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Course No: M03-010 Credit: 3 PDH
J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A., Fellow ASCE, Fellow AEI
Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774 email@example.com
An Introduction to Fire Protection Engineering for Buildings
44240 Clubhouse Drive El Macero, CA 95618 (530)7758-6637 firstname.lastname@example.org
J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A.
Paul Guyer is a registered fire protection engineer, mechanical engineer, civil engineer, and architect with over 35 years experience in the design of buildings and related infrastructure. For an additional 9 years he was a senior-level advisor to the California Legislature on infrastructure and capital outlay issues, including those involving fire and life safety. He is a graduate of Stanford University and has held numerous national, state and local positions with the American Society of Civil Engineers and National Society of Professional Engineers.
This course is adapted from the Unified Facilities Criteria of the United States government, which is in the public domain, has unlimited distribution and is not copyrighted.
© J. Paul Guyer 2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction 2. The Fundamental Elements of Fire Protection Engineering 3. Building Materials and Design 4. Water Supply for Fire Protection 5. Fire Extinguishing Systems 6. Fire Alarm Systems 7. Special Occupancies and Hazards 8. Occupancy Hazard Classification System 9. Fire Flow Demand for Unsprinklered Facilities 10. Performance Based Fire Safety Design 11. Codes and Other Professional Resources
5 7 13 22 26 29 33 35 36 37
© J. Paul Guyer 2009
keep some points in mind: • Fire protection engineering is almost completely code-and-regulation driven. show you some illustrative examples. Paul Guyer 2009 4 . This is a course that will broaden your skills.E. Fellow ASCE. P. This © J. civil. Engineers need to know how fire safety requirements affect the design work they do in their individual technical disciplines. With the exception of the hydraulic principles of fluid flow in sprinkler system pipes. mechanical and electrical features of buildings and their related infrastructure are all affected by the principles of fire protection engineering.An Introduction to Fire Protection Engineering for Buildings J.. and direct you to specific codes and other technical resources you will need to efficiently and effectively incorporate fire protection considerations in your building designs. The architectural.. INTRODUCTION This is an introductory course in fire protection engineering for all of the members of the building design team. This course will tell you about the principle requirements of fire safety in building design.A. there is little in the field that is theoretical in nature. Fellow AEI COURSE CONTENT 1. and allow you to design safe and cost-effective buildings and related infrastructure for your company. Paul Guyer. R. As you go through this course. and in your engineering practice. add value to your career. structural. agency. clients and the public.
© J. in practice you must always be guided by the codes and regulations applicable to your project in your local jurisdiction.means that in order to find out what you need to do in a given situation you will almost always need to refer to a code or regulation. Rarely is a professional engineer the reviewer at the fire department. Paul Guyer 2009 5 . Occasionally a fire department reviewer may feel a bit defensive when dealing with a professional engineer during the review process. This means that your building designs will be meticulously reviewed by the regulatory authorities. this means the local building department and the fire department. • Fire safety is a highly regulated enterprise. • Keep in mind that this course is only an introductory overview of fire protection engineering. and just plain be diplomatic. the individuals who review drawings for new construction are almost always individuals who began their careers as fire fighters. Absent the fire department approval. In the case of a typical commercial building design project. As noted above. The only way to manage this type of situation is to take special care to clearly explain your design in terms as non-technical as possible. your project will never get built. As fire departments have developed over the years. deferentially accept the fact that the fire department reviewer controls the fate of your project. References to specific codes and regulations in this course are for illustration only. • Managing fire department reviews requires a special level of diplomacy and care.
THE FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING There are five fundamental elements of fire protection engineering. Paul Guyer 2009 6 .2. We will also discuss four other areas of technical interest: © J. these are shown in Figure 1: Figure 1 Fundamental Elements of Fire Protection Engineering Element Considerations Basic criteria • Building Materials and Design • Water Supply • Fire Extinguishing Systems • Fire Alarm Systems • Special Occupancies and Hazards Fire areas Height limitations Interior fire spread Egress Interior finishes Insulation Roof coverings Roof and fire department access Air handling Plastic pipe and conduit Fire retardant wood products Demand for sprinklered facilities Demand for unsprinklered facilities Pressure requirements Required quantities and on-site storage Fire pumps Distribution systems Automatic sprinkler systems Foam (AFFF) systems Standpipes Dry chemical systems Carbon dioxide systems Halon 1301 systems Portable extinguishers Detection systems Reporting systems Evacuation systems Numerous These five elements are what will be discussed in this course.
A fire protection Design Analysis is required for all designs and must address the fire protection requirements of the project as required by applicable codes and regulations. Paul Guyer 2009 7 ..Figure 2 Additional Topics Discussed in this Course • • • • Occupancy hazard classification system Fire flow demand for unsprinklered facilities Performance based fire safety design Codes and other professional resources After you have completed this course you should have sufficient understanding of the principles of fire protection engineering to begin the first step in the design process. Where applicable. This is a Design Analysis. location of fire hydrants Smoke control methods and smoke control systems Fire alarm system. type of construction. fire dampers with their fireresistive ratings. fire-rated doors.e. and building separation or exposure protection) Classification of occupancy Compliance with applicable codes and regulations Requirements for fire-rated walls. discuss the minimum fire protection provisions (include required vs. type and location of equipment Fire detection system and location of detectors Standpipe systems and fire extinguishers Interior finish ratings Alarm reporting system Identification of occupancy and hazard areas Fire department access © J. water distribution. Life Safety Code application Analysis of automatic sprinkler systems and suppression systems and protected areas. including hydraulic analysis of required water demand Water supplies. provided) indicated in Figure 3: Table 3 Typical Design Analysis Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Building code analysis (i. smoke compartmentation. height and area limitations. smoke barriers NFPA 101.
