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UNIVERSITY OF GAZIANTEP DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ME 215 ENGINEERING MATERIALS I HARDNESS TEST REPORT

SUBMITTED TO: RESEARCH ASSISTANT BURAK ŞAHİN SUBMITTED BY: Fatma Ayhan

05.12.2012

when concerned with coatings and surface properties of importance to friction and wear processes for instance. Microhardness is the hardness of a material as determined by forcing an indenter such as a Vickers or Knoop indenter into the surface of the material under 15 to 1000 gf load. penetration depth and cycle time. Where materials have a fine microstructure. The greater the hardness of the metal. The dictionary of Metallurgy defines the indentation hardness as the resistance of a material to indentation. This is the usual type of hardness test. It is here that micro-hardness measurements are appropriate. Measurement of the macro-hardness of materials is a quick and simple method of obtaining mechanical property data for the bulk material from a small sample. deformed (bent. It is the property of a metal. In mineralogy the property of matter commonly described as the resistance of a substance to being scratched by another substance. or to resistance to scratching. usually by indentation. or cutting. which gives it the ability to resist being permanently. non-homogeneous or prone to cracking. However. In metallurgy hardness is defined as the ability of a material to resist plastic deformation. or have its shape changed). the indentations are so small that they must be measured with a microscope. Micro-indenters works by pressing a tip into a sample and continuously measuring: applied load. broken. macro-hardness measurements will be highly variable and will not identify individual surface features. Conversions from microhardness values to tensile strength and other hardness scales (e. the greater resistance it has to deformation. usually. micro. 1 . when a load is applied.g. It is also widely used for the quality control of surface treatments processes. However. the macroindentation depth would be too large relative to the surface-scale features.WHAT IS HARDNESS? The Metals Handbook defines hardness as "Resistance of metal to plastic deformation. Rockwell) are available for many metals and alloys. Capable of determining hardness of different microconstituents within a structure. are multi-phase.or nano. abrasion. or measuring steep hardness gradients such as those encountered in casehardening. in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substantially static load. the term may also refer to stiffness or temper.scale according to the forces applied and displacements obtained . HARDNESS MEASUREMENT Hardness measurement can be defined as macro-.

This method is the best for achieving the bulk or macro-hardness of a material.HARDNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS There are three types of tests used with accuracy by the metals industry. The way the three of these hardness tests measure a metal's hardness is to determine the metal's resistance to the penetration of a non-deformable ball or cone. it can generally be assumed that a strong metal is also a hard metal. so the test averages the hardness over a wider amount of material. For softer materials the load can be reduced to 1500 kg or 500 kg to avoid excessive indentation. The tests determine the depth which such a ball or cone will sink into the metal. and the Vickers hardness test. The diameter of the indentation left in the test material is measured with a low powered microscope. Since the definitions of metallurgic ultimate strength and hardness are rather similar. Compared to the other hardness test methods. particularly those materials with heterogeneous structures. they are the Brinell hardness test. The diameter of the impression is the average of two readings at right angles and the use of a Brinell hardness number table can simplify the determination of the Brinell hardness. "75 HB 10/500/30" which means that a Brinell Hardness of 75 was obtained using a 10mm diameter hardened steel with a 500 kilogram load applied for a period of 30 seconds. On tests of extremely hard metals a tungsten carbide ball is substituted for the steel ball. and looks like this. under a given load. within a specific period of time. 3. 4. the Brinell ball makes the deepest and widest indentation. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds in the case of iron and steel and for at least 30 seconds in the case of other metals. which will more accurately account for multiple grain structures and any irregularities in the uniformity of the material. 2. Rockwell Hardness Test Brinell Hardness Test Vickers Hardness Test Shore Scleroscope Hardness Test The Brinell Hardness Test The Brinell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a 10 mm diameter hardened steel or carbide ball subjected to a load of 3000 kg. A well structured Brinell hardness number reveals the test conditions. The Brinell harness number is calculated by dividing the load applied by the surface area of the indentation. the Rockwell hardness test. The followings are the most common hardness test methods used in today`s technology: 1. 2 .

