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PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND APPLICATION OF WELDING

AND ALLIED JOINING AND CUTTING PROCESSES WORLDWIDE, INCLUDING BRAZING, SOLDERING, AND THERMAL SPRAYING
January 2013
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select arc_FP_TEMP 12/11/12 3:01 PM Page C2
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The Virginia facility of Liebherr, one of
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get directly to a person who can help.”
The guys on the floor are sold on Koike, too.
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Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome Arcade, NY USA 800-252-5232
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Fabrication Lead Man
Jim Pfizenmayer
Fabrication Supervisor
Robert Egloff
Fabrication Manager
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koike aronson_FP_TEMP 12/11/12 2:44 PM Page 1
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3 WELDING JOURNAL
CONTENTS
28 FABTECH 2012
Welding’s premier marketplace, education, business,
networking, awards, skills, and personal recognition all
came together at this grand exhibition
A. Cullison et al.
38 What You Should Know about Hybrid Laser Arc Welding
Take a look at the pros and cons of this unique combination
of lasers and gas metal arc welding
P. Denney
42 Effect of Tool Angle on Friction Stir Weldability of AISI 430
The parameters for getting the best weld in austenitic stainless
steel are studied
M. B. Bilgin et al.
48 Benefits of Remote Laser Welding in the Automotive Industry
Remote laser beam welding is shown to have advantages in
welding high-volume components
T. Ryba et al.
54 Friction Stud Welding of Dissimilar Metals
A milling machine was used to produce a sound joint between
a steel stud and aluminum plate
G. Zhang et al.
Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published
monthly by the American Welding Society for
$120.00 per year in the United States and posses-
sions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
per single issue for domestic AWS members and
$10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and
$14.00 single issue for international. American
Welding Society is located at 8669 Doral Blvd., Ste.
130, Doral, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353.
Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and addi-
tional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address
changes to Welding Journal, 8669 Doral Blvd.,
Suite 130, Doral, FL 33166. Canada Post: Publi-
cations Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Re-
turns to be sent to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box
25542,London, ON N6C 6B2
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of
articles for personal, archival, educational or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from arti-
cles, provided customary acknowledgment of
authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items
excluded from copyright.
Departments
Editorial ............................4
Press Time News ..................6
News of the Industry ..............8
International Update ............12
Stainless Q&A ....................14
RWMA Q&A ......................20
Product & Print Spotlight ......22
Letter to the Editor ..............58
Coming Events....................60
Certification Schedule ..........62
Conferences ......................64
Welding Workbook ..............70
Society News ....................73
Tech Topics ......................76
Guide to AWS Services ........94
Personnel ........................98
Classifieds ......................104
Advertiser Index ................106
1-s Interfacial Microstructure of Diode Laser Brazed AZ31B
Magnesium to Steel Sheet Using a Nickel Interlayer
The brazeability of a magnesium alloy to steel was improved
with an electro-deposited microlayer of Ni
A. M. Nasiri et al.
11-s Processing Effects on the Friction Stir Weld Stir Zone
The understanding of the correlation between microstructural
evolution and the varying thermomechanical cycles a weld
undergoes is further advanced with this study
J. Schneider et al.
20-s Evaluation of Heat-Affected Zone Hydrogen-Induced
Cracking in Navy Steels
Critical stress ratio and embrittlement index were determined for
high-strength steels in an evaluation of hydrogen-induced cracking
in the heat-affected zone
X. Yue and J. C. Lippold
Features
Welding Research Supplement
28
48
38
January 2013 • Volume 92 • Number 1
AWS Web site www.aws.org
On the cover: Laser welding of a powertrain component. (Photo cour-
tesy of TRUMPF, Inc., Farmington, Conn.)
January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 3:45 PM Page 3
EDITORIAL
As most of you know, there is a dire shortage of skilled and educated welders and
other welding professionals, particularly in manufacturing and energy production. The
shortage of skilled welding personnel has reached a critical level. By 2019, it is estimat-
ed there will be a need for at least 239,000 new and replacement welding professionals.
To meet the shortage, we need to improve the image of welding to draw more people
into our field. We also need to train these new people and provide additional education
opportunities for those who have already chosen welding as their profession. The pay
is good, but increased skills and education can lead to even better compensation.
Traci Tapani, copresident of Wyoming Machine, has described her company’s and
the country’s need for welders in an article published in The New York Times. For the
past 19 years, she and her sister have been copresidents of a sheet metal company they
inherited from their father in Stacy, Minn.
“Many years ago, people learned to weld” in various ways “… they did not under-
stand metallurgy, modern cleaning and brushing techniques, and how different metals
and gases, pressures, and temperatures had to be combined.” Moreover, in small man-
ufacturing businesses like hers, explained Tapani, “…we do a lot of low-volume, high-
tech jobs, and each one has its own design drawings. So a welder has to be able to read
and understand five different design drawings in a single day.”
Women are an underused resource in welding in the United States. According to the
Dept. of Labor, women represent only 6% of the U.S. welding and brazing workforce
and only 2% of welders are women. History has shown that women have stepped up in
times of need. Everyone has heard of Rosie the Riveter, but there was also Wendy the
Welder and Barbara the Brazer. Welding and brazing are great occupations for women
as well as men. There are many opportunities in many different types of work. We just
need to publicize those opportunities and showcase the role models we already have.
Thus, let’s celebrate women in welding and recognize those women who are the role
models and the trendsetters. One of those role models is a young female welder whose
great-grandmother welded during World War II and whose grandfather welded in a
shipyard. She is proud to follow in their footsteps. Another is a trainer who sums up the
opportunities in this way, “There’s an opportunity in this industry to have a career for
life. You can work on the manufacturing floor or in the field as a welder, or as an iron-
worker building a stadium. You can become an engineer and develop welding products
or travel around the country as a Certified Welding Inspector.” There are also women
CWIs, welding engineers, welding engineering technicians, welding quality assurance
professionals, nuclear and nonnuclear welders, materials engineers who do welding and
brazing, welding sales reps, CEOs, COOs, members of the AWS board of directors,
chairs and past chairs of AWS Sections, and speakers at Section meetings and interna-
tional conferences. Thus, we already have good female role models, but we need to do
a better job of getting the word out about them. We need to encourage women in all
ways and in all employment categories of our profession. I challenge you to be a men-
tor to a capable woman welding professional. Give her some encouraging words, or bet-
ter yet, give her an opportunity.
This year I am proud to annouce that the AWS Foundation now offers two new
scholarships that have been endowed specifically for capable females to improve their
skills and education. In addition, Airgas is offering a
discount for all female “card-carrying” members of
AWS in honor of the company’s female leaders. This
year, let’s celebrate women in welding and help fill
the need for properly skilled and educated welding
professionals who will make our country proud.
JANUARY 2013 4
Officers
President Nancy C. Cole
NCC Engineering
Vice President Dean R. Wilson
Well-Dean Enterprises
Vice President David J. Landon
Vermeer Mfg. Co.
Vice President David L. McQuaid
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
Treasurer Robert G. Pali
J. P. Nissen Co.
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society
Directors
T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Global Welding Tech. Center
U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Miami Diver
J. R. Bray (Dist. 18), Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
R. E. Brenner (Dist. 10), CnD Industries, Inc.
G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services
T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1), Victor Technologies
D. A. Flood (At Large), Tri Tool, Inc.
S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altech Industries
K. L. Johnson (Dist. 19), Vigor Shipyards
J. Jones (Dist. 17), Victor Technologies
W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech, LLC
T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory
J. Livesay (Dist. 8), Tennessee Technology Center
M. J. Lucas Jr. (At Large), Belcan Engineering
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
J. L. Mendoza (Past President), Lone Star Welding
S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro
K. A. Phy (Dist. 6), KA Phy Services, Inc.
W. A. Rice (Past President), OKI Bering
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Marinette Marine Corp.
N. Saminich (Dist. 21), Desert Rose H.S. and Career Center
K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
T. A. Siewert (At Large), NIST (ret.)
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), ACH Co.
J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College
M. R. Wiswesser (Dist. 3), Welder Training & Testing Institute
D. Wright (Dist. 16), Zephyr Products, Inc.
Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding
Women: An Underused
Resource in Welding
Nancy C. Cole
AWS President
Editorial January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:28 PM Page 4
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PRESS TIME
NEWS
AWS Holds Open House to Celebrate World Headquarters
More than 200 guests attended an open house celebration held at the American Weld-
ing Society’s (AWS) new world headquarters in Doral, Fla., on November 30. The reno-
vated, 122,482-sq-ft building has five stories and offers space for future growth.
“Over the past few years, AWS has seen a significantly increasing interest from across the
globe in attaining AWS certifications, standards, and membership,” said Ray Shook, execu-
tive director, AWS. “We’ve launched a global initiative that will allow us to better serve the
welding community, and our new modern headquarters is one of the primary steps to be-
coming more accessible to our members.”
During the event, AWS President William A. Rice Jr. showed a photo journey through
the organization’s 93-year history. In addition, Rice announced that he along with his wife,
Cherry, donated $50,000 for a new scholarship intended to help women interested in weld-
ing careers. The AWS Foundation will match that amount for a total of $100,000.
Also, a 6-ft-tall bronze welder sculpture donated to AWS by Bill and Cherry Rice
was unveiled. Noted artist Gregory Johnson of Cumming, Ga., created the welder that
weighs more than 225 lb and kneels on top of a base made by D&D Mobile Welding and
Fabrication, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, Fla. The figure resides in the first floor lobby of the
AWS headquarters building.
“I’m thrilled. It has met and exceeded my expectations,” Johnson said of the sculp-
ture, adding he is humbled AWS visitors will see his artistry.
Creating the sculpture took about 200 hours, spanning over the course of two months.
Johnson first made an armature using threaded rods and braided copper wire, then
pressed clay onto this form. He then kept refining and detailing his work. As a refer-
ence, he looked at welders’ attire, including a helmet, jacket, gloves, pants, and shoes.
The bronze welder holds a gas metal arc welding gun in its right hand. Eagle Bronze,
Inc., Lander, Wyo., performed the mold and casting duties, which Johnson oversaw.
Among the attendees were AWS leadership, consisting of current officers, board
members, and past presidents, as well as international counterparts and agents, ven-
dors, and community members. Speakers included The Honorable Michael Bileca,
Florida House of Representatives, and Miguel Otero, deputy chief of staff for Congress-
man Mario Diaz-Balart. Diaz-Balart has an office in the building. The event video is at
http://videos.aws.org.
The day concluded with AWS employees guiding visitors around the building where
they met spokespersons from each department. Lunch was catered by Carolina Ale
House, a tenant, and served on the second floor’s covered patio area.
Lincoln Electric Acquires Businesses from ITT
Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, has acquired the Kaliburn, Burny,
and Cleveland Motion Control (CMC) businesses from ITT Corp. Terms of the transac-
tion were not disclosed, but all three businesses are consolidated in a headquarters and
manufacturing operation in Ladson, S.C. The combined annual sales in 2011 were $35
million. The three operations employ approximately 140 people.◆
JANUARY 2013 6
MEMBER
Publisher Andrew Cullison
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
Editorial
Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
Associate Editor Kristin Campbell
Editorial Asst./Peer Review Coordinator Melissa Gomez
Design and Production
Production Manager Zaida Chavez
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
Manager of International Periodicals and
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman
Advertising
National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca
Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
Subscriptions
Subscriptions Representative Sylvia Ferreira
sferreira@aws.org
American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166
(305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
D. L. Doench, Chair
Hobart Brothers Co.
S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair
ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
J. D. Weber, Secretary
American Welding Society
D. Brown, Weiler Brush
T. Coco, Victor Technologies International
L. Davis, ORS Nasco
J. Deckrow, Hypertherm
D. DeCorte, RoMan Mfg.
J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
F. H. Kasnick, Praxair
D. Levin, Airgas
E. C. Lipphardt, Consultant
R. Madden, Hypertherm
D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash
J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
D. Wilson, Well-Dean Enterprises
N. C. Cole, Ex Off., NCC Engineering
J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems
D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg.
S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries
R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
Copyright © 2013 by American Welding Society in both printed and elec-
tronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not in-
tended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the
part of potential users.
Ribbon cutting ceremony participants at the AWS
open house were (from left) Executive Director
Ray Shook; Treasurer Robert Pali; Vice Presi-
dent-Elect Dave McQuaid; Vice Presidents
David Landon and Dean Wilson; President-
Elect Nancy Cole; and President William Rice.
Noted artist Gregory Johnson poses
next to the bronze welder he sculpted
that resides in the first floor lobby of
the AWS headquarters building.
PTN January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:04 PM Page 6
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greiner_FP_TEMP 12/11/12 2:42 PM Page 7
NEWS OF THE
INDUSTRY
Green River Community College Students
Weld Junction Boxes to Curb Wire Theft
The city of Auburn, Wash., and Green River Community Col-
lege teamed up to fight the growing problem of copper wire theft
in the city by welding junction boxes shut.
“Thieves were stripping our street light junction boxes cost-
ing the city thousands of dollars to repair,” said Mayor Pete Lewis.
They opened these boxes, cut the splices, and pulled out wire
from box to box. Each junction has three wires that run 100–150
ft through an underground conduit to the next junction box.
According to Glenda Carino, Auburn’s public affairs and mar-
keting manager, the project started on Oct. 10 and finished Nov.
14 with a total of 15 actual work days. There were approximately
an average of 5 students per day for an estimate of between 500
and 600 man hours. The actual number of boxes welded was 1833.
JANUARY 2013 8
Student Gilbert Serrano performs shielded metal arc welding
in the Trades and Advanced Technology Center on the Santa
Fe Community College campus. Jeremy Fiedler serves as his
instructor. (Photo courtesy of Barbara Woltag.)
The training needs of two large local organizations,
as well as nationwide demand, have led to creating a new
welding degree program at Santa Fe Community Col-
lege (SFCC), Santa Fe, N.Mex.
An Associate in Applied Science degree in welding
will be offered starting in the spring 2013 semester. A
welding certificate is also available.
The program is possible in large part thanks to the
support of Los Alamos National Security, LLC, which
anticipates the need for welders for construction proj-
ects planned for Los Alamos National Laboratory
(LANL) over the next 15 years.
Originally, the college developed a welding training
program to meet the needs of LANL and Caterpillar
Santa Fe, a manufacturer of products that reduce diesel
engines’ exhaust emission levels, that has also supported
the program’s development. When Caterpillar purchased
the former CleanAIR Systems in 2010, no welding train-
ing existed in the community; the company provided the
college with funds to support a welding lab on campus,
which will now allow it to offer a full welding degree pro-
gram.
“We believe that Santa Fe Community College needs
to launch these high-skill and high-wage training pro-
grams because it is the college’s responsibility to become
the economic engine for Santa Fe. This collaboration
with our partners will advance our economy and provide
new employment for years to come,” said SFCC Presi-
dent Ana M. Guzmán.
In addition, SFCC’s Dean of Economic and Work-
force Development and Director of the Sustainable Tech-
nologies Center, Randy Grissom, stated the college’s
Trades and Advanced Technology Center is prepared to
expand with local demand.
For more information, visit www.sfcc.edu.
Need for Training Leads to New Welding Degree
Program at Santa Fe Community College
To prevent the theft of cop-
per wire from street light
junction boxes in the City
of Auburn, Washington,
Green River Community
College students and Pub-
lic Works mentors welded
them shut. As pictured in
action, a welder uses the
shielded metal arc process.
NI January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:52 PM Page 8
9 WELDING JOURNAL
Scott Schreiber, who heads the college’s welding program,
also mentioned the opportunity for students to work side by side
with city crews is invaluable. “This is the first time field mentor-
ships have been offered,” Schreiber said.
Additionally, Carino pointed out that city crews were happy
with the students’ outstanding job, and as of press time, there
were no reports of new wire theft from these junction boxes since
the project began.
ESAB Partners with KUKA Robotics
ESAB, Florence, S.C., a manufacturer of welding and cutting
equipment and welding filler metals, is partnering with KUKA
Robotics, Shelby Township, Mich., whose robots are used in a
range of industries.
“Our relationship with KUKA will enable us to create prod-
ucts and services that offer greater value and solutions to the ro-
botic arc welding customers and make our automation facility
even more capable of providing wide-ranging services and solu-
tions to the welding community,” said George Learmonth, VP
of ESAB Automation.
Austal Lays Jackson (LCS 6) Keel
Austal recently held a keel-laying ceremony for the third
Independence-variant Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), Jackson
(LCS 6).
Dr. Katherine Holmes Cochran, the ship’s sponsor, welded
her initials as the keel authenticator, assisted by J. B. Craig III,
an “A” Class welder. Cochran, an associate professor at the Uni-
versity of Southern Mississippi, is the daughter of U.S. Senator
Thad Cochran, a native of Pontotoc, Miss., currently holding his
sixth term in office.
Due to Austal’s modular approach to ship manufacture, 35 of
the 37 modules used to form this 127-m aluminum trimaran de-
sign are already being assembled. Four modules have been moved
Katherine Holmes Cochran, daughter of Mississippi Senator Thad
Cochran, and Austal USA welder J. B. Craig III weld her initials
as part of the keel-laying ceremony for Jackson (LCS 6).
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
NI January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:53 PM Page 9
JANUARY 2013 10
from Austal’s Module Manufacturing Facility, three of which are
erected in the final assembly bay in their prelaunch position.
“Jackson (LCS 6) is the first of ten Independence-variant
Littoral Combat Ships awarded by the Navy to Austal as prime
contractor,” said Craig Perciavalle, Austal USA’s senior VP of
operations.
Koike Aronson Acquires Majority Interest in
Brazilian Welding Positioners Manufacturer
Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome, Arcade, N.Y., a subsidiary of
Koike Sanso Kogyo, Tokyo, Japan, recently announced the pur-
chase of the majority of shares of Biondi Maquinas, Dispositivos
E Ferramentas LTDA, Jaboticabal, Brazil, a manufacturer of
welding positioners and similar equipment, made through its sub-
sidiary, Koike Aronson Brasil Business Consulting LTDA.
The new company is named Koike Aronson — Biondi
Maquinas, Dispositivos E Ferramentas Do Brazil, LTDA. The
current owners, Nelson Biondi and Evandro Faccio, will remain
with the company, with Mr. Biondi retaining a minority holding.
A new facility is planned to be built in Jaboticabal to accommo-
date the growing demand for Koike and Biondi products in Brazil.
Also, in related news, the largest weld positioner Koike has
created, a 130-ton model, has now been installed and is operable
at Harbin Electric Corp., Qinhuangdao City, China (as pictured).
Rob Flaig served as the company’s on-site coordinator, assisted
by Matt Hopkins. The $1.5 million device is set to weld and clad
component parts for a new nuclear reactor in that region. It can
hold, rotate, and tilt 550,000 lb.
Boy Scouts Earn Welding Badges
Thanks to Local Tech Center and 3M
Nine Boy Scouts earned welding merit badges with assistance
from the Northeast Metro District 916 Career and Technical Cen-
ter, White Bear Lake, Minn., and 3M Co., St. Paul, Minn.
Representatives from 3M, including Don Garvey, a construc-
tion industrial hygienist, Derek Baker, a welding technical serv-
ice specialist, and Kim Gates, a welding marketing manager, sup-
plied the classroom portion regarding welding safety, personal
protective equipment, and different types/mechanics of welding
with their common uses. At Northeast Metro’s welding lab, Tony
Waldner provided welding instruction and coaching.
The Scouts got hands-on time with the gas metal arc welding
gun. The merit badge requires they scribe their initials on a car-
bon steel plate and cover the initials with a weld bead; cover a
small plate with weld beads side by side; and tack and weld two
plates with a square groove butt joint, a “T” joint with fillet welds
and a lap joint with fillet welds on both sides.
The Scouts were excited to learn a new skill, and several ex-
pressed interest in the possibility of making it a career, especially
when discussing current job opportunities.
Chrysler Group Invests $240 Million to
Increase Engine Production, Adds Jobs
Chrysler Group LLC will invest nearly $240 million to increase
engine capacity and add about 1250 new jobs at several Michi-
gan facilities.
Sergio Marchionne, Chrysler Group chairman and CEO, con-
firmed the company would make investments and add jobs at the
following local plants: Mack I Engine Plant, $198 million to pro-
duce the Pentastar (V-6) engine; Mack I Engine Plant, adding
up to 250 new jobs, subject to market conditions; Trenton North
Engine Plant, investing an additional $40 million to add a flexi-
ble production line that can run the Pentastar engine and Tiger-
shark (I-4) engine; and Warren Truck Assembly Plant, adding
1000 new jobs on a third crew in March 2013 to produce the 2013
Ram 1500.
Detroit Mayor Dave Bing, other local officials, and UAW Vice
President General Holiefield joined employees to celebrate the
news at the Mack I Engine Plant.
Mack Avenue Plant Manager Bob Hollingsworth recently spoke at
the Mack 1 Engine Plant. Chrysler Group LLC Chairman and CEO
Sergio Marchionne was also present to announce a $240 million
investment for engine production. (Photo courtesy of Chrysler.)
As shown above, now installed and operable at Harbin Electric in
China, is the 130-ton weld positioner fabricated by Koike. It is set
to weld and clad component parts for a new nuclear reactor.
Welding instructor Tony Waldner of Northeast Metro and Boy Scouts
from Troop 200 show off their welding skills, which are part of earn-
ing their welding merit badges.
— continued on page 102
NI January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:55 PM Page 10
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victor 1_FP_TEMP 12/12/12 8:52 AM Page 11
INTERNATIONAL
UPDATE
Canadian College to Enhance Its Trades
Facilities
Camosun College in British Columbia, Canada, expects to re-
ceive more than $29 million from the Ministry of Advanced Ed-
ucation to renew and enhance its existing trades facilities at the
Interurban Campus. John Yap, minister of Advanced Education,
Innovation and Technology, and Ida Chong, minister of Aborigi-
nal Relations and Reconciliation, announced the funding, which
will assist the college to create a state-of-the-art Trades Learn-
ing Centre for Excellence.
The facility will include a new marine and metal trades center
to house welding, sheet metal, metal fabrication, and shipbuilding
and repair programs; new mechanical trades center to house heavy-
duty, commercial truck transport and automotive service techni-
cian programs; repurposing of the Jack White Trades Building to
house electrical, plumbing and piping trades, and future renewable
energy programs; repurposing of the John Drysdale Trades Build-
ing as a new technology and innovation center that will also house
a general-purpose classroom space and trades equipment storage;
new central student commons facility to serve the combined trades
centers; expanded and reconfigured trades yard space, outdoor
storage, and construction project areas with improved accessabil-
ity; and upgrade to electrical service for existing trades buildings.
The new facilities, according to Yap, will “encourage more and
more young people to consider careers in the trades.”
Genesis Systems Opens New Office in
Japan
Genesis Systems Group, a robotic workcells integrator, recently
announced the establishment of a sales office in Nagoya, Japan.
Genesis Systems Group Japan, KK, will lead the company’s efforts
to strengthen its global footprint and better serve new and existing
Japanese clients. The office will be led by Tadaji Seko, who served
Toyota Corporation as a trainer of the Toyota Production System,
manager of Production Engineering, and deputy chairman of in-
formation discussions, and Junko Fukutome who started with Gen-
esis in 2005 and most recently has worked as its liaison in Japan.
Wheelabrator Group Expands to Mexico
Wheelabrator, a provider of equipment-support services,
opened WG Plus de Mexico, a new 34,000-sq-ft manufacturing
and aftermarket parts and service facility, in Monterrey. The fa-
cility supports regional original equipment manufacturing and
aftermarket sales as well as equipment manufacturing operations
for the global customer base. This expansion provides heavy-duty
manufacturing, secondary light assembly operations, and after-
market support to service the increased demands for all of the
Americas. Robert E. Joyce Jr., president and CEO, Norican
Group, said, “Our investment plans are to continue to expand
our company globally to meet the growing demands and needs
of our customers.”
Canadian Fabricator to Build Plant in
Montana
ADF Group, Inc., a fabricator of structural steel and steel
components in Montreal, Canada, approved an estimated $24
million plan to build a new 100,000-sq-ft structural steel fabrica-
tion complex on 100 acres of industrial land located in Great
Falls, Mont. Its annual fabrication capacity is estimated at more
than 25,000 tons. Adjacent to the new facility, ADF will set up a
large structural steel fabrication and preassembly yard to rapidly
and effectively serve new sectors and fast growing markets.
In addition to expanding westward, the investment will give
ADF access to the U.S. public infrastructures market segment.
Jean Paschini, chairman of the board and CEO, said, “During
the past months, we have studied many other sites to set up a sec-
ond plant, and we have chosen Great Falls in Montana for its
strategic geographic location. Situated at 160 km from Alberta’s
border, the city of Great Falls will allow ADF to pursue its de-
velopment both in Canada and the United States.” The new plant,
equipped with state-of-the-art machinery, is expected to be op-
erating by the second half of 2013. ♦
Camosun College student Jenny Albrecht prepares Advanced
Education, Innovation & Technology Minister John Yap and
Aboriginal Relations & Reconciliation Minister Ida Chong for a
welding demo.
Wheelbrator opened a new 34,000-sq-ft service facility in Mon-
terrey, Mexico.
Artist rendering of ADF’s structural steel fabrication plant to be
built in Great Falls, Montana.
JANUARY 2013 12
Jan Intl Update_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:19 AM Page 12
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victor 2_FP_TEMP 12/11/12 3:11 PM Page 13
STAINLESS
Q&A
BY DAMIAN J. KOTECKI
Q: I have been told that nitrogen is an es-
sential ingredient in duplex stainless steel
weld metal. But I understand that nitro-
gen is only an accidental impurity in other
stainless steel weld metal. Is this correct,
and if so, why is it essential in duplex
stainless steel?
A: You have been told correctly. There are
two factors involved. The first has to do
with pitting corrosion resistance. There is
a well-accepted formula for a Pitting Re-
sistance Index (PRE
N
).
PRE
N
= %Cr + 3.3×(%Mo + %W/2)
+ 16×%N
As the PRE
N
increases, the pitting re-
sistance increases. Duplex stainless steels
are often used in chloride-containing envi-
ronments, including the higher alloy
grades in seawater. The higher alloy
grades of duplex stainless steel, often re-
ferred to as “superduplex,” have a PRE
N
greater than 40. As you can see, the coef-
ficient for nitrogen in the above formula is
much larger than for any other element.
The superduplex stainless steels typically
contain about 0.25%N, or more.
But pitting corrosion resistance is only
part of the story concerning nitrogen in
duplex stainless steels and their weld met-
als. In weld metal in the as-welded condi-
tion, nitrogen is the critical element for ob-
taining a proper phase balance between
ferrite and austenite. There remains a lot
of discussion about what amount of ferrite
(remainder austenite) is appropriate for
best properties, but most engineers will
agree that the range of 30 to 70 Ferrite
Number or 22 to 50% ferrite (higher fer-
rite content is allowed with inert gas-
shielded processes) provides the best com-
bination of properties, particularly corro-
sion resistance, toughness, and ductility.
