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INSPECTION PROCEDURES FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS STAGE INSPECTION

The Stage Inspection will particularly include the following tests/checks besides the general routine tests to be conducted during manufacturing stages as per the manufacturers general practice. No deviation shall be acceptable. Physical inspection/checking of winding insulating material, core material and other accessories/fitting of transformer. Measurement of Core area, cross sectional area of winding(s), number of turns in each winding. Measurement of thickness of tank plates (Top, Bottom and sides) and to conduct pressure and Vacuum tests as per the laid down in CBIP manual for transformer tests to ensure the adequate strength of tank plates. Sample testing of Core Material for checking specific loss, magnetisation characteristics (i.e., B.H. Curve plot) and thickness. If Core material sample testing facility for checking of specific loss & magnetisation characteristics are not available at suppliers works then core sample is to be got tested at Govt. approved / recognised testing laboratory. Visual and dimensional check during assembly stage of core. Check for proper provisions of spacers and bracing to arrest the movement of core and winding assembly inside the tank. Check for providing Condenser rings on HV & LV Windings.

To carry out the stage inspection, the supplier should intimate the complete schedule of manufacturing programme of these transformers at least 15 days advance. In case, the purchaser will not be able to come for stage inspection, the supplier shall submit all the relevant documents generated during stage by stage manufacturing process for checking.

ROUTINE TESTS
Each completed transformer shall be subjected to following routine tests as per IS: 2026. The tests shall be carried out in the presence of purchasers representative. No extra charges for any of the tests shall be paid. No deviation shall be acceptable. Check complete transformer against approved outline drawing, provision for all fittings, finish, oil level etc., Measurement of resistance of each winding. Checking of polarity and phase relation-ships for each winding. Measurements of turn ratio between HV LV Windings at each gap. Exciting Current and its harmonics as per IS: 2026(part. I) / 1977 at 90%, 100% and 110 % rated Voltage and excitation losses at 90%, 100% and 110% of rated Voltage. Positive Phase sequence impedance / short circuit impedance between HV-LV Windings on minimum, maximum and normal taps. Zero sequence impedance between HV LV. Measurement of excitation current at low voltage (AC ) say 3 Phase, 415V RMS energising of HV and LV winding. The voltage of measurement will be indicated in the test report. Regulation at rated load at unity, 0.90 and 0.80 lagging power factor.

Load Losses measured at rated frequency by applying a primary / secondary voltage sufficient to produce the rated current in the windings with the secondary / primary windings short circuited. Measurement of insulation resistance. The total losses shall comprise of the No-Load losses, load Losses and auxiliary losses at rated output duly converted at 75 degree C average winding temperature and shall also be indicated in the test report. Load Losses shall be that corresponding to rated load on HV & LV Winding. Routine di-electric tests Measurement of Capacitance and tan delta of transformer winding and each HV Bushing.
Tests on ON Load tap Changer Functional tests on panels, RTCC & auxiliary circuits. Leakage / Pressure test on completely assembled transformer as per procedure laid down in CBIP manual. Measurement of power taken by cooler fans. Measurement of acoustic noise level test as per NEMA standards. Magnetic balance test. Tests on transformer oil

TYPE TESTS
Transformers shall be subjected to the following type tests. The lightning impulse withstand test along with chopped wave test: this test is intended to verify the impulse withstand strength of each line terminal to earth and other windings, and along the winding under test.

Temperature rise test at minimum tap along with dissolved gas analysis test before and after heat run test. Short circuit tests The manufacturer shall furnish the typical type tests certificate for transformers of similar or higher rating. Type test report of transformers and all components / accessories carried out on identical items such as bushings, tap changers, marshalling boxes, etc. shall be submitted for purchasers review and approval.

TYPICAL TEST PROCEDURES (for reference only)


Some of routine tests procedures are given below. Each manufacturer has different test procedures. These also can be followed after reviewing the procedures. Also for additional tests, if required, the procedures which are followed by manufacturer can be used. The calibration details of the instruments used to conduct various tests shall be provided to the purchasers representative to verify the accuracy & validity of the equipments.

