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Ideal linear inductor

Inductor is an energy storing device like Capacitor. Inductor stores energy as magnetic flux around it. Stored energy can be later recovered.
(Tip: inductor and capacitor are complementary to each other in the sense that if you build circuit with one kind of element (say inductor) and develop relations for it, then with little piece of modification it can be developed for other complementary element (capacitor) as well. E.g. if you build a circuit with one element with voltage source then the same kind of circuit can be built for other element with current source)

The amount of energy stored by inductor depends on the inductance of inductor

Let Number of turns=N

Area = A (green)

Magnetic permeability of core = Let area of cross section of core=A Circumference of core = l = total flux linked with wire coil Let inductance = L
Circumference= l (dashed line)

Then L= * N2* A/ l The permeability of the vacuum is 0 = 4 * magnetic constant. * 10 -7. This is also called the

Relative permeability:
Magnetic materials such as manganese-zinc ferrite have a higher permeability than the vacuum. The ratio of the permeability of material to the permeability of vacuum is called the relative permeability of the material.

For example, the relative permeability of one kind of manganese-zinc ferrite is about 640. i Electrical symbol of inductor is given as: The magnetic flux through the coil is given as =L*i Where unit for is Webbers, unit for L (inductance) is Henry and unit for i (current) is Ampere. Inductors are linear as they obey both the property of homogeneity and superposition. (Short cut to proof: two equations below are linear, as derivative and integral are linear operators) v = d/dt () v = d/dt (L * i) (from Maxwells equation) (since =L * i)
+ v L

Now we assume for simplicity that L (inductance) is constant w.r.t voltage and time. v=L * (d/dt (i)) di = 1/L * (v * dt)

Energy storage in inductor:

=L*i v = L * di/ dt Since power= voltage * current P=v*i P = L * di/dt * i P = d/dt(L * i2/2)

i +


(since v = L * d/dt(i)) A

Since power is rate of change of energy w.r.t time Power= Energy/ time So Energy = E = 1/2 * (L * i2)

Inductor is a memory device: The behavior (output) of the inductor not only depends on the set of inputs but also on its previous state, so it is a memory device. P = d/dt (E) where P = Power and E = Energy

If we integrate the above equation in P between two times, we get the energy change in the inductor over the time period ( ) = (( )) ( ) (( ) ( ( )) (P=L*i* di/dt)

Inductor and a voltage source:


V =L*i 0 T t =L*i i=/L Where i(0), is the current when time t=0 i(0) i=V*T/L (eqn.)

Let the voltage source v(t), a square wave of magnitude V, with the time period T. V=d/dt () from Maxwells equation Eqn.

(In practical, inductor wire has resistance, so it has power dissipation. So there is always parasitic resistance within inductor which causes power dissipation and current decay) (Note: inductors like to hold current the same and for continuous input changes and for non-infinite jumps, inductor current changes slowly, i.e. inductor current is always continuous) As we see in the diagram that current value changes slowly, so if we use a current source to make a sudden and large change in current, inductor will act as instantaneous open to external change and as a result can damage other components in the circuit.

Analyzing an RL circuit:
(The reason to analyze this kind of a circuit is that, if we have linear elements in the circuit with the independent current and voltage sources, we make the rest of circuit as Norton equivalent and analyze our element of interest out of it (which is inductor in this case). It makes Analysis easy)
1 iR iL(t) + iI(t) R L vL(t) -

We have a current source iI(t) in parallel with a resistor R and inductor L. Now we apply node method to analyze the circuit At node 1: -iI + vL/ R + iL = 0 L/ R * d/dt(iL) + iL = iI (since vL=L*d/dt(iL))

(L/R) has units of time and this parameter (L/R) is time constant for (RL) circuit

An example of RL circuit with Current source:

Let Let

iL(t)=iL(0) at the time, t=0 iI(t)=II iL(0)= I0

Now from the above equation of RL circuit, we get L/ R * d/dt(iL)+iL= II Eq.1

(WE will use Method of Homogenous and Particular Solutions to solve this differential equation. It comprises of the following steps 1. Find the particular solution 2. Find the homogenous solution 3. The total solution is the sum of particular and homogenous solution. Then use the initial conditions to solve for the remaining constant)

1. Particular solution:
L/ R * d/dt(iLp)+ iLp = II iLp is the any solution that satisfies the above equation


iLp =II


Putting this value in the above equation L/ R * d/dt(II) + II = II II = II So ILp = II (since d/dt(II)=0 as II is constant w.r.t time)

2. ILH: solution to homogenous equation by setting drive (II) equal to zero

L/ R * d/dt(iLH) + iLH = 0 Let iLH = A * e st

Putting this value in the above equation L/ R * d/dt(A * e st) + A * e st = 0 L/ R * s * A * e st + A * e st = 0 L/ R * s + 1 = 0 S = - R/ L So iLH = A * e


Since L/R is time constant iLH = A * e


3. Total solution:
iL = iLp + iLH putting the value of iLp and iLH in the above equation, we get i L = II + A * e
(R/L) * t


Now find the value of A using the initial condition iL = I0 at t=0


I0 = II + A * e I0 = II + A

(R/L)* 0


A = I0 I I
(R/L) * t

So Eq.2 becomes iL = II + (I0 II) * e


Plot solution:
iI(t) = II iL(0) = I0 iL = II + (I0 II) * e
(R/L) * t

I0 =L/R

(where iL is corresponding to t)



After long period of time the potential difference across the inductor becomes zero and whole current supplied by source passes through the inductor

Transient analysis of RL circuit with voltage Source:




vs(t)= step input The input waveform VS is assumed to be a voltage supplied at t=0 and the inductor current is assumed to be zero just before the step input i.e. iL = 0 at t<0 Now using the node method at point 1: (vL - VS)/ R + iL = 0 VL -VS + iL * R = 0 L * d/dt(iL) + iL * R = 0
-t VS vS(t)

The homogeneous equation is L * d/dt(iLH) + iLH * R = 0 Assume a solution of the form iLH = A * e st So L * S * A * e st + R * A * e st = 0 L*s + R = 0 S= - R/ L Thus homogenous solution is thus iLH = A * e
(R/L) * t


(from Eqn.3)

The particular equation is given as

iLp * R + L d/dt(iLP) = VS Drive is step input which is constant for large t, it is appropriate to assume the solution of the form iLp = K Substituting the value in the above equation K*R=V K = V/R iLp = V/ R Thus the complete solution is of sum of homogeneous and particular solution iL = V/ R + A * e
(R/L) * t

(since VS = V for large time, t)

The initial condition together with continuity condition, can now be applied to evaluate A. Since inductor voltage cannot be infinite in circuit. So d/dt (i) must be finite and hence inductor current must be continuous Therefore at t=0, iL = 0 (given) V/ R + A = 0 A = - V/R For t>0 iL = V/ R * (1 e
(R/L) * t

The voltage across the inductor is vL = L * d/dt(iL) = V * e

(R/L) * t

Combination of inductors:
1. Series Combination:

Consider the series combination of two inductors, we assume that neither inductor carry a current at the time of their connection Since the two inductors share the common current i(t) = 1(t)/ L1 + 2(t)/ L2 Now using the KVL, we get v(t) = v1(t) + v2(t) Since we know that (t) = ( )

The above equation yield (t) = 1(t) + 2(t) Finally, since the effective inductance L of two series inductors is /I, it follows that L= (t)/ i(t) = L1 + L2 i.e. L = L1 + L2

2. Parallel combination:

Since the two inductors share a common voltage, it follows that they share a common flux linkage . (t) = 1(t) = 2(t) = Thus from above equation (t) = L1 * i1(t) = L2 * i2(t) Now using KCL, we observe that i(t) = i1(t) + i2(t) Since the effective inductance L of the two parallel inductors is /i 1/ L = i(t)/ (t)= 1/L1 + 1/ L2 1/ L = 1/ L1 + 1/ L2 ( )