Inclusive school is one of the goverment breakthrough at this last 5 years to give some more special service for the special needs children in the regular school in order that this special needs children would get best developed. But still, in fact, the social aspect likely becomes problems, for instance is the attitude of the regular school or the attitude of their normal friends. As the result of the early observation which is held at one of the inclusive school in Malang, we have found that some of the normal friends was makes funny on that special

1 tunagrahita C1 children. the form of the social rejection to the special needs children are their normal peers like to molested them. in contrary. and low-visioned children. and 1 special needs characteristics socially rejected. which has different special needs characteristic. and playing together. . which are blind. tease. do not want to makes friends. which are autistic and cerebral palsy children. This research is a qualitative-descriptive research. 2 deaf-and-mute childrens. 2008. By this research. 1 low-visioned children. and attractiveness. The subjects of this research are 10 special needs childrens. The purpose of this research is to figure out the social acceptance and sosial rejection on the special needs children on the inclusive elementary school and to figure out the background factors of the social acceptance and rejection. would affect their self-esteem also negatively. act playfully (jokes and laughs). we have found that special needs children at the inclusive school 5th Bedali Elementary School. 1 physical-dissabled children. 4 special needs characteristics both socially accepted and rejected. Social acceptance is one thing that was very important for this special needs children. And the social rejection. interview. Lawang. The background factors are the personality pattern. deaf-and-mute. On the other hands. socially accepted by their normal peers. make talk to them. but still some of them socially rejected by their peers. and rejects them. which is physical-dissabled children. that was still some normal friends which is still willing to support and help them. But on the other hands. By their special needs characteristics. and not to respect to them. in general. afterwards analyzed by the qualitative analysis technique. tunagrahita C1. This research is located on the 5th Bedali Elementary School. The form of the social acceptance to the special needs children are the normal peers would help their special needs friends. Lawang. which held on July 24 to August 29.needs children. especially for those who is dissabled. and 1 cerebral-palsy children. because it would positively affected their self-esteem. which are 2 blind childrens. their normal friends not willing to play together with them. social capability. 2 autistic childrens. and observation technique. academic capability. The research data are gathered by the socio-metric. 2 special needs characteristics socially accepted.

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