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Canadian Journal on Signal Processing Vol. 1, No.

1, February 2010

1

Evaluate the effect of dispersion of fiber on the performance of OCDMA system and to find the limitations imposed by dispersion on the number of user and length of transmission
Abdul Gafur, Doru Constantinescu, and Md Dulal Haque

exceeding 10 Tbit/s per fiber based on 40 Gbit/s per wavelength Abstract— This article represents the effect of dispersion of fiber
considering m-Sequence Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) network based on star coupler and optical receiver. Matlab simulations can be performed to find the limitations imposed by dispersion on the number of user and length of transmission of fiber. As a result we investigated the performance curve for bit error rate (BER), signal to noise ratio (SNR) and eye diagram. In the curve of bit error rate, it is found that the error is decreased when the number of simultaneously users increased. In the performance curve of SNR, it is also observed that the system performance is increased with the raising SNR. We simulate the various scenarios of eye diagram considering the effect of dispersion .The eye diagrams can be performed to reduce the dispersion index (γ).

channel [11].In the optical technology, light propagates considering the total internal reflection technology. For this reason the carrier of optical fiber is the light. The bandwidth depends on the frequency .The frequency of light is abundant. In this paper we use the star coupler. The loss of optical coupler is minimum which is around 0.5dB.Without star coupler we can transmit and receive optical signal. In this situation, the loss is maximum than the star coupler. In this paper we tested the performance curve by computer simulation for Bit error rate versus optical received signal considering multiple subscribers. It is also simulated the Signal to noise ratio versus optical received signal which is measured in dBm. The simulations of Eye diagram are performed to reduce the dispersion effect in the

Index Terms— Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Optical Correlator Receiver (OCR), Optical CDMA (OCDMA).

Optical Code Division Multiple Access Network with different lengths of fiber.Development of the optical fiber communications

I. INTRODUCTION

technology has evolved rapidly in order to achieve larger transmission capacity and longer transmission distances [12]. Nowadays, OCDMA systems are highly interesting as they offer several sought-after features such as asynchronous access, privacy, secure transmissions, and ability to support variable bit rates and busy traffic and provide high scalability of the optical network [3]. II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The typical diagram of an OCDMA system is described in Figure 1 and 2, for an OCDMA transmitter and for an Optical (WDM) capacities Correlator Receiver (OCR) with switched sequence inversion keying, respectively [1] [22]. link

In

the decade 1985-1995, four significant events heralded the of optical net-working namely that both

possibility

transmission and switching could be based on fiber optic communication. This was realized due to four main factors: Realization of optical amplifiers, Economic deployment of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), Introduction of an Optical Cross Connect (OXC) enabling rapid reconfiguration of light paths based on the wavelength channels, Convergence of services and transport transmission rates [6]. Nowadays transmission wavelength technologies division realize multiplexing optical

Manuscript received December 15, 2009.

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Canadian Journal on Signal Processing Vol. 1, No. 1, February 2010 Mathematically , the expression for K [3]
N −1 l =0

2
th

users can be written as

S k (t ) = ∑ PT Bk (t ) ⊗ Ak (t − lTc )

(1)

In (1), S k (t ) provides information about the transmitted output Figure 1: Transmitter of Optical CDMA pulse shape for different users in single mode fiber while period of the chip and

l is the

PT is the optical power of the chip.

Furthermore, Bk and Ak are the user´s binary signal and signature codes, respectively. The operator

⊗ describes the

sequence inversion key modulation, where Ak is transmitted for a ”1”, Figure 2: Receiver of Optical CDMA In the OCDMA transmitter, a modulation is occurred which is intensity modulation .In this section users use a signature sequence .in this paper we use the 7chip m sequence. This electrical signal is converted to optical signal through the optical driver .Than it is sent to the star coupler. Star coupler put this signal to optical channel. Due to the signature sequence the multiple access interference is low here. In the receiver section a PIN diode and a switched optical correlator used In order to recover the original data, a bipolar reference sequence is correlated directly with the channel’s unipolar signature sequence [1]. In addition, the optical correlator follows unipolar switching functions for de-spreading the optical channel signal [5].The photodiode of PIN is called the p-i-n photodetectorr. Here, i is undoped intrinsic region between the doped regions of n and p. Finally, the PIN photodiode cancels the de-spreaded signal integrated with the periodic data. This happens before the detection of the zero threshold voltage [22]. In (3), λ , c , L and D describes wavelength of the optical carrier, velocity of light, length of fiber and coefficient of Here,