• Separation Between Buildings. BUILDING MATERIALS AND DESIGN Basic Criteria Conform building construction to fire resistance requirements. Fire Areas © J. For conflicts between the IBC and NFPA 101 related to fire resistance rating. These include: • Egress and Safety to Life. Occupancy separation must comply with the “Required Separation of Occupancies” table in the IBC. allowable floor areas. • Type of Construction. Follow the requirements of the IBC to determine the permitted types of construction. consider favoring NFPA 101. Comply with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101 for building construction related to egress and safety to life.3. For fire resistance ratings of non-bearing partitions comply with NFPA 101. and building separation distance requirements of the International Building Code (IBC). Paul Guyer 2009 8 . Such roofs will not require sprinkler protection but will require draft stops to divide the spaces into areas not exceeding 3000 SF. with self-closing and latching access doors of similar construction in the draft stop where there is no other means of access to the area. Use the IBC to determine required separation distances between buildings. except where approved by local authority Type V (wood) roofs may be constructed on buildings of Type I or II construction provided that they are separated from all other areas of the building by horizontal 2-hour concrete or masonry fire resistive construction. • Partitions. building height limitations. IBC fire resistance requirements for permanent partitions do not apply to non-bearing partitions.
Do not modify approved fire doors in the field. Limiting Interior Fire Spread • Door Openings: Door openings. and/or NFPA 90B. (UL). Paul Guyer 2009 9 . conduit. Means of Egress • Requirements: Comply with the requirements of NFPA 101. such as piping. or a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL). in fire resistive construction. • Penetrations: The protection of ducts at point of passage through firewalls must be in accordance with NFPA 90A. All other penetrations. which may remain in use. Height Limitations Conform to the IBC. Fire Doors and Fire Windows. through firewalls must be protected with a material or system of the same hourly rating that is listed by UL. FM. Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems. must be protected in accordance with NFPA 80. Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. Internally illuminated signs must be light emitting diode (LED) type. Use fire doors listed by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Fire door assemblies are required on each side of the door opening in 4-hour fire walls when openings are fitted with 3-hour rolling or sliding fire doors. Local fabrication of fire doors is not permitted. • Means of Egress Marking: Mark means of egress in accordance with NFPA 101. Incandescent fixtures are not permitted except existing fixtures. or cold cathode type. Signs must have lettering on an opaque background. and wiring. © J. electroluminescence (LEC). FM.Conform to the IBC. or a NRTL.
and C) of acceptable roof coverings based on compliance with UL 790. For certain types of insulation exceptions apply. Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. The UL Roofing Materials and Systems Directory lists three Classes (A. Interior Finish • Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish: Wall and ceiling finishes and movable partitions must conform to the requirements of NFPA 101 for interior finishes. Drop-out ceilings are not permitted. Photoluminescent exit signs and egress path marking is permitted only where provided with a reliable external illumination (charging) source providing a minimum illumination of 54 lux (5 foot-candles) of unfiltered fluorescent light. Roof Coverings and Roof Deck Assemblies • Roof Coverings: Use roof coverings approved and listed by a NRTL. • Roof Deck Assemblies: Roof deck assemblies must be FM Class 1 © J. Tests for Fire Resistance of Roof Covering Materials and NFPA 256. Test cellular plastic insulation in the same densities and thicknesses as the material that will be used in construction applications. Restrict Class C roof coverings to housing and buildings under 8. Fire Tests of Roof Coverings. Paul Guyer 2009 10 . and a smoke developed (SD) rating not higher than 150 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 (NFPA 255). Insulation • Requirements: Use thermal and acoustical insulation with a flame spread (FS) rating not higher than 75.Radioluminous exit signs are not permitted.000 SF and that are not mission essential. B.
• Fire Department (Emergency Vehicle) Access. All enclosed exit stairs that extend to the top floor in any building three or more stories in height must have. • Vehicle Access.000 SF. with a minimum dimension of 2 ft. Uniform Fire Code. unless the roof has a slope greater than 4 in 12. or more than two stories in height must have at least one means of all-weather ground access to allow emergency vehicles unimpeded access to the building.approved or UL listed as Fire Classified or equal listing or classification by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL). Paul Guyer 2009 11 . The hatch must be not less than 16 ft in area. with the exceptions of: (a) fully sprinklered buildings and (b) buildings less than 8. All buildings greater than 5. Access may require fire apparatus to drive over a curb. All force protection equipment. start from the road. Fixed Ladders. and terminate no farther than 33 ft from the building. with a minimum of 2 sides having access to sleeping rooms. Any locking device controlling vehicle access must be under control of the fire department or 24-hour security personnel located at the specific facility. 2 © J.000 sq ft. • Access to Residential Facilities. an approved hatch opening to the roof with an appropriate ladder that conforms to 29 CFR 1910.27. must not require more than one person to remove or open. Residential facilities must be provided with all-weather ground access to 3 sides. All-weather ground access must be paved. at the highest point of the stair tower. Roof and Fire Department Access • Roof Access. At least one stairway must terminate at a standard door opening leading onto the roof surface. Dimensions of fire lanes and turnarounds must comply with NFPA 1. such as bollards or gates.
Facilities with fire department connections for sprinkler or standpipe systems must be provided with suitable allweather ground access surface for pumper apparatus within 150 ft of such fire department connections. heating. or exhaust air system serving adjoining areas. • Corridors. • Plenums. • Fire Department Connection. must be plenum rated or must be in metal conduit. Air Handling • Design Requirements. including telephone and communication wiring. unless prohibited by NFPA 101. bathrooms. Under no circumstances may combustible materials be located within the plenum space. Paul Guyer 2009 12 . Egress corridors must not be used as a portion of a supply. New facilities four stories or more in height and all new warehouses must be provided with suitable all-weather ground access surface for aerial apparatus on a minimum of two sides of the perimeter of the structure. Electrical wiring passing through the space. Plenums may be used as an integral part of an air handling system only if they conform to the requirements of NFPA 90A. and similar auxiliary spaces may have air transfer openings. Air handling. ventilation and exhaust systems must comply with the requirements of NFPA 90A.• Aerial Apparatus Access. Exception: Toilet rooms. © J. such as in residential occupancies. Air transfer opening(s) must not be permitted in walls or in doors separating egress corridors from adjoining areas. Rooms or areas that form a plenum space or that are used as a plenum must not be occupied for any purpose except during repairs or maintenance operations to the air handling equipment. shower rooms. sink closets. return.
