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Chapter I THE PROBLEM Introduction The media is the most powerful tool in disseminating information, in shaping the society‘s opinion, and in moving it into action. It has the muscles to inform a large group about significant and timely issues all at the same time through print issues, wallnews, or through online contents. The newspaper is one of the most basic forms of media, and for much of its history, newsprint has been an essential source through which literate people learn what is happening in the world. For centuries, especially since the Enlightenment Period in the eighteenth century, newspapers have been the primary vessels for the spread of information and ideas, chronicling the constantly unfolding developments in an everchanging world. Newspapers have long been considered essential tools for citizens of democratic societies to make informed decisions about public affairs. Alexis de Tocqueville thus declared that newspapers not only guarantee liberty, but also ―maintain civilization‖.¹ Today, journalists are struggling to maintain those very newspapers. In the campus setting, campus journalists have the prearranged responsibility to enlighten their fellow students on campus issues, community issues, and national issues, while publishing opinions that should help the campus community. Because of this, the campus journalists carry the heaviest responsibilities amongst the students inside the campus to understand and to make the campus public cognizant of the education issues and to make a significant development within.

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Dewey defines education as the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people live on from one generation to the next.² He says that education is one of the ways which could allow the expansion of culture in the society. Education allows the growth of people and gives them the concept of living with the knowledge that accompanies education. He further stated that Journalism along with other forms of communication would not produce a static outcome that detailed what already happened but is a continuous evolution as the public added value for greater knowledge. A campus newspaper is a school periodical on folded sheets that contains news and articles and sometimes advertisements.³In the Philippines, and the rest of the world where campus journalists have the same freedom that we have, the campus newspaper is a good alternative to the mainstream media when it comes to tackling issues. Whether it‘s educational inequality, bullying and racism in school, youth activism, the lack of textbooks and supplies, violence, sexual harassment, bias in education, elitism, or the Budget Cut, college publications have been putting pressure on the supposed to be free education. Over and over again, the quality of education, affordability of education, budget of the government for our education, and education mismatch are the favorite topics when tackling education problems in the campus newspaper. The College Editors Guild of the Philippines, the oldest and broadest intercollegiate student alliance of student newspapers in the Asia-Pacific, encourages

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its members to, along with itself; remain steadfast in its commitment to uphold press freedom of expression, press freedom, and students‘ democratic rights.4 Since the major stakeholders of the campus newspapers are the students – they are the ones paying for the publication of the paper – campus journalists must serve them by covering not only local and university news, but also any national or world news that may affect education and ―their‖ education as a whole. Normally, these campus journalists favor the student body since student papers are made by, made for, and made up of students from the school. Reporting education issues in the campus newspaper has become an advocacy to some youth journalists. Being the vessel of information for the student body, campus journalists take it in their hands to further the means of giving the students the knowledge on education issues through print issues and wallnews. Undoubtedly, the campus newspapers have affected the way students view their education. It is a fact in everyone‘s mind that newspapers deal far more than poems and stories of fiction. School papers give the students an overview of the entirety of the current situation, be it the society or the school. Thus, the problems that the students faced, presently facing or soon-to-be faced are being brought out in the open by the campus journalists. Through this research, students will have a deeper understanding of the role of the school newspapers. This way, the editorial board and staff will be able to use its full potential in disseminating education issues.

Editorial c. News d. What are the education issues published by the selected university and college publications during the academic year 2010-2011 based on the following categories: A According to approach: I. 2010-2011. Opinion b. (Sorsogon) during the A. Essay 2.Y. Isabel (Camarines Sur). The MC Ink Gazette of Masbate Colleges (Masbate) and The Law Enforcer of Sorsogon College of Criminology Inc. Feature e. Lampoon f. Assertive II. CSC Statesman of Catanduanes State College (Catanduanes). What type of articles were used most in tackling education issues? a. The Breakthrough of Camarines Norte State College (Camarines Norte). The Mentor of Bicol University College of Education (Albay). this study sought to answer the following questions: 1.4 Statement of the Problem The study aimed to analyze the education issues published by university and college publications from selected universities namely: The Façade of Unibersidad de Sta. Passive . Specifically.

Presenter of Consequences Function Scope of the Study The study was delimited on the content analysis of the educational issues published by the 6 University and College publications in Bicol region namely: The Façade of Universidad de Sta. The Mentor of Bicol University College . What is the level of importance given to educational issues in terms of layout? I. Facility 3. Faculty III.5 B Topics: I. Administrative II. Page placement 4. Reporter Function II. Interpreter Function III. Curriculum IV. Font Size II. What role do the university and college publications play in tackling education issues? I. Isabel (Cam Sur).

page placement and the type of story. Significance of the Study The data that are included in this study are important to the following: . the researchers did not include other publications from other universities from and around Albay. Camarines Sur. The researchers did not include special editions such as wallnews. The study was also delimited to print issues which included tabloids. Furthermore. newsletters and magazines. The study was delimited on the content analysis of the education issues by published campus papers. It was also the focus of the student. Masbate and Sorsogon. literary folios and online contents. CSC Statesman of Catanduanes State College (Catanduanes). The researchers will concentrate on the analysis of the education issues that are published by the selected publications. The MC Ink Gazette of Masbate Colleges (Masbate) and The Law Enforcer of Sorsogon College of Criminology Inc.6 of Education (Albay). (Sorsogon) during 2010-2011. The Breakthrough of Camarines Norte State College (Cam Norte). their categories. The priority of the study were education issues to attest the realization of campus papers‘ duty in promoting awareness and tackling information to expose certain issues on education concerning not only the students but also the educators. bulletins. Other issues were not included as well. Catanduanes. broadsheets. representing each province namely: Albay. Camarines Norte.

School administrators of the selected colleges and universities. In knowing that. thus allowing them to know how to handle the things that affect their duty. This study will show how student journalists is tackling education issues. This will also help them realize that along with the power of influence are their duties to their fellow students. This study will help the public be aware of how campus journalism affects the embodiment of the student and the country as a whole. This study would firmly remind the writers that information dissemination in its very essence is important to everyone. therefore. students will know how to deal with and counteract these problems. This study will allow the school administrators in knowing the problems that afflict the student body and the university. This will also guide them to become more effective in their role as information disseminators. The data that will be inside this study will also be crucial for their respected papers. Through this study. Students of the selected colleges and universities. campus journalists will be able to know how much they affect the community within the school. This study will help the students know how campus papers deal with the educational problems that continually plague the system. This will therefore give the Commission on Higher Education the chance to know how important it is for the students to tackle such issues . these writers may maintain or improve their way or reporting or handling articles.7 Bicolano student writers. This study will give an overview on how student discern education issues. henceforth. The Commission on Higher Education.

This study will serve as a preview for the future journalists of their obligations and privileges in dealing with public knowledge. . Parents. the parents will understand how their children and the student administrators contend with the issues. With the information from this study. Future Campus Journalists. This study will give the parents an overview as to how much society needs the writers. Future Researchers. The study will serve as a guide for future researchers who will also delve on media research and journalism.8 and move CHED to make the necessary changes for the satisfaction of the Bikolano students. This will also add to the bulk of knowledge for humanity.

com/dict. 1956. P1. New York: Penguin Books.1916.9 NOTES 1 Tocqueville. 2 Dewey. Johh.thefreedictionary.aspx?word=scho ol+newspaper>( 29 January 2012). 4 Student Press in the Philippines < http://en. Democracy and Education. Alexisde.org/wiki/Student_newspaper#Student_press_in_the_P hilippines>(29 January 2012) . Democracy in America.wikipedia. The Free Press. Heffner. Edited and abridged by Richard D.encyclopedia. 3 School Newspaper <http://www.

