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# Intro to Vibration Measurements

Bruel & Kjaer Norcross, Georgia www.bkhome.com

Agenda
What is Vibration? Quantifying Vibration The Single Degree of Freedom Model Structural Resonances and Forced Vibration Vibration Transducers Brief Intro to Vibration Analysis Wrap Up

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Vibration In Everyday Life

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Why Do We Measure Vibration?
To verify that frequencies and amplitudes do not exceed the material limits (e.g. as described by the Wöhler curves) To avoid excitation of resonances in certain parts of a machine To be able to dampen or isolate vibration sources To make conditional maintenance on machines To construct or verify computer models of structures (system analysis)
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Mechanical Parameters and Components
Displacement Velocity Acceleration

m

d

k c

v

a

m

F=k×d

F=c×v

F=m×a

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Conversion from Displacement to Acceleration
Displacement, d D
Time

d = D sin ωt d=D v = dd = Dω cos ωt dt
Time

Velocity, v

v = Dω = D2πf

Acceleration, a

d2d = Dω2 sin ωt a= 2 dt
Time

a = Dω2 = D4π2f 2

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Conversion from Acceleration to Displacement
Acceleration, a A
Time

a = A sin ωt a=A

Velocity, v

v = a dt = - A cos ωt

ω

Time

v=

A = A ω 2πf

Displacement, d

d=
Time

∫∫

a dt dt = - A2 sin ωt

ω

d=

A A 2 = ω 4π2f 2

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Units of Vibration Signals

Acceleration a Velocity v Displacement d

1 m/s2

= 0.102g = 39.4 in/s2

1 m/s

= 3.6 km/h = 39.4 in/s

1m

= 1000 mm = 39.4 in

1g = 9.80665 ms-2

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Simplest Form of Vibrating System
Displacement

d = D sinωnt D
Time

Displacement

T m k

1 T

Frequency

Period, Tn in [sec] Frequency, fn= T in [Hz = 1/sec]
n

1

ωn= 2 π fn =
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k m

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Effect of Change in Mass

time

ωn = 2πfn =

k m + m1

m1 m

Increasing mass reduces frequency

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Mass, Spring and Damper

time

Increasing damping reduces the amplitude k

m c1 + c2

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Forced Vibration
Displacement
e im T

m dm k c dF F
Magnitude Frequency

dm = df Frequency Phase +90° 0° -90°

Frequency

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Forces and Vibration

Input Forces

+

System Response (Mobility)

=

Vibration

+
Frequency Forces caused by Imbalance Shock Friction Acoustic Frequency Structural Parameters: Mass Stiffness Damping

=
Frequency Vibration Parameters: Acceleration Velocity Displacement

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Sources of Machine Vibration
The moving parts of machines create vibration at different frequencies.

Vibration level

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th

12th

Order Frequency, Hz (Frequency, Hz)

Misalignment ofi.e., vibrations caused Vibrations at 50 or 60 Hzcauses vibration at NOISE, the shaft (incl. harmonics) Vibration at lower harmonics = orders st due by of Vibration (subordersbyof main shaft (1 order)in Vibration amplified 6thstructural resonances Harmonics level of at 42-48% of RPM) caused Extra high of rotational frequency caused to the speed harmonic/order Vibration caused by ambience caused by electromagnetic worn gearelectric by other machines or forces or by oil main shaft,fan with 6 blades the filmthe machine structure bearing imperfect caused by unbalance whirl or whip in journal misalignment e.g.,(rotational frequency power cables noise picked up from × 1, 2, excitation wind excitation or acoustic 3,…)
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Sources of Machine Vibration

Vibration level

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th

12th

Order Frequency, Hz (Frequency, Hz)

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The Measurement Chain
Transducer Preamplifier Filter(s) Detector/ Averager Output

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Piezoelectric Accelerometer

Principles of operation F

F

F
V [mV] ∝ F Q [pC] ∝ F

F

V [mV] ∝ F Q [pC] ∝ F

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Choosing an Accelerometer
or General Purpose, medium weight and sensitivity Small, light and high frequency 1 - 10 mV/ms-2 Weight: 10-50 gram 0.1 - 0.3 mV/ms-2 Weight: 0.5 - 3 g

Acceleration ms-2 250,000 20,000-100,000

0.003-0.01 0.0001-0.001 ~0.1
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Frequency ~1 5-12k 15-30k Hz

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Useful Frequency Range
Output ~ 10% Input 0.3 f0
Acc. ms-2 (pC)

~ 35 dB

f1
19

f0

Frequency

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Accelerometer Mounting — Fixed
Thin double adhesive tape Cementing stud Stud Mounting

Level dB 30 20 10 0

Beeswax

Max.40 °C

Frequency 200
20

500

1k

2k

5k

10k

20k 30k 50 kHz

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Accelerometer Mounting — Handheld
Hand held probe Magnet

Inv er ted

Level dB 30 20 10 0

Pr ob e

Frequency 200
21

500

1k

2k

5k

10k

20k 30k 50kHz

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Choosing a Mounting Position
B

A

D C

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0,1 pC/ms-2 0.65 g M>7g 10 pC/ms-2 54 g M > 600 g M 1000 pC/ms-2 470 g M > 5 kg Dynamic Mass < 1 M 10

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Laser Velocity Probes

Object moving toward laser gives higher frequency

Object moving away from laser gives lower frequency

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Frequency Spectrum or Overall Level?

Transducer

Preamplifier

Filter(s)

Detector/ Averager

Output Overall Level

Frequency Spectrum

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Frequency Spectrum or Overall Level
Frequency Spectrum
Vibration 5 4 3 2 1

Overall Level
4 2 1 3 5

Fan
Frequency Vibration 5 4 3 2 1 Date 5 1 2 3 4

Gearbox
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Hz

Date

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Types of Signals
Stationary signals Non-stationary signals

Deterministic

Random

Continuous

Transient

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Time Signal Descriptors
Amplitude

T

Peak PeakPeak

RMS

Average
Time

RMS =

1 T 2 x ( t )dt T ∫0

1 T Average = ∫ x( t ) dt T 0

Crest Factor :

Peak RMS

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Time Signal Descriptors
Amplitude

PeakPeak

Peak RMS Average
Time

RMS =

1 T 2 ∫0 x ( t )dt T

Average =

1 T ∫0 x(t )dt T

Crest Factor :

Peak RMS

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Modal Analysis
The excitation frequency is coincident with a natural frequency of the structure

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Human Vibration
Human Body is a resonant system Evidence of delirious effects of vibration on health, productivity, & comfort Analysis of human vibration
– whole body exposure – hand exposure (tools)

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Shaker Applications
Environmental “Survivability” Stress Screening Modal Testing Squeak and Rattle Studies

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Order Analysis
From a simple runup or coastdown of a machine we can tell so much!

[m/s2]

10 5 0

1st order [m/s2] Speed [RPM]

10 5 0

6th order

Speed [RPM]
1800 Speed [RPM] 1400 1000

Vibration level 10 [m/s2]
5 0

Frequency [Hz] [m/s2]
10 5 0

Structural Resonance

Speed [RPM]

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Conclusion
You should now have a good understanding of: The SDOF Model (mass, spring, damper) How to quantify vibration Difference between FORCED vibration and STRUCTURAL resonances What the measurement chain is Practical use of accelerometers How to analyze vibration signals Introduced to typical vibration applications

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“Real World” Vibration Levels
ms-2 1 000 000 1000 1 0.001 0.000 001 dB 240 180 120 60 0

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