Fire Retardant Treated(FRT) Plywood Use of FRT plywood is prohibited except as permitted by the IBC or local authority. Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire Stops or UL 1479. and floors must be fire-stopped by an approved or listed method in accordance with ASTM E814.• Smoke and Heat Vents. smoke and heat vents must be arranged to operate automatically in accordance with NFPA 204. In buildings with automatic sprinkler protection. Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops. or in air plenum spaces unless specifically listed for that application. In buildings without automatic sprinklers. Smoke and heat vents may be considered in buildings where a high rate of heat release is anticipated during a fire. FRT plywood must not be used in any part of the roof or roofing system. © J. shafts. Paul Guyer 2009 13 . Skylights are the preferred method of providing manual smoke and heat vents. smoke and heat vents must be arranged to operate in the manual mode only. Smoke and Heat Venting. Plastic pipe and conduit must not be installed in exit stair enclosures. partitions. Plastic Pipe and Conduit Penetrations by plastic pipe or conduit through fire-rated walls.
• The hose stream demand for sprinklered occupancies must be determined from Figure 4. • Design areas shown in Figure 4 are the hydraulically most remote areas. as always. © J. (Figure 4 is. discharge density. and type of sprinkler system (wet or dry). and at the pressure necessary to produce the required sprinkler density over the required hydraulically most remote area of sprinkler operation. The total demand must be available at the sprinkler system connection to the underground main. WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION Factors Influencing the Water Demand for Sprinklers The water demand required for sprinkler protection depends upon occupancy. Applicable codes and regulations must be used. for illustration purposes only. • The total water demand for sprinklered occupancies is equal to the sum of the domestic/industrial demand plus the sprinkler system(s) water demand and the hose stream(s) demand. Hose streams are needed concurrently with sprinkler discharge in order to effect final extinguishment or to wet down adjacent structures. Paul Guyer 2009 14 . and each • sprinkler in the design area must discharge at least the flow rate required to • produce the stipulated density. type of construction. Water Demand for Sprinklers • The water demand required for sprinklers must be determined from Figure 4. and other building features.4.) • Design densities indicated in Figure 4 are minimum densities. design area.
20 3000 500 90 0. Hose stream demands and duration requirements are outlined in Section 9. GPM Duration of Supply. Group 2 Extra Hazard. The following factors affect the water demand and duration and must be considered to determine the specific demand and duration within a given range in accordance with Section 9. • Occupancy classification • Response time by fire department • Type of construction © J. minutes 3000 3000 250 500 60 60 0. Paul Guyer 2009 15 .40 3000 750 120 Water Demands for Unsprinklered Facilities Water demands for buildings and facilities that are not fully sprinklered are based on fire department hose stream requirements. Group 2 0.FIGURE 4 SPRINKLER SYSTEM AND WATER SUPPLY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SPRINKLERED FACILITIES Occupancy Classification Sprinkler System Design Density.15 Design Area. Group 1 Extra Hazard. Group 1 Ordinary Hazard.30 3000 750 120 0. SF Hose Stream Allowance. GPM/SF Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard.01 0.
Figure 5 Atmospheric POL Tank Cooling Water Tank Diameter. Figure 5 shows required fire flow rates for above ground atmospheric POL tanks. Figure 6 shows required fire flow rates for above ground pressurized POL tanks. Paul Guyer 2009 16 . GPM 500 65 – 119 750 120 -154 1000 155 – 199 1250 200 or greater 1500 Minimum duration: 240 minutes © J.• Number of stories • Separation distances • Building floor area • Firefighting access Petroleum/Oil/Lubricant (POL) Areas Areas where POL materials are stored require special consideration. Feet 0 – 64 Fire Flow Rate.
Paul Guyer 2009 17 . each tank less than 30. Quantities of Water Required Requirements for fire protection water storage are based on the assumption that © J. sprinkler demand. one or more tanks greater than 30. one or more tanks greater than 30.000 gallons capacity 500 2 to 6 tanks.000 gallons capacity 500 2 to 6 tanks. or hose stream demand and must be determined by hydraulic calculations.000 gallons capacity 1500 Minimum duration: 240 minutes Water Supply Pressure Requirements Pressure required for sprinklered facilities must be the most demanding pressure of the domestic/industrial demand.000 gallons capacity 1000 7 or more tanks.000 gallons capacity Fire Flow Rate. each greater than 30.000 gallons capacity 1000 7 or more tanks.Figure 6 Pressurized POL Tank Cooling Water Tank Group Size Single tank less than 30. GPM 250 Single tank more than 30.
The quantity of water required is equal to the product of the fire protection water demand and the required duration. • Reduction in Storage Capacity. Factors that must be evaluated include the reliability of the makeup facility. at least 50% of the maximum required fire flow demand plus 100% of domestic demand can still be supplied to the activity / facility. This quantity represents fire protection requirements only. The total supply stored for fire protection purposes must be sufficient to meet the maximum required fire flow demand for the durations specified in applicable codes and regulations. Water supply for domestic. and within 24 hours curtailing normal consumption. Paul Guyer 2009 18 . The water storage must be self-replenishing. In computing the fire protection storage requirement. and other demands must be added to these requirements to determine the total amount of water that is necessary at a facility. • Replenishment of Storage. Water for Fire Protection One or more of the following reliable means shall provide water to an installation for fire protection: • Multiple connections to looped or gridded public water distribution system(s) arranged so that during any single-point failure. • Total Storage Capacity. © J. a reduction in storage capacity is acceptable if an adequate replenishment source is available. It must reach required volume during normal consumption within 48 hours.there will be only one fire at a time. its method of operation (automatic or manual). its sustained flow capacity. and must be available at all times. industrial. and flow limitations imposed by the capacity of treatment operations.