Pangalinan² explains that ―the importance of news cannot be overrated because the success of a newspaper depends on the adequate coverage of the quality of its writing. Related Literature Malinao1 says that the press has to report. Finally. if they are mentioned at all in the news. a conceptual framework based on theory is displayed. an overview of previous studies related to the research was presented. Although basically news writing involves getting the facts and transmitting these to the reader. she said. Thus. Facts that may hold little interest for most readers in place A. interpretation and play. interests and readers. In this chapter.10 Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES In the previous chapter. This does not only talk about professional journalists but the campus journalists as well. the researchers outlined a research area that led to an overall purpose. without fear or favor. . in actual practice. might be of paramount interest to place B readers. landing in four questions.‖ Pangalinan3 furthers that news are based on facts. world-shaking events are seldom played up in school papers. it undergoes a three part process before reaching the reader: coverage. the shenanigans in the government: abuses or malpractices of public officials and how funds are being spent. This chapter will review related literature and studies to our first research question regarding the category of the campus newspaper articles.

This is done by surveillance. The media. Seibert et al said that journalists have the responsibility to raise conflict to discussion in the society. this also includes the campus journalists. This is the Social Responsibility Theory introduced by W. Democracy5 became inevitable once writing was invented.11 Seih4 asserts that the role of the journalist is awakening the public conscience. Journalists6 establish a common understanding in the society through informing the public of national and local events by news articles. Without the mass media to play surveillance over its government.7 one of the four general functions to be performed by mass media. E. no reform can be achieved. are social influences. This connotes that media people should bear in mind that what they write should move its reader for the greater good. the . Simbulan10 says that the mass media‘s watchdog function is important since politics is too big a matter to be left alone to only the politicians. In other words. The print media play the surveillance function by reporting events related to education. Writing has become a power of the people. and without it producing opinion to be fed to the public.‖9 The citizenry include brave citizens such as the journalist who would fight for the right of the people to know. only after an exposed wrong-doing will there be a call for modification.8 As a study of civic engagement put it. ―To sustain itself. The invention of the printing press marked the birth of the freedom to know and to express whatever there is to be known and to be expressed. to meet challenges and thrive. democracy demands much from its citizens. In their book Four Theories of the Press. Moreover. Hocking.

were largely ignored.12 Philippine government is the people‘s government. narrow. which required time to investigate. the thesis found out that that articles about education. As a result. The key argument of the thesis was that reporting on complex educational issues. Publications in Campuses play a crucial part in providing students quick access to information. She also says that the important story must be placed in the right hand corner to get local attention. were too difficult and therefore. in the new global media market with its focus on the commoditization of information. and not solely for and by the politicians. were superficial. analyze. reflect and theories. the eye then swings easily around the page to other items depending upon the effectiveness of the design. A study in New Zealand by Roulsto12. Related Studies Campus Papers are the primary sources in which students gain information and awareness through written communication and published work and encourages valuable feedback from its readers. Pangalinan11 says that front page is the show window of the paper and that it gives the reader his first impression to the paper. studied the educational trends as reported in five major New Zealand daily newspapers from 1988-1999 when the New Zealand education system underwent radical policy reforms. Once a story in this right corner is absorbed. unquestioning and given low priority. .

However. Bombita‘s15 study on the students‘ opinion on the columnists views on political issues. it was revealed that many students have positive perception towards columnists as being a good provider of information. which is the watchdog function. The present study also would like to study the watchdog function of the campus newspapers. In their study Government Publications‘ Developmental Messages in the Promotion of Development in the Province of Albay. student councils and other offices in the university or college. they conclude that the majority of the readers of the local newspapers in the province are college undergraduate. The study of Joson and Mandreza14 conclude that selected residents of Legazpi City believe that media is effective in harnessing environmental awareness and they are also informed in some programs focused on the environment. This is related to the study because like the present research. The campus newspapers are the watchdogs of the school administration. some readers do not trust columnists for they believe that these columnists have personal motives upon writing their column. In the study of Belen and Lopez13.13 The study is related to the present study because it analyzed daily newspapers handling of stories related to education issues and reforms. . de Asis and Nidea aimed to probe the promotion function of the local media in the province. Belen and Lopez focused on one function of the local newspapers. Campus newspapers are the ones who inform the student body on any information that need to be relayed to them. This is also related to the present study because Joson and Mandreza focus on the information function of the newspapers. departments.

the research design. In the study conducted by Thakur and Trikha 17. he or she becomes aware of the issue. Kim18 find out in his study that the extent of newspaper coverage in five major daily newspapers in Connecticut differed substantially in terms of quality and quantity with much of the news about the education reforms focusing on financing public schools.14 In Delvis and San Miguel‘s16 study. Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art The review of related literature and studies gave the needed information and background about the general functions of the press. and was event-orientated rather than issue-oriented. they tried to find out the pattern of post-graduate research studies.the geographical distribution and the contents of 26 post-graduate theses. Both the studies are related to the present study because it deals with the readers‘ views on the newspapers and how they perceive the role of the newspapers they read. The study above is related to the present study because it used content analysis and is more specifically focused on development communication. it was found out that the society is reliant on the media in opinion making. the tools and the techniques used. The study says that even when a person is not knowledgeable on a subject after reading a newspaper article. They gave various settings in . Majority of the theses in the study contained 101-150 pages and most of them used an original scale.

The studies presented above bear many similarities to the present study as regards education issues. de Asis and Nidea. the researcher focused on one function of the mass media. the surveillance function. Josona and Mandreza.15 which the press is a powerful tool for information dissemination and reformation after performing its first major function. Bombita. The researchers of the present study assume that the newspapers in Connecticut have the same orientation as the school newspapers in Bicol. and de Asis and Nidea‘s studies discussed the information function and advocacy reporting in the media. Kim‘s study focuses more on the tackling of local news outlets in the education issues. Delvis and San Miguel. and Kim all define the roles of the mass media in the society. Bombita‘s research is relevant to the present study because. which is to mold the opinion of the society and as means of educating the people. Both Bombita‘s and Delvis and San Miguel‘s research studies established the newspapers as molders of public opinion. they must observe the irregularities and biases around them. The studies conducted by Belen and Lopez. it also has the same subject only that the present study is more specific . Joson and Mandreza. Roulston‘s study does not only share similarity of the research method to the present study. again. Belen and Lopez studied the watchdog responsibility of the press. As watchdogs. It is their duty to keep the institution in line. that is.

According to this theory.16 to campus newspapers. This theory not only tells what to think about but also how to think about them. They influence the perception of the news of the audience. Hence. After the mentioned studies. while the present study will focus more on the smaller branch of mass media which is the campus publications or school papers. Gap Bridged by the Study The present study dealt on the role of selected university/college-based campus newspapers in Bicol in disseminating information on education issues. Frames are abstract notions that serve to organize on structure social meanings. ―the media focus attention on certain events and place them within a field of meaning.‖ . not local newspapers. The reviewed related literature and studies focused more on the general idea of media. Frame refers to the way media recognize and present the events and issues they cover and the way audiences interpret what they provided. The study showed that the newspapers must first have to have an appeal to reader audience to achieve the second function which is commercial viability. it can be brought to a close there were no research studies that aimed to examine the functions of the campus publications in tackling education issues. the present study is new and original. Theoretical Framework This study is based on the Framing Theory of McQuail and Windahl.

the researchers would be able to come up with the effectiveness of the university and college publications in tackling education issues and how they are designed to be the medium. Guided by the Framing Theory of McQuail and Windhal.17 In this study. The study would be able to provide if the students are heavy readers or light readers as theory suggests through the survey questionnaires. the university and college publications cover issue and or events and through the framing theory recognize and present the events and issues they cover and the way their readers interpret what the university and college publications provide. .

Affective.18 Events and Issues MEDIA Audience Effects (Cognitive. Behavioral) Figure 1 Theoretical Paradigm .

faculty. The Façade of Universidad de Sta. the researchers categorized the articles as passive or assertive and as referring to facility. . curriculum. The MC Ink Gazette of Masbate Colleges. The Breakthrough of Camarines Norte State College in Daet. The CSC Statesman of Catanduanes State College in Virac. The level of importance given on the education issue was determined by analyzing their page placement and the type of story in which they were written. and The Law Enforcer of Sorsogon College of Criminology in Sorsogon City. Isabel in Naga City. The result then revealed the role of the Bicol-based student publications in tackling education issues.19 Conceptual Framework This study will concentrate on the analysis of the education issues published in the different sections of selected Bicol-based student newspapers namely: The Mentor of Bicol University College of Education in Daraga. The researchers determined which category of education issue articles the student newspapers focused in 2010-2011. Inc. After identifying the published education issues. and administrative. in Masbate City.