Ak is transmitted for a ”0”, respectively. Furthermore,

Tc is the pulse interval. In the OCR with switched sequence
inversion keying, due to chromatic dispersion of the optical fiber, the output can be expressed mathematically as [3]

Soutput(t) = ∑
l =0

n−1

1

πγ

e

⎡ 1 ⎡ (t −lT ) ⎤2 π ⎤ c − j ⎢( )⎢ γ ⎥ −( )sign ⎥ ⎢ γ ⎣ Tc ⎦ 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

*sinc

(t − lTc ) πγTc

(2)

γ indicates the index of chromatic dispersion of the

optical fiber which can be expressed mathematically as [5]

(λ 2 ) 2 Dbc L γ = (π )(c)

(3)

chromatic dispersion respectively of optical fiber . bc is the duration of chip. The signal is sent to the photo detector and is integrated in the output of the correlator for the ith user which is mathematically expressed as [3]

III. SYSTEM ANALYSIS In the Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) transmitter, the Sequence Inversion Keying (SIK) modulated signal is passed through the optical drive to a laser diode.

RP K N−1 Zi(t) = R ∫∑∑ K(t)Sout(t)⊗A (t −lT)*{A(t −lT)−A(t −lT)}*dt+∫n0(t)dt B K c i c i c 2 0 K=1 l=0 0
T T

(4)

Here, R, K and

n0 shows the responsivity of the photodiode,

multiple subscriber of the system and noise in the channel

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Canadian Journal on Signal Processing Vol. 1, No. 1, February 2010 respectively. [5]

3
10
0

PR Represents the optical received power given by
PR = PT − Pf (5)

10

-5

10 Bit Error Rate

-10

The mean of

Z i (t ) is given by [3]

U=

RPR 4T

T N −1 0 l =0

10

-15

∫∑S

out

(t − lTc )dt

(6)

10

-20

No No No No

of of of of

Users(k) Users(k) Users(k) Users(k)

4 8 13 21

The interference variance due to multiple accesses is given by [20]

10

-25

2( K − 1) σ =U 3N
2 2

10

-30

-20

-18

(7 )

-16 -14 -12 Received Optical Power(DBm)

-10

-8

The thermal noise are given by [5]

NTH and the shot noise of the photo detector
(4 K B Tr ) * Br RL
2qRKPR 4T

Figure 3: Simulation for bit error rate versus received optical power The figure (3) describes the performance of OCDMA network for bit error rate versus received optical power considering

N TH =
N SH =
In (9) and (10),

(8)
(9)

multiple users. It is observed that the bit error rate is decreased with increased the number of users. For 10-15 BER, the received optical power is -13 dBm and -11dBm for users 4 and 8 respectively.

K B , Br .and Tr define Boltzmann constant,
100 90 80 70 Signal to Noise Ratio 60 50 40 30 20 10 No of users No of users No of users No of users 4 8 13 21

receiver’s bandwidth and temperature respectively. q. and

RL .denote the electrons charge and the load resistor of the
receiver section. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) and bit error rate (BER ) of the OCDMA system are given by [1]

U2 SNR = 2 σ + N0 1 SNR BER = ( )erfc( ) 2 2

(10)

(11)

IV. SYSTEM PERFORMANCE In this simulations work we use the matlab 7.5. The system is evaluated by means of 10x109 chips/s. We tested the performance curve for bit error rate and signal to noise ratio considering m signature code, wave length of 1550nm, and single mode of optical fiber. It is also performed the eye diagram by means of 17 ps/km-nm dispersion coefficient. In the receiver, Electron charge (1.6e-19 c), Boltzmann constant (1.38e-23 W/K. Hz), Received optical power gain (-20), Dark current(10 nA), Thermal current(1 pA Hz ) are used to simulate system performance.
2 -1

0 -20

-18

-16 -14 -12 Received Optical Power(DBm)

-10

-8

Figure 4: Simulation for SNR versus received optical power The signal to noise ratio effects the receiver section of OCDMA network. It is found that the performance is improved when the signal to noise ratio is increased. In the above graph , for SNR 50 the received optical power is -13dBm and -12 dBm for users 4 and 13 respectively.