is acceptable. Fire pumps. On-Site Storage Where on-site storage is part of a sole-source water supply. Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection. or listed or classified by an NRTL. approved by FM. This equipment must conform to requirements of NFPA 20. a single connection to a looped or gridded public water distribution system. The discharge or suction line(s) from each individual tank or reservoir section shall be sized to deliver the maximum required fire flow. drivers. or is needed to provide the required fire flow. © J. • One or more on-site sources. and other equipment including automatic accessories must be listed by UL. the storage facilities must be divided into two or more approximately equal capacity tanks or reservoir sections. • For a small. arranged so that at least one-half of the water supply will always be available during tank or reservoir maintenance. Fire Pumps Pumps for fire protection must have adequate capacity with reliable power and water supply.• A single connection to a public water distribution system. such as wells or open bodies of water. capable of providing concurrent domestic and fire flow demands to the facility. Paul Guyer 2009 19 . with treated water storage capacity adequate to supply domestic demand for 24 hours plus the maximum required fire flow demand. plus on-site storage that is adequate to supply domestic demand for 24 hours plus the maximum required fire flow demand in the event the connection to the public system is lost. non -essential activity.
Hydrants must not be closer than 3 ft nor farther than 7 ft from the roadway shoulder or curb line. accessible to fire department apparatus.Water Distribution Systems • Distribution Mains. such as tanks and pumps. Dry barrel or traffic-type hydrants must be used in areas where there is a danger of freezing. Control valves must be either post-indicating or outside-stem-and-yoke types. Hydrants must be installed adjacent to paved areas. Paul Guyer 2009 20 . Fire hydrants must be UL listed. . or listed or classified by an NRTL and must have two 65 mm (2-1/2-inch) hose outlets and one 115m (4-1/2-inch) suction connection with national standard fire hose threads in accordance with NFPA 24 and NFPA 1963. • Valves. A sufficient number of sectional valves must be provided so that not more than a combined total of five hydrants and sprinkler systems. Dead-end mains must be avoided. FM approved. or not more than three sprinkler systems must be out of service due to a single break. Hydrants © J. Fire Hose Connections. NFPA 24. • Hydrants. Distribution systems must be designed in accordance with American Water Works Association Manual M31 Distribution System Requirements for Fire Protection. Distribution must be looped to provide at least 50 percent of the required fire flow in case of a single break. Hydrants must be aboveground type. Control valves must be provided in each source of water supply. Wet-barrel or California-type hydrants are preferable in areas where there is no danger of freezing. Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. The distribution system must be sized to accommodate fire flows plus domestic and industrial or flushing demands that cannot be restricted during fires. Sectional valves may be key-operated type. • Hydrants Installation. New valves must open by counter-clockwise rotation of the stem.
Paul Guyer 2009 21 . The ground must be graded so that any surface drainage is away from the hydrant.must be installed with not less than 6-inch connection to the supply main. Installation must be in accordance with NFPA 24. Barrels must be long enough to permit at least 18-inch clearance between the center of the 4-1/2-inch suction connection and grade. and valved at the connection. except as modified by this UFC. Suction connection should be perpendicular to the street to allow straight lined connection to the pumper. © J.
Pipe friction losses and equivalent lengths of pipe for fittings and valves must be in accordance with NFPA 13. • Sprinkler Density and Hose Stream Requirements. in accordance with the procedures contained in NFPA 291. sprinklers must provide coverage throughout 100 percent of the building © J. Sprinkler systems must use equipment and devices listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL). and distribute water in sufficient quantity to either control or extinguish the fire. Properly engineered and installed automatic sprinkler systems are designed to detect the presence of fire. Building and structures requiring sprinkler protection must be provided with sprinkler systems that are designed using the Area/Density Method of NFPA 13. activate both local and remote (fire department) alarms. FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS Water Flow Testing Conduct water flow tests. • Design Requirements. • Quick Response Automatic Sprinklers. to determine available water supply for the water-based fire extinguishing systems. Automatic Sprinkler Systems • Characteristics. In buildings protected by automatic sprinklers. • Hydraulic Calculations.4.500 ft² and greater must be designed using hydraulic calculations. Calculations must follow the format of NFPA 13. • Sprinkler Coverage. The use of quick response automatic sprinklers (QRAS) is limited to wet pipe systems. Paul Guyer 2009 22 . New sprinkler systems protecting areas of 1. Use of pipe schedule designs is discouraged for any sprinkler system.
See Figure 7. For facilities four (4) stories and taller. The calculations must not assume the use of both risers simultaneously. The sprinkler system must be hydraulically calculated using the most hydraulically demanding riser. telephone rooms. Figure 7 Floor Control Valve Assembly © J. and other electrical and mechanical spaces. transformer rooms. Paul Guyer 2009 23 . there must be a combination sprinkler/standpipe riser in at least two stairwells that are interconnected on each floor.except as permitted by NFPA 13. Each floor control valve assembly for the sprinkler connection must include a check valve. boiler rooms. Coverage per sprinkler must be in accordance with NFPA 13. but is not limited to. switchgear rooms. • Interconnection of Risers. electrical equipment rooms. This includes.
AFFF) Foam installations must be in accordance with NFPA 11. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems. Carbon dioxide systems must © J. Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems. and facilities such as dip tanks.Water Spray Systems Design requirements for water spray systems must conform to NFPA 15. Foam Systems (Aqueous Foam Film Forming . the NFPA Fire Protection Handbook and FM Global Data Sheets contain data and information concerning installation and arrangement of foam systems for various types of flammable and combustible liquids hazards. Medium-. Low-. Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems. Dry chemical extinguishing systems must conform to NFPA 17. Paul Guyer 2009 24 . Carbon dioxide systems must conform to NFPA 12. and NFPA 16. hazards. Dry chemical agents should not be used to protect sensitive electronics. Carbon Dioxide Systems Carbon dioxide (CO2) systems are normally effective against flammable liquid (Class B) and electrical (Class C) fires. For additional information. and High-Expansion Foam. Dry chemical extinguishing systems are no longer UL listed or FM approved for the protection of cooking equipment. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems Fixed dry chemical extinguishing systems are appropriate for the protection of certain types of special occupancies. and other operations involving flammable liquids. New total flooding systems are not authorized in normally occupied areas.