20 Education Issues University and College Publication Students Role of Bicol university and college publications Figure 2 Conceptual Paradigm .

a large format newspaper approximate size is 15 by 24 inches21. in this study. non-teaching personnel. It is concerning the management19. positive. Broadsheet. it is operationally defined as the topic concerning the subjects. Is to spread or to scatter23. the program. Assertive. institution-owned canteens. it is operationally defined as the process of letting an issue be known to readers by publication of data and opinion. Curriculum. Dissemination. together with features and advertisements. student leaders. Is a large sheet of paper printed on one side only. it was operationally defined as a systematic way of analyzing information and how they are placed in a periodical.21 Definition of Terms For a clearer understanding of the study. the maintenance unit. it was operationally defined as concerning the dean. Is defined as self-assured20. Campus Publication. it was operationally defined as a school journal that circulates within the college or university published by and for students. the security unit. In this study. In this study. it was operationally defined as a publication containing news and comment on current events. it was operationally defined as Articles that present an issue in a strong and confident manner. These are usually printed on larger sheets than tabloids. In this study. janitors. and the annual budget. . in this study. in this study. Content Analysis. in this study. and the curriculum followed by the college or the publication. Administrative. confident. the following terms were defined conceptually and then operationally. Is a prescribed course of study22.

In this study. Facility. . descriptive or interpretive piece of journalistic prose dealing with a specific topic. Interpreter. In this study. it is operationally defined as the topic concerning the teaching personnel. and repair. In this study. Features. translate. national. It is defined as a prominent newspaper article27. comfort rooms. In this study. construe29. It is defined as someone who explains. Information. it is operationally defined as a short analytic. In this study. an attempt24. news. Essay. especially from a personal and unsystematic point of view Faculty. armchairs. In this study. In this study. It is defined as something told or facts learned.22 Education issues. their teaching styles. it is operationally defined as necessary stories that need to be disseminated all over the student population. rooms. It is a short prose work usually dealing with subject from a limited or personal point of view. computers and other hardwares. High priority. or the staff of such department25. It is operationally defined as the articles that may or may not be concerned of the timeliness of the subject but is still of help to the formation of opinion of its readers. knowledge28. It is the quality of being easily done. it was operationally defined as highest importance given to articles. it was operationally defined as universal. or school-based issues that affect students and students‘ performance inside the academe or inside the classroom. These are usually placed at the center pages of campus newspapers. it is operationally defined as the topic concerning the aides in the learning process such as textbooks. it is operationally defined as the interpreter is the one who discusses and interprets the issue. Is the teaching department of a college or university. aptitude dexterity26. and their professional relationship with the students.

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Lampoon.

It is a piece of satirical writing attacking someone30. In this study, it is

operationally defined as a satirical way of writing to discuss issues with humorous and mocking voice. Low priority. In this study, it was operationally defined as least importance given to articles. Magazine. It is a periodical publication containing articles, fiction, photographs 31. It is

operationally defined as these are periodicals that mainly constitute feature stories which are longer than news stories. Articles in this kind of publication usually take more time to be written than news because immediacy is not of primary importance. News. It is defined as current events; recent happenings32. It is operationally defined as timely articles that are of interest to the student population. These are usually placed at the primary pages of the campus newspapers. Newsletter. It is defined as a bulletin regularly distributed among the members of a

group, society and etc. Containing information and news of activities33. In this study, it is operationally defined as condensed piece of news periodical. Normal priority. In this study, it was operationally defined as regular or standard

importance given to articles. Opinion articles. In this study, it was operationally defined as essays that present a

timely issue, present an argument, criticize, and aim to let its readers think the way the author thinks. Page placement. It is the designation or the placement of the story as decided by the

editorial board. In this study, it is operationally defined as the way articles are positioned inside a campus newspaper which suggests how important an article is to the editorial board.

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Passive.

It is acted upon, not acting; submissive34. In this study, it was

operationally defined as are articles wherein the issues are being presented in a manner not actively taking part on it. Perception. It is the act of perceiving; discernment; insight35. In this study, it is

operationally defined as the process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information. 38 Presenter of Consequences. Presents possible positive and/or negative results

from the issue, in this study, it was operationally defined as a role in warning the readers on the consequences if the problems persist. Priority. The quality or state of being prior36, in this study, it was defined as a

process in which things are ranked in terms of importance or priority. Reporter. It is the person who gathers and reports news for newspaper37. In this

study, it is operationally defined as the role which only discuss what the problems are. Role. Refers to any assumed character or function.38 Tabloid. It is a small-format newspaper characterized by emphasis on

photographs and news in conduced form39. In this study, it is operationally defined as a small newspaper with short article.

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NOTES
1

Malinao, Alito. Journalism for Filipinos (Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore, 1991), p.13.

2

Pangalinan, Estella, Introduction to Mass Communication, (Philippines: National Bookstore, 1975), p.1.

3

Ibd. Seih, Philip, The Global Journalist: News Conscience in the World Conflicts (Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinmann, 2011) p.4.

4

5

Carlyle, Thomas, On Heroes, Hero Worship and the Heroic in History, Project Gutenberg Ebook, Release Date: July 26, 2008.

4

Seibert, Frederick, Four Theories of the Press, (Illinois, Urbana and Champaign, Illinois, United States: The Board of Trustees of the United States,

1956).
5

Ramirez, Jaime, Philippine Journalism Handbook, (Manila, Philippines: National Bookstore, 1989) p.34.

6

Severin, Werner and James Tankard, Communications Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media, 5th ed. Reading, Massachusetts, United

States: Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc., June 29, 2000) p.321.

1988-1999. Education Policy Change. 8. 2007). 14 Joson and Mandreza. et al. 8 Ketter. Inc. 2005). Legazpi City: . Newspapers and Public Opinion in New Zealand. Lourdes. Is Civic Behavior Political? Exploring the Multidimensional Nature of Political Participation. 2006). (Chicago. Module in Political Reporting. (Quezon City: UP College of Mass Communication. Paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association. 101. Scott. 1976). (New York: Harper and Row Publishers. p.. Roulston. (Undergraduate Thesis.26 7 Agee. JosepjhMillenaand James Lopez Effectiveness of Local Newspapers in Albay as Watchdog of Government Agencies. Dorothy Ella. 9 Simbulan. The Role of Mass Media in Creating Awareness and Advocating Public Concern for the Environment as Perceived by the Selected Residents in Albay (Undergraduate Thesis. Warren K. 12 13 Belen. 10 Pangalinan. Introduction to Mass Communication. Legazpi City: BUCAL. Thesis submitted to Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington.. 5th ed. April 2003) p..

Albay. Legazpi City: BUICCS. H. (Unpublished Ph.. Content Analysis of Post Graduate Theses in Development Communication. 2002). Ibd. (Undergraduate Thesis.359 Delvis and San Miguel. Ibd. Rec. 14 Bombita. C. 5. 2004). 16 17 Thakur. 18 Kim. 1989). Daraga. (Undergraduate Thesis. Ibd. 2001). Ibd Ibd.Education and the Daily Press in the State of Connecticut. 22 23 24 25 . (Nepal: Nepal Agric. Manoj and RabindraTrikha. 19 Geddes & Groset.27 BUCAL. BUCAS.. Webster‘s Universal Dictionary and Thesaurus (Poland: David Dale House 2002) 20 21 Ibd. Vol.D.. Mass Media as Catalyst of Change in Legazpi City. Emilio Jr. University of Connecticut. Student Opinion asFormed by the Columnists‘s Views on Political Issues. p.. 2001). 15 Ramirez.

Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Ibd. 3.. Ibd. Ibd. (London: Nature Publishing Group. Ibd. In: Lynn Nadel (Ed. The Role of Albay-Based Newspapers in Influencing Public Opinion as Regards to Election-Related Issues. Ibd.28 26 Ibd. Gino. 2005). Vol. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Pomerantz. Ibd. Ibd. Ibd. 2003) p. Ibd. Legazpi City: BUCAL. ―Perception: Overview‖. Ibd. 39 Paje.). 527–537. Ibd. James R. (Undergraduate Thesis. .