Nitrogen is critical because it is the only
useful alloying element that is an intersti-
tial atom rather than a substitutional
atom. Interstitial atoms are much smaller
than the matrix alloy element atoms iron,
chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and pos-
sibly tungsten. As a result, nitrogen can
diffuse more than 100 times faster than the
other atoms. Nitrogen promotes austenite
formation by diffusing out of the ferrite as
the virtually 100% ferrite weld metal cools
at temperatures above 1040°C (1900°F).
Under ordinary arc welding cooling condi-
tions, only nitrogen diffuses fast enough to
partition appreciably between ferrite and
austenite. This was very well demon-
strated in the work of Ogawa and Koseki
(Ref. 1).
Unfortunately, when the work of
Ogawa and Koseki was published in the
Welding Journal, color printing in the Re-
search Supplement was not in use, and the
element partitioning was illustrated by
color-coded maps, so it was difficult to ap-
preciate exactly what was going on in the
black and white reproductions, and I think
very few people did appreciate it. How-
ever, Ogawa and Koseki also presented
their work a year later in Commission IX
of the International Institute of Welding,
as IIW Document IX-1600-90, and I was
fortunate enough to obtain a copy with
color. Three figures extracted from that
work serve to illustrate the importance of
nitrogen, and these are reproduced
herein.
Fig. 1 — 2205 base metal as hot-rolled. A — Microstructure; B — 22% Cr; C — 6% Ni; D
— 3% Mo; E — 0.12% N.
Fig. 2 — Autogenous 2205 GTA weld metal, as-welded. A — Microstructure; B — 22% Cr;
C — 6% Ni; D — 3% Mo; E — 0.12% N.
JANUARY 2013 14
A
A B C
E
D
B C
E D
Stainless Q+A Jan_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:25 PM Page 14
Figure 1 shows the microstructure of
the 2205 duplex stainless steel base metal
as hot-rolled. The lighter etching phase is
the austenite and the darker etching phase
is the ferrite. Then it includes Cr, Ni, Mo,
and N distributions obtained by a scanning
electron microscope (SEM) of exactly the
same area as the microstructure, color
coded so that red indicates high concen-
tration, yellow to green indicates nominal
composition concentration of each ele-
ment, and blue indicates low concentra-
tion. The nominal composition is also
given in the figure. It is easily seen that Cr
and Mo are concentrated in the ferrite,
while Ni and N are concentrated in the
austenite. It is noteworthy that, in the case
of nitrogen, the blue color indicates virtu-
ally zero percent nitrogen in the ferrite.
That is, the nitrogen has almost entirely
left the ferrite in favor of the austenite
during hot-rolling.
Figure 2 shows the microstructure and
alloy element distribution of an autoge-
nous GTA weld made in the same base
metal, containing 0.12% nitrogen, using
the same color coding. Austenite appears
only as particles along the grain bound-
aries of the very large ferrite grains that
formed during solidification, and as a few
scattered particles within the ferrite
grains. Then the color maps of Cr, Ni, and
Mo indicate virtually no partitioning of
those alloy elements — they are distrib-
uted at virtually the nominal composition
level throughout the microstructure —
but the nitrogen map clearly shows nitro-
gen concentrated in the grain boundary
austenite.
In the ferrite immediately beside the
grain boundary austenite, the blue color
indicates virtually zero nitrogen as the ni-
trogen there had enough time to diffuse to
the austenite. Farther from the grain
boundary austenite, the yellow to green
color indicates near-nominal nitrogen
concentration on average. In fact there are
scattered chromium nitride particles that
appear as dark specks in the microstruc-
ture (Fig. 2A) that formed within the fer-
rite when the nitrogen could not escape
from the ferrite to the austenite during
cooling. Even though there is 0.12% N
present in this composition, the phase
distribution is not acceptable; the weld is
brittle.
Figure 3 shows the microstructure and
alloy element distribution of an autoge-
nous GTA weld made in an identical base
metal composition except that the nitro-
gen is increased to 0.18%. As in the case
of the 0.12% N weld metal, austenite ap-
pears as particles outlining the original
ferrite grain boundaries, but there are also
numerous austenite plates throughout the
interior of the ferrite grains. Then the
color-coded maps of Cr, Ni, and Mo indi-
cate only very slight partitioning of these
elements (most clearly seen in the Mo dis-
tribution where the grain boundary
austenite regions are more clearly blue).
But the nitrogen partitioning is complete
— the ferrite regions are all blue while the
austenite regions are all red. The higher
nitrogen of the Fig. 3 weld metal as com-
pared to the Fig. 2 weld metal made the as-
welded weld metal ductile by producing
much higher austenite content.
In practice, filler metal manufacturers
tend to include extra nickel to improve
toughness and assist in the development of
austenite, but the nitrogen is the essential
alloy element for providing weldability. ◆
Reference
1. Ogawa, T., and Koseki, T. 1989. Ef-
fect of composition profiles on metallurgy
and corrosion behavior of duplex stainless
steel weld metals. Welding Journal 68(5):
181-s to 191-s.
15 WELDING JOURNAL
DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is president,
Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants, Inc.
He is treasurer of the IIW and a member of
the A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel
Filler Metals, D1K Subcommittee on Stain-
less Steel Structural Welding; and WRC
Subcommittee on Welding Stainless Steels
and Nickel-Base Alloys. He is a past chair of
the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Al-
lied Materials, and served as AWS president
(2005–2006). Send questions to damian@
damiankotecki.com, or Damian Kotecki,
c/o Welding Journal Dept., 8669 Doral
Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166.
Fig. 3 — Autogenous 2205 GTA weld metal, as-welded. A — Microstructure; B — 22% Cr;
C — 6% Ni; D — 3% Mo; E — 0.18% N.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
A B C
E D
Stainless Q+A Jan_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:26 PM Page 15
Friends and Colleagues:
The American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize individual
members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the image and
impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an individual’s career of
outstanding accomplishment.
To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leadership in the
welding industry by one or more of the following:
• Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the welding
industry. The individual’s organization shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as
evidenced by support of participation of its employees in industry activities.
• Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to training and
vocational education in the welding industry. The individual’s organization shall have shown an
ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employee in
industry activities.
For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Counselor nomination form in this
issue of the Welding Journal. The deadline for submission is July 1, 2013. The committee looks
forward to receiving these nominations for 2014 consideration.
Sincerely,
Lee Kvidahl
Chair, Counselor Selection Committee
Counselor Letter 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 9:16 AM Page 16
Nomination of AWS Counselor
I. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
In 1999, the American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize indi-
vidual members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the
image and impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an
individual’s career of outstanding accomplishment.
To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leadership in
the welding industry by one or more of the following:
• Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the
welding industry. (The individual’s organization shall have shown an ongoing
commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees
in industry activities such as AWS, IIW, WRC, SkillsUSA, NEMA, NSRP SP7 or other
similar groups.)
• Leadership of or within an organization that has made substantial contribution to training
and vocational education in the welding industry. (The individual’s organization shall
have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of partici
pation of its employees in industry activities such as AWS, IIW, WRC, SkillsUSA, NEMA,
NSRP SP7 or other similar groups.)
II. RULES
A. Candidates for Counselor shall have at least 10 years of membership in AWS.
B. Each candidate for Counselor shall be nominated by at least five members of
the Society.
C. Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS
headquarters.
D. Nominations must be submitted to AWS headquarters no later than July 1
of the year prior to that in which the award is to be presented.
E. Nominations shall remain valid for three years.
F. All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence.
G. Candidates who have been elected as Fellows of AWS shall not be eligible for
election as Counselors. Candidates may not be nominated for both of these awards
at the same time.
III. NUMBER OF COUNSELORS TO BE SELECTED
Maximum of 10 Counselors selected each year.
Return completed Counselor nomination package to:
Wendy S. Reeve
American Welding Society
Senior Manager
Award Programs and Administrative Support
Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 293
SUBMISSION DEADLINE: July 1, 201
8669 Doral Blvd., Suite 130
Doral, FL 33166
3
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(please type or print in black ink)
COUNSELOR NOMINATION FORM
DATE_________________NAME OF CANDIDATE________________________________________________________________________
AWS MEMBER NO.___________________________YEARS OF AWS MEMBERSHIP____________________________________________
HOME ADDRESS____________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY_______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE________________________
PRESENT COMPANY/INSTITUTION AFFILIATION_______________________________________________________________________
TITLE/POSITION____________________________________________________________________________________________________
BUSINESS ADDRESS________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE_________________________
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND, AS APPLICABLE:
INSTITUTION______________________________________________________________________________________________________
MAJOR & MINOR__________________________________________________________________________________________________
DEGREES OR CERTIFICATES/YEAR____________________________________________________________________________________
LICENSED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER: YES_________NO__________ STATE______________________________________________
SIGNIFICANT WORK EXPERIENCE:
COMPANY/CITY/STATE_____________________________________________________________________________________________
POSITION____________________________________________________________________________YEARS_______________________
COMPANY/CITY/STATE_____________________________________________________________________________________________
POSITION____________________________________________________________________________YEARS_______________________
SUMMARIZE MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS IN THESE POSITIONS:
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
IT IS MANDATORY THAT A CITATION (50 TO 100 WORDS, USE SEPARATE SHEET) INDICATING WHY THE NOMINEE SHOULD BE
SELECTED AS AN AWS COUNSELOR ACCOMPANY THE NOMINATION PACKET. IF NOMINEE IS SELECTED, THIS STATEMENT MAY
BE INCORPORATED WITHIN THE CITATION CERTIFICATE.
**MOST IMPORTANT**
The Counselor Selection Committee criteria are strongly based on and extracted from the categories identified below. All in-
formation and support material provided by the candidate’s Counselor Proposer, Nominating Members and peers are considered.
SUBMITTED BY:
PROPOSER_______________________________________________
AWS Member No.___________________
The proposer will serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. The proposer is encouraged to include a
detailed biography of the candidate and letters of recommendation from individuals describing the specific accomplishments of the can-
didate. Signatures on this nominating form, or supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition
to the proposer. Signatures may be acquired by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the sig-
natures are secured, the total package should be submitted.
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
CLASS OF 2014
SUBMISSION DEADLINE JULY 1, 2013
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harris_FP_TEMP 12/11/12 2:42 PM Page 19
JANUARY 2013 20
RWMA
Q&A
BY TOM SNOW
Q: Our company needs extra spot weld-
ing capacity because production is increas-
ing. We have an old spot welding machine
in storage that has not run in years. Should
I try to get it going or buy a new one?
A: As with many things in life, “it all de-
pends.”
Spot welding machines are among the
most durable of production machines and
the “three Rs” of machine maintenance
can easily be applied — repair, retrofit,
or rebuild.
That being said, some brands of spot
welding machines are better than others
and an old, light-duty machine may not be
worth fixing.
To begin finding the answer to your
question, check to see if your machine is
suitable for the anticipated welding appli-
cation. As an example, if you need to weld
two pieces of 12-gauge mild steel, a little
10-kVA foot-operated rocker arm machine
is not going to get the job done properly.
Charts are readily available listing var-
ious combinations of amperage (heat) and
pressure (forging force) required for
welding various material thickness com-
binations. Hopefully your machine has
enough capacity to achieve a “Class A”
weld, which optimizes strength and ap-
pearance by using proper force, high am-
perage, and short weld time.
Also, if your application involves pro-
jection welding, such as resistance weld-
ing nuts or studs, an air-operated vertical
action “press-type” welding machine with
the proper diameter cylinder is the way to
go. A rocker arm spot welding machine,
although typically less expensive, applies
weld force with a rocking action and will
not “set down” the projections evenly.
And speaking of rocker arm spot weld-
ing machines, be wary of installing longer
arms if the existing arms are too short to
reach all the welds on your deepest part.
Because the spot welding electrode tips
are typically on the “wrong” end of the
air-operated fulcrum mechanism, increas-
ing the arm length robs the machine of
weld force capability.
As an example, one representative
heavy-duty rocker arm spot welding ma-
chine built to RWMA Size 3 specifications
can produce 2250 lb of weld force at 80
lb/in.
2
of incoming air pressure with an 18-
in. throat depth, whereas extending the
throat to 36 in. reduces the maximum
available force to 1150 lb, a loss of more
than a half-ton of forging capability.
Likewise, as the throat depth or verti-
cal shut height (gap) between arms is in-
creased, the available welding amps at the
tips will decrease due to the larger sec-
ondary loop. In other words, a spot weld-
ing machine with an 18-in. throat depth
will produce significantly more amps than
the same machine with 36-in. arms
installed.
The same rocker arm spot welding ma-
chine spec sheet referenced in our exam-
ple shows that a 50-kVA machine with 18-
in. arms installed produces 22,100 second-
ary amps at full power settings, whereas
the same machine with a 36-in. throat pro-
duces 15,700 A. This could be the differ-
ence between making a good or bad weld.
Once you’ve determined that your
welding machine in storage is suitable for
the application, examine its condition.
Many older resistance spot welding
machines are built better than new ones,
so a heavy-duty resistance welding ma-
chine that’s 20–40 years old should not
be ruled out.
A “veteran” American-made spot
welding machine built to RWMA specifi-
cations is often superior to some of the
light-duty imported machines on the mar-
ket today. However, if the welding ma-
chine is more than 10–15 years old, it
would probably benefit from being retro-
fitted with a new control that includes all
the latest features — Figs. 1, 2.
Virtually all spot welding machine con-
trols sold today have fully programmable
functions, such as pulsation and upslope,
that were once expensive options. If you’re
trying to weld heavy material thicknesses
and/or coated steel, those two options are
often a big help in achieving good welds.
Also, these days it’s advisable to convert
spot welding machines from mechanical
contactors or mercury-filled ignitrons to
modern SCR contactors. Just be sure to
dispose of the ignitrons properly and
legally.
And if you want to greatly improve the
safety of the machine, a spot welding ma-
chine control is now available with a “soft
touch” safety feature that senses if some-
thing nonmetallic is between the tips, such
as a finger, and retracts the tips before
weld force is applied. This protects your
operator from serious finger injury and
also includes the ability to dress your elec-
trodes under low force.
Once you’ve gotten a retrofit welding
machine control on order, if needed, it’s
time to address the condition of the ma-
chine itself. Resistance welding machines
are relatively simple to fix if you under-
stand the basics of electricity, pneumat-
ics, and mechanics.
Here are the systems to check as you
inspection and repair the machine as
needed or go through the process to com-
pletely strip and rebuild the machine.
Welding Transformer: The Heart
of the Machine
Spot welding machine transformers
have no moving parts and often run for
Fig. 1 — Example of a heavy-duty press-
type combination spot and projection weld-
ing machine suitable for rebuilding.
Fig. 2 — The same press-type welding ma-
chined after being stripped and rebuilt to
like-new specifications, including the in-
stallation of a new control with program-
mable functions.
RWMA January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 3:01 PM Page 20
21 WELDING JOURNAL
decades if not abused. Abuse includes
overheating due to excessive duty cycle
operation, lack of adequate water flow,
and internal water saturation due to water
leaks or condensation.
If your welding transformer is water-
cooled, check to make sure the small-
diameter internal copper water cooling
tubes are not clogged, crushed, or leak-
ing. If the machine has been run on city
or well water, minerals can accumulate
over the years just like excessive choles-
terol clogs our arteries. Chemicals are
available to clear clogs in water cooling
lines, but sometimes the transformer
needs to be disassembled so the water
lines can be replaced.
Shorted-out spot welding machine
transformers can be rebuilt, but it’s best
to send them to a specialist rather than
your local electric motor repair shop.
Secondary Connections
Spot welding machines are designed to
generate heat at the weld zone due to the
resistance of the material being welded,
but every other source of resistance —
from the transformer out to the electrodes
(tips) — should be minimized. This is sig-
nificant because the welding transformer
converts the incoming power of 220 or 440
V into extremely low secondary voltage,
typically only 6–8 V, that “pushes” the high
welding amperage through the welding
machine’s secondary circuit. Any form of
unwanted resistance in the loop restricts
the flow of welding current to the work.
Although it’s a lot of work, disassem-
bling the welding machine’s copper sec-
ondary loop connections and removing
the accumulated oxide is a task that should
be done annually.
If a connection in the welding machine
secondary has gotten loose and arced out
over time, the contacting surfaces will
need to be remachined flat and smooth.
Various conductive pastes are available
that are designed to improve conductivity
and reduce oxidation by coating the mat-
ing surfaces prior to reassembly. For the
ultimate in conductivity, secondary con-
nections can also be silver plated.
If the flexible copper shunts that con-
duct electricity from the transformer to
the moving part of the welding machine
have broken copper sheets or show arc-
ing at the connecting surfaces, they should
be replaced. Replacement shunts are not
extremely expensive and are usually the
weakest link in conducting the necessary
high welding current through the
secondary.
Pneumatic System
As the metal reaches the molten state
during the spot welding process, delivery
of consistent force and fast forging follow-
up is critical to good weld quality. Most
spot welding machines used in production
are air-operated, so check the air system
for smooth operation. Air cylinders are
simple to repair and relatively inexpen-
sive to replace, so don’t ignore those im-
portant components.
Also, check to make sure there is a
working filter, regulator, lubricator
(FRL), and gauge installed on the incom-
ing air supply. Restriction of air to the
welding machine through a clogged FRL
can cause poor follow-up during the weld.
This results in excessive metal expulsion
(flash), reduced electrode life, and incon-
sistent weld quality. If in doubt, replace
the FRL.
Mechanical System
On rocker arm spot welding machines,
check for worn pivot points and replace
bearings as needed. An easy way to check
for problems is to grab the arm out at the
end and shake it from side to side. There
should not be much slack.
On vertical press type spot welding ma-
chines, you can check the ram mechanism
for wear with a similar side-to-side and
front-to-rear method, but on machines
with roller rams, it’s also advisable to re-
move the sheet metal that typically cov-
ers the ram area and look for wear on the
ways and/or rollers — Fig. 3. Roller bear-
ings can seize up and wear the ways. Once
again, these mechanisms are relatively
simple to repair.
The old-style “quill” press welding ma-
chine rams typically seen on U.S.-made
machines from the 1940s and some ma-
chines being imported today are often
metal on metal and can be more challeng-
ing to repair if lubrication has been ig-
nored over the years and wear is heavy.
Rather than spending money to repair one
of these rams, it might be time to scrap
the machine and use the proceeds to buy
a new one.
That’s the saving grace of old spot
welding machines — most of them are
loaded with copper and, if salvaged prop-
erly, can provide a nice down payment on
another machine.
And, as always, an experienced spot
welding machine dealer can help guide
your decision-making process and provide
the needed material to get your old spot
welding machine back into production.◆
TOM SNOW is CEO, T.J. Snow Co., Inc.,
Chattanooga, Tenn., a member company
of the RWMA, a permanent AWS standing
committee. Send your comments and
questions to Tom Snow at
TomSnow@tjsnow.com, or mail to Tom
Snow, c/o Welding Journal, 8669 Doral
Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166.
DO YOUR OWN TESTING
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Fig. 3 — A press-type resistance welding
machine ram that needs to be repaired.
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RWMA January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 3:03 PM Page 21
PRODUCT & PRINT
SPOTLIGHT
Robotic Laser Cutting
Software Tools Available
The RobotStudio Cutting PowerPac is
an add-on to RobotStudio, the company’s
3D offline simulation programming tool,
which allows operators to generate and
modify program cutting paths based on
part geometry and CAD models. It sup-
ports the optimization of cutting pro-
grams, setup of interface signals, and man-
agement of cutting process data. In addi-
tion, RobotWare Cutting is a robot con-
troller add-on that features tools for the
integration of peripheral equipment,
robot tuning and calibration, and pro-
gramming complex paths and shapes. It is
compatible with most common laser cut-
ting equipment brands and has an intu-
itive graphical user interface that provides
the flexibility to switch automatically and
quickly between different product series.
ABB
www.abb.com
(248) 391-8622
Modular System Equipped
with Inflatable Bladders
The I-Purge™ inflatable modular blad-
der system, U.S. and foreign patents pend-
ing, is equipped with interchangeable
components, including inflatable bladders
(modules A and B) with a spark-resistant
exterior cover and heavy-duty interior in-
flatable bag. Quick connect interchange-
able fittings snap in place and are corro-
sion resistant. A stainless steel harness has
extended lengths available and easily nav-
igates through pipes. Also showcased are
proprietary relief valve technology, and a
tri-flow inner tubing system (blue, black,
and exhaust hose) improves the efficiency
of gas flow in and out of the purge area.
Aquasol Corp.
www.aquasolwelding.com
(800) 564-9353
Direct Diode Laser Offers
Ultrahigh Brightness
The company designed the TeraBlade
2000, a 2-kW ultrahigh-brightness direct
diode laser, specifically for cutting steel
and other metals in industrial applica-
tions. It operates at 970 nm, features a
JANUARY 2013 22
The DP direct drive series, a new generation of friction
welding machines, produce all types of drill pipes. A light-
weight, quick release tooling system has been added so there
is no need for changeovers using cranes, and an updated, in-
process optical measurement device provides accurate TIR
data for every component. In addition, the company devel-
oped an in-cycle, internal boring tool for removing flash from
narrow-diameter tool joints, meaning the process can be per-
formed on the same machine without transferring the com-
ponents elsewhere for a separate operation. The environ-
mental friendly machine includes redesigned hydraulic packs
with energy-saving, variable speed drives, nonpriming pumps,
and low noise guard booths. Also, they are equipped with
forge clamps for friction welding an unlimited range of pipe
sizes and lengths. They use a closed loop control system for
monitoring the weld head speed and position.
Thompson
www.thompson-friction-welding.com
(586) 466-6180
Friction Welding Machines
Feature Quick Release Tooling System
P and P January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 12:57 PM Page 22
23 WELDING JOURNAL
100-micron output fiber, and a platform
scalable up to 6 kW.
TeraDiode
www.teradiode.com
(978) 952-2501
Animated Movie Highlights
Pipe Manufacturing
The advertising design firm has cre-
ated an animated movie with 3D motion
graphics, photographs, and text that pres-
ent the American Steel Pipe ERW manu-
facturing process. Included are images of
the steel roll loading, edging, forming,
welding, seam annealing, cutting, and in-
spection processes at the plant. The pres-
entation is available as a continuous HD
video for YouTube and iPad
®
use, a loop-
ing Flash swf file for trade show exhibit
monitors, and a navigable Flash swf for
the corporate Web site.
Ninetimes
www.ninetimes.com
(707) 494-3883
GMA Gun Liner System
Reduces Downtime
The Quick Load™ Liner Au-
toLength™ system minimizes downtime
and prevents quality problems associated
with incorrect GMA gun liner length. It
can be used with guns equipped with these
liners, specifically the Bernard™ T-Gun™
semiautomatic gun and Tregaskiss™ ro-
botic GMA guns. Also, it helps reduce
wire-feeding problems and decreases
meltbacks, along with premature contact
tip failure and wear associated with mis-
alignment between the liner and contact
tip. A spring-loaded module housed in-
side the power pin applies constant pres-
sure on the liner, keeping it seated prop-
erly in the retaining head at all times. The
system allows for up to 1 in. forgiveness
and accommodates liner movement dur-
ing welding.
Tregaskiss
www.tregaskiss.com
(877) 737-3111
iPhone® App Contains
Safety Information
The company has launched an appli-
cation for iPhones
®
that provides metal-
workers around the world with easy ac-
cess to essential safety information. The
app’s highlights include an abrasives
speed chart that provides maximum
rev/min information for the company’s
discs; minimum and maximum grinding
angles according to type of grinder and
choice of abrasive; a chart that provides
optimal drilling rev/min; an annular core
cutting speed chart, which establishes the
recommended rev/min; a unit converter;
flashlight; and a level to determine the
angle of any surface. Walter Safety App can
be downloaded from iTunes.
Walter Surface Technologies
www.walter.com
(800) 522-0321
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P and P January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 12:57 PM Page 23
Mobile Collaboration
Connects Experts to
Remote Locations
Onsight, a mobile collaboration sys-
tem, connects internal experts to remote
locations in real time with multiple layers
of security. Companies can now take video
collaboration onto the plant floor, to a
supplier location, or into the field where
the problems are occurring. The system
contains three components: either an On-
sight 1000, Onsight 2000, or Onsight
2000EX wireless device; Onsight Expert,
the desktop collaboration software that
runs on the computer of a subject matter
expert; and Onsight Management Suite
software, which provides system adminis-
trators with centralized management
tools.
Librestream
www.librestream.com
(800) 849-5507
Laser Beam Splitters
Facilitate Measurements
A new line of CO
2
laser beam splitters
and laser beam combiners, made from
ZnSe with various coatings to achieve
JANUARY 2013 24
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P and P January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 12:57 PM Page 24
their polarization states, are designed for
engraving, marking, and scribing lasers.
The beam splitters facilitate power meas-
urements and other dual uses by reflect-
ing a percentage of the beam, typically
50% or polarization insensitive beam,
which covers all polarizations. The beam
combiners permit alignment and focusing
by providing a visual light beam.
Laser Research Optics
www.laserresearch.net
(888) 239-5545
Posters Provide Guide to
Welding, Cutting Processes
The company’s wall posters offer a vi-
sual guide to GMAW, GTAW, SMAW,
cored-wire, and oxyfuel gas welding and
cutting processes. Included is information
on how to select the right welding equip-
ment for a given process, wire feeder units,
torches, and shielding gases. They are
available free of charge.
Murex Welding Products
www.murexwelding.co.uk
+44 (0) 1992 710000
Laser Safe Gloves Protect
Against Radiation
Laser Glove, a five-finger certified laser
protection glove, offers a resistance of 40
kW/m
2
against laser radiation of 1064 nm
before exceeding the MPE Skin-Value.
The glove’s features include temperature
isolation, protection against cutting dam-
age, and coating of the fingertips and palm
to protect delicate laser optics and optical
elements from sweat and other liquids.
Laservision
www.laservision-usa.com
(800) 393-5565
25 WELDING JOURNAL
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P and P January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 12:58 PM Page 25
Welder’s Pliers Presented
for Multipurpose Use
The 9 in. 360 Professional Multi-Pur-
pose Welder’s Plier features an original
groove-nose design for quick and clean
spatter removal; a precision-machined,
laser heat-treated, knife-and-anvil cutting
edge for long-term cutting performance;
an elongated nose with cross-hatch grips
for secure drawing of wire or gripping of
hot metal; and two hammering surfaces.
This six-in-one plier is made of 12 oz of
drop-forged, high-carbon C1080 steel.