1. Insulation Resistance Measurement Test


a) Line wire of meggar is

connected to the top of bushing of winding under test and earth wire is connected to the tank of the transformer. b) Meggar is switched "ON" and reading is taken after 15 sec or 60 sec. c) Reading is taken between HV and Earth, LV and Earth, and between HV and LV Windings. Temperature of the transformer oil is recorded at the top of the transformer by thermometer. d) If value obtained does not found to be satisfatory vacuum

is applied or filtration of oil is done depending upon the values to be achieved.

2. Ratio Test
a) After cleaning the end of

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

tapping lead, respective leads are connected together by suitable clip wire. Wires connected to all LV & HV Phases i.e., 2u, 2v, 2w & 1U, 1V, 1W are brought to change over switching arrangement for above test. All connections are checked thoroughly before commencing the test. Reading on the Ratio meter is taken when Galvanometer of Ratio meter shows null indication by adjusting variable resistor of Ratio meter. After taking reading on one phase it is changed over to remaining phases with the help of change over switching arrangement. After completion of ratio on all three phases the tap is changed and above procedure is repeated for all taps. All readings are completed with the desired value specified by design department. The reading should be within tolerance specified in IS 2026. The test is done as per the procedure adopted before connections.

3. Vector Group and Polarity Test


a) All Wires are connected to all

phases and neutral of HV and LV windings are brought out to terminal board. At terminal Board preferably "1U" shorted with "2U" phase each other. b) 3 Phase 400 Volts supply is applied across HV Winding &

Voltage measured between

Voltage across different phases is measured as depending upon the vector group. c) Voltage applied between 1U1V-1W = 1V-2V=

4. Measurement of Winding Resistance Test


a) Wheat stone or Kelvin Bridge or

Digital meter shall measure the resistance of each winding at principal tap depending on the Value of resistance. b) To reduce the high inductive effect it is advisable to use a sufficiently High current to saturate the core. This will reduce the time required to get a stabilized reading. c) For Star & Delta connected winding measurement shall be made between pairs of line terminal and resistance per winding, average should be taken & Calculated by formula : Resistance per winding = 0.5 X Measured resistance. (Star winding) Resistance per winding = 1.5 X Measured resistance. (Delta winding) d) Before recording cold resistance, the transformer shall have been in oil without excitation or load for sufficient time to ensure that the winding is at the same temperature as the surrounding oil. e) The top & bottom oil temperature shall be recorded & the temperature of the winding shall be taken as the average of the two readings. f) The measured resistance value shall be converted to the reference temperature of 75 C as per I.S. 2026 & the value to be compared with testing detail given by design department.

5. Measurement of No-Load Losses and No-Load Current Test


a) All Connections are made as

per Circuit Diagram.


b) CT of WTI of the transformer is

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

shorted and earthed. OLTC is kept at nominal ratio tap position. Earthing to main tank is done properly. All Current Transformer (C.T) & Potential Transformer (P.T) connections are checked thoroughly before commencement of test. Voltage across transformer is raised gradually by varying the voltage of intermediate transformer through dimmer stat. Generally voltage is fed from LV side keeping HV side open. Selection of winding to be fed depends upon voltage class of the transformer. Readings are taken at 90%, 100% & 110% of rated voltage or as per purchase order. If any difference is there in the readings of peak voltmeter and RMS voltmeter the correction factor given in IS 2026 part 1 is applied and final losses are calculated. Here two wattmeter or 3 Wattmeter method is used for measurement of no load losses. Reading measured through wattmeter or power analyzer. Final Losses are compared with the specified value. No Load current is current is measured in all three phases by three ammeters.