. This study aimed to analyze different college and university publications and their role in tackling issues regarding education. These are the procedures the researchers carried out in order to find out the role of the University and College papers in Bicol in disseminating information on education issues. the research design. the biases of the researchers were not allowed to enter to the procedure. the analysis was quantitative. Research Method This study used a descriptive content analysis. sources of data. The first step was to systematically analyze the content that tackles education issues accorded to the stated meaning of it on the definition of terms. They used a clear set of categories. A descriptive content analysis is a scientific method which involves observing and describing samples.29 CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY In this chapter. the content analysis is objective. and data gathering procedures are presented. Secondly. instruments used. procedures and definitions of which the findings of the study are delimited. Lastly. The researchers used random selection of University/College Papers in Bicol and followed Kerlinger‘s definition of content analysis in which three concepts were used to measure variables. Quantification enabled the researchers to fulfill their objective of determining the quantity and summarizing the analysis. The researchers had no control over what the contents were.

Data Gathering Procedure The researchers wrote a letter to seek for the permission of the dean of the university/college to get a copy of the publication and proceeded to the offices of the selected campus papers to ask for copies of their issues published in academic year 2010-2011. The secondary sources are the theses. multiple categorizations were used to make articles with multiple performing functions properly categorized. The Breakthrough (Camarines Norte). After obtaining all the six publications. The Mentor (Albay). The MC Ink Gazette (Masbate) and The Law Enforcer (Sorsogon) in the academic year 2010-2011. A checklist was provided for the summative presentation of the categories.30 Sources of Data The primary sources of data of this study are the issues of six University/College papers in Bicol namely: The Façade (Camarines Sur). CSC Statesman (Catanduanes). . The newspaper article releases were categorized as assertive and passive. In case of overlapping functions. and page placement. books and other documents related to the study. the researchers started analyzing the data collected in the paper regarding education issues. The end result was the basis of this study to determine the role of selected university/college campus newspapers in Bicol in tackling education issues.

Percentage P=f/N Where: P= percent f= frequency N= total number of education issues ANALYTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA The study is a descriptive content analysis of the role of the selected University and College in Bicol in Disseminating Information in Education issues. After which the data was analyzed and interpreted using the following statistical tools: Frequency Count– this was used to express the size of the figure in the comparison to others.31 STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA The data gathered was tallied and tabulated. The following formula was used. Mabsbate and Sorsogon and analyzed the content of the papers. The topics on these issues were also classified whether . The analysis varied on the level of importance given by these university/college publications. The researchers collected publications from each province in Bicol: Camarines Norte. Camarines Sur. Albay. Catanduanes. The articles concerning educational issues were ranked if they are assertive or passive.

curriculum or administrative issues. The first checklist contains three columns used to get the following data: type of stories. The second checklist was used to identify the role the university and college based publications in Bicol perform in tackling education issues. . the level of importance given to the articles based on the font type and size used and page placement. Instrumentation The researchers used two types of checklist in order to get the accurate data needed in this study. faculty.32 it was facility. and the role of Bicol-based campus publications. The importance of these articles was also analyzed in terms of the page placement or the type of the story as well as the font type and size used. categories of education issues according to approach and topics.

The CSC Statesman of Catanduanes State College in Catanduanes published one (1) magazine. Isabel in Camarines Sur published two (2) newspaper issues from June 2010 to January 2011. The Breakthrough of Camarines Norte State College in Camarines Norte published one (1) magazine. With Eyes Wide Shut. . and Half-Undone. in Sorsogon published two (2) magazines. The Law Enforcer of Sorsogon College of Criminology Inc. Ang Daloy. an editorial article.33 Chapter 4 THE ROLE OF SELECTED UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE BASED NEWSPAPERS IN BICOL IN TACKLING EDUCATION ISSUES This chapter presents the discussion on the analysis of the role of the selected university and college based newspapers in Bicol in tackling education issues. The Mentor of Bicol University College of Education in Albay published one (1) newspaper from June-November 2011. a feature story. an essay. Published university and college newspapers in Bicol The Façade of Universidad de Sta. The researchers were not able to get hold The MC Ink Gazette of Masbate Colleges because the said school was not able to publish any for the year 2010-2011. an opinion article. Oi! Asan ID Mo Boss?. a column. Table 1 Type of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The Breakthrough Title In Deep Water Ang Daloy Oi! Asan ID Mo Boss? With Eyes Wide Shut Half-Undone Type of Story Editorial Essay Feature Opinion Opinion As shown in Table 1 The Breakthrough tackled a total of five (5) education issues entitled: In Deep Water.

hindi naman chicks. pero matigas pa rin si manong. but they were playing it hard. ―Pano ka makakapag-aral sa isang lugar na hindi naman conducive. tackling issues on the implementation of the No ID.)‖ ―With Eyes Wide Shut‖ talked about various administrative issues in the campus. .34 In the editorial ―In Deep Water‖ the editorial board tackled the reconstruction of the road going to Camarines Norte State College. I even saw others on their civilian clothes. and their impatience. porke Havaianas ang tatak.‖ ―Ang Daloy‖ talked about the facilities in the campus. In the third paragraph. Yung iba nga. the armchairs and the unfavorable environment. No Uniform. the editorial board said: ―Efforts of the administration to pursue this project is highly appreciated. Pangkista ang hairdo. Only my ID. Eh ako. hearing the voice of the students proved they are not in total agreement of the project being substantially beneficial for it hasn‘t given them relief during incessant rains. ―Ginawa ko na lahat. hindi nakauniform. I did not have my ID with me. Others on their punk heads.‖ The feature article ―Oi! Asan ang ID Mo?‖ talked about the gate guards. ID lang absent. On shorts. Naka-tsinelas pa. pa-hard to get. (I did/tried anything. No Entry policy. students‘ excuse to enter the campus. However. Si tsip naman. specifically. maliban sa mahangin at mainit ito? Hindi naman aircon ang habol ng bawat nilalang na naghahanap ng liwanag sa institusyong ito kundi tamang komportableng lugar para matuto (How can you concentrate in an environment that‘s not conducive? The students are not asking for an airconditioning unit but they need a comfortable place to study in). Naka-shorts. Others on flipflops. ID lang.

―…this half-finished building shows an age-old Filipino inferiority that we need to renounce ningas cugon. a news story.2 The Mentor tackled a total of four (4) education issues entitled: P3M Road Network construction underway. Let us ponder upon this question: What impression shall we give our visitors with a building like this?‖ Table 1. The news article. there is development.50 payment for CR maintenance approved Rumors on Speech Choir result sprout Ironic Type of Story News story News story News story Editorial As shown in table 1.. P2.2 Type of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The Mentor Title P3M Road Network Construction underway P2. a news story. an editorial article. In this article.50 payment for CR maintenance approved.‖ he explained to The Mentor. tackled about the ongoing construction of the road network between the Main and Daraga campuses of Bicol University.35 The opinion article ―Half-Undone‖ the priority given to the facilities and the constructions left undone. and Ironic. ―P3-M Road Network construction underway‖. . Architect Leo Del Rosario. stated: ―…When there is a road. planning and design section head of the Physical Development and Management Office (PDMO). Rumors on Speech Choir sprout. a news story. That‘s why this project is for the future development of our university particularly in the main campus.

50 pesos if not really the BUCE students will not solely benefit from the project…‖ Table 1. ―Ironic‖. so why pay for P2. a news article. . On her defense. Put it into writing and make it official.3 Type of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The Law Enforcer Title None Type of Story None As shown in table 1. stated: ―…However. it said: ―…Meanwhile. Maria Sarte. discussed how the project proposed by Service Training for Community Development (SETCODE) was approved by the students during the Men‘s and Women‘s Club general assembly.‖ The news article.3 The Law Enforcer tackled no education issue. So ironic…‖ The ―CAL Eng Dept Chair defends‖. the editorial article. Jason Candia said to Paras not to be hypocrite after the CSC vice president stated that not only BUCE students are using the King and Queen CR.50 payment for CR maintenance approved‖. Bicol University College of Arts and Letters (BUCAL) English Department Chair said: ―I challenge them. talked on the rumors in the Speech Choir Competition Elimination Round. Then Law Enforcer managed to publish two (2) magazine type publications but failed to tackle any education issue. It was also observed that many professors were given opinion or column spaces in the publication. ―P2. it seems excellence is just a brand yet to be defined.36 Talking about the title of excellence in Bicol University College of Education (BUCE). in the case of our college. Dr.