Also available is a CODE BLUE® ver-
sion of the tool, model number 360CB.
Product specifications and images are
available on the Web site.
Channellock, Inc.
www.channellock.com
(800) 724-3018
Catalog Showcases GMAW
Guns and Consumables
The company’s new catalog helps cus-
tomers select semiautomatic GMAW
guns and consumables. Included is prod-
uct feature and benefit information, as
well as comparative reference charts and
JANUARY 2013 26

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— continued on page 100
P and P January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 12:58 PM Page 26
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JANUARY 2013 28
FABTECH 2012
With a supersized welding product
marketplace, full­on professional
program, and countless networking
opportunities, Las Vegas attendees
could bet the house they’d find
something to enhance their careers at
this year’s show
BY ANDREW CULLISON, KRISTIN CAMPBELL,
CARLOS GUZMAN, AND MARY RUTH JOHNSEN
ANDREW CULLISON (cullison@aws.org) is publisher,
KRISTIN CAMPBELL (kcampbell@aws.org) is associate editor, and
MARY RUTH JOHNSEN (mjohnsen@aws.org) is editor of the Welding Journal.
CARLOS GUZMAN (cguzman@aws.org) is editor, Welding Journal en Español.
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:16 PM Page 28
29 WELDING JOURNAL
Monday, November 12
Annual Business Meeting Convenes. William Arent,
director of economic and urban development, Las Vegas Rede-
velopment Agency, welcomed the American Welding Society
to the city of Las Vegas, noting the city has a population of
600,000, with another two million in the surrounding area. Chal-
lenges still exist in the manufacturing and construction sectors,
but he sees opportunities developing in both of those areas. “It
is time to dwell on the positive,” he said. “Manufacturing in the
United States is still the strongest in the world.”
The 93rd business meeting of the American Welding Soci-
ety was called to order by AWS President William Rice. Digni-
taries from 15 sister organizations in the United States and from
around the world were recognized. President Rice then noted
this has been a very good year for the American Welding Soci-
ety. He went on to list some of the Society’s achievements dur-
ing 2012. In that list were the continuing development of Amer-
ican Welding Online (AWO), a series of online courses for ed-
ucation and certification programs; AWS hosting the Interna-
tional Institute of Welding’s 65th Annual Assembly, which at-
tracted 800 attendees from 49 countries; scouts all over the
country earning the Boy Scout welding merit badge, the devel-
opment of which was spearheaded by AWS; the success of the
traveling Careers in Welding trailer, which has exposed thou-
sands of young people to welding; and the Society’s move into
a new World Headquarters, which had its grand opening this
past November.
President-elect Nancy Cole spoke of the shortage of welders
that still plagues many industries. “To meet this shortage, we
have to improve the image of welding, invite new faces into the
profession, and get the word out of the good pay and opportu-
nities that exist,” she said. “Women have been underutilized in
combating this shortage,” she continued. “I will celebrate
women in welding and encourage more to enter the profession
during my presidency.” Cole noted the many past and present
achievements of women who have advanced their careers
through welding.
Adams Lecture. Professor Sindo Kou (Fig. 1) of the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, has spent much of his career
studying fluid flow and solidification of the weld pool. Funda-
mental research at the university has demonstrated the follow-
FABTECH 2012 defied the Las Vegas odds and
came up a winner. Attendance for the three­day
event was a robust 25,903, and the combined net
square footage for the exhibition was 465,330.
Crowds and optimism marked FABTECH, which was
held Nov. 12–14, in Las Vegas, Nev. On the welding
side, 522 exhibitors occupied 174,129 sq ft.
Although uncertainties still exist in the economy,
many manufacturers see an improving growth rate
in 2013.
In addition to the exhibitions, there was a full
arena of educational opportunities throughout the
three days. More than 100 conferences, seminars,
technical presentations, and keynote speakers
were offered to the attendees. One discussion that
garnered a standing­room only crowd featured a
panel of experts who offered an analysis on the
presidential election result and how it may affect
manufacturing in 2013. A roundup of that analysis
is reported later in this article. Following is a day­
by­day review of the show’s highlights.
Fig. 1 — During this year’s Adams Lecture, Prof. Sindo
Kou related how fluid flow and solidification during
welding dominate the fusion zone of the resultant weld.
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:17 PM Page 29
JANUARY 2013 30
ing: Computer models capable of calculating the weld-pool
shape; visualization of Marangoni flow, including its reversal
and oscillation; a theory on the effect of surface-active agent
beyond Heiple’s; quenching of the weld pool to reveal the mi-
crostructure development during welding; suppression of solid-
ification cracking with a wavy crack path; weakening of the par-
tially melted zone by severe grain-boundary segregation; pre-
diction and elimination of liquation-cracking susceptibility; fun-
damental concepts regarding dissimilar filler metals; and
macrosegregation mechanisms beyond Savage’s.
The full text of Kou’s lecture was published in the Novem-
ber 2012 Welding Journal beginning on page 287-s.
The AWS/SkillsUSA U.S. Invitational Weld Trials.
Eleven competitors from five countries competed throughout
the exposition in the AWS/SkillsUSA U.S. Invitational Weld
Trials. Attendees witnessed firsthand the competition spread
over four days of welding using multiple welding processes. The
judging criteria comprised safety, print reading, penetration
and fusion, distortion control, selection of filler metal, manipu-
lative skills, destructive and nondestructive testing, welding ma-
chine parameter setting, and general appearance of the proj-
ect. Some of the welding required X-ray reviews and hydrostatic
pressure tests to 1000 lb/in.
2
to verify the integrity and quality
of the welds.
Six national SkillsUSA welder finalists (Fig. 2) competed
alongside five international welders representing Australia,
Canada, United Kingdom (2), and Russia.
The top three U.S.A. competitors were 1st place winner Alex
Pazkowski from Washtenaw Community College; 2nd place An-
drew Cardin from Valley Technical High School; and 3rd place
Tanner Tipsword from Wyoming College. The overall top three
finishers were Alex Pazkowski (Gold), Andrew Cardin (Silver),
and Canadian Nick Kitt (Bronze).
The top three U.S.A. competitors will advance to a “tune
up” at the AIDT Training Center in Mobile, Ala., a division of
the Alabama Department of Commerce that encourages eco-
nomic development through job-specific training. Past Tea-
mUSA welding medalists will train the three finalists to give
TeamUSA the best chances of earning a medal in Germany.
These top three welders will compete for the final TeamUSA
position during the 2013 Daytona 500 Speedweek. That winner
will not only represent the United States at the 42nd World-
Skills Competition in Leipzig, Germany, July 2–7, but will also
receive a $40,000 scholarship from the Miller Electric Mfg. Co.,
administered through the AWS Foundation.
Tuesday, November 13
Plummer Memorial Education Lecture. Professor
Yoni Adonyi, LeTourneau University, Longview, Tex., delivered
the Plummer Lecture for 2012 — Fig. 3. His talk was titled Weld-
ing Engineering Education and Training — National and Inter-
national Perspectives — Confessions of a PhD Who Can Weld.
From his formal educational beginning in Romania to his
PhD in welding engineering from The Ohio State University,
Adonyi has led a life of varied experiences. His welding experi-
ences began in the summers between college semesters and
were enhanced while in the Israeli military, where he became
proficient with the GTAW process welding aluminum.
Knowing how to weld has made him a better teacher. “The
practical experience I learned from gas tungsten arc welding
made me better aware of the fundamentals of the process and
where improvements could be made,” he said.
His teaching career began when he became aware of an open-
ing at LeTourneau University. Even though he was on a suc-
cessful career path working in the research department of U.S.
Steel at the time, he was willing to take a 40% pay cut to teach.
“It was a calling I felt I had to fulfill,” he said. “It was an op-
portunity to give back to society.” Adonyi was also concerned
about the lack of qualified welding engineers in the workforce.
He cited statistics from a survey that indicated only 30% of
those in industry who hold the title of welding engineer have
the educational background for that position. This group lack-
ing in formal education for a welding engineer included me-
chanical engineers and materials engineers, as well as welders
who have come up through the ranks.
His mission is to improve those statistics, but he feels for-
mal education is under attack in the information age. “There is
so much information available on the Internet that some mis-
take this as enough for a formal education,” he said. “They think
all knowledge can be accessed electronically,” he continued. In
Fig. 2 — The U.S.A. instructors are (back row, from left to right) Stan Nichols, Glenn Kay, Scott Holcomb, Dan Rivera,
Matt Hayden, and Christian Beaty. The U.S.A. participants are (front row, left to right) Tanner Tipsword (3rd place in
the U.S.A. competition), Alex Pazkowski (1st place in the U.S.A. competition and Gold Medal overall), Jordan Decker,
Andrew Cardin (2nd place in the U.S.A. competition and Silver Medal overall), Drew Swafford, and Michael Miller.
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:17 PM Page 30
31 WELDING JOURNAL
reality, education requires discipline and
direct instruction. He uses electronic
communication to enhance learning, but
places an emphasis on appealing to a stu-
dent’s sense of reasoning. It is not just
finding the information, but he encour-
ages processing the information.
Adonyi also spoke of some myths of
research vs. teaching that need debunk-
ing. There is sometimes in academia the
thinking that research is fun and teach-
ing is boring, or research is just a money-
making proposition, or teachers don’t
know how to do research. “I say teach-
ing feeds on new research and research
can’t exist without good teaching. By
being a teacher and a researcher, I have
helped to improve the curriculum and be-
come much more aware of all the aspects
of the discipline,” he said.
As a teacher, he hopes to leave a
legacy of adding value to the welding in-
dustry and being a part of the solution.
Washington Insiders Evaluate
the Impact of Election Results on
U.S. Manufacturing. A packed audi-
ence formed at the North FABTECH
Theater for “Post-Election Analysis:
How the Results Impact U.S. Manufac-
turing” held exactly one week after elec-
tion day.
Paul Nathanson, a founding partner
at the Policy Resolution Group, moder-
ated the event at which Omar S.
Nashashibi, a partner at The Franklin
Partnership, LLP, and David Goch, a
partner at Webster, Chamberlain &
Bean, served as panelists — Fig. 4.
The session kicked off with
Nashashibi detailing how President
Barack Obama won a second term and
the votes earned from various demo-
graphics. As for what will happen next,
considering the lame duck session of
Congress, one of the many issues is the
framework regarding $109 billion in au-
tomatic spending cuts.
In addition, Nathanson mentioned
not wanting to fall off the fiscal cliff. It
is expected the 113th Congress will tackle
numerous important issues next year.
“We are hoping for a comprehensive
tax reform,” Nashashibi said. Goch also
believes Obama’s second term will be a
collective legacy with Congress and the
president working together.
At the end, Nathanson spoke about
workforce development. Nashashibi feels
connecting community colleges with
workplaces and bringing parents into fa-
cilities are essential. Goch adds educa-
tion should be a national strategic initia-
tive, not a social issue. “The long-term
value is enormous,” Goch said.
Women Celebrate Their Contri­
butions to the Gases and Welding
Industries. The Women in Gases and
Welding Network (WGW) got its start
with the GAWDA organization and is
now a collaboration between AWS and
GAWDA. At this reception during
FABTECH, AWS President-Elect Nancy
Cole stated that industry needs to get the
word out to women about the many op-
portunities available in the gases and
welding industries. She shared stories
about women currently working in a va-
riety of welding-related fields who are ex-
cellent role models.
Emily DeRocco, former president,
The Manufacturing Institute, National
Association of Manufacturers, noted that
the number of women in manufacturing
is still low — Fig. 5. “Women hold less
than 25% of STEM (science, technology,
engineering, and mathematics) jobs, in-
cluding in manufacturing and energy,”
she said. According to the U.S. Dept. of
Commerce in 2011, “The number of
women in executive positions was 11%
in the durable goods category, and 13%
in nondurable goods. However, the num-
ber of women-owned businesses in man-
ufacturing has doubled in the last
Fig. 3 — Professor Yoni Adonyi, Le­
Tourneau University, presented
the Plummer Lecture.
Fig. 4 — Moderator Paul Nathanson along with panelists Omar S. Nashashibi
and David Goch (on stage, from left) led “Post­Election Analysis: How the
Results Impact U.S. Manufacturing.”
Fig. 5 — Emily DeRocco, former
president of The Manufacturing
Institute, said she hoped to see
growth in the number of women
involved in manufacturing be­
cause it offers them opportunities
for well­paid, skilled jobs.
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:17 PM Page 31
Wednesday, November 14
Thomas Lecture. David Bolser of The Boeing Co., St.
Louis, Mo., gave this year’s Thomas Lecture, “Standards for
Friction Stir Welding Aluminium” — Fig. 6.
He identified friction stir welding (FSW), patented by TWI
Ltd., England, in 1991, as a solid-state welding process that pro-
duces high-quality welds in difficult-to-weld materials.
When increased FSW use created the need for a U.S. stan-
dard, AWS published D17.3/D17.3M:2010, Specification for Fric-
tion Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace Applications.
Also, when increased FSW use created the need for an ISO
standard, Bolser was asked to lead a working group to write this
specification. In detail, he described the five parts of ISO 25239,
Friction stir welding — Aluminium, including vocabulary; design
of weld joints; qualification of welding operators; specification
and qualification of welding procedures; and quality and in-
spection requirements.
In summary, Bolser stated the adoption of FSW standards
represents a significant leap in the technology readiness level
of the process and its ability to move into production. During
the Q&A portion, he offered good advice; the team leader works
hard with committee members to put together a standard, so
three-day meetings are best, and have someone who knows the
system tutor you.
10th Annual Image of Welding Award Winners
Honored. The American Welding Society (AWS) and the
Welding Equipment Manufacturers Committee (WEMCO) rec-
ognized the recipients of the 2012 10th Annual Image of Weld-
ing Awards during a ceremony at FABTECH — Fig. 7. The win-
ners are as follows.
• Individual Category, Ernest D. Levert, Dallas, Tex. Levert,
the senior staff manufacturing engineer for Lockheed Martin
Missiles and Fire Control, Dallas, Tex., is a past AWS president
and an AWS Counselor. He has averaged more than 1100 h of
volunteer service to the Boy Scouts of America and local schools
each year.
JANUARY 2013 32
decade.” She said manufacturing is still
where high-skilled, high-level, high-paid,
middle-class jobs can be found, but
women have made up only 2.5% of the
skilled trades over the past 30 years.
“Two things need to be done,” she
said. “Manufacturers need highly skilled
workers and workers — male and female
— need training for skilled jobs.”
Two new scholarships for women were
announced during the reception. Air
Products and the AWS Foundation are
jointly establishing a $50,000 scholarship
to help enable women to develop the
skills required to pursue technical ca-
reers. The first annual $2500 scholarship
will be awarded this year to a woman pur-
suing higher education in a welding or
engineering discipline, who has proven
to be an exceptional student and is eager
to start her career in the industry.
“We are excited about coming to-
gether with the AWS to provide this
scholarship opportunity to women for the
benefit of our industry,” said Sue Reiter,
regional distributor sales manager at Air
Products and a member of the WGW
strategic committee. “This scholarship
program supports not only Air Products’
future employment needs, but also the
creation of a workforce with the skills
necessary to help companies compete in
today’s global economy.”
The William F. Fray National Women
in Welding Scholarship will also be
awarded through the AWS Foundation.
Fray was a life member of AWS and
owner of a stainless steel tank fabrica-
tion company in Bridgeport, Conn. His
daughter, Elizabeth (Liz) Fray, who ran
the organizational side of the tank com-
pany for 20 years, wanted to honor her
father. The $50,000 endowment will po-
vide an annual award of $2500. The first
award will be made after November of
this year. Liz Fray decided to create a
scholarship specifically for women be-
cause there was not one in place previ-
ously, and her focus is to encourage and
support women toward a welding career.
Fig. 6 — David Bolser explained the
five parts of ISO 25239, Friction stir
welding — Aluminium, during his
Thomas Lecture.
Fig. 7 — Pictured at the 2012
Image of Welding Awards (from
left) are winners Ernest D. Levert
(Individual); David Parker (Educa­
tor); Allie Reynolds (Distributor,
WELSCO); David Corbin (Large
Business, Vermeer Corp.); and
Glenn Kay (Educational Facility,
Washtenaw Community College).
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:18 PM Page 32
For the machine shop that needs an
all-inclusive fluid filtration and recycling
system, the SumpDoc from Eriez® is on
call. Just introduced this year at IMTS,
this machine can be moved from sump to
sump with an attached motorized pallet
— Fig. 8. A fully automated system first
removes sludge and chips from the sump,
then filters out particulates down to 3 mi-
crons in size and separates oils. While the
coolant recycles, the oils are collected in
a disposable tank. The clean coolant is
analyzed and mixed with water in three
different levels of concentration, de-
pending on the needs of the operation.
Since this is all happening in a continu-
ous loop, there is no need to shut down
the operation. This equipment is eco-
nomically feasible for an operation
with ten sumps or more. Eriez®,
www.eriez.com
The BW5000 (Fig. 9) from Climax is
designed for circumferential weld
cladding, and it can operate at 100% duty
cycle with a compatible CV power sup-
ply. Pipes, pressure vessels, and even con-
ical shapes are within its capabilities.
Weld deposits of 0.125 to 0.35 in. thick
can be made at up to a 12 lb/h rate. The
unit can also weld flange faces and coni-
cal seats. It takes welders out of difficult
and hard-to-reach situations, as well as
removes them from fume concentrations
in confined areas. Climax Portable Ma-
chining & Welding Systems, www.climax
portable.com
A first-time exhibitor at FABTECH,
Hex-Hut is out to introduce its portable
shelter system to the U.S. market. The
nine-year-old company has been active
mostly in Canada in the oil and gas in-
33 WELDING JOURNAL
• Educator Category, David Parker, Renton, Wash. Parker, an
instructor at Renton Community College for more than 30 years,
received several awards including the statewide, 2001 Excel-
lence in Teaching Award by the Washington Association of Oc-
cupational Educators. He has also helped companies set up cur-
riculums for training welders.
• Educational Facility, Washtenaw Community College (WCC),
Ann Arbor, Mich. WCC’s welding/fabrication facility has 60
newly redesigned welding booths. With a staff of industry-ex-
perienced and AWS-certified instructors, it offers certificate
and associate degree welding programs. WCC student welders
represented the U.S.A. at the last two WorldSkills competitions
and brought home medals both times.
• Small Business, AMET, Inc., Rexburg, Idaho. AMET, started
in 1989, offers turnkey automated welding systems. It has been
an integrator of computerized welding systems to meet de-
manding applications in nuclear, aerospace, oil and gas, wind
tower, heavy industry, and general manufacturing industries.
• Large Business, Vermeer Corp., Pella, Iowa. Since its start
in 1948, Vermeer has grown from a one-person Iowa operation
to an international organization that manufactures agricultural,
construction, environmental, and industrial equipment. It has
started facilitating plans for a career academy, enlisting the as-
sistance of area educational institutions.
• Distributor, WELSCO, Little Rock, Ark. WELSCO, the largest
woman-owned gas and welding supply distributor in the United
States, is also a family business that has served the market for
more than 70 years. It sponsors the Arkansas Welding Expo and
offers process training sessions for instructors during the sum-
mer breaks.
• AWS Section, Houston Section, Houston, Tex. The AWS
Houston Section sponsors various events throughout the year,
including an instructor’s institute, student certification day,
spring and fall educational sessions, and student nights. This
year, it awarded eight welding scholarships totaling $8500.
• Media, Meghan Boyer, “Help Wanted, Skills Required.” Pub-
lished in the February 2012 FF Journal, Boyer’s article “Help
Wanted, Skills Required,” focuses on manufacturers’ need for
workers, Americans who need jobs, and the skills gap keeping
them apart.
Fig. 8 — An attached motorized
pallet facilitates moving the Eriez®
SumpDoc to different locations.
Fig. 9 — The BW5000 is designed
for weld cladding circular surfaces
both inside and outside diameters.
Fig. 10 — A lightweight support at­
taches directly to the pipe to hold
the Hex­Hut shelter.
Of course, the products and vendors are FABTECH’s biggest
draw. Following are just a few of those that drew the attention
of Welding Journal editors.
Welding Product
Showcase
FABTECH 2012
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:18 PM Page 33
dustry. The frame that supports the
flame-retardant material of the shelter
attaches directly to the pipe (Fig. 10) and
can be configured to meet different
slopes or elevations. Setup is done with
pins and lanyards, eliminating the need
for special tools or hardware. Three dif-
ferent sizes are available weighing 139,
167, and 213 lb to accommodate pipe
sizes from 3 to 56 in. Hex-Hut, www.hex-
hut.com
The Warrior power source from
ESAB was literally unveiled at
FABTECH — Fig. 11. This new intro-
duction took a fast track for development
requiring only ten months. By working
directly with welders, the company got
quick feedback with prototypes that were
tested in the field. What welders said they
wanted was a machine easy to use, with
simple controls, robust enough for tough
working conditions, and performance.
ESAB claims to have incorporated this
wish list into the Warrior. All controls,
as well as the power switch, are accessi-
ble on the front of the machine, and the
knob design takes into account the wear-
ing of gloves. It is a multiprocess machine
that performs FCAW, GMAW, GTAW,
SMAW, and arc gouging. The unit can de-
liver up to 500 A at 60% duty cycle, and
it can be used in general fabrication
under roof, or outdoors in remote loca-
tions. ESAB, www.esabna.com
A new promotion for Motoman is its
MC2000 robot intended for high accu-
racy laser cutting — Fig. 12. The gear de-
sign has taken out the “backlash,” allow-
ing repeatability within 0.07 mm accu-
racy in cutting rectangles, ellipses, pen-
tagons, hexagons, and circles. This six-
axis robot can handle up to a 50-kg pay-
load. In addition to cutting, it can also be
used for welding. Yaskawa America, Inc.,
Motoman Robotics Div., www.mo-
toman.com
The FIT RITE system consists of fix-
tures designed to optimize the speed and
accuracy of pipe fits. The system’s inven-
tor, Kayworth Mann, said the idea for the
precision pipe fitting system came to him
in a dream. He had been working as a
consultant on a job and felt that because
of the time spent fitting pipe some prof-
its had been lost. That bothered him, so
he began thinking of another way. The
system’s primary fixture is the fitting cra-
dle that holdes pipe or flanges and the
fitting rests to properly position align-
ment — Fig. 13. Included are two fitting
cradles; one fitting rest each for pipe nip-
ple, short pipe, T, short radius elbow, and
45-deg elbow; and a patented tri-spacer
for alignment of spacing. The tri-spacer
can also be used to adjust roundness of
the pipe or tube. The system comes in
sizes ranging from
1
⁄2 through 12 in. nom-
inal. Universal fixtures are available in
sizes ranging from 14 in. through 24-in.
nominal. Fixtures for pipe from 26 to 72
in. can be produced by special order. Fit
Rite, www.fitritefast.com
Lincoln Electric introduced its latest
virtual reality arc welding training prod-
uct during this year’s show. The
VRTEX® Mobile (Fig. 14) delivers
basic, entry-level training. It comes with
a preinstalled basic GMAW package pro-
viding training for flat plate, 2F and 3F
joints, and 1G, 2G, and 3G grooves. A
SMAW package is optional. The virtual
SMAW device is at a fixed 90-deg angle.
It comes with a monoscopic, face-
mounted display with touchscreen user
interface, and a tabletop coupon stand.
Deanna Postlethwaite, marketing man-
ager, Automation Div., said, “What we
found with the first (VRTEX™ 360 sys-
tem,) was that people were moving it all
the time, and it wasn’t really designed for
that.” The new smaller, less expensive,
more basic version offers the mobility
customers were looking for. The Lincoln
Electric Co., www.lincolnelectric.com
A lot of people took a look at Baxter™
during the show, and it seemed that it was
looking back at them — Fig. 15. The
brainchild of Rodney Brooks, former di-
rector of the artificial intelligence labo-
ratory at MIT and one of the founders of
iRobot, Baxter is a robot with a some-
what human appearance that can per-
form a variety of production tasks while
safely and intelligently working next to
people. A key feature is that anyone can
program it. The robot “learns” its tasks
through demonstrations of what it needs
to do. It was designed with a safety sys-
tem that allows it to work in close prox-
JANUARY 2013 34
Fig. 11 — The Warrior, a multi­
process power source designed for
many different applications, was
introduced by ESAB.
Fig. 13 — The FIT RITE pipe fitting
system, shown here with its inven­
tor Kayworth Mann, provides
flange alignment and bolt hole ori­
entation in seconds and can be
used in the shop or field.
Fig. 12 — The Motoman MC2000
robot’s gear design allows re­
peatability within 0.07­mm accu­
racy.
Fig. 14 — The VRTEX® Mobile of­
fers basic GMAW and SMAW vir­
tual reality welder training, and
can be moved to wherever it’s
needed.
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:19 PM Page 34
imity to people in a production environ-
ment with no barriers. No integration is
required; it comes out of the box with
hardware, software, controls, user inter-
face, safety, and sensors. It can perform
a wide range of tasks incuding material
handling, light assembly, loading/unload-
ing, and testing and sorting. The robot
features two arms, each with seven axes
of motion, built-in electric grippers, and
five cameras. It is priced at $22,000. Re-
think Robotics, Inc., www.rethinkrobot-
ics.com
The UDR-V2011 ultradynamic-range
weld video camera system filters the light
from the arc to produce images in the
range best seen by the human eye. With
the system, it is possible to view the arc,
electrode, weld pool, joint and surround-
ing base metal before, during, and after
the welding process live or record the im-
ages for later use. Designed for use in au-
tomated welding for weld quality assur-
ance, and for development and setup of
weld processes. The system includes the
camera, laptop or desktop computer,
software, and cables — Fig. 16. There is
no need for physical filters, the software
performs the filtering function. It records
the full ultradynamic range of
up to 10,000,000:1. InterTest, www.in-
tertest.com
The LD-600R, a compact tilt/turn po-
sitioner, handles pieces in excess of 1100
lb six in. off the table — Fig. 17. Opera-
tion is simple with standard foot switch
and pendant controls, as well as an easy-
to-read protractor dial indicator. It also
offers a compact size (705 lb unit weight)
and square footprint design. The posi-
tioner can be used with GTA and GMA
welding machines. A new noise tolerance
design reduces the impact generated dur-
ing GTAW to ensure stable rotation. The
company’s exclusive antidust and spatter
design allows stable operation. It is use-
ful for users in pipefitting and petro-
chemical industries along with boiler-
makers. Options include a torch stand,
automatic welding controller, and work
chuck. Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome,
www.koike.com
The Powermax105®offers a 105-A air
plasma system for hand and automated
cutting as well as gouging — Fig. 18. It
cuts 1
1
⁄4-in.-thick metal and severs metal
up to 2 in. thick. Based on the same tech-
nology platform as the Powermax65 and
Powermax85, the product represents four
years of research, engineering, and test-
ing. Also, it delivers faster cut speed, im-
proved cut quality, and long consumable
life; seven torch options for cutting and
gouging versatility, whether by hand, ma-
chine, or robot; and patented Smart-
Sense™ technology that automatically
adjusts gas pressure and detects when
consumables have reached end of life.