6. Measurement of Short Circuit Impedance Voltage & Total Loss

a) All Connections are made as per the Circuit Diagram. b) The Impedance Voltage / Short Circuit Impedance & Load Losses are measured at rated frequency by applying an approx. sinusoidal supply to one winding with the other winding short circuited, with the winding connected on the Normal tapping c) The Measurement may be made at any current between 25% & 100% but preferably not less than 50% of the rated current of under test winding. d) Each Measurement is performed quickly & intervals between them are kept long enough to ensure that temperature rises do not cause significant errors. The difference in temperature between the top oil and bottom oil shall be small enough to enable the average temperature to be determined with the required accuracy. e) The Measured value of the load loss shall be corrected by multiplying them by the square of the ratio of rated current or tapping current to test current (the measurement is done at reduced current than the rated current). The value of impedance voltage so derived shall be corrected to the reference temperature 75 Degree C. f) The measured value of the impedance voltage shall be corrected by multiplying it with ratio of reduced current to test current (if the measurement is done at reduced current than the rated current). The value of impedance voltage so derived shall be corrected to the

reference temperature 75 Degree C. g) On three winding transformers the impedance voltage / short circuit impedance & the load loses are measured between windings taken in pairs as shown below : i. ii. iii. iv. Between Winding 1 & Winding 2. Between Winding 2 & Winding 3. Between Winding 1 & Winding 3. Between Winding 1 & Winding 2+3.

The other winding being open circuited.

7. Induced Over Voltage Withstand Test


As per IS 2026 the procedure for uniformly insulated transformers. a) Three phase supply is given to one of the winding preferably LV Winding in case of higher voltage rating transformer. b) The applied voltage is double the rated voltage of the winding under test. c) The time period for test is 60 Seconds. d) The test commences with voltage not greater than one third of the total test voltage. e) The frequency of the voltage applied should be suitably increased above the rated frequency. If it is more than, then period for the test is reduced as per the formulas given in IS 2026 i.e., Time = 120X rated frequency in seconds / Test frequency. But not less than 15 Seconds. f) After 60 Seconds being completed the voltage is

reduced rapidly to less than one third of the test value before switching off. g) The test is said to be successful if there is no breakdown during the test.

8. Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test


a) Both the windings i.e. HV & LV of the transformer under test are shorted with suitable wire. b) LV Winding and tank are earthed properly, when HV Winding is under test. c) All Connections are made as shown in circuit diagram is under test. d) The test Voltage is measured with Voltmeter. e) All Connections are checked thoroughly before commencing the test. f) Voltage is increased gradually from Zero to the required Value with respect to the earth. g) As soon as the test voltage is reached, the stop watch is made "ON". It is kept for 60 Seconds. h) The test is treated as successful if there is no breakdown during the period of 60 Seconds. i) After 60 Seconds the voltage is reduced to zero rapidly and then switched off. j) The above procedure i.e., from "c" to "i" is repeated for other winding i.e., LV Winding, HV Winding and tank earthed. k) The selection of test voltage for HV Winding depends upon the type of insulation used for HV Winding i.e., uniform or nonuniform. However for both the types test voltage is taken as per IS 2026.

9. Short Circuit Test

Short Circuit test is carried out on the prototype. Routine tests and type tests are performed as far as applicable at the manufacturer place before the short circuit test. The transformer is fitted with HV, LV bushing conservator, Symmetric short circuit current (1) for 3 phase transformer. I = U/ (Zt + Zs) in kA. Un -Rated Voltage of winding under test (kV) at normal tap. U - Voltage at the particular tap of the winding. Sn - Rated power of the transformer in MVA Un - Impedance Voltage at rated current in % at reference temperature. Zt - Short Circuit impedance of the transformer referred to winding & the Tapping under consideration in ohms/phase. Uz/100 X (Un) ^2 /Sn in Ohms per Phase. Us - Rated Voltage of the system (kV) S - Short Circuit apparent power of the system (MVA) Zs - (Us) ^2/s = system impedance is ohms/phase. Zt is the short circuit impedance if the transformer referred to winding the tapping under consideration. First peak value I of the asymmetrical test current is calculated as follows. i - I K2 - Symmetrical Short circuit current K2 - related to X/R ratio. Where X is the sum of the resistance and the system i.e., Xt + Xs R is the sum of the resistances of the transformer and the system i.e., Rt + Rs. Unless otherwise specified the factor K2 is limited to 1.8 2 =2.55 (clause 16.11.2 IS: 2026 (part-I)-1977. For category I three phase transformer the total number of tests shall be nine that in the three tests on each limb, the duration of each test being 0.5 second with a tolerance of 10 percent. If it is not specified test will be treated on each limb of transformers with tapping are made in different position for categories 2 and 3 an agreement between purchaser & manufacturer is always needed with regards to the number of tests, their duration and position of the tap changer. After the test some routine tests are repeated by CPRI physical inspection of transformer relay and Buchholz relay also carried out.