and dip tanks. The only current replacement technology for this type of facility is carbon dioxide. however. Thus. Life Safety Code. Paul Guyer 2009 25 . which is much riskier for people who are present. coupled with an annunciation (alarm) system. and its use is now banned on environmental grounds. installation of new Halon 1301 systems is now prohibited. in facilities where people are present is that they rely on depleting the oxygen supply in order to smother the fire. Portable Fire Extinguishers. Most if not all Halon 1301 systems have now been de-commissioned. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems. Halon 1301 Systems Gas extinguishing systems are highly desirable in facilities containing high-value electronic equipment because the gases do not damage the equipment. Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems Fixed wet chemical systems are suitable for protection of certain types of special occupancies. A major challenge with gas extinguishing systems. Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems. Halon 1301 was a proprietary chemical system that effectively addressed this issue because. provided a safe environment that allowed time for personnel to evacuate the fire zone. © J. Portable Fire Extinguishers Portable fire extinguishers must be provided where required by NFPA 101. Halon 1301 was a fluorocarbon. Wet chemical systems must conform to NFPA 17A. Portable fire extinguishers must be located and installed in accordance with NFPA 10. hazards. such as cooking surfaces.conform to NFPA 12. and facilities. cooking exhaust systems. Regrettably.
Water Mist Fire Protection Systems Water mist fire protection systems are suitable for protection of certain types of special occupancies. and facilities. Clean agent fire extinguishing systems must conform to NFPA 2001. © J. and facilities. Water mist fire protection systems are not a substitute for required automatic sprinkler systems. Paul Guyer 2009 26 . Clean agent fire extinguishing systems are not a substitute for required automatic sprinkler systems. hazards. Water Mist Fire Protection Systems. Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. hazards.Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems Clean agent fire extinguishing systems are suitable for protection of certain types of special occupancies. Water mist fire protection systems must conform to NFPA 750.
Fire alarm systems must be connected to a central alarm location. except that a fire alarm system may be combined with a building mass notification system or with a combination building mass notification and public address system. or alarm monitoring location. stand-alone systems that are not an integral part of a security. o Buildings requiring automatic detection or suppression systems. Paul Guyer 2009 27 . FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS Fire alarm reporting systems are reporting systems that connect the building fire alarm control panel(s) to the fire department. or other system. Automatic alarm initiating devices such as detectors and water flow alarms must be connected to these systems when provided. telephonic. Fire alarm systems may be connected to security systems or an EMCS for monitoring purposes only. Consider compatibility of extensions of fire reporting systems with existing equipment.5. or supervised conductor types. Building fire alarm evacuation systems must be installed in accordance with NFPA 72. Fire Alarm Evacuation Systems Fire alarm evacuation systems must be provided in the following locations: o Buildings required by NFPA 101. radio. NFPA 70. National Electric Code. Required systems are to be digital. Fire alarm systems must be independent. Alarm reporting systems must conform to NFPA 72. fire department. an energy monitoring and control system (EMCS). o These systems consist primarily of initiating devices and notification appliances. National Fire Alarm Code. Manual pull stations must be provided where fire alarm evacuation systems are required. but must in no way rely on any components of those other systems for © J.
or other system. energy/utility management systems. Wireless interior fire alarms are not permitted. Fire detection systems may be connected to security systems or building management. stand-alone systems that are not an integral part of a security system. Manual pull stations must be provided where fire alarm evacuation systems are required. Fire detection systems must be independent. Wireless interior fire alarms are not permitted. Paul Guyer 2009 28 . Automatic alarm initiating devices such as detectors and water flow alarms must be connected to these systems when provided. and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). except that a fire alarm system may be combined with a building mass notification system or with a combination building mass notification and public address system. or other building management. fire department. but must in no way rely on any components of those other systems for operation. or alarm monitoring location. Fire alarm systems must be independent. an energy monitoring and control system (EMCS). Fire alarm systems must be connected to a central alarm location. Fire Alarm Evacuation Systems These systems consist primarily of initiating devices and notification appliances. Building fire alarm evacuation systems must be installed in accordance with NFPA 72. stand-alone systems that are not an integral part of a security. Detection systems must be arranged to alert building occupants and to transmit a signal to a constantly attended location. energy/utility management systems for monitoring purposes © J.operation. Automatic Fire Detection Systems • Fire detection systems must conform to the applicable provisions of NFPA72. Fire alarm systems may be connected to security systems or an EMCS for monitoring purposes only.
especially smoke detection systems. Providing detectors in locations that are not required increases the already high maintenance costs of alarm systems and strains the maintenance program for critical detection systems.only. • Detection systems.e. this may require additional smoke detectors for that area being protected).. require significant maintenance. Paul Guyer 2009 29 . Wet pipe sprinklers provide superior protection with little maintenance. If a facility warrants protection and criteria does not require detection. It is critical that the required detectors are properly installed and maintained. • The area of protection for smoke detection devices permitted by NFPA 72 must be reduced by 50 percent where ceiling fans are used (i. but must in no way rely on any components of those other systems for operation. © J. protection should be accomplished by a wet pipe sprinkler system.
Paul Guyer 2009 30 . occupational health clinics. flight medicine clinics. other than dwelling units. ambulatory health care centers. dental clinics. that are provided with residential type range top cooking surfaces must be equipped with an approved residential range top extinguishing system. biological safety and medical laboratories. Limit kitchen-extinguishing systems to wet chemical or automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with NFPA 96. for illustration purposes. medical logistics facilities. Install fire suppression systems that sound a general building fire alarm and transmit a signal to the fire department or to a constantly monitored location.6. • Areas. The range top extinguishing system must be connected to the building fire alarm system to sound a general building fire alarm and must automatically shut off all sources of fuel and electric power that produce heat to the equipment being protected by that unit. A discussion of © J. Only a few are discussed here. Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations. Medical Facilities Medical facilities include hospitals. and similar facilities. SPECIAL OCCUPANCIES AND HAZARDS There are many special occupancies and hazards that require special fire protection features are required by applicable codes and regulations. Food Preparation Areas • Hood and duct systems for commercial cooking equipment that produces smoke or grease-laden vapors must comply with NFPA 96. composite medical facilities. outpatient clinics. There are many special requirements for medical facilities called for by applicable codes and regulations.
Detention and Correctional Facilities Comply with NFPA 101 and the following: • Individual fire areas must not exceed 50. as defined in the IBC.A. Design must utilize institutional (breakaway) type sprinklers. • Provide complete automatic sprinkler protection. Sprinkler piping in inmate areas must be concealed. it must be separated by not less than one-hour fire rated construction. • Provide for constant visual supervision of cell areas. • Provide an automatic smoke removal system in cell areas. • Provide a minimum separation from other structures and public ways of 20 ft.these requirements is far beyond the scope of this introduction to fire protection engineering principles. In addition.000 ft . • 2 Provide mechanical or closed circuit electrical gang release devices 31 © J. • Construction type must not be less that Type I . provide manual system activation controls at a continuously manned position outside of the cell area. Paul Guyer 2009 . If this supervision is by direct line of sight. • Provide smoke detection in all areas as required by NFPA 101and American Correctional Association’s (ACA) Planning and Design Guide for Secure Adult and Juvenile Facilities.
communication centers. Electronic Equipment Installations • These areas include major automatic data processing (ADP) areas. reproduction equipment.). Require heavy.g. desk top computers. individual computer work stations. Require gang release devices to open doors necessary to evacuate prisoners to an area of refuge. prison-type locks for exit and corridor doors not requiring gang release devices that must be opened for evacuation in the event of fire. Provide complete coverage throughout the building including electronic equipment areas. office automation systems. Protect electrical equipment installations by disconnecting the power upon activation of the fire © J.. printers. Incidental electronic equipment such as word processing stations. etc. and other mission critical systems. and systems. 25 or less) and must have a SD rating not exceeding 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. Protection of Information Technology Equipment. administrative telephone rooms. individual data output stations (e. printers. command and control systems. and similar equipment do not require protection under this section. • Construct and protect electronic equipment installations in accordance with NFPA 75. • Electronic equipment installations must be located in buildings protected by wet-pipe automatic sprinklers. • Interior finish including padded cells must be Class A flame spread (i. identically keyed. telephones.e. video conference centers..whenever 10 or more locks must be operated to release prisoners confined in cells. Paul Guyer 2009 32 .
High Rise Buildings • High rise buildings must comply with NFPA 101. • The central control station must have exterior and interior access. Supplementary clean agent fire extinguishing systems will augment the wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system and will not be considered as a substitute. means of egress. © J. the spaces must be protected by an automatic fire suppression system. a 1-hour fire rated barrier.protection system. and schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core. • Consideration may be given to the use of a supplementary clean agent fire extinguishing system inside the electronic equipment units or a total flooding system for the room and raised floor. and must be a minimum of 96 ft² with a minimum dimension of 8 ft. If this cannot be achieved. • Power and communication (data) cabling installed in spaces above ceilings or below raised floors must be plenum rated or installed in metallic conduit. fire protection systems. fire-fighting equipment and fire department access. • The central control station must also include air-handling system status indicators and controls. Paul Guyer 2009 33 . a fire department control panel for smoke control systems (includes visual status indicators and controls).
and child development centers. Ordinary Hazard. Examples of this classification include: kitchens and bakeries. OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM The principal occupancy classifications are light hazard. Group 1 Occupancies or portions of occupancies where combustibility is low. Ordinary Hazard. and fires with moderate rates of heat release are expected. ordinary hazard. Light Hazard Occupancies Occupancies or portions of occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of the contents are low and fires with relatively low rates of heat release are expected. quantity of combustibles is moderate. Examples of this classification include: offices. If more hazardous processes or areas exist within a given occupancy. Paul Guyer 2009 34 . laundries. sheet metal shops. Group 2 Occupancies or portion of occupancies where quantity and combustibility of © J. churches. Modest. in closed containers are allowable in quantities not to exceed 20 gal per fire area. and extra hazard. Small. stockpiles of combustibles do not exceed 8 ft. Determine the classification for unlisted occupancies from the definitions or by comparison with one of the listed occupancies. protect these areas in accordance with the fire protection requirements pertaining to the hazard classification of that area. scattered amounts of flammable liquids in closed containers are allowable in quantities not exceeding 5 gal per fire area. Listed below are the classifications with examples of common occupancies listed under each. theatres and auditoriums. The basic hazard classification of occupancy does not define the fire hazard present in all areas of that occupancy. scattered amounts of flammable liquid. gymnasiums.8. parking garages.
Paul Guyer 2009 35 . electrical maintenance shops. Refer to the appropriate NFPA codes and standards.contents is moderate. Special Occupancies Special occupancies are facilities or areas that cannot be assigned a specific classification because of special protection requirements. Moderate. stockpiles do not exceed 12 ft. Examples of this classification include: department stores. supermarkets. Examples of this classification include: warehouses and aircraft hangars. Small amounts of flammable liquids may be exposed as required by normal operations. laboratories and switchgear rooms. © J. and fires with moderate rate of heat release are expected. scattered amounts of flammable liquids in closed containers are allowable in quantities not exceed 50 gal per fire area.
9. Paul Guyer 2009 36 . FIRE FLOW DEMAND FOR UNSPRINKLERED FACILITIES Refer to Appendix C of the Department of Defense’s Unified Facilities Criteria. Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities for a description and examples of the procedure to use to determine fire flow demand for unsprinklered facilities. © J.
PERFORMANCE BASED FIRE SAFETY DESIGN Refer to Appendix D of the Department of Defense’s Unified Facilities Criteria. Paul Guyer 2009 37 .10. © J. Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities for a description of the procedure to use to implement performance based fire safety design.
DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards. Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. PA. PA. Safety Manual. Fixed Ladders.org ASTM E 136.gov/cfr/index. 1819 L Street. Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines.. http://www.. 19428. Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials. Explosives Safety Program. 20036. 19428. Three Park Ave. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).e-publishing.1. 19111-5094 A17.htm AFMAN 91-201.astm. NY.mil/ AR 385-64. ASME International. Explosives Safety Standard. Philadelphia. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire Stops.gov/adaag/html/adaag. 6th Floor. 100 Barr Harbor Dr. Standardization Documents Order Desk. Bldg 4D.109.1..org ASTM E 119. 19428. Explosives and Blasting Agents. PA. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). http://www. Department of the Army. Pipe Thread.9-STD. www.astm. www. CODES AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES 29 CFR 1910. 100 Barr Harbor Dr. 700 Robbins Avenue.ansi. 19428.org DOD 6055. PA. http://www. 100 Barr Harbor Dr. 10016-5990. http://www. PA.org B1. 191115094 ASTM E 84. www.astm.gpoaccess. Standardization Documents Order Desk. © J.access-board.af. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Bldg 4D. West Conshohocken. Washington. PA. Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750ºC.gov/cfr/index. Department of the Air Force.html 29 CFR 1910. New York.20. www. Paul Guyer 2009 38 . 700 Robbins Avenue. Department of the Army. Philadelphia. United States Access Board. West Conshohocken. West Conshohocken. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).. NW.org ASTM E 814.27. Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. 100 Barr Harbor Dr.gpoaccess. American National Standards Institute (ANSI). West Conshohocken. 1-800-843-2763 ADAAG. DC.html 385-100.11.astm. www.
. Production. 700 Robbins Ave. International Building Code (IBC). United States Access Board.org Manual M 14. PA. 02919 FMDS 1-53. 1301 Atwood Ave. Johnston. RI. Storing. Johnston. PO Box 7500. VA. Philadelphia. Safety and Health Requirements Manual. Factory Mutual Global (FM).. Fire Extinguishing Agent. Factory Mutual Global (FM). for Fresh and Seawater. www. Factory Mutual Global (FM). Renovation.Department of Defense..gov/ufas/ufas-html/ufas. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense. Denver. Johnston. CO. Standardization Documents Order Desk. RI. Ammunition and Explosives Ashore Safety Regulations for Handling. Carousel Storage and Retrieval Systems. Protection of Openings in Fire Subdivisions. RI.. Quincy Ave. 1301 Atwood Ave. Recommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross Connection Control.mil/whs/directives/ EM-385-1-1. 02919 FMDS 1-23. 5203 Leesburg Pike. 6666 W.icc-safe. PO Box 7500. Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure. 19111-5094 FED-STD-795. 1301 Atwood Ave. 1301 Atwood Ave. Johnston. 19111-5094 NAVSEA OP-5. Paul Guyer 2009 39 . Philadelphia. Quincy Ave. Department of the Navy. Anechoic Chambers. 6666 W. Washington Headquarters Service. 22041.. 02919 FMDS 8-33.. Falls Church. http://www. 02919 Guidance for Family Housing Master Plans. Standardization Documents Order Desk. 80235 Manual M31. International Code Council (ICC).dtic.access-board. CO. © J. http://www. and Shipping. Uniform Federal Accessibility Act. RI. Aqueous Film-forming Foam (AFFF) Liquid Concentrate. Distribution System Requirements for Fire Protection. (memorandum) 14 January 2002. American Water Works Association (AWWA). 80235 MIL-F-24385F. Bldg 4D. PO Box 7500.. PO Box 7500. Department of the Army. Bldg 4D. Factory Mutual Global (FM). Factory Mutual Global (FM).htm FMDS 1-20. 02919 FMDS 5-4. Transformers. RI. PA. 1301 Atwood Ave. Johnston. 700 Robbins Avenue. PO Box 7500. Denver. American Water Works Association (AWWA). Suite 600.
MA.nfpa. 022699101.nfpa. MA. Quincy. www.org NFPA 13R. MA. 1 Batterymarch Park. and Hose Systems. Quincy. Installation of Sprinkler Systems. www. Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 14. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Portable Fire Extinguishers. Quincy. Quincy. Quincy.org NFPA 16. Quincy.nfpa. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. Medium. 02269-9101. Paul Guyer 2009 40 . 1 Batterymarch Park. Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems. Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 12.nfpa.org NFPA 13D. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. Quincy. www.nfpa. www. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems. Quincy. MA. Low-Expansion Foam. www. www.org NFPA 17A.nfpa. National Fire Protection © J. 1 Batterymarch Park.nfpa. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. 02269-9101.org NFPA 17. 02269-9101. 02269-9101. MA. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. Quincy. 02269-9101. www.org NFPA 10. Fire Prevention Code. www. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 11A. MA.nfpa. www. Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park. Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One. Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA. 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems. www.and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes.nfpa. Installation of Standpipe. 02269-9101. 1 Batterymarch Park.NFPA 1. MA.and High-Expansion Foam Systems.org NFPA 13. Private Hydrant. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 11. Quincy. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. 022699101.org NFPA 15. Quincy. 02269-9101.
Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment. 02269-9101.nfpa. National Fire Alarm Code.nfpa. www. www. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. www. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. National Electric Code. Quincy. Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. Use. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code.nfpa. www. Quincy. MA. MA. www.nfpa.nfpa.org NFPA 58. Quincy.org NFPA 51.org NFPA 37. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 24. MA. Quincy.Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. cylinders. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. www. Quincy. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa. 02269-9101. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. 02269-9101. www. Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding. and Allied Processes. Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www. MA.nfpa.org NFPA 30. Quincy. MA.org NFPA 70.org NFPA 30A. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 72. National Fuel Gas Code. Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. 02269-9101. MA. Quincy. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www. Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection.nfpa. Quincy. MA. www. www. 02269-9101. MA. Cutting.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park.nfpa.nfpa. Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 55. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www.org NFPA 75. Standard for the Storage.org NFPA 20. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 54. Quincy. Quincy. Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines. © J. and Tanks. 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers. 1 Batterymarch Park. Paul Guyer 2009 41 .
02269-9101. 1 Batterymarch Park.nfpa. Tents.nfpa. MA. www. Hypobaric Facilities.nfpa. Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems. Life Safety Code. and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances. 1 Batterymarch Park. Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 90B. Quincy. Quincy. MA. Fire Doors and Fire Windows. 02269-9101. www.nfpa.org © J.nfpa. 02269-9101. Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. Quincy.nfpa. www. Protection of Buildings From Exterior Fire Exposures. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA.nfpa. 02269-9101. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Types of Building Construction. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA. 02269-9101. www. 022699101.nfpa. Quincy.org NFPA 96.nfpa. www. 02269-9101. Grandstands. Quincy. MA. www. Quincy.org NFPA 80. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www. 02269-9101.org NFPA 102.MA. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. Parking Structures. Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems.org NFPA 99B. Folding and Telescopic Seating. 1 Batterymarch Park. Chimneys. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa. www.nfpa. MA. Health Care Facilities. www. MA. Standards for the Fire Protection of Storage. MA. Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations. and Membrane Structures. 02269-9101.nfpa. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA.org NFPA 99. Quincy. Paul Guyer 2009 42 . Fireplaces. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 211. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 101. www. 02269-9101.org NFPA 88A. www.nfpa. Quincy. Quincy. Quincy. MA. Vents. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 220. 02269-9101. 02269-9101. MA.org NFPA 230. 1 Batterymarch Park. 022699101. 02269-9101.org NFPA 80A.org NFPA 90A. www.nfpa.
nfpa. Quincy.nfpa. 02269-9101.org NFPA 430. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 312. Alteration. Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.nfpa. MA. www. 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. 1 Batterymarch Park. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Fire Hose Connections.org NFPA 409.org NFPA 434. Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers.nfpa.org NFPA 256.org NFPA 1963. Quincy. MA. 1 Batterymarch Park. www. 022699101. MA. Quincy.org NFPA 501A. Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy.org NFPA 303. MA. www. 02269-9101. 1 Batterymarch Park. www. 02269-9101. Quincy. Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. Standard on Water Mist fire Protection Systems. MA. Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. Fire Protection of Vessels During Construction. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. Quincy. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. Standard on Aircraft Hangars. Safeguarding Construction.nfpa. and Demolition Operations. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. and Lay-Up. Fire Safety Criteria for Manufactured Home Installations. 02269-9101. www. 02269-9101. 022699101. Construction and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. MA. www. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA. 02269-9101.org NFPA 307.nfpa. Storage of Ammonium Nitrate.nfpa. National Fire Protection Association © J. Quincy. MA. Site and Communities. 1 Batterymarch Park. Paul Guyer 2009 43 . 02269-9101. MA. Fire Test of Roof Coverings.org NFPA 490. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 255.org NFPA 750. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Repair. 1 Batterymarch Park. www. MA.nfpa.nfpa.nfpa.NFPA 241. Quincy. and Wharves.nfpa. Piers. Storage of Pesticides.nfpa.
org NFPA 8503. Quincy. http://dod. www. http://dod.(NFPA). 02269-9101. Water Supply Systems. Department of the Army. Paul Guyer 2009 44 . Unified Facilities Criteria Program.org UFC 3-230-02.org UFC 4-152-01.org UFC 4-213-10. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Lanham. Philadelphia. MA. 02269-9101.org UFC 4-159-01N. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Navy. Quincy.wbdg. Appendix G.org Planning and Design Guide for Secure Adult and Juvenile Facilities. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Unified Facilities Criteria Program. MA. Unified Facilities Criteria Program.S.wbdg. PA. Hyperbaric Facilities. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. 02269-9101. Piers and Wharves. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).wbdg. http://dod. http://dod.wbdg.org UFC 4-010-01.org NFPA Handbook.org UFC 4-150-02. Waterfront Construction. www.wbdg. 700 Robbins Avenue. http://dod. Water Supply: Water Distribution.org UFC 3-460-01. 1 Batterymarch Park. http://dod. http://dod. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. 20706-4322. Graving Drydocks. 19111-5094 UFC 3-230-10A.nfpa. MD. Pulverized Fuel Systems. U.nfpa.org UFC 4-151-10. Design Criteria. MA.nfpa.org NFPA 2001.wbdg.wbdg. DOD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings. 1 Batterymarch Park. http://dod. Standardization Documents Order Desk.wbdg.nfpa. 02269-9101. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. 1 Batterymarch Park. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Bldg 4D. 1-800-222-5646 SS 521-AA-MAN-010. Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. American Correctional Association (ACA). 4380 Forbes Blvd. Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. www. Petroleum Fuel Facilities. TI 800-01. MA. diving and Manned Hyperbaric Systems Safety Certification Manual. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Quincy. © J. Dockside Utilities. 1999. www.
Covered Storage. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Section 2227. Underwriters Laboratory (UL).org UFC 4-510-01.org UL 790. Military Child Care.. Northbrook. Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops.wbdg. Section 2225. http://dod.org UFC 4-442-01N. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Medical Military Facilities.wbdg.gov/ USC Title 15.") Office of the Law Revision Counsel.wbdg.gov/ USC Title 15. Office of the Law Revision Counsel.http://dod. Child Development Centers.house. Hazardous Waste Storage.wbdg. Drydocking Facilities Characteristics. Northbrook.org UFC 4-213-12. http://dod. Hotel-Motel Fire Safety. 333 Pfingsten Rd. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Paul Guyer 2009 45 . Utilization of Consensus Technical Standards by Federal Agencies. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. IL. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. 30062-2096 UL 1479.house. http://dod. Section 272. 30062-2096 USC Title 10.org UFC 4-451-10N. Office of the Law Revision Counsel. http://uscode. Safety Tests for Fire Resistance of Roof Covering Materials.house. 333 Pfingsten Rd.gov/ © J. http://dod. (also referred to as the "Fire Safety Act.wbdg.gov/ USC Title 15.house. Underwriters Laboratory (UL). http://uscode. http://uscode. http://dod..wbdg. Office of the Law Revision Counsel. Fire Administration Authorization Act. http://uscode. IL. Section 1794.org UFC 4-740-14.
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