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Canadian Journal on Signal Processing Vol. 1, No. 1, February 2010 than chromatic dispersion index
1.4

4

γ = 0.3 when the fiber length is

50 KM.

1.2

1

1.4
Output Current 0.8

1.2
0.6

1
0.4

Output Current

0.2

0.8

0

20

40

60

80 100 120 Samples in a Chip

140

160

180

200

0.6

γ

Figure 5: Eye-diagram with chromatic dispersion index = 0.3 & length of fiber 50Km

0.4

0.2

The above graph (5) is for eye diagram to measure the dispersion effect on the OCDMA system with chromatic dispersion index
0

γ = 0.3, the fiber length 50 Km and dispersion coefficient
17ps/km-nm
1.4

20

40

60

80 100 120 Samples in a Chip

140

160

180

200

Figure 7: Eye-diagram with chromatic dispersion index 0.3 & length of fiber 60Km

γ =

1.2

The above graph (7) is for eye diagram to measure the dispersion effect on the OCDMA system with chromatic dispersion index

1 Output Current

γ = 0.3 ,the fiber length 60 Km and dispersion coefficient
0.8

17ps/km-nm
0.6
1.4

0.4

1.2

0.2
1 Output Current

0

20

40

60

80 100 120 Samples in a Chip

140

160

180

200

0.8

Figure 6: Eye-diagram with chromatic dispersion index 0.4 & length of fiber 50Km

γ =

0.6

0.4

The above graph (6) is for eye diagram to measure the dispersion effect on the OCDMA system with chromatic dispersion index

0.2

γ = 0.4 , the fiber length 50 Km and dispersion coefficient
17ps/km-nm. The performance of the system depends on the opening and closing the Eye in the Eye diagram. Here it is found that the eye is more closed for chromatic dispersion index

0

20

40

60

80 100 120 Samples in a Chip

140

160

180

200

Figure 8: Eye-diagram with chromatic dispersion index 0.3 & length of fiber 70Km

γ =

γ = 0.4

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Canadian Journal on Signal Processing Vol. 1, No. 1, February 2010 The above graph (8) is for eye diagram to measure the dispersion effect on the OCDMA system with chromatic dispersion index

5
CDMA Networks”, IEEE transactions on communications, Vol. 46, No. 3, March 1998. [5] S. P. Majumder, Afreen Azhari, “Performance Limitations of an Optical CDMA System Impaired by Fiber Chromatic Dispersion”,

γ = 0.3, the fiber length 70 Km and dispersion coefficient
17ps/km-nm. The performance of the system depends on the opening and closing the Eye in the Eye diagram. Here it is found that the eye is more closed for fiber length of 70 Km than fiber length of 60Km when chromatic dispersion index

0-7803-8783-X/O4/$20.00 0 2004 IEEE. [6] Michael J. O’Mahony, Christina Politi, Dimitrios Klonidis, Reza Nejabati and Dimitra Simeonidou, “Future Optical Networks” Journal of Light wave Technology, Vol.24, No.12, December 2006. [7] L.N. Binh and Y.L. Cheung, “DWDM Optically Amplified

γ = 0.3

V. CONCLUSION The bit error rate , signal to noise ratio and eye diagram is simulated according to system analysis .In the bit error rate performance curve the error is decreased when the number of subscriber is increased side by side the optical power is reduced when the users is added. Here for the user sequence is the m sequence .In the case of SNR it is found that the system performance is improved with raising the level of signal to noise ratio. To reduce the effect of dispersion we simulate the different scenario of Eye diagram with dispersion index, dispersion coefficient and fiber length. It is found that the size of eye is reduced when the chromatic dispersion index gamma and the fiber length is increased. These scenarios play a role to reduce the dispersion for the OCDMA system for manufacture ring. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The execution of this article is the consequence of great attempt of group members. REFERENCES
[1] S.P. Majumder and Md. Forkan Uddin, “The effect of four wave mixing on bit error rate performance of a direct sequence optical code division multiple access system”, 2005 Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications, Perth, Western Australia, 3-5 October 2005. [2] T.O. Farrell and S. Lochmann, “Performance analysis of an optical correlator receiver for SIK DS-CDMA communications systems”, Electronics Lett., Vol.30, No.1, pp. 63-64, 6th January 1994. [3] S.P.Majumder, Member, IEEE, Afreen Azhari, and F.M. Abbou, “Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the BER performance of an Optical CDMA IM/DD transmission system”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol.17, No. 6, June 2005. [4] David D. Sampson, Mark Calleja, and Robert A. Griffin, “Crosstalk Performance of Coherent Time-Addressed Photonic