4 The Façade tackles a total of four (4) education issues entitled: Changes Everywhere. an editorial. The absence of articles tackling education issues also defeats the purpose of the college publication. Student publication should review their editorial policy and revise their story plan in order to cater better to the students. Changes. The college publication is also a student publication which should not be tampered by any faculty or administrative personnel.4 Type of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The Façade Title Changes Everywhere New Admin Walk in for A/Y 10-11 Changes Ironic Twists of Education Type of Story Editorial News Article Opinion Opinion Page Placement Inside Page (Page 2) Inside Page (Page 4) Inside Page (Page 11) Inside Page (Page 12-13) As shown in table 1. failed to openly discuss education issues that are present in their school. It made the point also of making sure that their readers would understand the true function of the administration. ―Changes Everywhere‖ of The Façade tells the reader that it is the responsibility of the administration to handle the comfort and to see to it that the students‘ welfare would be the priority. .37 The research revealed that though students pay for the publication fee. an opinion article. The Law Enforcer. New Admin Walk in for AY 10-11. an opinion article. an opinion article. It can be implied that the college publication is observed and partly held by the administration or the faculty since columns were given to them. Table 1. and Ironic Twist of Education. the publication.

―Changes‖ is considered a passive article with it mentioning the personal experiences of the author of the opinion article.38 ―The administration should see to it that every decision would result to the betterment of everyone and not just some. ―In contrast to last year‘s appointees and re-appointees.‖ The article. ―It was hard to adjust to these changes. I admit that even until now. students are left to fend for themselves as the government lessens its responsibility of providing quality education and looking after the rights and welfare of the youth. their primary stakeholders. discussed the function of the government in its building of education as the foundation of the society. The writer also discusses the probabilities that these changes such as the relocation of offices and classrooms would bring to the college. is taken into consideration. there were changes in the number of the administrators and changes in the name of different positions. The article also mentioned the statistics that would prove the inferences derived from the collated information of the writer. ―New admin walk in for A/Y 10-11‖ is a passive article with it mere informing the readers of the new set of administrators that would be installed for the academic year 2010-2011 as well as the changes that it brought to the university.‖ The opinion article which is considered as an assertive article. ―Indeed.‖ The article.‖ Table 1. ―Ironic twists of Education‖. They must see to it that the convenience of all the students. I am still in the adjustment period.5 Articles Tackling Education Issues from the MC Ink Gazette Title No issue Type of Story No issue .

a news story. Unlike the Law Enforcer from Sorsogon which published two magazine issues. Kulturang Isteyt: Extrang Bida Edition.6. a news story. an editorial. The MC Ink Gazette is a student publication and it is the voice of the students. CAS to open more courses.6 Type of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The CSC Statesman Title For the students and no less Educational Funneling CSC prexy faces top student leaders Hypovolemia Banat Kulturang Isteyt: Extrang Bida Edition Overhaul Type of Story Editorial Feature News Story Opinion Lampoon Lampoon Opnion As shown in Table 1. an opinion article. Banat. It should maintain their publication in order to give the students the chance to voice out their concerns and discuss education issues that should be reported and interpreted by the student publication. is the much-needed update on the existing rate of travel allowances given to students who represent the school in . CSC prexy faces top student leaders.5 no education issues were tackled by the MC Ink Gazette. a lampoon article. ―For the students and no less‖ is an editorial article that tackles the different use of incomes and expenditures of the different state universities and colleges. The CSC Statesman tackled a total of eight (8) education issues from June to November 2011 entitled: For the students and no less.39 As shown in table 1. Education Funneling. Hypovolemia. a lampoon article. Overhaul an opinion article. ―…First. a feature. the MC Ink Gazette did not release or publish any issues during the target period. Table 1.

00 per day. Series of 2000. a major concern popped out when six out of the nine departments reported the inadequacy of available armchairs in their classrooms…‖ Education issues concerning the proper handling or expenditures of the budget by the administration were tackled in ―Hypovolemia‖. Perhaps the professors present in their office that very moment can still hear his anxious voice as he unobtrusively proclaimed his selfinflicted analysis of being a fool. therefore it should be increased…‖ In the feature ―Education Funneling‖. ―…It‘s unjust that they could give away such amount of money in an instant while asking for financial assistance and support for students‘ welfare is a struggle…‖ ―Banat‖. an opinion article. a lampoon article. ―…However. . It is not sufficient. the weight of his statement keeps on resounding. tackled education issues regarding the administration of the school. the publication discussed different reasons why the quality education is deteriorating. 49.far too low considering day-to-day average expenses.40 competitions. “…yata kami n asana an patal?” (Why? Are we the only ones who are dumb?)‖ In the news story ―CSC faces top student leaders‖. it was briefly discussed the lack of some facilities in the school. one of the main reasons they focused on was the curriculum they were under. ―…Until now. This should be updated with respect to the modern trends of expenditures. In accordance with Board Resolution No. the present rate of travel allowance for students is pegged at Php 200.

which seems an elusive goal now.41 “…Hingunayon ko daw kamo. education issues were discussed specifically the facility during the SCUAA in Catanduanes. ―…Ngunit mas madalas sa minsan ay kinaiinisan sila ng karamihan dahil daig pa nila ang imbestigador kung mang-usisa at may balak pa yatang tapatan ang guidance counselor kung makapagbigay ng pangaral sa mga estudyanteng nag-aakala na every day is Wednesday. napapdari ba ang transaksiyon niyo pag gaagi kamo sa OSA? Magaya-gaya man lamang ang aura ning mga taho jan sa loog? Pigatawan lamang kamo ning madiyag na direktiba sa pagprocess ning mga papeles niyo? Tanaw niyo nakaabot lamang sa Admin ang mga murutomuto niyo? Mi namo aram tayon ta mei pa pigaaksiyunan yan. then the athletes must be exposed to tougher and more real bouts to boost their competitive spirit and passion.‖ In another opinion article by the college publication ―Overhaul‖.‖ . (But most of the time they are hated by many because they are worse than investigators when asking questions and perhaps they even have the plan of equating the responsibility of the guidance counselor. kahuray ng reklamo yan ning mga estudyante! (Let me ask you this: Are transactions being hastened when they are being done through OSA? Are you even being given proper directions when processing your papers? Do you think the Admin even hear your grievances? This problem has long been the burden of the students!)‖ Another lampoon was published by the publication entitled ―Kulturang Esteyt: Extrang Bida Edition‖ which tackled administrative issues in the college. ―…If we want sports supremacy in SCUAA V meet.

The Breakthrough published three (3) articles about their facilities.50 payment for CR maintenance Facility approved Rumors on Speech Choir result sprout Curriculum Ironic Faculty THE LAW ENFORCER None None THE FAÇADE Changes Everywhere Administrative New Admin Walk in for A/Y 10-11 Faculty Changes Administrative Ironic Twists of Education Administrative MC INK GAZETTE No issue No issue CSC STATESMAN For the students and no less Administrative Educational Funneling Curriculum CSC prexy faces top student leaders Facility Administrative Hypovolemia Banat Administrative Kulturang Isteyt: Extrang Bida Edition Administrative Overhaul Facility As shown in Table 2. the different university and college publications in Bicol tackled a total of twenty (20) education issues on their articles from 2010 to 2011. It was classified by the researchers as . In the editorial article ―In Deep Water‖. this tackled the ‗half-cooked‘ road construction in Camarines Norte State College.42 Table 2 Topics and Approach of Articles Published by the Campus Publications Articles/Title In Deep Water Ang Daloy Oi Asan ID Mo Boss? With Eyes Wide Shut Half-Undone Topics THE BREAKTHROUGH Facility Facility Administrative Administrative Facility THE MENTOR Facility Approach Passive Passive Assertive Assertive Assertive Passive Passive Passive Assertive None Assertive Passive Passive Assertive No issue Assertive Assertive Passive Assertive Assertive Assertive Assertive P3M Road Network Construction underway P2. Both articles were assertive in the approach. They also published two (2) articles about the administration. All of the articles were passive.

‖ In an article of theirs which was classified as assertive.50 monthly or clean the four toilets in the college. One (1) article was about the curriculum. In on of their statements from the article: ―Candia said that the students should choose whether to pay P2. In the Mentor‘s news article ―P2. In one of their statements from the article: ―Rules are not made to be broken but to be implemented with CONSISTENCY and FAIRNESS.43 passive because it criticized but failed to give suggestions to the readers. Although powerful statements were made by the interviewees in the article. On the other hand. on their opinion article ―With Eyes Wide Shut‖. In one of their statements from the article: ―Let‘s just sit back and watch if the construction would serve its purpose‖ It is implied and can be concluded that the publication would observe or monitor the consequences for this issue rather than help resolve the problem by offering solutions.‖ The Mentor was able to publish two (2) articles about the facilities. It was a passive article. ―Ironic‖. But how long will the college just flaunt this brand before taking a firm stand on it?‖ . tackled the quality of education the BUCE students receive from the faculty. it was classified by the researchers as passive being a new article by nature. It was an assertive article. In one of their statements from the article: ―BUCE flaunts the title of excellence. Both articles have a passive approach. that tackled the administration which they cite as inconsistent when implementing the school uniform regulation. The researchers classified it as assertive due to the firm voice the writer exerted.50 payment for CR maintenance approved‖. Another article was about the faculty. the publication maintained the balance and fairness in all sides of the issue.

The publication also published one (1) article about the faculty. transferring other student to and from the annex. In one of their statements from the article: ―Several proposals and concerns were raised during the deliberation and open forum wherein the President herself listened to the sentiments of the student leaders as representatives of the whole CSC populace.44 The Façade was able to publish three (3) articles about the administration. While the publication cited education issues. it was classified as passive by the researchers because of its nature. being an unbiased news article. an opinion article by the Façade. Its approach was assertive.‖ But in ―Changes Everywhere‖ which was categorized as assertive. All of the articles were assertive. which also tackled the separation and construction of new departments. they published an assertive editorial entitled ―For the students and no less‖ which was classified as assertive because of the solutions they proposed .‖ On the other hand. One (1) of the articles was passive while the other one was assertive. In the news article by the CSC Statesman.‖ The CSC Statesman published four (4) articles about the administration. In one of their statements from their article: ―This academic year may pose a big challenge for everyone who experienced these changes. Its approach was passive. most especially those who transferred to another campus. Two (2) published articles were about the facility. One (1) article was about the curriculum. ―Changes‖. they maintained the fairness for all parties. In one of their statements from the article: ―The administration must guarantee equal benefits and services among students-whether at the main campus or not. Two (2) articles were assertive while the other article was passive. was categorized by the researchers as passive by tackling issues in their university when new departments were made and divided.

Both features and lampoon were used two (2). and some other minor but vital details must be a priority. Four (4). Five (5). or 5%. The least used type of article was essay which was only used once (1).‖ The MC Ink Gazette and The Law Enforcer were not able to published any article regarding education. of the articles were opinion articles. time. of the times. The third most used type of article was editorial. or 30%. Six (6). majority of the articles in the publications in Bicol were opinion articles.45 to the problems and issues they raised regarding the budget and expenditures of the university. of the articles were news articles. . ―These. The second most used type of article was news. or 10%. of the articles were editorial articles. Chart 1 Type of Story and Frequency Count Lampoon News Opinions Essays Features Editorials 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Passive Assertive As shown on Chart 1. And this demands action in the soonest time possible. or 20%. or 25%.

it is hot?)‖ Chart 2 Categories of Education Issues Lampoon Opinions Facility Faculty Features Administrative Curriculum News Essays Editorials 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . The single essay article. of the lampoon and feature articles were assertive in tackling the issues. or 100%. rather they questioned. In the editorial articles. or 75%.33%. they failed to give concrete solutions to the issues and problems they raised. or 16. while only one (10. In one of their statements from the essay article: ―Pano ka makapag-aaral sa isang lugar na hindi naman CONDUCIVE. or 25%. of the news articles were passive. maliban sa mahangin at mainit ito? (How will you able to study in one place that is not CONSUCIVE instead of airy. was passive. of the opinion articles were assertive. All five (5). three (3). were assertive in presenting and tackling the education issues. or 83. or 100%.46 Five (5). All. or 100%. was passive.67%. ―Ang Daloy‖ was the single essay which was categorized by the researchers as passive because although they produced firm statements. while only one (1). was passive in presenting the issue.

. the administrative category of education issues has the highest number of articles published in college publications in Bicol region with the total number of nine (9) in which three (3) of them were opinion articles. The least discussed education issues on the articles were on the categories of faculty and curriculum. the least tackled issues fell on the faculty and curriculum categories though students should also be well informed with the matters concerning the curriculum. Seven (7) articles tackled education issues on the school facilities.47 As shown on Chart 2. Most of the campus publications in Bicol discussed administrative concerns since this category of education issues focuses on the matters regarding the entire management of the college institution which affects the learning and development of the students in the college or university they are in. On the other hand.

University and college based newspapers approach administrative related issue assertively. Whereas. With nine articles on administrative issues. eight or 88. five are tackled passively. university and college publications approach their articles based on the kind of topic that their article has. With seven articles on facility. facility related issues are mostly tackled passively. faculty or curriculum.89% of the articles are tackled assertively. .48 Chart 3 Education Issue Topics and Their Approach Administrative Curriculum Passive Assertive Facility Faculty 0 2 4 6 8 10 As shown on Chart 3. the kind of approach that the publication has is equal on both passive and assertive approach. When it comes to the faculty and curriculum. The articles that address the education issues which focus on the administrative aspect tend to be aggressive which imply that the staff is more courageous when dealing with the administration and less so when dealing with the facility.

50 payment for CR maintenance approved Rumors on Speech Choir result sprout Ironic THE LAW ENFORCER None THE FAÇADE Changes Everywhere New Admin Walk in for A/Y 10-11 Changes Ironic Twists of Education MC INK GAZETTE No issue THE CSC STATEMAN For the students and no less Educational Funneling CSC prexy faces top student leaders Hypovolemia Banat Overhaul Kulturang Isteyt: Extrang Bida Edition 12 10 12 11 11 9 14 12 11 None 14 12 11 10 No issue 10 10 10 9 10 10 10 Font Size .49 It can also be implied that the university and student publications in Bicol are keen observers of the education issues that are related to the administration of the school or university. The editorial board and staff felt the need to tackle issues regarding the budget management and expenditures of their school. Table 3 Font Size of Content Articles/Title THE BREAKTHROUGH In Deep Water Ang Daloy Oi Asan ID Mo Boss? With Eyes Wide Shut Half-Undone THE MENTOR P3M Road Network Construction underway P2. the non-teaching staff from the different offices of the school or the security guards and other administrative related issues.

presenters of consequences. one (1) article was published in font size 11. The font size these publications matter since if the size of the fonts is bigger. The university and college publications who use smaller font sizes imply less need for immediacy in reading. two (2) articles were published in font size 12. the publications used fonts that range from font size 9 to 14. two (2) articles were published in font size 11. The Mentor used font sizes from 9 to 14: one (1) article was published in font size 9. one (1) article was published in font size 12. one (1) article was published in font size 12. The Breakthrough used font sizes from 10 to 12: one (1) article was published in font size 10. one (1) article was published in font size 14. They are interpreters. the university and college publications prioritize these article and they imply immediacy. The CSC Statesman used font sizes from 9 to 10: six (6) articles were published in font size 10.50 As shown in Table 3. one (1) article was published in font size 11. . The Façade used font sizes from 10 to 14: one (1) article was published in font size 10. one (1) article was published in font size 14. and reporters. This shows the roles of the university and college based newspapers in Bicol in tackling education issues. while only one (1) was published in font size 9.

The majority of the articles that tackle the education issues are treated with normal priority by the editorial staff. The previous statement implies that writers of campus publications in the Bicol region don‘t give high priority to education issues.2 which could be considered as the font size for a normal priority. 11. Font size 12 and 11 with four (4) articles or 20% of the total number were the next frequently used.51 Chart 4 Font size used in the body and frequency count Frequency 9 10 11 Frequency 12 14 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 As shown on Chart 4. The font sizes 9. Since the articles with larger font are readily read since the attention of the readers are immediately caught. 12. 10. 10 was the most used font size in the body with eight (8) articles or 40% of the total number of articles which tackled education issues. and 14 have a mean of 11. Font size 9 and 14 were the last with two (2) articles or 10% of the total number using them. .

It can be concluded based on the table that the Breakthrough gave low priority to the articles that tackled education issues because all four (4).1 Placement of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The Breakthrough Title In Deep Water Ang Daloy Oi! Asan ID Mo Boss? With Eyes Wide Shut Half-Undone Page Placement Inside Page (Page 5) Inside Page (Page 10 Inside Page (Page 11) Inside Page (Page 15) Center Pages (Page 20) As shown in Table 4. Half-Undone. Table 4. The table also shows that no education issue was given high priority by the publication though they tackled five (5) issues in their publication. however.2 Placement of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The Mentor Title P3M Road Network Construction underway P2. which is 20% of all the articles.1. was given normal priority by the editorial staff. None of the articles were placed in the front page or the back page. of the articles were placed in the inside pages.50 payment for CR maintenance approved Rumors on Speech Choir result sprout Ironic Page Placement Front page Inside Page (Page 3) Inside Page (Page 15) Inside Page (Page 4) . most of the articles in The Breakthrough were placed in the inside pages of the publication with only one places at the center page. or 80%.52 Table 4.

3 Placement of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The Façade Title Changes Everywhere New Admin Walk in for A/Y 10-11 Changes Ironic Twists of Education Page Placement Inside Page (Page 2) Inside Page (Page 4) Inside Page (Page 11) Inside Page (Page 12-13) As shown in table 4.2. one (1). or 25%. of the articles tackling education issues in the inside pages.3. Table 4. . The Façade placed all four (4). or 74%. or 100%.53 As shown in Table 4. which means that they gave low priority to the articles. of the articles was placed on the front page while the three (3) others. were given low priority in the placement by the editorial staff.

4 Placement of Articles Tackling Education Issues from The CSC Statesman Title For the students and no less Educational Funneling CSC prexy faces top student leaders Hypovolemia Banat Kulturang Isteyt: Extrang Bida Edition Overhaul Page Placement Inside Page (Page 1) Inside Page (Page 14 to 19) Inside Page (Page 4) Inside Page (Page 59) Inside Page (Page 60) Inside Page (Page 62) Inside Page (Page 74) As shown in Table 4. just as in the case of The Façade. No article was put in the front or back of the publication. All seven (7).4. The CSC Statesman gave low priority to the articles that tackled education issues. . or 100%. of the articles were placed in the inside pages.54 Table 4.

Most of the articles were placed in the inside pages which imply less priority being given by the editorial board to the education issues.55 Chart 5 Type of story and Page Placement Lampoons Opinions Essays Front and Back Pages Center Pages Features Inside Pages News Editorial 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 As shown on Chart 5. A news article though was put on the front page to underline its significance to be read immediately. One essay article. University and college . university and college publications in Bicol region put majority of the articles on education at the inside pages. The two (2) lampoon articles or 10% of the total number were also put in the inside pages. two feature articles and the four editorial articles or 100% of the mentioned types of story were put on the inside pages as well. An opinion article was also put on the center pages to give the readers an inkling that the article or the issue was of importance.

of the articles serving the Presenter of Consequences Function were editorial article.56 publications should give priority to these education issues seeing that it is a campus publication meant for the students and their education. or 30%. or 40%. There were eight (8). Chart 6 Type of Articles and Roles News Interpreter Editorial Feature Lampoon Reporter Opinion Essay Presenter of Consequences 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 As shown on Chart 6. Another three (3). Three (3). or 50%. most articles in university and college publications serve the Presenter of Consequences Function of the press with ten (10). articles falling under the category. articles performing the Reporter Function of the press while there were only two (2). or 30%. or 10%. of the articles were opinion . of the articles performing the Interpreter Function.

of the articles was an essay article. or 12%. new colleges and department merging. students‘ response to the SUC budget. or 10%. One (1). shortage if armchairs.57 articles. of the articles were opinion articles. of the articles was an opinion article. new faulty and registration. of the articles serving the Reporter Function of the campus press were news articles. textbooks. Chart 8 tells that the campus papers in Bicol mostly serve the Presenter of Consequences Function in tackling the education issues in the higher education . One (1). quality education given by the faculty. of the articles serving the Interpreter Function of the press was an editorial article while the other one (1). building and seat. CR payment for maintenance. or 50%. and curriculum. Two (2). Two (2). Five (5). no quality education caused by lack of facilities. administrative issues or authorities and lack of better facilities for the SWA. new colleges and department merger. of the articles was a feature article. Some issues also included different administrative authorities. For the issues that fell under the Interpreter Category. or 25%. of the articles was a feature article. or 50%. or 10%. or 63%. of the articles were lampoons. or 20%. One (1). road construction. unfinished buildings and seats. speech choir rumors of irregularities. Another one (1). Articles performing the Reporter Function included stories on security guards. The issues under the Presenter of Consequences Function include construction of bridge and drainage system. the articles included issues on unfinished building construction and the budget for the different programs and facilities.

campus newspapers should have delivered not just the necessary information but as well as the appropriate actions to solve the existing problems. . The second most served function is the Reporter Function with 40% of the articles falling under the category. This means that they have well carried out their function as information provider but they were not able to shape the perception of the students with regards to the issues that affect their education. As the instrument to provide voice to the student body.58 institutions with 50% of the articles falling under the category. The least served function of the campus press is the Interpreter Function with only 10% of the articles falling under the category. The role that most of the student publications performed in tackling education issues in Bicol is the Presenter of consequences through opinion articles.

and The CSC Statesman by the Catanduanes State College.) approach: i. Summary The study aimed to analyze the educational issues published by the university and college based publications in the Bicol region namely: The Façade by the Universidad de Sta. The Law Enforcer by Sorsogon College of Criminology. Curriculum iv. The Breakthrough by Camarines Norte State College. which served as the basis of the conclusions derived. assertive ii. AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of the findings. as well as the recommendations of the study. The Mentor by Bicol University College of Education. Faculty iii.) Opinion Function c. administrative ii. Font Type ii.) Information Function b.) Entertainment Function d. the study answered the following sub-problems: (1) What was the most used type of article when tackling education issues? (2) What are the education issues published by the selected university and college publications during the academic year 2010-2011 based on the following categories: a. CONCLUSIONS. Specifically.) according to topics: i.59 Chapter 5 SUMMARY. facility? (3) What is the level of importance given to educational issues in terms of layout? i. from 2010-2011. Inc. b. Passive. Page placement? and (4) What role do the university and college publications play in tackling education issues? a. FINDINGS. . Font Size iii. Isabel.) Advocacy Function.

essay. It is more focused on human interest. An essay is a short analytic. Articles placed on the front page of a newspaper are considered most important since they are the stories which the readers . feature story deals more on interesting topic. and page placement by using the basic rules in newspaper design and layout found in the book of Alito Malinao entitled Journalism for Filipinos. font size.60 It is also stated in the book that as far as the type of story went. They usually deal with concrete and fast-breaking events of the day. The researchers used the definitions of the two (2) categories of education . descriptive or interpretive piece of journalistic prose dealing with a specific topic. Malinao explains that the positioning of news and feature materials on the paper shows their importance. Malinao explains that while news stories concern about important matters. Other types of articles include opinion. This study used the descriptive content analysis approach in order to examine the priority of the university and college based publications in tackling education issues. especially from a personal and unsystematic point of view. The researchers also identified the level of importance given to education issues in terms of layout through font type. Opinion is used to deliver not only the facts but as well as the points to prove the statements of a writer. editorial is considered the most important write-up because it is the stand of the newspaper about a certain issue. News stories are considered more important because they are the most essential events of the day. Lampoon is a satirical way of writing to discuss issues with humorous and mocking voice. Features are lesser important stories. and lampoon.according to the topic discussed in the article and according to the approach of the articles as bases in categorizing the education issues.

interpreter of issues discuss and explain issues. or 60%. 25% of the education related issues were news stories. of the articles published were assertive while only eight (8). Articles found in other pages other than the front page. of the articles were passive. or 40%. while presenter of consequences warn the readers the possible result if the problem/s persist. the following findings were derived by the researchers: 1. administration or management of the college institution. Lastly. The researchers categorized the roles according to Malinao‘s (2009: 70) threefold roles of the press—reporter of issues. 2. or the center pages are the least important. 10% were lampoon articles. The education stories covered were: mostly administrative issues such as budget.61 see and read first. 20% were editorial articles. Articles found in the center pages are more important articles. 10% were feature articles. tangible hindrances to an . back page. The study also revealed that 30% were opinion articles. Findings Base on the result of the study. and 5% were essays. or presenter of consequences. non-teaching personnel. Also. the researchers identified the role of the campus newspapers in the tackling education issues. facilities of the university or college. Among the twenty (20) articles tackling education related issues analyzed by the researchers. twelve (12). Reporter of issues only discuss what are the problems. interpreter of issues.

5% percent were placed on the front and back page. Conclusions Based from the findings obtained. 50 percent aimed to present issues and consequences but do not suggest solutions. rumors and controversies on college-based competitions. and new courses. 4. the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The study revealed that out of twenty (20) articles tackling education issues. although published two (2) issues. failed to tackle any issue concerning their facility. It can also be concluded that the majority of university and college publications in Bicol tackle education issues.62 adequate learning process like textbooks. administration or even their curriculum. faculty. The MC Ink Gazette also failed to publish any issue last 2010-2011. some publications still fail to publish articles that tackle these issues. . the Law Enforcer from Sorsogon. 3. and 5% were on the center pages. 90% were placed on the inside pages. It can also be concluded that the university and college publications mostly tackle education issues through opinion articles. and construction works within the school were discussed. The analysis revealed that the university and college based newspapers in Bicol focused on performing the presenter of consequences role since out of 20 education related articles published in 2010-2011. For example. armchairs. new curriculum. Others include education systems.

the watchdog. The researchers also conclude that the publications assume the role as the Presenter of the Consequences to their readers. Based from the study. the maintenance unit. institution-owned canteens. it is apparent that the university and college publications in Bicol uphold the role of the press in its general form. non-teaching personnel. They bring up education . They follow and impose policies as well as exist by a term of office. 3. the people who administer the university or college as a whole. This means that campus writers were not detached from the politics inside the institution and were not afraid to tackle such issues.the politics within the university and or the college. They mostly tackled administrative issues which made them completely attached to issues concerning the management or the dean.63 2. janitors. it can be concluded that university and college publications in Bicol do not give importance to the page placement of the stories or the articles in their publication. The university or college administration is the management. The researchers found out that the Bicol campus publications were mostly assertive in tackling education issues. 4. They fail to review and assess their stories for their importance and layout them properly. the security unit. student leaders. and the annual budget. With it being the most tackled topic.

The Mentor i. . The publication should publish more news on education issues and consider page placement techniques when layouting. Each campus publication should tackle more education issues and give priority by putting more. a. Education issues should be tackled freely by the students. Moreover. The publication should place its editorial article on the center pages if they could not put it anywhere at the front or the back pages. the publication should allot all of its pages only to its students as a publication should be for the students and by the students. present the consequences if the problems or issues persist. c. the following recommendations are drawn: The following are the suggestions and recommendations provided by the researchers in order to improve the performance of Bicol University and college based campus publications in tackling education issues: 1. The student publication is by the students and for the student d.64 issues that concern the students. The Façade i. of them in the front and back pages. Although the publication was able to publish four (4) articles. none of the articles were placed on the front of back pages. The publication should give priority to articles regarding education issues and place them at least at the center pages of the publication. b. i. but they fail to give tangible solutions to these problems. The publication should focus on more education issues than awards given to students. Recommendations Based on the conclusions. if not all. The Breakthrough. The Law Enforcer i. or on the center pages of the publication.

f. These stands for the students must be clearly seen or perceived by the readers in order to feel the need to stand along with the publication on what they believe in. 2.65 e. 3. Beyond these types of stories. The students should be aware of the education issues in the university or college and through the student publication. they should seek assertive comments from different parties . The CSC Statesman i. Though the publication was able to publish seven (7) articles. they should make the students aware of these issues in order for it to be discussed and interpreted. and lampoon articles on education related issues to better present the stand of the paper as the voice of the students. The publication should be able to come up with an issue at least twice a year so that the studentry will be informed of the education issues in their institution. opinion. MC Ink Gazette i. all of the articles were placed on the inside pages of the publication. feature and essays which are expected to be balanced and fair. they should also publish cartoons and comics that present education issues for the students to relate better. The publications should tackle education issues in an assertive approach to present not only facts but also suggest solutions to the problems. Although in the story types of news. The university and college based newspapers in Bicol should publish more editorial. The publication should give more priority to the articles tackling education issues.

The level of importance of the education issues also depend on how the page placement and layout are handled by the editorial board. Although lampoons are meant to be one form of satirical writing. faculty. they must avoid including columns or opinion articles from the faculty or the administration because their student publication is the voice of the students. 4. . they must also come from accurate facts and interviews that can be proven when asked. Future researchers should include in their study the perception of the students through a survey on how the publications perform their role. They are by the students and for the students. 5. curriculum. Further studies in the role of university and college based newspapers in Bicol in tackling education issues should be conducted. and facility should all be discussed for the students need to know about them. 6. The people behind these publications must be cautious and plan their layout and page placement in order for the important stories to be recognized easily. The publications should use the appropriate font type for the articles‘ bodies in order to attract readers‘ attention more effectively. For publications like The Law Enforcer from Sorsogon. The student publications must seek accurate facts and quotes from reliable sources and present solutions to the probable havoc that their expose of an issue might create.66 that concern the issue and let the readers decide. Issues concerning administration. 7. The university and college student publication must also seek the different sides or parties that concern the story and proceed with the accurate facts and interviews.

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71 APPENDICES .

With this. our research endeavors to answer the questions that your students would be of great help. Entitled. We hope this letter finds you in good health! We are 4th year AB Journalism students from Bicol University College of Arts and Letters. As part of our prerequisite in the completion of our academic requirement a research study is being asked from us. The Role of University and College Publications in Tackling Education Issues. REY ANTHONY OSTRIA ZANDRA MAE ESTALLO JOMILYN GRUTAS ELAINE LARA Noted: ARIES S. Thank you and God bless! Sincerely. PEREZ Adviser . we are hoping for your cooperation.72 APPENDIX B BICOL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ARTS AND LETTERS DEPARTMENT OF PRINT AND BROADCAST MEDIA LEGAZPI CITY ______________ ______________ ______________ Dear Sir/Madam: Greetings! To whom it may concern. We would be randomly choosing 35 students from the student body We are aiming for the betterment of the student press and the education system. We would be giving out research questionnaires for them to answer.

According to approach *Assertive *Passive B.73 Appendix C Checklist for the Education Issues Published. Topics *Administration *Faculty *Curriculum *Facility P3 *Font Type *Font Size *Page Placement P4 *Interpreter *Presenter of Consequences *Reporter . and page placement. Types of Stories *Essay *Features *News *Editorial *Lampoon *Opinion P2 A. their categories according to approach and type of story. font type and size used. Analysis Categories Characteristics Student Publications 1 2 3 4 5 6 P1 A.

of Articles Reporter % Interpreter % Presenter of Consequences % .74 Appendix D Checklist for the Role of the University and College Based Newspapers Campus Newspaper No.

75 APPENDIX E Published Education Issues .