or wear. a 1/16" diameter steel ball is used with a 100-kilogram load and the hardness is read on the "B" scale.8 HRC 56. a 120 degrees diamond cone is used with up to a 150 kilogram load and the hardness is read on the "C" scale.2 (average) HRB 86. The Rockwell test uses two loads. in the test. When equilibrium has been reached. aluminium and hard steel. and should not be used alone for product design specifications. the Rockwell hardness test does not serve well as a predictor of other properties such as strength or resistance to scratches. The results. 1INDENTING LOAD 2DIAMETER OF THE BALL INDENTER 3ELASTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BALL Rockwell Hardness Test The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter. abrasion. While the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load is applied with resulting increase in penetration .It is recognise that the BHN of nearly all materials influenced by the magnitude of the . The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0 usually 10 kgf. The difference in the depth of the indentation between the minor and major loads provides the Rockwell hardness number.0 Aluminium Soft steel Hard steel B B C 3 . The results obtained from this test are a useful measure of relative resistance to indentation of various grades of plastics. In this experiment we tested hardness of soft steel. For soft materials that we tested soft steel. and aluminum alloys. of any surface irregularities. Rockwell Hardness Scales Specimens Scale Indenter 1/16" steel ball 1/16" steel ball Diamond cone Minor Load F0 kgf 10 10 10 Major Load F1 kgf 100 100 150 Hardness values HRB75. The first load. one applied directly after the other. However. an indicating device. load of 10 kilograms is applied to the specimen to help seat the indenter and remove the effects. In testing harder materials that we tested a harden steel. the minor load creates a uniformly shaped surface for the major load to be applied to. which follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes in depth of penetration of the indenter is set to a datum position. known as the "minor". In essence.

The two diagonals of the indentation left in the surface of the material after removal of the load are measured using a microscope and their average calculated. thin steel and shallow case hardened steel HRB . The Vickers hardness is the quotient obtained by dividing the kgf load by the square mm area of indentation. malleable irons. in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. .Typical Application of Rockwell Hardness Scales HRA . . . . Steel. hard cast irons. F= d = Arithmetic Load mean of the two in diagonals. etc HRC . . . The area of the sloping surface of the indentation is calculated. Cemented carbides. . case hardened steel and other materials harder than 100 HRB Vickers Hardness Test The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter. . Copper alloys. d1 and d2 in kgf mm HV = Vickers hardness 4 . aluminium alloys. The full load is normally applied for10 to 15 seconds. soft steels. .

the Vickers machine is a floor standing unit that is more expensive than the Brinell or Rockwell machines. and just one type of indenter is used for all types of metals and surface treatments. 5 . but is more convenient to use conversion tables. onto the test specimen. the harder the material. Several different loading settings give practically identical hardness numbers on uniform material. under varying loads. The scale of the rebound is arbitrarily chosen and consists on Shore units. which is much better than the arbitrary changing of scale with the other hardness testing methods.When the mean diagonal of the indentation has been determined the Vickers hardness may be calculated from the formula. The Vickers hardness should be reported like 800 HV/10. which represent the average rebound from pure hardened high-carbon steel. The height of the rebound travel of the hammer is measured on a graduated scale. A diamond-tipped hammer in a graduated glass tube is allowed to fall from a known height on the specimen to be tested. The Scleroscope test consists of dropping a diamond tipped hammer. In this experiment. which falls inside a glass tube under the force of its own weight from a fixed height. which means a Vickers hardness of 800. was obtained using a 10 kgf force. The Shore Scleroscope Hardness Test The shore scleroscope measures hardness in terms of the elasticity of the material. The hardness value of soft steel at this test was measured as 22. The scale is continued higher than 100 to include metals having greater hardness. Although thoroughly adaptable and very precise for testing the softest and hardest of materials. the higher the rebound. and the hardness number depends on the height to which the hammer rebounds. we used this hardness test to found the result for soft steel. The advantages of the Vickers hardness test are that extremely accurate readings can be taken. divided into 100 parts.

55 2.35 2.40 2.30 2.25 2. Ball Impress in m/m 6 .35 2.55 3000 kg Diam.Hardness Conversion Table Hardness Conversion Table BRINEL ROCKWELL 1/16" Bull 100 kgm D Scale 87 86 85 84 83 83 82 81 80 80 79 78 77 76 76 75 74 73 73 72 71 70 69 69 92 91 91 90 90 89 89 93 93 92 94 94 95 95 96 96 100 kgm B Scale SUPERFICIAL ROCKWELL 10 m/m Diamond Brale 150 kgm C Scale 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 60 kgm A Scale 92 92 91 91 90 90 89 89 88 87 87 86 86 85 85 84 84 83 83 82 81 81 80 80 "N" Brale Penetrater 15 kg Load 15 N 97 30 kg Load 30N 92 92 91 91 90 89 89 88 87 87 86 85 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 79 78 77 76 75 45 kg Load 45N 87 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 79 75 73 72 74 70 69 68 67 66 65 63 2.30 2.45 2.

20 3.95 3.60 2.35 3.80 3.30 3.85 2.70 3.55 3.60 2.70 2.15 3.95 7 .05 3.45 3.60 3.85 3.40 3.80 3.65 2.35 3.90 3.75 2.90 2.75 3.75 2.25 3.10 3.50 3.00 3.80 2.90 2.10 3.00 3.65 3.56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 79 79 78 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 73 73 73 72 72 71 70 70 69 69 68 68 67 67 66 66 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 62 62 68 67 66 65 65 64 63 62 61 61 60 59 59 58 57 56 55 55 54 53 52 52 51 50 49 48 48 47 46 45 45 44 43 42 42 109 109 108 108 107 106 106 105 104 103 103 102 101 100 99 99 88 88 87 87 86 86 86 85 85 84 84 83 83 82 82 81 80 80 79 79 78 78 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 73 73 72 72 71 71 74 73 72 71 70 69 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 62 61 60 59 57 56 55 54 53 51 50 49 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 37 36 38 34 33 32 30 29 28 27 26 24 23 22 2.

21 20 18 16* 14* 12* 10* 8* 6* 4* 2* 0* 61 61 41 40 98 97 95 94 92 90 89 87 85 84 82 81 79 77 74 72 70 68 65 70 69 42 42 21 20 4.40 5.65 4.05 4.25 4.10 4.80 4.50 5.90 5.20 5.00 4.30 5.00 5.Therefore a correlation exists between the hardness and tensile strength of the steels : St = 0.10 5. Because.15 4.40 4.80 4.35 4.33 x BHN 8 . a reasonable relationship exists between the hardness and other physical properties of a material. Also it is possible to compare the measurements taken each testing methods after converting them into the same hardness scale.50 4. hardness and the tensile test both measure the resistance of a material to plastic deformation.60 4.60 COMPARE OF MEASUREMENTS According to Hardness Conversion Table we can convert the hardness values found in Rockwell and Shore Scleroscope hardness test to the Brinell hardness. For example. Hardness test is one of the prominent tests in determining the properties of materials.

0 Brinell 179(approximately) 137(approximately) 555 Tensile strengths 59. Specimens Soft steel Aliminium Hard steel Rockwell HRB 86.210 183. 9 . We know that at different points hardness may not be measured same. They are different 179 and 143 respectively. This variation can be resulted because of measuring different point at test method.070 45.2 HRC 56.8 HRB 75.150 Specimens Soft steel Shore scleroscope 22 Brinell 143 Tensile strength 47.Then I calculated the approxiate tensile strengths of the testing materials by using the Brinell Hardness Number.190 Now I can only compare the hardness value of soft steel according to Brinell test method.