Transmission Systems – SIMULINK Models and Test-Bed: Part III –DPSK”, ECSE Monash university 2005. http://www.ds.eng.monash.edu.au/techrep/reports/2005/MECSE-42005.pdf [8] “Fiber Optic Chromatic Dispersion Effects on High Speed Optical Code Division Multiplexing Access (OCDMA) ” http://www.ee.kent.ac.uk/research/theme_project.aspx?pid=94 [9] S. Song, “High-order four-wave mixing and its effect in WDM systems”, Optics Express, vol. 7, pp. 166–171, August 2000. [10] David Boivin, “Optical phase-modulated systems: numerical estimation and experimental measurement of phase jitter”, Georgia Institute of Technology, 9-Nov-2006. http://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/14130 [11] Kohsuke NISHIMURA, Ryo INOHARA, Masashi USAMI, and Shigeyuki AKIBA, “All-Optical Regeneration by Electro-

Absorption Modulator”, IEICE TRANS. ELECTRON., VOL.E88– C, NO.3 MARCH 2005. [12] Ng Wai Ling, F.M. Abbou, A. Abid, and H. T. Chuah, “Performance evaluation of FH-OCDMA in the presence of GVD and SPM”, IEICE Electronics Express, Vol.2, No 23, pp. 583-588. [13] C. H. Chua, F.M. Abbou, H.T. Chuah and S.P. Majumder, "Performance analysis on phase-encoded OCDMA communication system in dispersive fiber medium", IEEE Photon. Techno/. Letts, vol. 16, pp. 668-670, Feb. 2002. [14] T. O. Farrell and S. I. Lochmann, "Switched Correlator receiver architecture for optical CDMA networks with bipolar capacity”, Electron. Lett. vol. 31, pp. 905-906, May 1995. [15] Xu Wang and Naoya Wada, Taro Hamanaka and Ken-ichi Kitayama, Akihiko Nishiki, “10-user, truly-asynchronous OCDMA experiment with 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder and SC-based optical thresholder” http://www.ofcnfoec.org/materials/PDP33.pdf [16] Muhammad Haris, “Advanced modulation formats for high bit rate optical networks”, School of Electrical and computer engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, August, 2008. [17] Abdul Gafur, Md. Humayun Kabir, and Waqas Ahmad, “Optical CDMA Network Based on Star Coupler Aspects of BER, Received

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Canadian Journal on Signal Processing Vol. 1, No. 1, February 2010
Optical Power and Number of Users”, BTH transaction on Engineering Research Methodology , Karlskrona, Sweden, November 2008. [18] Dr.Yuliya Semenova, “Optical Communications Systems”, Dublin Institute of Technology, School of Electronics and Communication engineering http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/ysemenova/OCS/Optical%20Rec eivers.pdf [19] S. P. Majumder, Afreen Azhari, “Performance Analysis of an Optical CDMA in the Presence of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion”, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. [20] T. O'Farrell and S. I. Lochmann, “Switched correlator receiver architecture for optical CDMA networks with Bipolar capacity”, Electron. Lett, vol. 31, pp. 905-906, May. 1995. [21] Kenneth O. Hill and Gerald Meltz, “Fiber Bragg Grating Technology Fundamentals and Overview”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol.15, No.8, August 1997. [22] Abdul Gafur, Dr. Doru Constantinescu, “ Dispersion Effects on OCDMA system performance ” Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing , September 2009,Sweden http://www.bth.se/fou/cuppsats.nsf/1d345136c12b9a52c125660800 4f0519/30ad855f8cbc8679c125763a0078360f!OpenDocument [23] Abdul Gafur, Dr. Doru Constantinescu and Md. Dulal Haque, “ Dispersion Effects on OCDMA system performance ” Journal of Scientific Research ,Rajshahi University, Bangladesh, (Submitted for publication), http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JSR/index

6 Abdul Gafur was born in Cox´sbazar, Bangladesh in 1981. He received his B. Sc (CCE) Bachelors of Science in Computer & Communication Engineering from International Islamic

University Chittagong (IIUC), Bangladesh; in 2005.He is a Lecturer at University of International Islamic University Chittagong (IIUC), the department of Computer &

Communications Engineering (CCE) since 2005. He received the degree of M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering at Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH), Sweden. His research interests are in the fields of Optical Fiber Communications. Doru Constantinescu is the Faculty member of School of Computing, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 371 79

Karlskrona, Sweden. (E-mail: doru.constantinescu@bth.se).He received the PhD in Telecommunication Systems (December 2007).His research interests’ focus on traffic modeling and analysis, wireless communications and protocols, mobility prediction, overlay multicast networks and services, IMS-enabled networking, seamless communications, network graph theory with focus on social network analysis. Dulal Haque (e-mail:dulal_ape83@yahoo.com) is serving as a lecturer in the dept. of Computer and Communication Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong,

Bangladesh. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Applied Physics and Electronics from the Rajshahi University,Bangladesh. His research interests focus on electronics, wireless communications and information theory and error coding.

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