Hypertherm, www.hypertherm.com
The HS-80, HS-165, and HS-200, com-
bined with Panasonic’s G3 welding robot,
position the material for welding to pro-
vide a synchronized robotic system — Fig.
19. They are available in 80-, 165-, and
200-kg versions. The common pendant
and language eliminates the need to learn
extra robotic languages. The robots work
in tandem to complete tasks. In addition,
programming the weld position becomes
as easy as working with a fixed workpiece,
ensuring out-of-position welding is
avoided. The material handling robots
offer network capabilities with fully digi-
tal communication protocol. They are
also useful for heavy equipment, automo-
tive, and material handling industries.
Miller Electric Mfg. Co., www.miller-
welds.com
Jackson Safety’s autodarkening weld-
ing helmets featuring Balder technology
give welders a clear view from various an-
gles, reducing eye fatigue as well as the
35 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 15 — Rethink Robotics de­
signed its robot so anyone could
program it and so people could
work near it without the need for a
safety cage.
Fig. 17 — A new design in LD­600R,
a portable multipurpose posi­
tioner, reduces the impact of noise
generated during GTAW ensures
stable rotation.
Fig. 18 — For cutting and gouging
flexibility, the Powermax105® fea­
tures seven torch options.
Fig. 19 — The G3 material handling
robots, combined with Panasonic’s
G3 welding robot, position the ma­
terial for optimum welding.
Fig. 16 — The software of the UDR­
V2011 digital weld video camera
system filters out the light from
the welding arc so users see a clear
image of the weld.
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:19 PM Page 35
need to move, adjust, and refocus. The
WH70 BH3 helmet with this technology
offers enhanced visibility and color
recognition, plus a variable shade (9–13),
adjustable sensitivity, and opening time
delays — Fig. 20. It is especially useful
for GMAW and GTAW. Improvements
over the HSL-100 include a curved front
cover plate for reduced heat buildup, re-
flections, and fogging. The helmet has a
five-year warranty. Kimberly-Clark Pro-
fessional, www.kcprofessional.com
UltraBraze™ from Luvata is a new
furnace brazing alloy that promises to im-
prove on alloys commonly used for this
application, such as pure copper (CDA
102 or 110 alloy) or a paste mixture con-
sisting of pure copper powder and a
binder — Fig. 21. UltraBraze, which is
approximately 95% copper, is formu-
lated to offer better wetting with reduced
puddling and run-off, automatically
adapting to joint clearance variances to
produce more uniform welds. In tests,
shear strength associated with this new
alloy increased more than 50%. Costs are
reduced because there is no need to use
flux or binders, and because the results
are more consistent, there are less de-
fects and rework. Luvata Ohio, Inc.,
www.luvata.com/ohio
Walter Surface Technologies pre-
sented the AF-WELD antispatter and Air
Force Starter Kit that includes the use of
the Air Force Station, four 2.6-gal con-
tainers of AF-WELD liquid, and two re-
fillable bottles — Fig. 22. The station re-
fills the bottles with the antispatter liq-
uid, and air is used as a propellant, mak-
ing this a green system that eliminates
the use of polluting propellants and dis-
posable aerosol cans. The manufacturer
asserts that AF-WELD prevents weld
porosity, cracking, is corrosion resistant,
and allows for immediate painting. A
larger kit is also available, including a 55-
gal drum, six refillable bottles, and the
Air Force Station. The station is included
in the kit free of charge but remains prop-
erty of the manufacturer. Walter Surface
Technologies, www.walter.com
Engineers, purchasing professionals,
and facilities managers can conveniently
find suppliers, source products, and ac-
cess CAD models and product news by
visiting the new ThomasNet.com Web
site. The new Product Search platform
(ps.thomasnet.com) enables users to find
specific components and products.
Thomas has aggregated detailed infor-
mation and line item detail for more than
100 million parts from more than 30,000
suppliers. Product Search allows users to
specify the product they are looking for
using taxonomy-powered search and nav-
igation features. Specifiers can find the
product that meets their requirements by
defining precise product attributes such
as applications, materials, dimensions,
and tolerances. The new site also makes
it easier for buyers to find local suppli-
ers, quality certified suppliers, and com-
panies that meet their supplier diversity
requirements. ThomasNet, www.thomas-
net.com
StoodCor™ 136 by Stoody is a new
carbide deposit that produces chromium
and fine primary carbides in an austenitic
matrix — Fig. 23. It’s designed to be used
as an erosion- and corrosion-resistant
alloy deposit for hardfacing and cladding
applications, and its ability to resist high
abrasion in a corrosive environment
makes it especially suitable for hardfac-
ing and cladding slurry pipe, plate, and
vessels found in mixing, mining and quar-
rying industries. Stoody, Victor Tech-
nologies International, Inc., www.vic
tortechnologies.com/stoody
See You in Chicago
The 2013 FABTECH will be held at
McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill., Novem-
ber 18–21. It will be North America’s
largest welding, metalforming, and fab-
ricating event in 2013. For more infor-
mation, visit www.aws.org/expo.♦
JANUARY 2013 36
Fig. 20 — The WH70 BH3 helmet
with Balder technology improves
welders’ vision.
Fig. 21 — Luvata presented its new
furnace brazing alloy, UltraBraze,
designed to overcome the chal­
lenges of large joint clearance
steel­to­steel brazing.
Fig. 23 — StoodCor™ 136 is an
open­arc wire suited for ID
cladding of pipe. It provides both
erosion and corrosion resistance to
meet the needs of slurry trans­
portation applications.
Fig. 22 — The Air Force AF­WELD
Starter Kit includes four 2.6­gal
containers, two refillable bottles,
and the Air Force Station.
Cullison et al Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:20 PM Page 36
For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
astaras_FP_TEMP 12/11/12 3:14 PM Page 37
Fig. 1 — A robotic hybrid laser welding system.
Denney Laser feature_Layout 1 12/13/12 3:44 PM Page 38
39 WELDING JOURNAL
T
he process of combining lasers with
gas metal arc welding (GMAW) in a
single weld pool, known as hybrid
laser arc welding (HLAW), has been in
existence for almost 30 years — Figs. 1, 2
(Refs. 1, 2). The HLAW process was de-
veloped to meet many of the shortcom-
ings of autogenous laser welding. The first
issues that HLAW addressed were fitup
and the need in some applications to alter
the chemistry. In the past, the only high-
power lasers (greater than 5 kW) that re-
ally could benefit from HLAW were car-
bon dioxide (CO
2
), but their high costs
to purchase and operate limited their use.
But with advances in fiber-delivered
solid-state lasers (Yb-disk and Yb-fiber),
the “ownership costs” have drastically
lowered for high-power lasers.
In 1995, a 10-kW CO
2
laser cost ap-
proximately $1 million. Today, with in-
flation factored in, a similar Yb-fiber
laser costs about one-third that amount.
In addition to the reduction in procure-
ment cost, the reliability and mainte-
nance for the new solid-state lasers are
significantly better than for the older gas
lasers.
Today, with these lower costs and
higher powers for the lasers, there is a
renewed interest in the use of HLA weld-
ing for a wide range of applications.
Many have predicted that, with these
changes, HLAW technology would dis-
place traditional arc welding for a large
number of applications. However, the
numbers of HLAW systems sold do not
support those predictions. The question
is, “Why?”
Even before the development of the
new solid-state lasers, there were suc-
cesses using HLAW. These applications
were based on HLAW that used high-
power CO
2
lasers. The most notable was
the installation of a panel line at the
Meyer Werft Shipyard in Pappenburg,
Germany, which was made operational
in 2001 (Ref. 3). The system used three
high-power CO
2
lasers to weld bulk-
head/deck panels [max. 12 mm (
1
⁄2 in.)]
together and then attach the bulb “Ts” to
the panels.
While the higher welding speed was a
benefit compared with submerged arc
welding (SAW), another advantage was
the lower distortion compared to arc
welding. In addition, postwelding
processes such as leveling and dealing
with general distortion could be reduced
or eliminated.
The panel line at Meyer Werft Ship-
yard has been used as a model for the im-
plementation of HLAW, but implemen-
tation has not been as successful at other
shipyards or in other industries. While
these lessons are now almost 15 years old,
heeding the lessons learned and evaluat-
ing some simple recommendations may
help to successfully implement HLAW.
Some of the issues that may impact
the successful implementation of HLAW
are as follows.
Joint Design
When examining whether HLAW will
be of benefit, many engineers look at
their present weld joints and simply sub-
stitute a “laser weld” for the existing
process. However, for most arc welding
processes, the joints have been designed
with a considerable amount of the weld
joint consisting of filler material supplied
by the welding process. With this in mind,
and the fact that most arc processes have
high deposition rates and slower welding
speeds, filling these root openings and
addressing mismatch can be accom-
plished by making minor corrections to
welding speed or wire feed speed, or by
moving the torch in a weaving pattern.
Also, the profile/geometry of an ac-
ceptable weld has been defined around
these arc processes. However, for an edge
fillet application, the ability to meet the
leg and/or throat thickness is determined
by the amount of welding wire that can
be melted with the root opening/mis-
match and travel speed desired — Fig. 3.
Combining lasers with your gas metal arc
welding line may offer several advantages,
but first consider all the pros and cons
PAUL DENNEY (paul_denney@lincolnelec-
tric.com) is senior laser applications en-
gineer, Automation Division, The Lincoln
Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
What You Should Know about
Hybrid Laser Arc Welding
BY PAUL DENNEY
Denney Laser feature_Layout 1 12/17/12 9:05 AM Page 39
JANUARY 2013 40
For HLAW, developed around the fact
that a laser is a high-power-density
process that can achieve high aspect ratio
welds, using this process to melt material
for a weld joint primarily focused on the
size of the fillet greatly diminishes the
advantages of the HLAW process. So
butt joints are more “efficient” for the
laser than a true “fillet” weld where the
laser is only assisting in the melting of
the wire/filler material.
Specifications
There are limited industry specifica-
tions that address HLAW. In the case of
the Meyer Werft application, the ship-
yard worked closely with Det Norske Ver-
itas (DNV) to develop specifications for
HLAW as it applied to ships. ASME has
developed a specification for hybrid
welding, and the American Welding So-
ciety is in the process of forming Sub-
committee C7D to develop specifications
for HLAW. The U.S. Navy has accepted
HLAW processing on a very limited basis.
In most cases, these specifications de-
tail the parameters that should be con-
sidered critical and do not address the
performance of the weld joint. In many
cases, this is left to the company that is
using the process. For those companies
that are directly substituting the HLAW
for an arc process, especially those with
fillets, the specifications would normally
include the leg and throat size and would
not consider the penetration along an in-
terface. This use of arc-based specifica-
tions would often also specify a penetra-
tion into the base material. This is im-
portant because the welds may have too
little heat input and result in incomplete
fusion. This is less of an issue for the
laser; in fact, the more energy from the
laser used to melt the base material, the
less efficient the laser/HLAW process.
For those reasons, the most efficient
joint (heat input vs. the area of the weld)
is a square butt joint. For example, the
HLA weld shown in Fig. 4, with an inter-
face between the two parts greater than
1.5 times the thinnest member, would not
pass many company specifications be-
cause the vertical leg is less than the
thinnest member and the throat is not
sufficient.
Prewelding Steps
While a square butt or similar joint is
the most efficient, it may not be practi-
cal for many potential users of HLAW to
alter their designs to a butt joint. Many
potential users of HLAW presently use
sheared edges or possibly thermally cut
edges for their arc process. These cutting
processes usually result in larger root
openings and mismatch than usually rec-
ommended for laser or HLAW. Without
investing in improved cutting methods
and/or clamping techniques, it may not
be practical to use HLAW.
In the Meyer-Werft applications, the
joints were machined to improve fitup.
This ensured minimal root opening and,
therefore, minimal filler metal addition.
It also meant that the process did not
have to be adjusted for changing condi-
tions. In many applications, it is not prac-
tical to machine the edges that would be
HLA welded. However, with incorrect
weld joint design, dealing with a too large
root opening can sometimes make the
process impractical.
As an example, a typical joint that is
being considered for HLAW would be an
edge fillet in two materials 2.5 mm thick.
If the GMAW joint specifications are
going to be used, that normally would
mean that the weld nugget must have a
leg equal to the thickness of the plate (2.5
mm) and a throat thickness 60% of the
thickness. If these parts are stamped and
sheared, it is not unusual to have root
openings equal to 2 mm, so the new leg
would be 4.5 mm. Assuming an equal
Fig. 2 — Diagram of the hybrid laser-gas metal arc welding process.
Fig. 3 — Illustration of how a large root opening greatly increases the quantity of
additional filler metal required.
Denney Laser feature_Layout 1 12/14/12 2:44 PM Page 40
legged fillet, the joint is now 4.5 × 4.5
mm. That means to address the legs
alone, the volume of material deposited
must increase by 3.24 times the “no-root
opening” condition.
In turn, if the welding speed is to re-
main constant, then the weld wire feed
speed must increase by that factor (with
an increase in current) or the welding
speed must decrease. Assuming the user
is GMA welding at 17 mm/s (40 in./min),
then the wire feed speed for a no-root
opening situation would be 34 mm/s (118
in./min) for 1.2-mm- (0.045-in.-) diame-
ter wire and 112 mm/s (472 in./min) with
a 2-mm root opening.
These speeds are well within typical
wire feed and corresponding welding pa-
rameters for typical equipment. How-
ever, for a typical 6-kW-laser HLAW
process, the welding speed would be ex-
pected to be 50 mm/s (120 in./min). This
means to achieve the same fillet size, the
wire-feed speed for zero root opening
would be 161 mm/s (354 in./min) and 523
mm/s (1418 in./min).
As an alternative to these parameters,
it may be possible to decrease the travel
speed. Unfortunately, if the speed is de-
creased much below 42 mm/s (100
in./min), the travel speed will be very
close to speeds achievable with tandem
GMAW, which is less expensive to ac-
quire and operate.
Other Considerations
In considering the use of HLAW vs.
GMAW, the total number of welds per
part and the length of each of these welds
must be considered. As an example, for
many automotive parts, the GMA weld-
ing that is accomplished is done as small
stich welds that may be only 50 to 75 mm
(2 to 3 in.) in length. While these welds
may only be made at a quarter to one-
third of the speed of HLAW, the “air
time” of the robot constitutes most of the
cycle time. Therefore, moving from
GMAW to HLAW will not substantially
decrease the cycle time. For parts with a
large number of short welds, the cycle
time and, therefore, the number of weld-
ing cells required to meet a production
rate, is not going to be changed dramati-
cally by the higher welding speed of the
HLA process. It may actually be less ex-
pensive and faster to add another GMA
welding robot than to convert to HLAW.
As with any fusion process, the mate-
rial that may be added to the weld pool
and the amount of heat determines the
properties of the entire weldment, or
weld metal and heat-affected zone
(HAZ). For a typical GMA weld, the
filler material constitutes the majority of
the weld metal and therefore the me-
chanical properties. And because the
wire has been developed around certain
wire-feed rates and heat input, the prop-
erties are fairly well understood.
As for the HLAW, depending on the
weld joint, a number of conditions may
exist that differ from typical GMAW. As
the HLAW approaches an “autogenous”
weld (no filler), the microstructure of the
weld metal will approach that of the cast
(and rapidly cooled) base material. For
many moderate to highly alloyed steels,
for example, this may mean a weld with
very high hardness and very little ductil-
ity. The result of this would be that the
weld may be more prone to cracking.
Therefore, for welding of these alloys
with HLAW, a welding wire with less al-
loying may be required.
Added to any issues with the weld
metal will be the concern over the HAZ
of the weld joint. In GMAW or HLAW,
the chemistry of the HAZ material can-
not be changed. The only option with the
HAZ is to alter the thermal cycle that the
material goes through during the weld-
ing process. What happens in the HAZ
is highly influenced by the alloy that is
being welded and the “condition” the
material is in when welded. As an exam-
ple, if the material being welded is a
quench and tempered steel that has been
thermally treated to have a high hard-
ness, the HAZ of a GMA weld will de-
pend on the chemistry, parameters, and
procedures used. The material can be
overtempered in the HAZ and result in
a “softened” zone. If the same alloy in
the same condition is HLA welded, the
HAZ may be reaustenized and re-
quenched, resulting in a HAZ with very
high hardness. Actually, due to the higher
heat input from the HLAW vs. the auto-
genous laser welding, the HLAW may ac-
tually have a lower HAZ hardness.
Another scenario would be in materi-
als that are precipitation hardened. Like
the quench and temper materials, the
GMAW may over “heat treat” these ma-
terials and result in a softer HAZ, espe-
cially if multipass GMAW is needed to
make the joints. However, for HLAW, the
thermal cycle may be so short that there
may not be a noticeable HAZ. So, for
some materials, the use of HLAW may
actually offer benefits over welding with
GMAW.
While these examples and considera-
tions show where HLAW may not always
be the process of choice, there are appli-
cations where HLAW will be preferred.
A general statement is that the HLAW
process should not be substituted into
most typical joints designed for GMAW.
In some cases, it may be better to re-
design the joint specifically for the
HLAW process or to improve the joint
to take advantage of the low heat input
and high welding speed associated with
HLAW. Also, the greatest advantages for
HLAW are realized in very long welds
and situations where distortion of the
part is very critical.
Conclusions
In summary, HLA welding is not a
magic bullet that can be used on any and
all applications presently being GMA
welded. In most cases, substituting
HLAW directly into a GMAW applica-
tion is usually unsuccessful. However,
when the application is selected properly,
possibly requiring a part/joint redesign
for HLAW, changes to the procedures,
and even the materials, it may be possi-
ble to successfully implement HLAW
into production.♦
References
1. Bruck, G. J., et al. 1998. Method of
Welding. U.S. Patent No. 4,737,612.
2. Diebold, T. P., and Albright, C. E.
1984. Laser-GTA welding of aluminum
Alloy 5052. Welding Journal 63(6):
18−24.
3. Personal communication with Dr.
Frank Roland, former managing direc-
tor, Center of Maritime Technologies,
Hamburg, Germany, and former man-
ager for Advanced Welding Technolo-
gies, Meyer Werft Shipbuilding.
41 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 4 — Image of HLAW edge fillet
weld. Leg length L is much less than
material thickness T. However, the pen-
etration P is much greater than T, so
the weld strength is greater than if L
was equal to T.
Denney Laser feature_Layout 1 12/14/12 2:45 PM Page 41
JANUARY 2013 42
F
riction stir welding (FSW), in-
vented at The Welding Institute in
1991 (Ref. 1), is a solid-state join-
ing process in which welding defects
formed in conventional fusion welds are
not observed (Ref. 2). The shoulder pro-
vides the fundamental source of heat by
friction, prevents the material expulsion,
assists the material movement around
the tool, and mixes the material under the
tool shoulder. During the process, heat is
generated by plastic deformation as well
as by the friction between the tool and
workpieces. Friction stir welding is car-
ried out in several steps. First, the pin is
plunged into the joint formed by the two
sheets to be welded, until the shoulder
gets in contact. The sheets are heated
until melting temperature by rotation at
a high velocity without any translational
motion. Then, the tool is moved along the
weld interface, heating the material fur-
ther by the stirring action and moving the
softened (but always solid) material from
the front of the tool, and depositing it be-
hind its trailing edge to produce the weld.
Advantages of Friction
Stir Welds
The advantages of FSW include low
residual stress, low energy input, and fine
grain size compared to the conventional
welding methods.
Ferritic steels are generally more dif-
ficult to weld than austenitic steels. This
is the main reason they are not used to
the same extent as austenitic steels. AISI
430 has greatly reduced ductility in the
weld. This is mainly due to strong grain
growth in the heat-affected zone (HAZ),
but also to precipitation of martensite in
the HAZ.
Many parameters affect the welding
success and quality of FSW, especially
stainless steels, which are difficult to weld
due to their high melting points com-
pared with aluminum, brass, and copper.
Researchers and scientists are still work-
ing on the effects of these parameters on
the welding and welded joint strength.
Results of Earlier Studies
Alptekin (Ref. 3) obtained the best
weld joint in 304 austenitic stainless steel
using 1000 rev/min rotational speed, 63
mm/min traverse speed, and tool angle of
1 deg 45 s using a 20-mm-diameter tung-
sten carbide tool.
Meran and Canyurt (Ref. 4) studied
the effect of tool angle on friction stir
weldability of AISI 304 austenitic stain-
less steels, and they found the highest
tensile and impact test results at 2-deg
tool angle at a constant 1180 rev/min, 60
mm/min welding speed, and 9 kN axial
force.
Hattingh et al. (Ref. 5) investigated
the characterization of the effect of FSW
tool geometry on welding forces and weld
tensile strength using an instrumented
tool. They searched the effect of impor-
tant parameters including flute design
(e.g., number, depth, and taper angle),
the tool pin diameter and taper, and the
pitch of any thread form on the pin. They
analyzed the force footprint and flute
angle. They obtained the highest strength
welds with low angular rotation values of
the maximum force and high ratios of
maximum to minimum force on the tool.
Buffa et al. (Ref. 6) studied the design
of the FSW tool using the continuum-
based FEM model. They suggested that
tool geometry plays a fundamental role in
obtaining desirable microstructures in
the weld and HAZs, and consequently
improves the strength and fatigue resist-
ance of the joint. They concluded that in-
creasing the pin angle enlarges both the
HAZ and thermomechanical zone result-
ing in a bigger weld nugget. Also, they de-
termined that the overall temperature in
the weld zone increases with pin angle.
They suggested that an increase in the pin
angle leads to uniform temperature dis-
tribution along sheet thickness, which is
favorable for the reduction of distortion.
They also suggested that the plastic de-
formation in the nugget increases with
the pin angle.
Effect of Tool Angle on Friction
Stir Weldability of AISI 430
MEHMET B. BILGIN
(mb_bilgin@hotmail.com) is an Assistant
Prof. Dr.; and CEMAL MERAN and OLCAY E.
CANYURT are Associate Prof. Drs., Dept. of
Mechanical Engineering, Technology Fac-
ulty, Amasya University, Amasya, Turkey.
Tests were conducted to determine the best
tool angle for making friction stir welds
BY MEHMET B. BILGIN,
CEMAL MERAN, AND
OLCAY E. CANYURT
Table 1 — Chemical Composition of AISI 430 (%)
C Cr Si Mn P S Fe
0.01 16.48 0.31 0.52 0.05 0.01 Bal.
friction stir feature January_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:13 PM Page 42
43 WELDING JOURNAL
Padmanaban and Balasubramanian
(Ref. 7) studied the selection of FSW tool
pin profile, shoulder diameter, and mate-
rial for joining AZ31B magnesium alloy.
They found that the joint fabricated using
a threaded pin profiled tool made of
high-carbon steel with 18-mm shoulder
diameter produced mechanically sound
and metallurgically defect-free welds
compared to their counterparts.
Cavaliere and Panella (Ref. 8) investi-
gated the effect of tool position on the fa-
tigue properties of dissimilar 2024–7075
sheets joined by FSW. They measured the
variation of tensile strength, total fatigue
life, and crack toughness as the function
of the rotating tool distance from the
weld interface, by moving it on the
AA2024 tool advancing side. They sug-
gested that mechanical properties of the
welds increase largely with increasing the
distance from the weld interface up to 1
mm, after that a sensible drop was ob-
served increasing more such parameter.
Chen and Nakata (Ref. 9) searched
the effect of tool geometry on mi-
crostructure and mechanical properties
of friction stir lap welded (FSLW) mag-
nesium alloy and steel. They suggested
that the microstructure at the joining in-
terface, failure loads, and fracture loca-
tions of the joints varied significantly with
the probe length.
Zhang et al. (Ref. 10) searched the ef-
fect of the shoulder on interfacial bond-
ing during FSLW of thin aluminum
sheets using a tool without a pin. They
performed their tests on a conventional
vertical milling machine without an ap-
paratus to apply a vertical pressure to the
workpieces. In this case, the vertical pres-
sure cannot be applied to the workpieces
when the worktable stops rising. There-
fore, the tool was tilted by 3 deg to en-
hance the forging effect of shoulder and
improve the intimate contact between
the top and bottom workpieces. They
suggested that the vertical forging effect
could be introduced and enhanced by tilt-
ing the tool during FSLW using a com-
mon vertical milling machine.
Rajakumar et al. (Ref. 11) studied the
influence of the FSW process and tool
parameters on the strength properties of
AA7075-T6 aluminum-alloy joints. They
suggested that the joint fabricated at a
1400 rev/min tool rotational speed, 60
mm/min welding speed, 8 kN axial force,
using a tool with a 15-mm shoulder di-
ameter, and 45 HRc tool hardness,
yielded higher strength properties com-
pared to other joints.
There are limited studies about the ef-
fect of tool angle on FSW. In this study,
the effect of tool tilt angle on mechanical
performance was investigated. The qual-
ity joints with improved mechanical prop-
erties can be obtained by the determina-
tion of the proper tool tilt angle for the
welded joint of AISI 430 ferritic stainless
steel (FSS) materials.
Materials and Experimental
Procedure
AISI 430 (X6Cr17, material number
1.4016) ferritic stainless steel was used in
this study. The chemical and mechanical
properties are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
Rectangular butt joint configuration (100
and 200 mm) with 3-mm thickness were
fabricated FSW joints using an auto-
matic, vertical, heavy-duty milling ma-
chine with 13.5-kW spindle drive motor.
The ferritic stainless steel workpiece
plates were secured with work-holding
fixtures on the machine traverse table.
An initial hole with a diameter a little
larger than the probe was drilled between
the abutting plates at the start of weld
joint. Traversing of tool was initiated
after a period of time sufficient to plasti-
cize the workpiece material, which was in
contact with the shoulder and the probe.
Preheating or interpass heating did not
take place throughout the process.
The shoulder diameter of the tool was
16 mm, and the pin was approximately 5.7
mm in diameter. Although the plates
were 3 mm thick, a 2.5-mm pin was used
to protect the workbench plate. The tool
material, hard metal carbide (WC-Co
hard metal identified as K10, which con-
sists of 94% tungsten carbide, 6% cobalt)
with equilateral triangle tip profile, as
shown in Fig. 1. Tool material (K10) was
made up of tungsten carbide with 1650
HV hardness. The tungsten-based tool
material has excellent toughness and
hardness over a temperature range from
ambient to a minimum of 1200°C.
The tool angles were changed be-
tween 0 and 5 deg in order to observe the
tilt effect on the welded joint strength
while holding the other parameters con-
stant at 1120 rev/min tool rotational
speed; 125 mm/min welding speed; and
3.5 kN axial force. The experimental de-
tails are shown in Fig. 2.
Table 2 — Mechanical Properties of AISI 430 at Room Temperature
Density Modulus of Tensile Strength Yield Elongation Hardness
(g/cm
3
) Elasticity (GPa) (MPa) Strength (MPa) (%) (HRB)
7.8 200 459 373 22 85
Fig. 1 — A — Dimensions of the tool
(K10); B — photograph of the tool.
A B
friction stir feature January_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:14 PM Page 43
The tool pressure forces were
recorded using a load cell mounted under
the workbench with an indicator. All
data, load, temperature, and pressure
force values were recorded using a com-
puter during the experiments. The load
cell indicator helped to control the tool
pressure force during the welding
process. Four thermocouples were
placed 5 cm apart from each other at the
bottom of the plate.
Friction stir welded specimens 12.5 ×
150 × 3 mm thick were machined for the
tensile tests, and specimens 10 × 55 × 3
mm thick were prepared for the Charpy
V-notch impact tests. All welded test
specimens were prepared perpendicular
to the weld interface in order to examine
their mechanical properties. The speci-
mens were subjected to quasi-static and
mostly monotonic tensile loading. All
tensile tests were performed with a
Zwick/Roell Z100 servo-hydraulic tensile
test machine with a load capacity of 100
kN. The stress-control mode was chosen
over stroke or strain modes due to the
convenience and smoothness of the oper-
ation. The impact tests were performed
with a Wolpert PW30 notch impact test-
ing machine with a capacity of 300 J.
Microstructural examination was per-
formed in order to check for weld defects
such as porosity, coarse dendrites, poor
penetration of the weld bead, and grain
structure of the HAZ.
The etchant used for microanalyses
was a mix of 50 mL hydrochloric acid and
50 mL distilled water. Vilella’s reagent (a
mixture of 1 g picric acid, 5 mL hy-
drochloric acid, and 95 mL ethyl alcohol)
was the etchant used for microscopic mi-
croanalyses.
Results and Discussions
The effects of the tool tilt angle were
examined. Tool pressure strength and
temperature, related with the time at dif-
ferent tool angles, are shown in Fig. 3.
The tool pressure strength was given
about 3.5 kN at the beginning of welding
and controlled constantly during welding
— Fig. 3A.
The temperature was measured from
four points with probes during welding,
but only the highest temperature graph is
shown in Fig. 3B. The temperature
changes indicate there was a significant
decrease in the temperature with an in-
crement in the tool angle. The tool tilt in-
crement leads to a diminishment in the
frictional surface area between tool
shoulder and base metal. The tempera-
ture was measured approximately 500°C
at tool angles of 0 and 1 deg, and 350°C
at a tool angle of 5 deg — Fig. 3B.
The test results of tensile strength and
notch impact energy of FS welded joints
obtained from different tool angles are
given in Fig. 4. The higher tensile
strength values were obtained between 0
and 1 deg tool tilt angles while the other
welding parameters were kept constant.
The increase in the tool tilt angle caused
a temperature decrease and an increase
in fluctuations in the welding zone inter-
face. Therefore, the increment in the tool
tilt angle leads to a significant drop in the
tensile strength as shown in Fig. 4A.
The upper surface after welding,
macroscopic and microscopic appear-
ances of the friction stir welded joints at
different tool angles, are shown in Fig. 5.
The smoothest welding surface was
achieved at the tool tilt angle of 0 deg —
Fig. 5.
The FSW joint consists of the stir zone
(SZ), base material (BM), and HAZ be-
tween the SZ and BM, even though it is
not easy to clearly distinguish each zone.
The SZ shows a basin-like shape that
widens considerably toward the upper
surface (Ref. 12). The border region be-
tween the SZ and BM is HAZ, where a
transition to the coarse-grained BM mi-
crostructure occurs — Fig. 5. The grain
size of the stir zone is finer than the base
material. The fine-grained microstruc-
ture in the SZ is due to the dynamic re-
crystallization induced by severe shear
deformation and the significant amount
of heat generated during FSW. It has
been observed that grain size becomes
JANUARY 2013 44
Fig. 2 — A — Tool mounted at an angle
of 0 deg; B — tool angled at 5 deg.
Fig. 3 — A — Tool pressure force vs. time;
B — temperature changes vs. time for
different tool angles.
Fig. 4 — A — Tensile strength vs. tool
angle; B — impact energy vs. tool angle
(constant 1125 rev/min, 125 mm/min,
3.5 kN).
2A
3A
4A
2B
3B
4B
friction stir feature January_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:15 PM Page 44
45 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 5 — Upper surface, macroscopic and microscopic views (100 μm) of welded joints formed using
different tool angles (with constant 1125 rev/min, 125 mm/min travel speed, 3.5 kN axial pressure).
friction stir feature January_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:15 PM Page 45
smaller from base metal to welding zone.
Half of the grain size was obtained from
base metal to HAZ, and the other half
was obtained from HAZ to welding zone.
It has been determined that the average
grain size in the stir zone is about 6.5 μm,
15 μm in the HAZ, and 30 μm in the BM.
The welding burr buildup at the weld-
ing bead edges occurred with the larger
tool angle — Fig. 5. Although the inner
structure was not too much changed, in-
sufficient penetration both inside and
surface of the weld bead occurred with in-
creasing tool angle. Insufficient penetra-
tion in the weld zone led to decreasing
strength and toughness of the welded
joints — Fig. 4. The breaks were outside
of the stir and HAZ zones applying suit-
able welding parameters — Fig. 6. There-
fore, the strength and hardness of the stir
zone with a fine-grained structure are
higher than those of the base material.
Similar trends were observed for the
notch impact energy. The best notch im-
pact energy value was obtained at 0 deg
tool tilt angle.
Conclusions
This study shows the effect of tool tilt
angle on friction stir welding of AISI 430
ferritic stainless steels that had greatly re-
duced ductility in the weld. The following
important conclusions can be drawn from
the results of this study:
• An incremental change in the tool
tilt angle leads to significant change in
the tensile strength and notch impact en-
ergy. The change of the tool tilt angle
from 0 to 5 deg leads to a 2.0 and 4.5
times decrease in the tensile joint
strength and notch impact energy, re-
spectively. This originated from the di-
minishment of the frictional surface area
between tool and base metal and im-
proper temperature level.
• The smoothest welding surface was
achieved with a tool tilt angle of 0 deg at
constant 1125 rev/min, 125 mm/min
travel speed, and 3.5 kN axial pressure.
The welding burr buildup at the welding
bead edges occurred with the larger tool
angle.
• The best notch impact energy value
was obtained at 0 deg and the higher ten-
sile strength values were obtained be-
tween 0- and 1-deg tool tilt angles while
the other welding parameters were kept
constant. The increase in the tool tilt
angle caused a temperature decrease and
increased fluctuations in the welding
zone interface.
• Good quality friction stir welded
joints can be achieved with the proper
tool tilt angle.♦
Acknowledgments
This study was supported by Pa-
mukkale University Scientific Research
Projects with carrying out facilities of a
project number of 2009FBE022. The au-
thors express their gratitude to Pa-
mukkale University Scientific Research
Projects Coordination Unit (PAUBAP)
for the financial support to carry out this
program.
References
1. Thomas, W. M., Nicholas, E. D.,
Needham, J. C., Murch, M. G., Temple,
S. P., and Dawes, C. J. 1991. Improve-
ments relating to friction welding. Great
Britain Patent No. 9125978.8.
2. Thomas, W. M., and Nicholas, E. D.
1997. Friction stir welding for the trans-
portation industries. Mater Des 18(4−6):
269–73.
3. Alptekin, A. 2006. A research on ap-
plicability of friction stir welding of AISI
304 ferritic stainless steel. Pamu Kkale
University Institute of Science.
4. Meran, C., and Canyurt, O. E. 2010.
The effect of tool angle on friction stir
weldability of AISI 304 austenitic stain-
less steel, 13th Int’l Materials Sympo-
sium, 56−64, Denizli (in Turkish).
5. Hattingh, D. G., Blignault, C., Niek-
erk, van T. I., and James, M. N. 2008.
Characterization of the influences of
FSW tool geometry on welding forces
and weld tensile strength using an instru-
mented tool. Journal of Materials Process-
ing Technology 203: 46–57.
6. Buffa, G., Hua, J., Shivpuri, R., and
Fratini, L. 2006. Design of the friction stir
welding tool using the continuum based
FEM model. Materials Science and Engi-
neering A 419: 381–388.
7. Padmanaban, G., and Balasubra-
manian, V. 2009. Selection of FSW tool
pin profile, shoulder diameter, and mate-
rial for joining AZ31B magnesium alloy
— An experimental approach. Materials
and Design 30: 2647−2656.
8. Cavaliere, P., and Panella, F. 2008.
Effect of tool position on the fatigue
properties of dissimilar 2024-7075 sheets
joined by friction stir welding. Journal of
Materials Processing Technology 206:
249–255.
9. Chen, Y. C., and Nakata, K. 2009.
Effect of tool geometry on microstruc-
ture and mechanical properties of fric-
tion stir lap welded magnesium alloy and
steel. Materials and Design 30:
3913−3919.
10. Zhang, G., Su, W., Zhang, J., Wei,
Z., and Zhang, J. 2010. Effects of shoul-
der on interfacial bonding during friction
stir lap welding of aluminum thin sheets
using tool without pin. Transactions of
Nonferrous Metals Society of China 20:
2223–2228.
11. Rajakumar, S., Muralidharan, C.,
and Balasubramanian, V. 2011. Influence
of friction stir welding process and tool
parameters on strength properties of
AA7075-T6 aluminum alloy joints. Mate-
rials and Design 32: 535−549.
12. Hoon-Hwe, C., Heung, N. H.,
Sung-Tae, H., Jong-H. P., Yong-Jai, K.,
Seok-Hyun, K., and Russell, J. S. 2011.
Microstructural analysis of friction stir
welded ferritic stainless steel. Materials
Science and Engineering A 528:
2889−2894.
JANUARY 2013 46
Fig. 6 — Views of where the breaks occurred in welds made with
tools mounted at 0 deg (top photo) and 5 deg (with constant 1125
rev/min, 125 mm/min travel speed, 3.5 kN axial pressure).
friction stir feature January_Layout 1 12/11/12 2:15 PM Page 46
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JANUARY 2013 48
G
alvo-based scanners have been
used for many years in laser mate-
rial processing, primarily in laser
marking-based systems and fixed-head
systems in CO
2
lasers. Galvo scanners
have not been commonly used in solid-
state lasers (SSL) due to their low-beam
quality. Because of the low-beam qual-
ity, the focal lengths had to be very short,
providing a very small and impractical
work envelop. Additionally, when work-
ing close to the process, smoke and spat-
ter quickly contaminate the lens/cover-
slide, even with the use of elaborate air-
knifes and exhaust systems. With these
drawbacks, expensive galvo-based optics
had no practical applications.
A galvo-based system in SSL was
pretty much limited to low power where
good quality beams could be achieved
and the primary function was laser mark-
ing. With advancement of high-beam
quality disk and fiber lasers, galvo-based
scanners are quickly expanding into in-
dustrial applications with the promise of
reduced cycle times, cost reduction
through simpler system design, large
work envelopes, and flexibility.
TRUMPF has several models of galvo-
based optics called programmable focus-
ing optic (PFO), primarily in the high-
power region PFO 33, which is a 2D for-
mat with focal lengths of 255, 345, and
450 mm and a PFO 3D that adds a Z-axis
movement with focal lengths of 255, 345,
450, 900, and 1200 mm.
How a PFO Works
A high-beam quality laser light is de-
livered via a fiber-optic cable to the PFO.
The same as in other types of processing
Benefits of Remote
Laser Welding in the
Automotive Industry
TRACEY RYBA and DAVID HAVRILLA are
with TRUMPF, Inc., Plymouth, Mich.
ANDREY ANDREEV is with TRUMPF,
Inc., Ditzingen, Germany. Based on a
paper presented at Sheet Metal Weld­
ing Conference XV, Livonia, Mich.,
October 2–5, 2012.
High­volume production components
such as doors, side panels, and seat
frames can be remote laser welded
with one robot
BY TRACEY RYBA, DAVID HAVRILLA,
AND ANDREY ANDREEV
Fig. 1 — Optical layout of 2D PFO.
Ryba 1-13_Layout 1 12/12/12 8:43 AM Page 48
49 WELDING JOURNAL
optics, the light goes through a collima-
tor to produce a beam at the optimized
diameter to achieve high-quality process-
ing characteristics at the workpiece and
to minimize energy densities on the steer-
ing mirrors and focusing lens — Fig. 1.
In the basic operation of a 2D PFO,
after the beam is collimated, it is de-
flected off a coated optical plate (mirror),
which also allows visible light to pass back
to an optional camera system. The de-
flected laser beam then is steered to the
workpiece by the combination of two mir-
rors mounted to precision galvo motors,
one for each axis (X axis and Y axis), pro-
ducing the motion while the part being
processed remains stationary. The de-
flected beam then passes through a series
of lenses, called a flat-field lens assem-
bly. This is done because if a single focus-
ing lens was used as you move the beam
across the lens, you would pass through
different thicknesses of the lens causing
different indexes of refraction, and your
focal point at the workpiece would shift
up and down depending where you were
on the lens at the time. By using multiple
types of focal lenses in a stack, one can
create an area where the laser beam focal
plane remains constant. Adding a motor-
ized lens between the input and first galvo
mirror one can then create adjustment of
During the last few years, remote
welding with today’s high brightness
fiber delivered lasers has gained
global acceptance in the automotive
sector. Pictured are both laser weld­
ing and cutting shots.
Fig. 3 — Productivity of PFO vs. traditional laser fixed optic.
Fig. 2 — Examples of PFO 3D
equipment.
Ryba 1-13_Layout 1 12/12/12 8:43 AM Page 49
JANUARY 2013 50
the focus in the Z-axis giving you a 3D
working area — Fig. 2.
Productivity of Remote
Laser Welding vs.
Traditional Laser Welding
On small parts, it may be possible to
have a fixed part and mount the PFO in
a fixed position giving you a simple over-
all system design with no moving motion
system other than the PFO. For parts
larger than the work envelope, it is pos-
sible to mount the part in a fixture and
then provide a simple stage allowing you
to weld half or a quadrant at a time and
then shift the PFO or part. Larger parts
typically are fixed and the PFO is
mounted to a robot. With this setup you
can move to spots and put down weld pat-
terns or use the PFO “welding on the fly”
option, which allows you to synchronize
the PFO position with the robot position
to move over the part and weld without
stopping the robot, reducing cycle time
even more. The key benefit of the PFO
is its ability to jump to the next weld po-
sition almost instantaneously unlike a
typical Cartesian coordinate motion sys-
tem. The weld speeds are the same as a
traditional fixed-optic processing head
so the efficiency comes from eliminating
unproductive repositioning time —
Fig. 3.
Most common applications of the
PFO today are found in the automotive
industry. TRUMPF has more than 2000
high-power SSL PFOs in everyday pro-
duction in such applications as welding
oil filters, fuel filters, fuel injectors, au-
tomotive sensors, car doors, trunk lids,
seat backs, seat rails, instrument panel
frames, car batteries, metal gaskets, and
many other applications.
Another advantage is the ability to
customize your weld geometry and/or
weld pattern — Fig. 4. This can be im-
portant in a traditional part, but it is very
important since the thinner gauge mate-
rial used today has less surface area at
the weld interface.
A traditional spot weld has a large
round spot that provides the strength at
that point. With a laser and PFO, one can
create almost any shape desired from a
simple stitch weld for narrow flanges, to
S, or staple shapes to provide multidirec-
tional strength to a custom shape around
corners, mounting points or high stress
points. These customized shapes take lit-
tle to no extra time depending on weld
length and weld speed — Fig. 5.
Remote Laser Benefits in
Car Body Welding
The biggest advantages of remote
laser welding (RLW) in car body produc-
tion are as follows:
1) Productivity — Up to 10 times
Fig. 4 — Customized weld patterns.
Fig. 5 — Customized weld shape depending on location (source Daimler AG).
Fig. 6 — Example of actual project.
Ryba 1-13_Layout 1 12/12/12 8:44 AM Page 50
higher welding speed than resistance spot
welding (RSW). Up to 80% reduction of
processing times compared to RSW.
2) Costs — Investment and running
costs of up to five RSW cells may be re-
placed by one remote laser welding cell.
Less floor space usage. Less maintenance
and logistics are required for robots and
spot resistance guns.
3) Flexibility in car body manufactur-
ing — Any weld seam pattern like a cir-
cle, stitch line, S, or C shape is possible.
Weld seam geometry can be adapted pre-
cisely to actual load situation at the joint.
Weld seam patterns allow for smaller
flanges and reduced weight and material
cost. Different tasks or parts can be
processed within one single remote weld-
ing cell.
4) Flexibility in car body design —
Single-sided access to the weld joint is
possible. Components with closed cross
sections may be laser welded. Tubes and
profiles may be used in car body design,
offering higher rigidity than pressed pan-
els, along with reduced cost and weight.
5) Process advantages — Higher pre-
cision parts are possible due to the flexi-
bility of laser welding. Less heat input
results in less distortion and higher pre-
cision of welded parts.
6) Total costs — Better balance of
total costs as compared to RSW. Faster
51 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 7 — Actual project used for com­
parison of processes.
Fig. 8 — Metal vapor dissipated with
process jets.
Ryba 1-13_Layout 1 12/12/12 8:44 AM Page 51
processing, less floor space, consumables
and maintenance, higher design criteria
possible, process flexibility, reduced ma-
terial costs, and stronger safer design
through the use of custom weld shapes
and patterns.
Examples of Remote
Laser Use
Two examples of automotive manu-
facturers replacing traditional RSW with
traditional fixed optic laser welding and
eventually with remote laser welding are
detailed below.
The first example, as shown in Fig. 6,
is a laser welding cell that required four
robots and five weld guns to complete 34
spot welds in 35 s. It was replaced by one
robot, one PFO 33, and one TruDisk 4002
laser, which still put down 34 laser C
welds (comparable to RSW), requiring
13 s. Processing was reduced by nearly
three times, and three fewer robots were
required to complete the task, saving cap-
ital expenditures and valuable floor
space.
The second example, shown in Fig. 7,
displays a progression through three dif-
ferent methods. The original part using
RSW took 30 s to complete the welds.
The first evolution was to use a laser and
replace the weld gun with traditional
fixed optic laser welding head and laser
connected to the same robot cell, which
achieved nearly a 25% reduction of cycle
time. The next step replaced the fixed
optic weld head with a remote scanner
(PFO), and utilized the “welding on the
fly” process to achieve the maximum ben-
efit of the PFO. The final processing time
was five s with a final 84% reduction of
cycle time, which is a 600% increase in
production capacity.
Remote Laser Welding Is
Not without Challenges
Metal Vapor
During the welding process, a metal
vapor fume rises up from the key hole
and gets in contact with the laser beam.
This ionized metal vapor plume, which
arises above the welding seam, leads to
a reduction of the laser power, to a de-
formation and enlargement of the focus
diameter, and finally to a fluctuating
welding process. The solution is the
usage of process jets to blow the metal
vapor out of the laser beam, stabilizing
the welding process — Fig. 8. This can
also be achieved by extensive and elabo-
rate cross-jets on the fixture near the
weld areas.
Overlap Welding of Zn­Coated
Material
Another very common issue with tra-
ditional or remote laser welding is Zn-
coated material. Due to different melt-
ing points and gases released during the
weld process, if the two pieces of mate-
rial are tightly clamped together as they
should be, the only place for these gases
to escape is through the melt pool. This
results in very poor quality welds both in
appearance and strength. The best solu-
tion to manage this problem is to intro-
duce a controlled gap into the process;
this can be achieved by mechanical meth-
ods in fixturing and part stamping or by
laser methods of creating small dimples
approximately 0.15 to 0.20 mm high. This
controlled gap then allows enough area
for the gas to escape without blowing up
through the melt pool of the weld, and
the gap is small enough not to cause weld-
gap issues — Fig. 9.
Additionally, other coatings and oxide
layers can cause problems with weld qual-
ity such as cracking, porous welds, weak
welds, and brittleness just to mention a
few.
Remote Vapor Pressure Melt
Cutting
The remote laser welding process is
flexible. Many times a stamping die was
missing a hole in early production, or
JANUARY 2013 52
Fig. 9 — Overlap issues with Zn­coated material.
Ryba 1-13_Layout 1 12/12/12 8:45 AM Page 52
maybe some features were added, or left
and right parts exist so that a hole is re-
quired. This can be achieved in the weld-
ing cell using a PFO. This process is
called remote vapor pressure melt cut-
ting. Openings created by this process are
not designed to be machined later be-
cause of the large heat-affected zone.
There is not a high tolerance, but it al-
lows for a simple hole/opening to be cre-
ated within the weld cell for such things
as a clearance hole to pass wire through
or connection point — Fig. 10.
Conclusion
Programmable focusing optic scan-
ners show the flexibility and reduced
cycle time that can be achieved with a
nontraditional motion system. In some
cases, neither the part nor the scanner is
moved, and with larger parts, a scanner
can be mounted to a robot to extend the
working envelope. In some cases, pro-
duction rates six times faster than resist-
ance spot welding can be achieved while
reducing floor space requirements. Since
smaller flanges are required and cus-
tomized weld geometries can be
achieved, less material and/or thinner
gauge material can be used to save
weight, cost, and increase strength to im-
prove car safety.♦
53 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 10 — Remote cutting.
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Ryba 1-13_Layout 1 12/12/12 8:46 AM Page 53
JANUARY 2013 54
A
pplications such as radiators,
claddings, and vehicle parts at
times require stud welding be-
tween dissimilar metals (such as a steel
stud and Al plate). Although arc stud
welding is extensively used to join simi-
lar materials, it is not suitable for joining
dissimilar metals because the molten
metal cannot be completely extruded out
of the joining interface, leading to the
presence of brittle intermetallic com-
pounds. In the past ten years, friction stir
welding (FSW) (Ref. 1) and friction stir
processing (FSP) (Ref. 2) have received
much attention as versatile ways to join
or process Al in solid state. In addition,
TWI has provided a video on friction stud
welding of steel stud to steel plate as a
novel variant of FSW for joining steels
(Ref. 3). Since friction stud welding be-
longs to the group of solid-state welding
techniques such as friction stir welding,
it possesses the advantages of disrupting
the oxide film and inhibiting excessive
growth of the interfacial phase during
dissimilar joining. Therefore, friction
stud welding may be expected to join dis-
similar metals such as aluminum to steel.
However, to our knowledge, information
on friction stud welding of dissimilar met-
als has been rarely reported.
The work reported in this article in-
vestigated the feasibility of friction stud
welding of steel stud to Al plate using a
traditional milling machine in terms of
the joint microstructure feature and frac-
ture behavior. Especially, the formation
of a secondary friction interface within
the softer Al and the effect of upsetting
on eliminating cracks were demonstrated.
Experimental Procedure
Figure 1 shows a schematic of the fric-
tion stud welding process with and with-
out upsetting. The process can be divided
into three primary stages: plunging stage,
continuous heating stage by friction at
plunge depth position (called in situ fric-
tion stage), and stopping stage for the ro-
tating motor with or without upsetting
action. In the preliminary work, an inex-
pensive, traditional milling machine
without braking and pressure-applying
devices was used. Upsetting was achieved
by manually lifting the work table with a
rotatable handle to stop the rotation of
the motor.
A 10-mm-diameter, medium-carbon
steel bar was used as the stud, and a 1060
Al plate with dimensions of 60 × 23 ×
2.8 mm was used as the other base com-
ponent. Before welding, each surface to
be joined was polished with #400 emery
paper and then cleaned with acetone.
The selected welding parameters were
constant, including 1500 rev/min rotation
speed, 0.5 mm plunge depth, and 3 s fric-
tion time at the plunge position. When
upsetting was applied, displacement was
controlled to be 0.1 mm, and the result-
ant upsetting force was measured using
the testing device shown in Fig. 2. More-
over, in order to measure the tempera-
ture, a thermocouple was placed within
the Al plate, ~1.5 mm below the surface.
Generally, when applying upsetting, it
takes 7 s to completely stop the rotation
of the milling machine’s motor without
a braking device. After welding, the joints
were evaluated by tensile test using the
device shown in Fig. 3. The joint mi-
crostructures were examined by a VEG-
AII XMUINCA scanning electron mi-
croscope (SEM) equipped with a
backscattered electron (BSE) image
analysis system, and the interdiffusion
behavior at the interface was examined
by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
(EDS).
Friction Stud Welding
GUIFENG ZHANG, WEIMIN JIAO, JIPENG
ZHAO, and JIANXUN ZHANG are with State
Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior
of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University,
Xi’an, China.
A sound friction stud welded joint of
steel stud to Al plate was produced
using a traditional milling machine
BY GUIFENG ZHANG, WEIMIN JIAO,
JIPENG ZHAO, AND JIANXUN ZHANG
of Dissimilar Metals
Fig. 1 — Schematic of friction stud welding process with (A–C) and without (A, B)
upsetting.
A
B
C
Zhang Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:08 AM Page 54
55 WELDING JOURNAL
Results
Joint appearance, property and frac-
ture surface. Figure 4A, B shows the ap-
pearance of the joints produced by fric-
tion stud welding with and without up-
setting, respectively. Like general fric-
tion stir welding, the steel stud was eas-
ily plunged into the Al plate and the flash
was uniformly formed at the periphery
of the studs by extruding part of the metal
beneath the shoulder (depending on
plunge depth). The remarkable flash for-
mation suggested the following key is-
sues could be favorably achieved:
• Breaking the oxide film by direct
friction at the interface between the two
workpieces
• Removing disrupted oxide flakes by
extruding them out of the joint interface
• Intimate contact at the joint inter-
face by extrusion force of the steel stud
toward the Al plate. Moreover, for the
joint with upsetting, flash was greater
than that for the joint without upsetting,
indicating that manually applying upset-
ting was effective in enhancing plastic de-
formation in the weld region.
When upsetting was not applied, the
measured failure loads for the three
joints were 1.540, 1.166, and 1.132 kN,
respectively. In this case, the average fail-
ure load of the friction stud welded joints
was only 1.279 kN (~16.3 MPa). When
upsetting was applied, the pressure was
measured and the results are shown in
Fig. 5. It can be seen that the upsetting
force reached ~1.95 kN (~24.8 MPa). In
the case with upsetting, the measured
failure loads for the three joints were
2.934, 3.990, and 2.827 kN, respectively,
and the average failure load can be sig-
nificantly increased to 3.25 kN (~41.4
MPa), as high as 2.5 times of that with-
out upsetting.
Figure 6 shows the fracture surface
appearances of the friction stud welded
joints after tensile testing. For the joint
without upsetting, the outer region of the
fracture surface of the Al side was
smoother than the central region, and a
small quantity of aluminum adhered to
the central region of the steel stud end
after tensile testing. The results showed
that stronger bonding was achieved pref-
erentially in the central region. It can be
attributed to a higher heating tempera-
ture and lower cooling rate in the inner
region than those that occurred in the
outer region, which were beneficial to
avoiding debonding to some extent dur-
ing the stopping stage.
For the joint with upsetting, although
the outer region of the fracture surface
was smooth, the Al base metal in the cen-
tral region was pulled out and adhered
to the end surface of the steel stud, lead-
ing to a hole with a diameter of about 6
mm on the Al side. The information re-
vealed: 1) stronger bonding was achieved
preferentially in the central region as
with the joint without upsetting, and 2)
bonding in the central region was so
strong that even 2.2-mm-thick Al could
be pulled out. Both the higher tensile
strength and much more favorable frac-
ture path demonstrated that the upset-
ting action can significantly improve
bonding behavior, especially in the cen-
tral region.
Microstructure of friction stud
welded joints. Figure 7A, B shows the
BSE macrographs of the friction stud
welded joints. As shown in Fig. 7A, when
upsetting was not used, the intimate con-
tact between Al plate and steel stud was
achieved well, and part of the plasticized
Al adhered to the steel stud end. How-
ever, a large crack 10 mm in length (same
as the diameter of the steel stud) and 100
μm in maximum width was present within
the Al base metal near the interface, and
ran roughly parallel to the Al/steel inter-
face. In addition, it should be pointed out
that, due to the inevitable error in ma-
chining and assembling, a microgap was
present at the side interface between the
Al and steel periphery. Therefore, the
joint properties will depend primarily on
Fig. 5 — Measured axial pressure
when upsetting was used.
Fig. 2 — Testing device used to measure upsetting force.
Fig. 3 — Schematic of tensile test.
Fig. 4 — Appearance of the joints produced by friction stud welding:
A — Without upsetting; B — with upsetting applied.
4
2
3
A B
Zhang Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:08 AM Page 55
JANUARY 2013 56
the bonding behavior at the horizontal
interface between the Al and steel stud
end. In contrast, when upsetting was ap-
plied, not only was the intimate contact
between Al plate and steel stud achieved
well, but also no crack was observed in
the Al base metal — Fig. 7B.
Figure 8A, B shows the BSE micro-
graphs of friction stud welded joints.
When upsetting was not used, both void
and intermetallic compounds were hard
to observe at the Al/steel interface even
at 10,000× magnification, as shown in
Fig. 8A. From Fig. 8B, when upsetting
was applied, a void-free bonded interface
with a thin and discontinuous intermetal-
lic compound layer (about 1.5 μm in
thickness) can be seen. The EDS line
analysis result showed the composition
varied rapidly in this reaction layer, sug-
gesting that the intermetallic compound
layer would be metastable phases. For
example, based on the EDS point analy-
sis result at point 2 in Fig. 8B and the Al-
Fe binary phase diagram, one of the
metastable phases at the center of the in-
terface layer would be Fe
3
Al
2
, which may
be a metastable phase between stable
Fe
3
Al and FeAl phases.
The crack formation mechanism in
the case without upsetting is discussed
below. A small amount of intermetallic
compound (see Fig. 8A) indicated that
the crack within the Al plate did not re-
sult from embrittlement of the Al base
metal, but should be related to the tor-
sion of the steel stud. For the friction stud
welding process, metal-metal intimate
contact at the joint interface can be eas-
ily achieved in the first two stages (i.e.,
plunging and in situ friction stages) via
mechanical disruption of oxide films on
the two base metal surfaces and elevated
frictional temperature resulting from di-
rect friction between the two base met-
als. Once a strong interfacial bond be-
tween dissimilar metals is achieved (that
is, part of the Al strongly adhered to the
steel stud end), the plasticized Al near
the Al/steel interface has to rotate with
the continuous rotation of the steel stud.
On the other hand, the portion of the Al
base metal far away from the Al/steel in-
terface keeps static (not rotating) all the
time in the three stages. As a result, a
new friction interface between the rotat-
ing part and static part within the Al base
metal should be produced. Thus, the ac-
tual friction interface should shift from
the initial friction interface (Al/steel in-
terface) into the softer, weaker Al base
metal. The authors call the newly formed
actual friction interface within the Al
base metal the “secondary friction inter-
face.” In fact, unlike static pressure weld-
ing, with the rotation of the motor in fric-
tion stud welding, bonding and debond-
ing occur simultaneously at the newly
formed secondary friction interface
within the Al base metal, and the second-
ary friction interface shifts gradually, dy-
namically, and in a nonparallel manner
depending on interfacial bonding behav-
ior in various zones.
For the case without upsetting, dur-
ing the long freely stopping stage (at least
more than 7 s), the debonding crack re-
sulting from torsion at the secondary fric-
tion interface within the Al base metal
cannot be remedied well due to the lack
of vertical plastic deformation produced
at the key moment of dead stop of the
motor because in the case without upset-
ting, the pressure applying to the weld-
ing zone should only be a small elastic
pressure (Ref. 4) resulting from thermal
expansion of base metals at elevated fric-
tional temperature (especially in the key
stopping stage), which should be at a low
level of about 0.97 kN (~12.3 MPa) (Fig.
5). This would thus be insufficient to
close the torsion crack at the secondary
friction interface at the key moment of
dead stop of the motor. Moreover, the
long stopping stage time (more than 7 s)
will lead to a significant decrease in the
momentary bonding temperature at the
key moment of the motor’s dead stop.
Eventually, the torsion crack at the sec-
ondary friction interface remained after
friction stud welding. In contrast, when
manually applying upsetting to the joint,
since the moment of starting to stop the
rotary motor, the joint could undergo
more intense plastic deformation along
the axial direction, resulting in rebond-
ing of the torsion crack at the secondary
friction interface again at the moment of
the motor’s dead stop. As a result, the
torsion crack at the secondary friction in-
terface within the softer Al base metal
was eliminated and a sound friction stud
welded joint was obtained.
From the joint appearance (Fig. 4B)
and microstructure (Fig. 8B), it can be
seen that the use of upsetting resulted in
intense plastic deformation and a slight
increase in reaction layer thickness.
However, the use of upsetting showed lit-
tle effect on increasing bonding temper-
ature due to a small difference in both
the maximum bonding temperature
(~ 623 K (350°C)) and cooling rate in the
measured thermal cycles, as shown in Fig.
9 (the difference in heating rate was
caused by the scatter in plunging rate in
manual operation). The low bonding
temperature can be attributed to the
small shoulder diameter (10 mm) and
short friction time (3 s).
In a previous study, Rathod and Kut-
suna reported that the critical bonding
temperature for an Al/steel couple was
723 K (450°C), above which the diffusion
of iron in Al is considerably fast (Ref. 5).
Therefore, for the formation and growth
of interfacial intermetallic compounds,
Fig. 6 — Fracture surface appear-
ances of the joints after the tensile
test showing the effect of upsetting
on improving joint fracture behavior:
A, C — Without upsetting; B, D — with
upsetting applied.
Fig. 8 — BSE micrographs of friction stud welded joints and the EDS point
analysis result: A — Without upsetting; B — with upsetting applied.
Fig. 7 — BSE macrographs of friction
stud welded joints: A — Without up-
setting; B — with upsetting applied
A
A
A B
B
B
C
D
Zhang Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:09 AM Page 56
it can be drawn that although upsetting
tended to slightly enhance interdiffusion
between the two base metals via further
plastic deformation during the stopping
stage, the formed reaction layer at the
interface did not grow excessively due to
the lower bonding temperature. Since
upsetting could rebond the torsion crack
and did not result in excessive growth of
intermetallic compounds at the void-free
initial interface, the joint with upsetting
action fractured neither along the sec-
ondary friction interface nor along the
initial interface during tensile test, and
exhibited a higher failure load.
Summary
In friction stud welding of a steel stud
to an Al plate, even when an upsetting
action was not introduced, intimate con-
tact at the initial interface could be
achieved. However, a crack roughly par-
allel to the initial interface was present
within the softer Al plate, but not along
the initial interface. A small amount of
intermetallic compound indicated the
crack did not result from embrittlement
of the Al base metal, but was related to
the torsion of the steel stud. This torsion
crack could be the result of a combina-
tion of factors, including the following:
1) shift of actual friction interface from
initial interface into the softer Al plate
to form a secondary friction interface
within the Al plate when strong interfa-
cial bonding was established at the ini-
tial interface, 2) very long stopping stage
time and, in particular, 3) the lack of join-
ing pressure. When upsetting (24.8 MPa)
was introduced manually, the debonding
crack at the secondary friction interface
could be closed at/after the moment of
dead stop of the motor and the joint be-
came so strong that most of the Al in the
central bonded region adhered to the
steel stud end after the tensile test. ◆
References
1. Dawes, C. J., and Thomas, W. M.
1996. Friction stir process welds alu-
minum alloys. Welding Journal 75(3):
41–45.
2. Mishra, R. S., Mahoney, M. W., Mc-
Fadden, S. X., Mara, N.A., and Mukher-
jee, A. K. 1999. High strain rate super-
plasticity in a friction stir processed 7075
Al alloy. Scripta Materialia 42(2):
163–168.
3. Information on www.twi.co.uk/news
events/videos/friction-stud-welding/
4. Zhang, G. F., Su, W., Zhang, J.,
Zhang, J. X. 2011. Visual observation of
effect of tilting tool on forging action dur-
ing FSW of aluminium sheet. Science and
Technology of Welding and Joining 16(1):
87–91.
5. Rathod, M. J., and Kutsuna, M.
2004. Joining of aluminum alloy 5052 and
low-carbon steel by laser roll welding.
Welding Journal 75(1): 16-s to 26-s.
57 WELDING JOURNAL
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Fig. 9— The measured thermal cycles
during friction stud welding with or
without upsetting action.
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Zhang Feature January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:09 AM Page 57
LETTERS TO THE
EDITOR
Reader Questions
Tungsten Sizes and
Droplets
This letter concerns Gas Tungsten Arc Weld-
ing Using an Arcing Wire, by J. S. Chen,
Y. Lu, X. R. Li, and Y. M. Zhang, published
in the October 2012 Welding Journal
(261-s to 269-s).
The comments set forth by August F. Manz,
an AWS Fellow, are in plain text. The answers
and clarifications are italicized as submitted
by corresponding author YuMing Zhang.
This fine article left me with a few
unanswered questions.
1. As shown in Fig. 4, both currents (I1
+ I2) pass through the tungsten electrode.
The current totals in the experiments
ranged from 150 to 400 A. Such a range
on tungsten electrodes would require a
change in size, especially when compared
to ordinary gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW) with a cold wire or hot wire ad-
dition. What was the authors’ experience?
You are absolutely correct that a tung-
sten size should be appropriate to I1 + I2.
However, in all our experiments, despite the
amperage, we used the same tungsten (
1
⁄8 in.
diameter) and torch (Weldcraft WP-18P
500-A GTA torch) to produce the welds/re-
sults documented in the article. We have not
found noticeable adverse effects in our ex-
periments when we use a relatively large
tungsten size for a relatively small I1 + I2.
2. Again, referring to Fig. 4, what was
the droplet transfer frequency? What was
the droplet size? What was the direction
of the arc force on the droplets?
The transfer frequency and droplet size
vary with the current of the side arc that is
established between the wire and tungsten,
i.e., I2. They also change with the current
of the main arc (gas tungsten arc), i.e., I1.
We did record high-speed videos for some
of the experiments but not for all of those
reported in the paper. We saw the presence
of a few separate droplets with diameters
much smaller than that of the wire forming
a trajectory deviating more from the main
arc axis as approaching the workpiece
(probably due to the arc force from the main
arc). We also saw a single large droplet with
a diameter greater than that of the wire. Such
large droplets transfer from the wire tip to
the workpiece following a similar path, i.e.,
deviating more from the main arc axis when
approaching the workpiece. We did not see
the evidence that such large droplets affect
the stability of the main arc, which does not
have the wire as one of its two arc terminals.
In addition, we did not see the evidence
that such large droplets produce spatter
probably because of the presence of the main
arc. I expect that we will soon have quanti-
tative results for the effect of various param-
eters on the metal transfer.
3. In hot wire, the resistance heating
helps to remove volatiles from the wire
before entering the work weld zone. In
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), the ef-
fect of this resistance heating is minimal.
As has been shown by Rykalin (see Manz,
WRC Bulletin 223, Appendix A, January
1977), resistance heating of the GMAW
electrode is minimal. It is the arc that
melts the electrode. As a consequence,
the volatiles are not removed in the same
degree as in hot wire welding.
You are correct. Our arcing-wire GTAW
that melts the wire primarily by the side arc
does not typically remove the volatiles in the
same degree as in hot wire GTAW.
In a typical GTAW application, we prob-
ably would not use a large wire extension.
However, if we increase the length of the wire
extension, we may increase the resistive heat
to remove more volatiles. For GMAW, in-
creasing the wire extension causes arc insta-
bility for the arc that directly affects the
workpiece. For our arcing-wire GTAW, this
cause for arc instability will be partially com-
pensated by the main arc.
Further, the arc that is subject to possi-
ble instability due to the increased wire ex-
tension is the side arc, which does not di-
rectly affect the workpiece. Hence, our arc-
ing-wire GTAW may have the possibility for
a capability to approach the hot-wire GTAW
in removing volatiles. However, at this time,
we do not have any experimental data to
support my argument.◆











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JANUARY 2013 58
Letters to the Editor January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:28 PM Page 58
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ILSC® Int’l Laser Safety Conf. March 18–21. Doubletree by
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Society of Vacuum Coaters SVC TechCon 2013. April 20–25.
Rhode Island Convention Center, Providence, R.I. www.svc.org.
♦ JOM-17, Int’l Conf. on Joining Materials. May 5–8. Konven-
tum Lo Skolen, Helsingør, Denmark. Institute for the Joining of
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INTERTECH 2013, Superabrasive Materials, Principles, and
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IIE Annual Conf. and Expo. May 18–22. Caribe Hilton, San Juan,
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NOTE: A DIAMOND ( ♦) DENOTES AN AWS-SPONSORED EVENT.
JANUARY 2013 60
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CE Jan._Layout 1 12/13/12 9:10 AM Page 60
61 WELDING JOURNAL
44th Steelmaking Seminar — Int’l. May 19–22. Tauá Grande
Hotel Termas & Convention Araxá, Estância Parque do Barreiro,
s/nº Araxá - Minas Gerais, Brazil. Held by Brazilian Metallurgi-
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♦Pipeline Conf. June 4, 5. Houston, Tex. Sponsored by the Amer-
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♦Codes and Standards Conf. July 16, 17. Orlando, Fla., Spon-
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12th Int’l Conf. on Application of Contemporary Non-Destructive
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CERTIFICATION
SCHEDULE
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LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
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CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
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Miami, FL June 3–7 June 8
The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
The course dates are followed by the location and phone number
Feb. 2–6; June 17–21, Dec. 9–13 at
ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 391–8421
Feb. 25–March 1; May 20–24, Aug. 19–23, Dec. 2–6 at
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
March 4, Oct. 14 at
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
Feb. 11–15, April 22–26, July 15–19, Oct. 21–25 at
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800
Jan. 21, March 25, May 20, July 22, Sept. 23, Nov. 18 at
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at:
MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996
Certified Welding Engineer; Senior Certified Welding
Inspector
Exams can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding
Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered.
International CWI Courses and Exams Schedules
Please visit www.aws.org/certification/inter_contact.html.
Certification Seminars, Code Clinics, and Examinations
IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the
seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline
dates by visiting our Web site www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. Verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to
confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register
online, visit www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars. Apply early to
avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.
JANUARY 2013 62
Cert Schedule January_Layout 1 12/11/12 3:35 PM Page 62
Reserve your spot now at
LAS VEGAS



WHETHER YOU’RE AN OWNER OR A CONTRACTOR,
EVERY SECOND OF THIS WORLD-CLASS EVENT IS PACKED WITH INFORMATION DESIGNED
TO HELP YOU SUCCEED IN AN INCREASINGLY COMPETITIVE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY.
BUT THE REAL STARS OF OUR MEETING ARE PART OF A LINEUP OF VALUE-ADDED
WORKSHOPS AND DISCUSSIONS YOU WON’T FIND ANYWHERE ELSE: MILITARY
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT BIDDING, WORK OPPORTUNITIES IN REINFORCING
AND BRIDGE-BUILDING, AISC ERECTOR CERTIFICATION–PLUS AN EXCLUSIVE
PRESENTATION BY AWS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR RAY SHOOK AND CWB CEO DOUG LUCIANI
ON IRONWORKER WELDING CERTIFICATION AND OUR ARMY OF WORLD-CLASS WELDERS.

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For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
impact_FP_TEMP 12/11/12 2:43 PM Page 63
CONFERENCES
8th Shipbuilding Conference
February 26–27
New Orleans, La.
The technical program will feature presentations on advanced
welding processes, NDE, materials, robotics, and mechanized
welding for shipbuilding applications. Presenters will discuss new
flux cored welding electrodes for high-yield steels, a new ap-
proach to reduce diffusible hydrogen content in the weld zone,
aluminum applications, and welding tractors that can be used for
all-position welding that do not require tracks. Other presenta-
tions will address the integration of robotics and welding power
supplies, hybrid laser welding in shipyards, and the use of portable
robots to join thick steel plating. A keynote speaker will open
the event with an overview of welding technology in shipyards.
Weld Cracking Conference
March 26–27
Las Vegas, Nev.
Much to their chagrin, most welding engineers have witnessed
a crack or two or even more in the welds fabricated at their plants.
That is serious. Most weld cracks can be prevented. All it takes is
more practical knowledge. Were the cracks caused by hydrogen dif-
fusion, residual stress, some mix-up in heat treating, misuse of elec-
trodes in dissimilar metal welds, or some unexplained problem with
the heat-affected zone? To find out what it takes to eliminate weld
cracks, make plans to hear the experts at this conference, who will
be armed with solutions to many of your problems.
Pipeline Conference
June 4–5
Houston, Tex.
Welding has always been an integral part of pipeline construc-
tion. It all goes back to the days when hand-held oxyacetylene
torches were used to join pipes in the field. Much has happened
since, and what has happened or, better yet, is happening will be
the topics of this conference. Some of the key subjects that will
be covered include welding of high-strength X80 pipe steels, the
many orbital processes that are seeing applications in pipeline
spreads and offshore barges throughout the world, and hybrid
laser arc welding.
Codes and Standards Conference
July 16–17
Orlando, Fla.
This conference will feature information about the AWS D1
Structural Welding Code — Steel, ASME Boiler and Pressure Ves-
sel, and API pipeline codes, plus MIL and ISO standards, poten-
tially the most valuable documents available to manufacturers
and fabricators of welded products. Information will be provided
about the planning and execution of various welding processes,
as well as useful data for designers, inspectors, and QC
specialists.
16th Annual Aluminum Conference
September 17–18
Chicago, Ill.
A distinguished panel of aluminum-industry experts will sur-
vey the state of the art in aluminum welding technology and prac-
tice. You will also have several opportunities to network infor-
mally with speakers and other participants, as well as visit an ex-
hibition showcasing products and services available to the alu-
minum welding industry. Aluminum lends itself to a wide variety
of industrial applications because of its light weight, high strength-
to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and other attributes. How-
ever, because its chemical and physical properties are different
from those of steel, welding of aluminum requires special
processes, techniques, and expertise. ♦
For more information, please contact the AWS Conferences
and Seminars Business Unit at (800) 443-9353, ext. 264, or
e-mail zoliva@aws.org. You can also visit the Conference De-
partment Web site at www.aws.org/conferences for upcoming
conferences and registration information.
JANUARY 2013 64
AWS Trailer Highlights Welding Careers
The AWS Careers in Welding Trailer offers many attractive features to get young people excited about welding industry careers.
In particular, the mobile exhibit showcases the following:
• Five VRTEX® 360 welding simulators that feed computer-generated data with a virtual welding gun and helmet equipped
with internal monitors;
• Interactive educational exhibits, including a display wall featuring 11 industry segments with trivia questions, fun facts, and in-
dustry artifacts;
• “Day in the Life of a Welder” exhibit with videos depicting real-life environments in which welders work;
• Life-size welder highlighting welding as a safe profession;
• Social media kiosk; and
• Welding scholarship information.
The 53-ft, single expandable trailer designed and built by MRA experiential tours and equipment covers 650-sq-ft of exhibit space.
To learn more and view its schedule, visit www.explorewelding.com.
Conferences January 2013_Layout 1 12/14/12 10:20 AM Page 64
For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
trumpf_FP_TEMP 12/11/12 2:47 PM Page 65
Friends and Colleagues:
I want to encourage you to submit nomination packages for those individuals whom you feel
have a history of accomplishments and contributions to our profession consistent with the standards
set by the existing Fellows. In particular, I would make a special request that you look to the most
senior members of your Section or District in considering members for nomination. In many cases,
the colleagues and peers of these individuals who are the most familiar with their contributions, and
who would normally nominate the candidate, are no longer with us. I want to be sure that we take
the extra effort required to make sure that those truly worthy are not overlooked because no obvious
individual was available to start the nomination process.
For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Fellow nomination form in this issue
of the Welding Journal. Please remember, we all benefit in the honoring of those who have made
major contributions to our chosen profession and livelihood. The deadline for submission is July 1,
2013. The Committee looks forward to receiving numerous Fellow nominations for 2014
consideration.
Sincerely,
Thomas M. Mustaleski
Chair, AWS Fellows Selection Committee
Fellow Letter 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 9:16 AM Page 66
Fellow Description
DEFINITION AND HISTORY
The American Welding Society, in 1990, established the honor of Fellow of the Society to recognize members for
distinguished contributions to the field of welding science and technology, and for promoting and sustaining the professional
stature of the field. Election as a Fellow of the Society is based on the outstanding accomplishments and technical impact of the
individual. Such accomplishments will have advanced the science, technology and application of welding, as evidenced by:
∗ Sustained service and performance in the advancement of welding science and technology
∗ Publication of papers, articles and books which enhance knowledge of welding
∗ Innovative development of welding technology
∗ Society and chapter contributions
∗ Professional recognition
RULES
1. Candidates shall have 10 years of membership in AWS
2. Candidates shall be nominated by any five members of the Society
3. Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS Headquarters
4. Nominations must be submitted to AWS Headquarters no later than July 1 of the year prior to that in
which the award is to be presented
5. Nominations will remain valid for three years
6. All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence
7. No more than two posthumous Fellows may be elected each year
NUMBER OF FELLOWS
Maximum of 10 Fellows selected each year.
AWS Fellow Application Guidelines
Nomination packages for AWS Fellow should clearly demonstrate the candidates outstanding contributions to the advance-
ment of welding science and technology. In order for the Fellows Selection Committee to fairly assess the candidates qualifica-
tions, the nomination package must list and clearly describe the candidates specific technical accomplishments, how they con-
tributed to the advancement of welding technology, and that these contributions were sustained. Essential in demonstrating the
candidates impact are the following (in approximate order of importance).
1. Description of significant technical advancements. This should be a brief summary of the candidates most
significant contributions to the advancement of welding science and technology.
2. Publications of books, papers, articles or other significant scholarly works that demonstrate the contributions cited
in (1). Where possible, papers and articles should be designated as to whether they were published in
peer-reviewed journals.
3. Inventions and patents.
4. Professional recognition including awards and honors from AWS and other professional societies.
5. Meaningful participation in technical committees. Indicate the number of years served on these committees and
any leadership roles (chair, vice-chair, subcommittee responsibilities, etc.).
6. Contributions to handbooks and standards.
7. Presentations made at technical conferences and section meetings.
8. Consultancy — particularly as it impacts technology advancement.
9. Leadership at the technical society or corporate level, particularly as it impacts advancement of welding technology.
10. Participation on organizing committees for technical programming.
11. Advocacy — support of the society and its technical advancement through institutional, political or other means.
Note: Application packages that do not support the candidate using the metrics listed above
will have a very low probability of success.
Supporting Letters
Letters of support from individuals knowledgeable of the candidate and his/her contributions are encouraged. These
letters should address the metrics listed above and provide personal insight into the contributions and stature of the
candidate. Letters of support that simply endorse the candidate will have little impact on the selection process.
Return completed Fellow nomination package to:
Wendy S. Reeve
American Welding Society
Senior Manager
Award Programs and Administrative Support
Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 293
SUBMISSION DEADLINE: July 1, 2013
8669 Doral Blvd., Suite 130
Doral, FL 33166
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FELLOW NOMINATION FORM
DATE_________________NAME OF CANDIDATE________________________________________________________________________
AWS MEMBER NO.___________________________YEARS OF AWS MEMBERSHIP____________________________________________
HOME ADDRESS____________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY_______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE________________________
PRESENT COMPANY/INSTITUTION AFFILIATION_______________________________________________________________________
TITLE/POSITION____________________________________________________________________________________________________
BUSINESS ADDRESS________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE_________________________
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND, AS APPLICABLE:
INSTITUTION______________________________________________________________________________________________________
MAJOR & MINOR__________________________________________________________________________________________________
DEGREES OR CERTIFICATES/YEAR____________________________________________________________________________________
LICENSED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER: YES_________NO__________ STATE______________________________________________
SIGNIFICANT WORK EXPERIENCE:
COMPANY/CITY/STATE_____________________________________________________________________________________________
POSITION____________________________________________________________________________YEARS_______________________
COMPANY/CITY/STATE_____________________________________________________________________________________________
POSITION____________________________________________________________________________YEARS_______________________
SUMMARIZE MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS IN THESE POSITIONS:
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
IT IS MANDATORY THAT A CITATION (50 TO 100 WORDS, USE SEPARATE SHEET) INDICATING WHY THE NOMINEE SHOULD BE
SELECTED AS AN AWS FELLOW ACCOMPANY NOMINATION PACKET. IF NOMINEE IS SELECTED, THIS STATEMENT MAY BE IN-
CORPORATED WITHIN THE CITATION CERTIFICATE.
SEE GUIDELINES ON REVERSE SIDE
SUBMITTED BY: PROPOSER_______________________________________________AWS Member No.___________________
Print Name___________________________________
The Proposer will serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. Signatures on this nominating form, or
supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition to the Proposer. Signatures may be acquired
by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the signatures are secured, the total package should
be submitted.
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________ Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________ AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________ Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________ AWS Member No.______________
CLASS OF 201
SUBMISSION DEADLINE July 1, 201
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Join us in New Orleans for an exciting look into the world of shipbuilding!
Our featured speakers will cover a multitude of topics including robotics
and mechanized welding for shipbuilding applications, aluminum
applications, advanced welding processes and much more.
AWS Conferences & Exhibitions:
8
th
Shipbuilding Conference
February 26-27, 2013 / Wyndham Riverfront New Orleans
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at
www.aws.org/conferences or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264.
Highlights
Learn about the progress of new and innovative
developments in shipbuilding.
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for
business growth.
Information on new and emerging technologies being
developed for shipbuilding applications.
AWS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH
(Professional Development Hour) for each hour of
conference attendance. These PDHs can be applied
toward AWS recertifications and renewals.




















































































































































































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shipbuilding conference_FP_TEMP 12/10/12 3:39 PM Page 69
WELDING
WORKBOOK
Friction welding (FRW) is a solid-state process that produces
a weld when two or more workpieces, rotating or moving rela-
tive to one another, are brought into contact under pressure to
produce heat and plastically displace material from the faying
surface (weld interface).
The main variations of friction welding are direct drive fric-
tion welding (FRW-DD), inertia friction welding (FRW-I), and
friction stir welding (FSW). However, FSW features substantial
differences in mechanics from the other two processes and is not
covered here.
In direct drive friction welding, the welding machine supplies
the energy required to make the weld through a direct motor
connection for a preset period of the welding cycle. The stored
rotational kinetic energy of the welding machine supplies the en-
ergy required to make an inertia friction weld.
Following are some of the terms and definitions related to
friction welding:
Friction speed. The relative velocity of the workpieces at the
time of initial contact.
Friction force. The compressive force applied to faying sur-
faces during the time there is relative movement between the
workpieces from the start of welding until the application of the
forge force.
Friction time. The duration of time from the application of
friction force until the application of forge force.
Friction upset distance. The decrease in length of workpieces
during the time of friction welding force application.
Forge (upset) force. The compressive force applied to the weld
after the heating portion (friction stage) if the welding cycle is
essentially complete.
Forge (upset) distance. The total reduction in the axial length
of the workpieces from the initial contact to the completion of
the weld.
Figure 1 shows the basic steps in the friction welding process.
As shown in Fig. 1A, one workpiece is rotated and the other held
stationary. When the appropriate rotational speed is reached,
the two workpieces are brought together (B) under axial force.
Abrasion at the weld interface heats the workpiece locally and
upsetting (axial shortening) starts, as shown in (C). These two
steps occur during the friction stage. Finally, rotation of the work-
piece ceases and upset force (D) is applied to consolidate the
joint. This occurs during the forging stage.
Advantages
Following are some operational and economic advantages of
friction welding:
• No filler metal is required for all similar and most dissimilar
material joints
• Flux and shielding gas are not normally required
• Solidification defects and porosity are normally not a concern
• The process is environmentally clean due to the minimization
of sparks, smoke, or fumes
• Surface cleanliness is not as critical compared to other welding
processes
• Offers narrow heat-affected zones
• Well suited for joining most engineering materials and dissimi-
lar metal combinations
• In most cases, the weld is at least as strong as the weaker of the
two materials being joined (high joint efficiency)
• Operators are not required to have manual welding skills
• Easily automated for mass production
• Short cycle times
• Requires minimal plant requirements such as space, electric
power, and special foundations.
Limitations
Following are some limitations of friction welding:
• In general, one workpiece must have an axis of symmetry and
be capable of rotation about that axis
• Alignment of the workpieces may be critical to developing uni-
form frictional heat
• Preparation of the interface geometry may be critical to achiev-
ing proper heat balance
• Capital equipment and tooling costs are high, but payback pe-
riods typically are short for high-volume production.♦
JANUARY 2013 70
Datasheet 337
Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol. 3, ninth edition.
Advantages and Limitations of Friction Welding
Fig. 1 — Basic sequence of friction welding.
A
B
C
D
Welding Workbook January 2013_Layout 1 12/13/12 12:48 PM Page 70
buyers guide_FP_TEMP 12/10/12 3:09 PM Page 1
awo.aws.org
Mathematics is a necessary part of a welding professional’s activities. However, math can be
complicated and confusing for beginners, and difficult for adults who haven’t used math principles
awhile. This course provides a combination of clear step-by-step verbal and visual explanations that
make each mathematical concept easy to understand and remember. Topics include place value,
simplification, estimation, measurement, and the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of
whole numbers, fractions, decimals and mixed numbers. Practical exercises allow welders, welding
students, supervisors and inspectors to apply basic math skills to various aspects of the welding
process. Eighteen PDHs are provided through this course toward AWS recertification.
Online Math for Welders Course
Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/math-for-welders-level-1

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awo math_FP_TEMP 12/10/12 3:36 PM Page 72
SOCIETYNEWS SOCIETYNEWS
73 WELDING JOURNAL
AWS Elects National and District Officers for 2013
David J. Landon
vice president
David L. McQuaid
vice president
Robert G. Pali
treasurer
Nancy C. Cole
president
Dean R. Wilson
vice president
Sean P. Moran
director-at-large
Thomas J. Lienert
director-at-large
The American Welding Soci-
ety elected its incoming slate of
national and District officers
Nov. 12 in Las Vegas, Nev., dur-
ing FABTECH. The officers take
their posts on Jan. 1, 2013.
Nancy C. Cole was elected
president. An AWS Fellow and
Life Member, she has served
three terms as a vice president.
Before forming her own com-
pany, she was program manager
and contract manager at Oak
Ridge National Laboratories. At
ABB Combustion Engineering,
she developed welding elec-
trodes, fluxes, and flux cored
wires, where she was awarded
three patents. Cole served as
chair of the AWS Technical Ac-
tivities, Fellows, and C3 Brazing
and Soldering Committees. She
has received the AWS Honorary
Member, Dr. René Wasserman,
and McKay-Helm Awards.
Dean R. Wilson was elected
to a third term as a vice president.
Wilson is president of Well-Dean
Enterprises, a company related
to health, safety, and welding
products and industry consulting.
Earlier, he was director of weld-
ing business development at
Jackson Safety Products, and
served as president/owner of Wil-
son Industries from 1987 to 2007.
He has worked on numerous
AWS standing committees, in-
cluding WEMCO (An Associa-
tion of Welding Manufacturers)
where he served as chair in 2005.
David J. Landon was elected
to serve a second term as a vice
president. Since 1992, he has
worked as manager of welding
engineering and missions sup-
port at Vermeer Mfg. Co. and is
an AWS Senior Certified Weld-
ing Inspector. Previously, he op-
erated Landon’s Welding Serv-
ices performing failure analyses,
inspections, and welder training.
Earlier, he worked as a welding
engineer for Chicago Bridge and
Iron Co. He has served on many
AWS technical committees and
as a Delegate to the IIW Com-
mission XIV, Welding Education
and Training.
David L. McQuaid was
elected to his first term as a vice
president. Currently, he heads D.
L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.,
which he founded in 1999. He has
chaired the AWS D1 Structural
Welding and the Technical Activ-
ities Committees. At American
Bridge Div. of U.S. Steel Corp.,
he served as senior welding engi-
neer and corporate engineer. In
2009, he received the American
National Standards Institute
Finegan Standards Medal for his
outstanding contributions to in-
dustrial standards.
Robert G. Pali was reelected
treasurer. He is vice president,
secretary, and COO of J. P. Nis-
sen Co. Pali is currently vice chair
of the AWS Finance Committee
and a member of the AWS Pub-
lications, Expositions, and Mar-
keting Committees. He has
served on the WEMCO (An As-
sociation of Welding Manufac-
turers) executive board, National
Nominating Committee, and nu-
merous subcommittees and pres-
idential task forces. From 1965
to 1978, he worked for Bethle-
hem Steel Corp. in analytical
chemistry and plant operations
research. In 2006, he received the
AWS National Meritorious
Award.
Thomas J. Lienert was elected
to serve as a director-at-large. He
is a Certified Welding Inspector
(CWI) and a technical staff mem-
ber, Materials Science Technol-
ogy Div., at Los Alamos National
Laboratory. Lienert is a Princi-
pal Reviewer and member of the
AWS Technical Papers Commit-
tee, and chairs the AWS Welding
Handbook chapters on Friction
Stir Welding and Stainless and
Heat-Resisting Steels, and is on
the C6 Committee on Friction
Welding and the AWS Higher
Education Committee. Lienert is
also vice chair of the Education
Committee, and serves on the
Technical Activities Committee.
Sean P. Moran has been
elected to serve as a director-at-
large. He is a welding engineer
at Weir American Hydro in York,
Pa. Earlier, he served as a busi-
ness development manager and
a welding engineer at Hobart
Brothers Co., an ITW company.
He has worked ten years as a
welding instructor in both
public and private institu-
tions, is a Certified Welding
Inspector, Certified Weld-
ing Educator, and Certified
Welding Supervisor. Moran
is a vice chair of the Educa-
tion Scholarship Commit-
tee and the Volume 3 Hand-
book Committee, is chair of
the Product Development,
and a member of the D1
Committees.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/13/12 10:36 AM Page 73
JANUARY 2013 74
Thomas A. Ferri has been
elected to serve a second term as
District 1 director. He is a CWI
and has been an AWS member for
more than 30 years. He is district
manager New England for Victor
Technologies. He served four
terms as Boston Section chair,
certification chair for seven years,
and most recently as education
chair. He serves as a welding con-
sultant to many companies in
Massachusetts and is a member of
the advisory committees at five
vocational technical schools.
Stewart A. Harris has been
elected to serve as District 4 di-
rector. He is a CWI and CWE,
is quality assurance group
leader and leader of the Weld
Solutions Team at Altec Indus-
tries, Creedmoor, N.C. He has
held all executive posts at the
Triangle Section, and served
the past four years as deputy
District 4 director. He has re-
ceived many awards, most re-
cently the District nomination
for the National Dalton E.
Hamilton Memorial CWI of
the Year Award.
Uwe W. Aschemeier has been
elected to serve as District 7 di-
rector. He is a CWI and an IIW-
certified International Welding
Engineer, and is with Miami
Diver. Earlier, he was with H. C.
Nutting, A Terracon Co., in
Cincinnati, Ohio. He has served
as chair of the Cincinnati Section,
deputy Dist. 7 director, and mem-
ber of the B1 Committee on
Methods of Inspection and sev-
eral Structural Welding Code sub-
committees. He has received the
District Meritorious and the Dis-
trict Dalton E. Hamilton Memo-
rial CWI of the Year Awards.
Robert E. Brenner has been
elected to serve as District 10 di-
rector. He is a CWI and a QC in-
spector at CnD Industries, Inc.,
Canton, Ohio, where he has
worked since 1991. At the facility,
he has coordinated the safety pro-
gram, established the OSHA li-
brary, and conducted safety train-
ing sessions for the employees. For
ten consecutive years, he spear-
headed and won the OSHA Sharp
Award for the company. Earlier,
he was weld shop supervisor at Re-
public Steel in Massillon, Ohio.
John A. Willard has been
elected to serve as District 13 di-
rector. He is a CWI, serves at
Kankakee Community College,
Kankakee, Ill., administering the
DOT Highway Construction Ca-
reers Training Program, and is
also studying for a degree in weld-
ing. Until last year, he co-owned
Accurate American Inspecting
and Consulting. He has 35 years’
experience at Ironworkers Local
465 in Kankakee as an apprentice
coordinator, and has served as
chair of the JAK Section for ten
years where he remains active.
Dennis A. Wright, who has ful-
filled David Landon’s term as Dis-
trict 16 director, has been elected
to his first full term. He is an AWS
Distinguished Member, CWI, and
CWE. He owns his own business,
Wright Welding Technologies. He
also works in the general job shop
at Zephyr Products, Inc., Leaven-
worth, Kan., training penitentiary
inmates to weld using the AWS
SENSE program. In the U.S. Navy
he served as a journeyman
welder/fitter in a shipyard.
Ken L. Johnson has been
elected District 19 director. He
has served 31 years in the welding
trades, primarily at Todd Pacific
(now Vigor) Shipyards. He began
as a structural welder and is cur-
rently in the welding engineering
department. For the past 15 years,
he has been a welding supervisor
for the U.S. Navy and commercial
projects, and has taught evening
welding classes at Renton Techni-
cal College for the past 17 years.
Johnson has held officer posts at
the Puget Sound Section and
chairs the D3 Committee on
Welding in Marine Construction.
Kerry E. Shatell has been
elected District 22 director. He is
a CWI and CWEng, and holds a
master’s degree in welding engi-
neering. Currently, he is a senior
welding engineer for Pacific Gas
& Electric Co. Earlier, he was a
welding engineer for Procter &
Gamble Co., a welder trainer for
Precision Castparts Corp., and a
pipefitter apprentice for UA
Local 598. He has served most of-
ficer posts at the Sacramento Sec-
tion. His awards include the Dis-
trict Dalton E. Hamilton Memo-
rial CWI of the Year Award.
Ken L. Johnson
District 19 director
Kerry E. Shatell
District 22 director
Dennis A. Wright
District 16 director
John A. Willard
District 13 director
Robert E. Brenner
District 10 director
Uwe W. Aschemeier
District 7 director
Stewart A. Harris
District 4 director
Thomas A. Ferri
District 1 director
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:12 PM Page 74
American Welding Society represen-
tatives met with leaders of the Indone-
sian Welding Society (IWS) and U.S. gov-
ernment officials at the Ted Weiss Fed-
eral Building in New York City Sept. 25
to sign a cooperation agreement aimed
at implementing AWS certification pro-
grams in Indonesia. The agreement also
references plans for the future establish-
ment of a training center in Indonesia to
provide training and certification for
welders and welding instructors in that
country. Participating at the meeting
from American Welding Society were
Vice President Dean Wilson, Jeff Weber,
senior associate executive director, and
Jeff Kamentz, corporate director of in-
ternational sales. The principal represen-
tative from IWS was Achdiat Atmaw-
inata, president. Representing the U.S.
Department of Commerce were Craig
Allen, deputy assistant secretary for Asia,
and David Gossack, counselor for com-
mercial affairs.
75 WELDING JOURNAL
AWS to Cooperate with Indonesian Welding Society in Personnel
Certification and Education
Achdiat Atmawinata (seated at left), IWS president, and Dean Wilson (seated at right), AWS vice president, are shown with representatives of
the Indonesian Welding Society, American Welding Society, and the U.S. Department of Commerce.
November 1, 2013, is the deadline for
submitting nominations for the 2014 Prof.
Koichi Masubuchi Award.
This award is presented each year to
one person, 40 years old or younger, who
has made significant contributions to the
advancement of materials joining through
research and development. Nominations
should include a description of the candi-
date’s experience, list of publications,
honors, and awards, and at least three let-
ters of recommendation from fellow re-
searchers. This award is sponsored by the
Dept. of Ocean Engineering at Massachu-
setts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), this
award includes a $5000 honorarium.
E-mail your nomination package to
Todd A. Palmer, assistant professor, The
Pennsylvania State University,
tap103@psu.edu.
Candidates Sought for Welding-Related Awards
William Irrgang Memorial Award
This award is given to the individual who has done the most
over the past five years to enhance the Society’s goal of advanc-
ing the science and technology of welding. It includes a $2500
honorarium and a certificate.
Honorary Membership Award
This award acknowledges eminence in the welding profession,
or one who is credited with exceptional accomplishments in the
development of the welding art. Honorary Members have full
rights of membership.
Nat. Meritorious Certificate Award
This award recognizes the recipient’s counsel, loyalty, and
dedication to AWS affairs, assistance in promoting cordial rela-
tions with industry and other organizations, and for contribu-
tions of time and effort on behalf of the Society.
George E. Willis Award
This award is given to an individual who promoted the ad-
vancement of welding internationally by fostering cooperative
participation in technology transfer, standards rationalization,
and promotion of industrial goodwill. It includes a $2500 hono-
rarium.
Int’l Meritorious Certificate Award
This honor recognizes recipients’ significant contributions to
the welding industry for service to the international welding com-
munity in the broadest terms. The award consists of a certificate
and a one-year AWS membership.
The deadline for nominating candidates for the following awards is December 31 prior to the year of the awards presentations.
Contact Wendy Sue Reeve, wreeve@aws.org; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 293.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:13 PM Page 75
JANUARY 2013 76
Standards Approved by ANSI
A9.5:2013, Guide for Verification and
Validation in Computation Weld Mechan-
ics. New. 10/30/12.
D14.9/D14.9M:2013, Specification for
the Welding of Hydraulic Cylinders. New.
10/30/12.
D15.2/D15.2M:2013, Recommended
Practices for the Welding of Rails and Re-
lated Rail Components for Use by Rail Ve-
hicles. Revised. 10/30/12.
D17.2/D17.2M:2013, Specification for
Resistance Welding for Aerospace Applica-
tions. Revised. 10/30/12.
C4.6M:2006 (R2012) (ISO 9013:2002
IDT), Thermal Cutting — Classification of
Thermal Cuts — Geometric Product Spec-
ification and Quality Tolerances. Reaf-
firmed. 10/30/12.
Standards for Public Review
AWS was approved as an accredited
standards-preparing organization by the
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) in 1979. ANSI requires that all
standards be open to public review for
comment during the approval process.
The following Reaffirmed Standards
are submitted for public review. The ex-
piration date is 1/14/13. Draft copies, $25
each, may be ordered from R. O’Neill,
roneill@aws.org, (305) 443-9353, ext. 451.
B2.1-1-003:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuit-
ing Transfer Mode) of Galvanized Steel (M-
1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded
Condition, with or without Backing
B2.1-1-004:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuit-
ing Transfer Mode) of Carbon Steel (M-1,
Group 1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-
Welded Condition, with or without Backing
B2.1-8-005:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuit-
ing Transfer Mode) of Austenitic Stainless
Steel (M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through 10
Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or
without Backing
B2.1-1/8-006:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuit-
ing Transfer Mode) of Carbon Steel to
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1 to M-8, P-8,
or S-8), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-
Welded Condition, with or without Backing
B2.1-1-007:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Galva-
nized Steel (M-1), 18 through 10 Gauge,
in the As-Welded Condition, with or with-
out Backing
B2.1-1-008:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1, P-1, or S-1), 18 through 10
Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or
without Backing
B2.1-8-009:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through
10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with
or without Backing
B2.1-1/8-010:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel to Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1, P-1
or S-1 to M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through 10
Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or
without Backing
B2.1-1-011:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Galva-
nized Steel (M-1), 10 through 18 Gauge, in
the As-Welded Condition, with or without
Backing
B2.1-1-012:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1, P-1, or S-1 to M-1, P-1, or S-1),
10 through 18 Gauge, in the As-Welded
Condition, with or without Backing
B2.1-8-013:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, S-8, Group 1), 10
through 18 Gauge, in the As-Welded Con-
dition, with or without Backing
B2.1-1/8-014:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel to Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1 to
M-8/P-8/S-8, Group 1), 10 through 18
Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with
or without Backing
B2.1-1/8-227:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8,
Group 1),
1
⁄16 through 1
1
⁄2 Inch Thick,
ER309(L), As-Welded Condition, Prima-
rily Pipe Applications
B2.1-1/8-228:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1/P-1/S-1, Groups 1 or 2) to
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8/S-8,
Group 1),
1
⁄8 through 1
1
⁄2 Inch Thick,
E309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Con-
dition, Primarily Pipe Applications
B2.1-1/8-229:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding followed by
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
(M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic
Stainless Steel ( M-8/P-8, Group 1),
1
⁄8
through 1
1
⁄2 Inch Thick, ER309(L) and
E309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Con-
dition, Primarily Pipe Applications
B2.1-1/8-230:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Consumable
Insert Root of Carbon Steel (M-1/P-1,
Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic Stainless Steel
(M-8/P-8, Group 1),
1
⁄16 through 1
1
⁄2 Inch
Thick, IN309 and ER309(L), As-Welded
Condition, Primarily Pipe Applications
B2.1-1/8-231:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Con-
sumable Insert Root followed by Shielded
Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel (M-1/P-
1/S-1, Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic Stain-
less Steel (M-8/P-8/S-8, Group 1)
1
⁄8 through
1
1
⁄2 Inch Thick, IN309, ER309, and E309 -
15,- 16, or -17, or IN309, ER309(L), and
ER309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Con-
dition, Primarily Pipe Applications
ISO Standards for Public Review
Copies of the following Draft Interna-
tional Standards are available for review
and comment through your national stan-
dards body, which in the United States is
ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York,
NY 10036; (212) 642-4900. Any comments
regarding ISO documents should be sent
to your national standards body. In the
United States, if you want to contribute
to the development of International Stan-
dards for welding, contact A. Davis,
adavis@aws.org, (305) 443-9353, ext. 466.
ISO/DIS 14114 — Gas welding equip-
ment — Acetylene manifold systems for
welding, cutting, and allied processes —
General requirements
ISO/DIS 25980 — Health and safety in
welding and allied processes — Transpar-
ent welding curtains, strips, and screens for
arc welding processes
Technical Committee Meetings
Note: All of the following meetings will
be held at AWS World Headquarters in
Doral, Fla. All AWS technical committee
meetings are open to the public. To attend
a meeting, contact the secretary listed.
Jan. 23. Committee on Personnel and
Facilities Qualification. S. Hedrick, ext.
305.
Feb. 4, 5. B4 Committee on Mechani-
cal Testing of Welds. B. McGrath, ext. 311.
Feb. 6. International Standards Activi-
ties Committee. A. Davis, ext. 466.
Feb. 6, 7. Technical Activities Commit-
tee. A. Alonso, ext. 299.
Feb. 26−March 1, D1 Committee
meetings. For details, call B. McGrath,
ext. 311, or visit www.aws.org/WPZD8B.
Tech Topics
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:14 PM Page 76
77 WELDING JOURNAL
New AWS Supporters
SUSTAINING MEMBER
Lincoln College of Technology
11194 E. 45th Ave.
Denver, CO 80239
Representative: Eric T. Drobney
www.lincolncollegeoftechnology.com
Lincoln College of Technology teaches
students of all ages to weld using an eight-
stage program designed to move them into
the welding industry well rounded in the
GMA, GTA, FCA, and SMA welding
processes. Students learn these tech-
niques beginning with emphasis on safety
and proper equipment setup. The courses
are based on AWS standards with an em-
phasis on code compliance.
AFFILIATE COMPANIES
Applied Cryo Technologies
7150 Almeda Genoa
Houston, TX 77075
DM & C Steel Corp.
10949 Schmidt Rd.
El Monte, CA 91733
Eastern Oklahoma Fabrication
27355 State Hwy. 112
Cameron, OK 74932
Fedorki Performance Systems Ltd.
PO Box 1534
Brockville, ON K6V6E6
Canada
Great Lakes Mechanical Services, Inc.
1221 Commerce Dr., Ste. 400
Crete, IL 60417
Howell Industries
1650 Swisco Rd.
Sulphur, LA 70665
Killick Group Ltd.
19 Dundee Ave.
Mount Pearl, NL A1N4R6, Canada
Peddinghaus Corp.
300 N. Washington Ave.
Bradley, IL 60915
Playcore
150 Playcore Dr.
Fort Payne, AL 35967
Tech Fab
7450 Miller Rd. 2, Houston, TX 77049
SUPPORTING COMPANIES
ALFRA USA LLC
120 Prairie Lake Rd.
East Dundee, IL 60118
Axis Inspection Group Ltd.
1239 Manahan Ave., Unit B
Winnipeg, MB R3T5S8
Canada
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Certified Welding
16 Walnut St.
West Warwick, RI 02893
Daingerfield — Lone Star ISD
200 Tiger Dr.
Daingerfield, TX 75638
Davis Applied Technology College
550 E. 300 S.
Kaysville, UT 84037
Hallettsville High School
200 N. Ridge St.
Hallettsville, TX 77964
North Bend High School
2323 Pacific Ave.
North Bend, OR 97459
Savannah Technical College
5717 White Bluff Rd.
Savannah, GA 31405
Spooner High School
801 Hwy A
Spooner, WI 54801
Tallahassee Community College
444 Appleyard Dr.
Tallahassee, FL 32304
Texas State Technical College
West Texas
300 Homer K. Taylor Dr.
Sweetwater, TX 79556
Welding Skills Workshops
181 S. Wineville Ave., Unit A
Ontario, CA 91761
D14 Committee on Machinery and
Equipment seeks professionals in the de-
sign, production, engineering, testing, and
safe operation of machinery and equipment
to prepare and revise its documents. E.
Abrams, eabrams@aws.org; ext. 307.
C2 Committee on Thermal Spraying
seeks educators, general interest, and users
to update its documents. E. Abrams,
eabrams@aws.org; ext. 307.
D16 Committee on Robotic and Auto-
matic Welding seeks general interest and
educators to help revise its documents. B.
McGrath, bmcgrath@aws.org; ext. 311.
D17J Subcommittee seeks members to
help revise D17.3/D17.3M, Specification
for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Al-
loys for Aerospace Applications. Contact A.
Diaz, adiaz@aws.org; ext. 304.
J1 Committee on Resistance Welding
Equipment seeks educators, general inter-
est, and users to help develop its documents
on controls, installation and maintenance,
calibration, and resistance welding fact
sheets. E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org; ext.
307.
A5L Subcommittee on Magnesium
Alloy Filler Metals to assist in updating its
document. R. Gupta, gupta@aws.org, ext.
301.
C4 Committee on Oxyfuel Gas Welding
and Cutting seeks general interest and ed-
ucators to help review its documents. Con-
tact E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org; ext. 307.
D14H Subcommittee on Surfacing and
Reconditioning of Industrial Mill Rolls to
revise AWS D14.7, Recommended Practices
for Surfacing and Reconditioning of Indus-
trial Mill Rolls. E. Abrams, eabrams@
aws.org; ext. 307.
D8 Committee on Automotive Welding
seeks members to help prepare standards
on all aspects of welding in the automotive
industry. E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org;
ext. 307.
D10P Subcommittee for Local Heat
Treating of Pipe seeks members. B. Mc-
Grath, bmcgrath@aws.org; ext. 311.
Opportunities to Contribute to AWS Welding Standards and Codes
NOTE: LEARN MORE ABOUT TECHNICAL COMMITTEES AND APPLY FOR MEMBERSHIP ONLINE AT www.aws.org/technical/jointechcomm.html.
American Welding Society members
will receive a discounted fee to attend the
Laser Institute of America (LIA) 5th An-
nual Laser Additive Manufacturing Work-
shop to be held Feb. 12 at Hilton Houston
North Hotel in Houston, Tex. The two so-
cieties have signed a cooperating society
agreement wherein AWS is listed as a Co-
operating Society for the event and AWS
members receive the LIA member dis-
count. For complete information, visit
www.lia.org/conferences/lam.
Laser Additive Manufacturing Workshop Offers Discounted Fee to AWS Members
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:14 PM Page 77
JANUARY 2013 78
Member-Get-A-Member Campaign
Listed are the members participating in
the 2012−2013 campaign. Standings as of
11/16/12. See page page 85 of this Welding
Journal for campaign rules and prize list or
visit www.aws.org/mgm. For information,
call the Membership Department
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 480.
Winner’s Circle
Sponsored 20 or more new Individual Mem-
bers per year since June 1, 1999. The super-
script denotes the number of times the mem-
ber achieved Winner’s Circle status if more
than once.
E. Ezell, Mobile
10
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley
7
J. Merzthal, Peru
2
G. Taylor, Pascagoula
2
L. Taylor, Pascagoula
2
B. Chin, Auburn
S. Esders, Detroit
M. Haggard, Inland Empire
M. Karagoulis, Detroit
S. McGill, NE Tennessee
B. Mikeska, Houston
W. Shreve, Fox Valley
T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona
G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona
R. Wray, Nebraska
President’s Roundtable
Sponsored 9−19 new Individual Members
M. Pelegrino, Chicago — 16
E. Ezell, Mobile — 12
R. Fulmer, Twin Tiers — 10
W. Blamire, Atlanta — 9
A. Tous, Costa Rica — 9
P. Strother, New Orleans — 9
President’s Club
Sponsored 3−8 new Individual Members
D. Galiher, Detroit — 7
W. Komlos, Utah — 7
J. Smith, San Antonio — 6
C. Becker, Northwest — 5
L. Webb, Lexington — 4
A. Bernard, Sabine — 3
P. Brown, New Orleans — 3
D. Buster, Eastern Iowa — 3
C. Daon, Israel — 3
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi — 3
D. Jessop, Mahoning Valley — 3
A. Winkle, Kansas City — 3
D. Wright, Kansas City — 3
R. Wright, San Antonio — 3
President’s Honor Roll
Sponsored 2 new Individual Members
P. Host, Chicago
W. Larry, Southern Colorado
E. Norman, Ozark
A. Sam, Trinidad
D. Saunders, Lakeshore
A. Vogt, New Jersey
J. Vincent, Kansas City
M. Wheeler, Cleveland
L. William, Western Carolina
W. Wilson, New Orleans
R. Zabel, SE Nebraska
Student Member Sponsors
Sponsored 3 or more new AWS Student
Members.
B. Scherer, Cincinati — 39
W. England, West Michigan — 33
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley — 31
R. Hammond, Greater Huntsville — 27
S. Siviski, Maine — 24
B. Cheatham, Columbia — 23
T. Geisler, Pittsburgh — 23
C. Kochersperger, Philadelphia — 23
M. Arand, Louisville — 22
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi — 21
R. Munns, Utah — 18
S. Lindsey, San Diego — 17
J. Falgout, Baton Rouge — 16
E. Norman, Ozark — 16
D. Pickering, Central Arkansas — 13
R. Zabel, SE Nebraska — 13
J. Daugherty, Louisville — 12
C. Morris, Sacramento — 12
R. Richwine, Indiana — 12
S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley — 12
R. Hutchinson, Long Beach/Or.Cty. — 11
D. Saunders, Lakeshore — 11
A. Theriot, New Orleans — 10
A. Duron, Cumberland Valley — 10
J. Boyer, Lancaster Section — 9
G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona — 8
C. Schiner, Wyoming — 8
C. Gilbertson, Northern Plains — 8
J. Dawson, Pittsburgh — 7
R. Udy, Utah — 7
R. Vann, South Carolina — 7
T. Buckley, Columbus — 6
R. Fuller, Green & White Mts. — 6
T. Shirk, Tidewater — 6
A. Badeaux, Washington, D.C. — 5
P. Host, Chicago — 5
K. Temme, Philadelphia — 5
W. Wilson, New Orleans — 5
C. Chifici, New Orleans — 4
J. Reed, Ozark — 4
G. Siepert, Kansas — 4
P. Strother, New Orleans — 4
R. Zadroga, Philadelphia — 4
S. Liu, Colorado — 3
G. Lunen, Kansas City — 3
Districts Council Actions and Membership Awards Notices
Actions of the Districts Council
On Nov. 11, after due consideration,
Districts Council approved the disband-
ment of the Cuautitlan Izcalli Section,
District 18.
Charters were approved for the Stu-
dent Chapters at Strom Thurmond Ca-
reer Center, District 5, and Blackhawk
Technical College, District 12.
The Shasta College Student Chapter,
District 22, was approved for reinstate-
ment.
Approved for disbandment were the
Student Chapters at Southeast Commu-
nity College, District 16; Ozark Mountain
Technical Center, District 17; Mount Ver-
non High School, District 19; and Cholla
High Magnet School, District 21.
Membership Promotion Winners
Announced
A special membership promotion was
held at the AWS Membership Booth dur-
ing FABTECH, in Las Vegas. Everyone
who joined or renewed their membership
for two years or longer received their
choice of uniquely designed T-shirts or a
limited edition American Welder patch,
and were also entered in a raffle to win a
$100 VISA gift card or an AWS duffle bag.
The VISA card winners included Ryan
Compton, Castaic, Calif.; Brian Henrick-
son, Minneapolis, Minn.; and Mike
Myers, Nikiski, Alaska. David Ennis,
Winder, Ga., received the duffle bag.
District Director Award Presented
The District Director Award provides
a means for District directors to recognize
individuals and corporations for contribut-
ing time and resources to the affairs of the
local Section and/or District.
District 9 Director George Fairbanks
has nominated James Carnell, Baton
Rouge Section, for the this award.
AWS Member Counts
December 1, 2012
Sustaining ......................................553
Supporting.....................................352
Educational ...................................608
Affiliate..........................................485
Welding Distributor........................50
Total Corporate ..........................2,048
Individual .................................58,118
Student + Transitional ...............10,165
Total Members.........................68,283
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:15 PM Page 78
79 WELDING JOURNAL
SECTIONNEWS
SECTIONNEWS
District 1
Thomas Ferri, director
(508) 527-1884
thomas_ferri@Victortechnologies.com
Shown at the Boston Section vendor night event are (from left) Pat Fogarty, Nick Ryan, Alex Bill, Nick Stillwater, Megan Custer, Rick Costa,
and Jim Carey.
Shown at the Central Mass./Rhode Island Section event are from left (front) Jeffrey Bar-
boza, Zachery Smith, Instructor Douglas Desrochers, and Timothy Hurley; (back) Matthew
Alger, Nathaniel St. John, Nicholas Demling, Michael McGraw, and Antonia Baravella.
Bill Campbell (center) is shown with Dave Paquin (left), Boston Section chair, and Tom
Ferri, District 1 director.
BOSTON
NOVEMBER 5
Activity: The Section participated in a ven-
dor night event hosted at Joseph P. Keefe
Regional Technical School in Framing-
ham, Mass. Representatives from Fraser
& Malloy, Miller Electric, Victor Tech-
nologies, Pferd Abrasives, Arc One, and
Edmar Abrasives offered demonstrations
of stud welding, arc welding, and abrasive
products. Bill Campbell received the CWI
of the Year Award from District 1 Direc-
tor Tom Ferri and Dave Paquin, Section
chair.
CENTRAL MASS./R.I.
NOVEMBER 9
Activity: The Section members partici-
pated in the annual 8th grade career
awareness days designed to introduce stu-
dents to the many vocations and courses
available in welding. Instructor Douglas
Desrochers and his students in the weld-
ing and joining technologies program ex-
plained and demonstrated the gas metal
arc and gas tungsten arc welding processes.
The event was held at Old Colony Vo-Tec
High School in Rochester Mass.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:16 PM Page 79
JANUARY 2013 80
MAINE
OCTOBER 25
Activity: The Section members visited
Eastern Maine Community College in
Bangor to tour its welder training facili-
ties. A highlight was the weld testing cen-
ter where Tom Giles discussed the proce-
dures for destructive testing of welds, and
the welder performance qualifications re-
quired at the college.
TRIANGLE & NE CAROLINA
OCTOBER 23
Activity: The Section members toured
Nash Tech Community College in Nash,
N.C. Pitt Community College displayed its
mobile welding lab at the event. Russell
Wahrman from Wake C. C. discussed how
belonging to AWS has improved his career
and the activities of his school’s Student
Chapter. Bobby Perkins, Northeastern
Carolina Section chair, presented Ted
Clayton the Section CWI of the Year
Award, and the Section Educator Award
to Russell Wahrman.
PHILADELPHIA
NOVEMBER 15
Speaker: Ken Moyer, metallurgist
Topic: How grain structure affects the weld
characteristics
Activity: The program was held at Villari’s
Lakeside Restaurant in Sicklerville, N.J.
Shown at the Maine Section tour are (from left) Jim Kein, Chris Maseychik, Mike Burgess, Tom Giles, Robb Smith, Mark Merry, Mark
Legel, Reggie Munson, Joel Stanley, Mark Searle, and Patrick Blackie. Photo by Pat Kein, vice chair.
Attendees are shown at the Triangle Section tour of Nash Tech Community College.
Bobby Perkins (left), NE Carolina Section
chair, is shown with Ted Clayton.
Russell Wahrman (right) is shown with
Bobby Perkins, NE Carolina Section chair.
Metallurgist Ken Moyer (left) is shown with
Ken Temme, Philadelphia Section chair.
District 2
Harland W. Thompson, director
(631) 546-2903
harland.w.thompson@us.ul.com
District 4
Stewart A. Harris, director
(919) 824-0520
Stewart.Harris@Altec.com
District 3
Michael Wiswesser, director
(610) 820-9551
mike@welderinstitute.com
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:16 PM Page 80
81 WELDING JOURNAL
District 5
Carl Matricardi, director
(770) 979-6344
cmatricardi@aol.com
District 7
Uwe Aschemeier, director
(513) 351-3545
uwe@miamidiver.com
District 6
Kenneth Phy, director
(315) 218-5297
kenneth.phy@gmail.com
Shown at the Columbia Section program are (from left) Larry Dowd, District 5 Director
Carl Matricardi, and Rick Shannon.
Shown at the North Florida Section meeting in September are (from left) Allen Garber, Bob
Bitzky, Doug Yates, Drew Duffy, and Shelby Smith.
Shown at the South Carolina Section program are (from left) C. Ray Pearre, Chair Gale
Mole, and Bill Creek.
Shown at the Northern New York Section
program are (from left) Bob Strugar, speaker
Dale Kapuscinski, and Chair Larry Hidde.
Speaker Bill Myers (right), an AWS past pres-
ident, is shown with Charles Crumpton,
Florida West Coast Section chair.
COLUMBIA
OCTOBER 18
Speaker: Michael Daley
Affiliation: Owen Steel
Topic: Welding-related documents, welder
qualification and certification require-
ments
Activity: District 5 Director presented the
CWI of the Year Award to Tommy Dowd,
received in his absence by Larry Dowd.
The event was held at Arclabs in Colum-
bia, S.C., hosted by Rick Shannon.
FLORIDA WEST COAST
NOVEMBER 14
Speaker: Bill Myers, welding engineer
Affiliation: Dresser Industries (ret.)
Topic: Welding cast iron
Activity: The event was held for 21 atten-
dees at Frontier Steakhouse in Tampa, Fla.
NORTH FLORIDA
SEPTEMBER
Activity: The Section members visited
Commercial Diving Academy in Jack-
sonville, Fla.
SEPTEMBER 20
Speaker: Bob Bitzky, training and process
manager
Affiliation: ESAB Welding & Cutting
Topic: Spray and short circuit welding
processes
SOUTH CAROLINA
OCTOBER 18
Activity: The Section met at Trident Tech-
nical College in North Charleston, S.C.,
for a demonstration of blacksmithing tech-
niques. The presenters were C. Ray Pearre
and Bill Creek from the Philip Simmons
Artisans Blacksmith Guild.
NORTHERN NEW YORK
NOVEMBER 6
Speaker: Dale Kapuscinski, district sales
manager for New York state
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: Welding technology advancements
Activity: Chair Larry Hidde presented Bob
Strugar the past chairman’s award.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:17 PM Page 81
JANUARY 2013 82
District 8
Joe Livesay, director
(931) 484-7502, ext. 143
joe.livesay@ttcc.edu
Pittsburgh Section members are shown at the November program.
Pittsburgh Section members shown at FABTECH (from left) are Bill Kashin, District 7 Di-
rector Don Howard, AWS Vice President-Elect Dave McQuaid, and Ed Yevick.
Speaker Timothy Andreychek (left) is shown
with John Menhart, Pittsburgh Section chair.
CINCINNATI
NOVEMBER 6
Speaker: Uwe Aschemeier, senior welding
engineer
Affiliation: Miami Diver, LLC
Topic: Repair of a product tanker
Activity: The program was held at the
Corinthian Restaurant in Cincinnati,
Ohio, for 25 attendees.
NOVEMBER 19
Activity: Several Pittsburgh Section mem-
bers promoted the Section’s activities at
the FABTECH show in Las Vegas, Nev.,
including AWS Vice President-Elect Dave
McQuaid, District 7 Director Don
Howard, Bill Kashin, and Ed Yevick.
CHATTANOOGA
OCTOBER 16
Activity: The Section members visited Al-
stom Power in Chattanooga, Tenn. Julio
Tolaini, welding group head, discussed a
welding monitoring system. Doug Donald-
son, material identification specialist, and
Randy Theriot, welding qualification su-
pervisor, at Partek Laboratories, Houma,
La., demonstrated the TVC ALX II weld-
ing data monitoring and recording system.
COLUMBUS
SEPTEMBER 13
Activity: The Section members joined
members of other local technical societies
at The Ohio State University to attend a
workshop on how to interview effectively
presented by several local employers and
college students. The speakers included
Tom Ramsay, Elizabeth Brannon, and
Greg Boyer.
SEPTEMBER 26
Speaker: Jean-Vi Lenthe, author
Topic: Flying into Yesterday: My Search
for the Curtiss-Wright Aeronautical Engi-
neering Cadettes
Activity: The program was held at The
Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio.
PITTSBURGH
NOVEMBER 13
Speaker: Timothy Andreychek, engineer
Affiliation: Westinghouse Electric Co.
Topic: Improving corrosion-resisting com-
ponents for the AP1000 nuclear reactor
Activity: The program was held at Spring-
field Grille in Mars, Pa.
Julio Tolaini discussed weld monitoring at
the Chattanooga Section program.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:17 PM Page 82
83 WELDING JOURNAL
NASHVILLE
OCTOBER 9
Activity: District 8 Director Joe Livesay
presented the AWS Extraordinary Weld-
ing Award to Preston Farabow, a
Knoxville-area artist, for his stainless steel
sundial sculpture Marking Time. The pres-
entation was made at the I-40 Smith
County Welcome Center in Buffalo Val-
ley, Tenn., where the sculpture is on per-
manent exhibition.
NE MISSISSIPPI
SEPTEMBER 12
Activity: The Section held its program in
Starkville, Miss. Denny Cole received the
Section Meritorious Award. David Car-
wyle received the Section Dalton E. Hamil-
ton Memorial CWI of the Year Award.
SEPTEMBER 20
Activity: The NE Mississippi Section met
with Ron Martucci, salesman, The Lincoln
Electric Co., for a demonstration of the
VRTEX®360 virtual reality arc welder
trainer technology.
OCTOBER 25
Activity: The NE Mississippi Section mem-
bers toured the Babcock & Wilcox West
Point, Miss., facility. David Hutchins,
welding engineer, conducted the program.
Doug Donaldson (left) and Randy Theriot
are shown at the Chattanooga Section event.
Preston Farabow (right) receives the AWS
Extraordinary Welding Award from Joe
Livesay, District 8 director.
The NE Mississippi Section members are shown during their tour of Babcock & Wilcox Co. in October.
Northeast Mississippi Section members are shown at their September 20 event.
Shown at the NE Mississippi September 12 program are (from left) Chuck Robertson, Denny
Cole, David Carwyle, and Robbin Shull.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:18 PM Page 83
JANUARY 2013 84
Attendees at the NE Tennessee Section tour are (from left) Caleb Anderson, Lucas Hicks, Charles Leopper, John Folk, presenter Patrick
Werner, Bruce Lowery, Brent Shattles, Joshua Burgess, David Hoff, Philip Bodanza, Lloyd Cadd, District 8 Director Joe Livesay, Darren
Nail, Jim Werner, Chris Hayes, Paul Pipkin, Daniel Conner, and Jonaaron Jones.
Shown at the Acadiana Section program are (from left) Chair Mike Skiles, Gary Wilson,
Sam Newton, Abby Bergeron, and David Reid.
Shown at the Birmingham Section program are (from left) Secretary Chris Williams, Treas-
urer Nicholas Thomas, Vice Chair Chris Guined, Chair Randall Standridge, Program Chair
Rushton Syphurs, and Membership Chair Kendall Allen.
NE TENNESSEE
OCTOBER 23
Activity: The Section members toured the
Materials Engineering & Testing Corp. in
Oak Ridge, Tenn. Patrick Werner, presi-
dent, conducted a shop tour including the
waterjet cutting, Charpy impact testing,
weld X-ray, and chemical analysis areas.
Attending were Joe Livesay, District 8 di-
rector, and members from other AWS Sec-
tions.
District 10 Roundtable
NOVEMBER 3
Activity: The District presented its first
CWI Roundtable as a forum for CWIs to
share their experiences and opinions. The
12 attendees discussed four topics: what
CWIs do, steps to audit for code compli-
ance, how to get the job done, and han-
dling controversies. Participating were
Louis Verhas, Lance Besse, Pam Michal-
ski, Thomas Kostreba, Dan Donaldson,
ACADIANA
OCTOBER 16
Activity: More than 70 representatives of
local businesses and welding students at-
tended the Section’s meeting held at
Cameron Corp. in Ville Platte, La. Chair
Mike Skiles made a presentation about
AWS and local welding opportunities.
Welding Supervisor Gary Wilson and
Manufacturing Manager Sam Newton con-
ducted a tour of the facilities.
BIRMINGHAM
NOVEMBER 13
Activity: The Section held a “Chat with the
President” program at Lawson State Com-
munity College. College President Perry
W. Ward recognized the various student
organizations and discussed job opportu-
nities and financial support programs.
MOBILE
NOVEMBER 1
Speaker: Ryan O’Dell, district manager
Affiliation: Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
Topic: Weld data monitoring
Activity: Welding students from Locklin
Technical Center attended the program.
The event was held at Original Oyster
House in Spanish Fort, Ala.
Speaker Ryan O’Dell (left) is shown with
Johnny Dedeaux, Mobile Section chair.
District 10
Robert E. Brenner, director
(330) 484-3650
bobren28@yahoo.com
District 9
George Fairbanks Jr., director
(225) 473-6362
fits@bellsouth.net
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:18 PM Page 84
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Mr. Ms. Mrs. Dr. Please print • Duplicate this page as needed
Last Name______________________________________________________________________________
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Were you ever an AWS Member? YES NO If “YES,” give year_____and Member # ____________
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Type of Business (Check ONE only)
A Contract construction
B Chemicals & allied products
C Petroleum & coal industries
D Primary metal industries
E Fabricated metal products
F Machinery except elect. (incl. gas welding)
G Electrical equip., supplies, electrodes
H Transportation equip. — air, aerospace
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J Transportation equip. — boats, ships
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T Marine
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W Sheet metal
X Structures
Y Other
Z Automation
1 Robotics
2 Computerization of Welding
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87 WELDING JOURNAL
Lane Smerglia, Jim Myers, Dave Cook,
Mark Demchak, Bob Gardner, Gary
Smerglia, and Richard Harris, District 10
director. The District 10 roundtable was
held at Babcock & Wilcox Commercial in
Euclid, Ohio.
MAHONING VALLEY
OCTOBER 17
Activity: The Section executive committee
and Student Chapter officers met to plan
activities for the coming season. The meet-
ing was held at Rachel’s Restaurant in
Austintown, Ohio.
NOVEMBER 8
Speaker: Robert Matteson, director of
technology
Affiliation: Taylor-Winfield Technologies
Topic: Resistance welding basics and
equipment
Activity: About 70 members and guests at-
tended this program, held at Columbiana
County Career Center in Columbiana,
Ohio.
NORTHWESTERN PA.
OCTOBER 9
Speaker: Carl Peters, director of educa-
tion
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: Education and careers in welding
Activity: The program, held at Erie Insti-
tute of Technology in Erie, Pa., was at-
tended by 42 members and guests.
NOVEMBER 6
Activity: The Northwestern Pa. Section
members and guests toured the Eriez® fa-
cility in Erie, Pa. Christine Williamson,
human resources manager, presented a
history of the magnetics company and led
the tour for the 50 attendees.
District 11
Robert P. Wilcox, director
(734) 721-8272
rmwilcox@wowway.com
Shown are some of the participants at the District 10 CWI Roundtable event.
Central Michigan Section members and Boy Scouts are shown at the Merit Badge Clinic
event held in September.
Christine Williamson is shown with Tom
Kostreba, Northwestern Pa. Section chair,
during the November Eriez® tour.
Speaker Carl Peters (left) is shown with Tom
Kostreba, Northwestern Pennsylvania Sec-
tion chair, at the October meeting.
The Mahoning Valley Section executive committee and Student Chapter officers are shown
at their planning meeting in October.
CENTRAL MICHIGAN
SEPTEMBER 22, 23
Activity: The Section members conducted
a Boy Scout Merit Badge Clinic at Lans-
ing Community College in Lansing, Mich.
The program qualified 14 boys to earn
their welding merit badges. Participating
were Catherine Lindquist, Craig Barnes,
Roy Bailiff, Bill Eggleston, and Jeff
Haynes.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:19 PM Page 87
JANUARY 2013 88
District 12
Daniel J. Roland, director
(715) 735-9341, ext. 6421
daniel.roland@us.fincantieri.com
District 13
John Willard, director
(815) 426-2997
kustom_bilt@msn.com
Madison-Beloit Section members are shown during the tour of Stoughton Trailers.
Shown during the Lakeshore Section tour are (from left) Chair Milt Kemp, Dick Brown,
Andy Schmitt, and Mark Stenz.
Eric Stiles discussed welding robots for the
Detroit Section members.
A Student Chapter member competes in the
virtual welding contest held by the Madison-
Beloit and Racine-Kenosha Sections.
Dan Wellman (left) is shown with presenter
Mike Klos during the Detroit Section tour.
Willie Petzrick (left) and Kenneth Hunter are
shown at the Madison-Beloit Section program.
DETROIT
NOVEMBER 8
Activity: The Section members and guests
visited IPG Photonics-Midwest in Novi,
Mich., to tour the facility. Mike Klos, gen-
eral manager, and Eric Stiles, applications
manager, discussed intelligent robots for
materials-joining applications. The event
attracted 75 attendees.
NORTHWEST OHIO
JULY 6
Activity: The Section held its annual Don-
ald J. Leonhardt golf outing in Toledo,
Ohio, for 64 participants. The event co-
chairs were Mike Rogers, Tony Duris, and
Mark Scalise. The event benefits scholar-
ships for Owen Community College.
LAKESHORE
OCTOBER 11
Activity: The Section members toured the
Miller Implement Co. in St. Nazianz, Wis.,
to observe the manufacture of agricultural
sprayer application equipment. The din-
ner and meeting were held at Knox Silver
Valley Restaurant in Manitowoc, Wis., for
25 attendees.
MADISON-BELOIT
OCTOBER 17
Activity: The Section members toured
Stoughton Trailers in Stoughton, Wis., to
study the manufacture of grain haulers,
vans, domestic containers, container chas-
sis, platform trailers, converter dollies, and
flatbeds.
MADISON-BELOIT and
RACINE-KENOSHA
NOVEMBER 7
Activity: Members of the two Sections met
at Blackhawk Technical College in
Janesville, Wis., for a hands-on vendors’
night activity including industry represen-
tatives from Lincoln Electric, Miller Elec-
tric, ESAB, Fronius, Airgas, and Hyper-
therm. The college welding shop was avail-
able for students and guests to work with
the various welding processes. The college
and the Student Chapter hosted a welding
contest using a VRTEX® 360 virtual arc
welding training equipment.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:20 PM Page 88
89 WELDING JOURNAL
District 14
Robert L. Richwine, director
(765) 378-5378
bobrichwine@aol.com
Attendees are shown at the joint Chicago Section-ASNT chapter program.
The Ivy Tech C. C. Student Chapter members are from left (front row) Dustin Johnson,
Dustin Hawkins, Cory Rix, and Andrew Gibson, (standing) Aaron Rich, Jonathan See, Wil-
son Smith, Advisor Martina Miller, Terrence Smith, Justin Lui, Josh Noble, Thomas Faucett,
Bethann Neal, and Advisor Bob Richwine, District 14 director.
The Iowa Section members are shown with the candidates who earned their Boy Scout welding merit badges in November.
Craig Tichelar (left) is shown with Chicago
Section Chair Pete Host.
Stuart Kleven (left) received a speaker plaque
from Pete Host, Chicago Section chair.
CHICAGO
OCTOBER 17
Speaker: Stuart Kleven, inspector
Affiliation: Alloyweld Inspection Co.
Topic: The Laser Interferometer Gravita-
tion Observatory project
Activity: This was a joint meeting with
members of the local chapter of ASNT.
Craig Tichelar was presented an appreci-
ation award for his services as chairman.
Ivy Tech C.C.
Student Chapter
OCTOBER
Activity: The first AWS Student Chapter
in the state of Indiana met at the college.
The advisors are welding instructor Mar-
tina Miller and Bob Richwine, District 14
director. The Student Chapter members
attending included Dustin Johnson,
Dustin Hawkins, Cory Rix, Andrew Gib-
son, Aaron Rich, Jonathan See, Wilson
Smith, Terrence Smith, Justin Lui, Josh
Noble, Thomas Faucett, Malcom Duncan,
and Bethann Neal.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:20 PM Page 89
JANUARY 2013 90
District 15
David Lynnes, director
(701) 365-0606
dave@learntoweld.com
District 16
Dennis Wright, director
(913) 782-0635
awscwi1@att.net
IOWA
NOVEMBER 3
Activity: The Section sponsored its first
Boy Scout welding merit badge event in
Waterloo, Iowa. Participating were mem-
bers of the Boy Scout troops from
Scheffield, