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Suppose a body can tolerate only a certain amount of damage, D. If that body experiences damages Di ( i = 1,..., N ) from N sources, then we might expect that failure will occur if

∑D

i =1

N

i

=D

or, equivalently

∑ D =1

i =1

N

Di

defines failure, where Di / D is the fractional damage received from the ith source. We can use this linear damage concept in a fatigue setting by considering the situation where a component is subjected to n1 cycles at alternating stress σ 1 , n2 cycles at stress σ 2 , …, nN cycles at σ N . From the S-N curve for this material, then we can find the number of cycles to failure, N1 at σ 1 , N 2 at σ 2 , …, N N at σ N .

It is reasonable in this case to let the fractional damage at stress level σ i be simply ni / N i , so that the Palmgren-Miner rule would say that fatigue failure occurs when

∑N

i =1

N

ni

i

=1

n. correlation with the Palmgren-Miner rule is generally very good.3 0.3n 0.3) . if n1 cycles are applied at stress level σ 1 (where the life is N1 cycles). N1′ : . i. How many cycles. σ 2 ) where σ 1 > σ 2 generally shows that failure occurs when ∑N i =1 2 ni i =c where c normally is < 1. For tests with random loading histories at several stress levels. σ 1 . and 60% at a level σ 3 .e the Palmgren-Miner rule is non-conservative for these tests. 30% is spent at a level σ 2 . The Palmgren-Miner rule can be interpreted graphically as a "shift" of the S-N curve.Example: A part is subjected to a fatigue environment where 10% of its life is spent at an alternating stress level. For example. can the part undergo before failure? If. the S-N curve is shifted so that goes through a new life value. c values are typically > 1. For "low-high" tests. 2. then from the Palmgren-Miner rule failure occurs when: 0.1n 0.6 ⎞ + + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ N1 N 2 N 3 ⎠ Remarks 1. from the S-N diagram for this material the number of cycles to failure at σ i is Ni ( i = 1.1 0. 2.6n + + =1 N1 N2 N3 so solving for n gives n= 1 ⎛ 0. 3. "High-low" fatigue tests where testing occurs sequentially at two stress levels (σ 1 .

e. A major limitation of the Palmgren-Miner rule is that it does not consider sequence effects. This can be seen from the modified S-N diagram above where the entire curve is shifted the same amount. A second limitation is that the Palmgren-Miner rule says that the damage accumulation is independent of stress level.4. i. regardless of stress amplitude. Sequence effects are definitely observed in many cases. the order of the loading makes no difference in this rule. .

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