The transformers shall be opened for physical inspection of core coil assembly to see if there is any displacement.

10.

Measurement Of Tan Delta Capacitance Test


Ref: C.B.I.P. a) Short the LV Phases with neutral and short HV all phase by suitable wires b) Connect the Ch, Terminal on capacitance tan bridge to HV Windings and Terminal to Ground / Earthing pad provided on transformer tank c) Set the knob on capacitance tan bridge over UST i.e., capacitance between LV & HV. d) Switch On power supply to Capacitance tan bridge. Thus adjust null point on galvanometer by keeping detector switch on "C" i.e., capacitance. With the help of Knob provided on meter for capacitance measurement. e) After adjustment of null point on galvanometer for capacitance measurement the detector switch is change to dissipation factor position. Then adjust the null point on the galvanometer. With the help of knob provided on meter for final reading f) The galvanometer is again readjusted to null point and then final reading is noted down. The reference ambient temperature is noted down. g) Above procedure is repeated for following (a) GST mode, i.e., capacitance measured between LV and Ground provided Ground for LV. Capacitance between LV-HV + Capacitance between LV and ground keeping HV Grounded = C L-H + CL-G h) GST - Mode

a) Capacitance between HV-G by providing ground for LV. b) Capacitance between HV-LV + CHV-G by keeping ground for LV. After taking the above capacitance measurement the reading are verified as follows CH-L (UST Mode) + CL-G (GST L Mode) CL-H + CL-G CH-L (UST Mode) + CH-G (GST H Mode) CH-L + CH-G

11. Temperature Rise Test


a) All connection is made as per load loss connection b) The thermometers (at least three) are placed at different points around the transformer of a level approximately half way up the cooling surface. One thermometer is placed at the top of the transformer tank into the oil filled pocket. Two thermometers are placed on the top and bottom of the radiators pipe or inlet and outlet of the radiator bank, if transformer is more than 2500KVA. c) For transformer having rated power up to 2500 KVA with natural oil circulation, the average oil temperature rise is taken approximately as 0.8 times top oil temperature rise.
d) Either guaranteed or actual

measured no load losses and load losses at 75C depending upon the purchasers specification are fed from any one winding with other winding being short circuited. These losses are maintained constantly till the temperature rise of the transformer become steady i.e. thermal equilibrium is reached. All readings like

ambient surrounding temperature, Radiator top and bottom and temperature of radiator bank inlet and outlet temperature, Top oil temperature wattmeter reading are taken after an interval of one hour. To avoid errors due to time lag between variations in the temperature of the thermometers are inserted in cups filled with oil. The top oil temperature is calculated at an interval.
e) Thermal equilibrium (steady

state) is reached when the temp rise does not very more then 1C per hour during 4 conservative hourly reading. f) After the temperature rise steady state is reached the input is reduced to a value which result in the circulation of rated current at rated frequency in the winding and this current is maintained for 1 hour.
g) After 1 hour the supply is

switched off and the hot resistance of any one phase of the HV&LV winding is measured about 5 to 6 reading are taken to make the plotting of graph of resistance Vs time easier.
h) Graph of resistance Vs time is

plotted for the winding to get hot resistance at zero time i.e. exactly at the time and switching off supply.

i) The temperature of the winding

is then determined by this resistance method. The drop in average oil temperature during last 1 hour is taken into account when calculating the temp rise of winding above the average oil temperature. The temperature rise of winding above the average oil temperature determined in the first part of test will give the temperature rise of the winding above the cooling medium temperature for total losses at rated current, rated frequency and rated voltage.
j) Calculation sheet is attached

herewith which explains the calculation of temperature rise of windings from the test.
k) The temperature rise of

winding and oil so found from the test are compared with the guaranteed values.

12. Impulse Test


The line terminal of transformer under test is connected to the output of impulse Generator and voltage divider. The other line terminals are direct connected to the earth in case of star winding & through shunts in case of delta winding. Neutral terminal is directly connected to earth through a neutral shunt value shall not be higher than 500 ohms for supplementary current recording. Other winding are shorted & connected to earth. WAVE SHAPE DETORMINATION AND CALIBRATION The very first activity involved in the testing sequence is application of low voltage impulse to the winding and circuit parameters are varied till the desired wave shape is obtained. Once the voltage wave shape is

established a calibration shot is applied at 50% to 75% of impulse level as per I.S.2026/1981. At least two independent recording channels are necessary or Digital impulse Measuring system (DIMS) to be used. Applied voltage is one of the channels whereas neutral current measurement of the winding under test is adopted as second channel. In case of the Delta connected windings the neutral is formed by joining the other two terminals & earthing them through current measuring shunt. From the oscillographic record the actual level of the voltage, divider ratio and standard deflection of a DC line on the oscilloscope. The charging voltage required for the calibration shot is recorded and the charging voltage for the 100% impulse is calculated. VOLTAGE APPLICATION Voltage application is made as per test sequence given below. a) One reduce full wave impulse (between 50% to 75% level)
b) One 100% full wave.

c) One reduced chopped wave.


d) Two 100% chopped wave.

e) Two 100% full wave.

Polarity generally negative as per clause 12.1 of I.S.2026 If during application any flashover in the external circuit or any oscillographic recording fails, that particular shot is repeated as per I.S.2026/81 (part-111) CI.12.2 The test impulse shall be a full standard lightning impulse 1.2 30% and 50 20% microseconds as per clause 12.1.4 of I.S.2026/81.However winding with low impedance it is difficult to obtain impulse shape. In this case wider tolerances may be applied by agreement between the parties as per clause a 12.1.5 of I.S.2026/81. Interpretation of oscillograms is based on comparison of voltage and current waves between successive records at rated test voltage. Significant variations in the wave shape of voltage or current between successive records at test voltage could from on evidence of the insulation failure.

Comparison of chopped wave records is normally not done, as it is impossible to get identical instants of chopping by use of trigration triggered chopping gaps.

13. Oil Leakage Test


Ref: C.B.I.P. Oil pressure test to be conducted on tank with turret and all other accessories as assembled for routine test by filling completely with oil of at a pressure corresponding to twice the normal head of oil or to normal pressure plus 35KN/Sq.mtr whichever is lower. The pressure shall be maintained for 12 Hours during which time no leakage shall occur.
14.

Di - Electric Test of Oil for BDV Test


a) Oil Sampling is taken from the bottom sampling valve of transformer. The Oil is allowed to drop from the valve in the other Vessel First and then oil cup is washed with the oil thoroughly. b) After taking sample of oil, the gap between two electrodes in the oil cup is adjusted to 2.5mm with the help of 2.5mm marked gauge. c) The oil is allowed to settle down for 15 minutes. d) After oil is settled the voltage across electrode is increased. e) Such Six reading are taken and average of six reading is being treated as final break down value of oil. f) BDV of oil is not found satisfactory; the oil will be filtered further till it gives the satisfactory results.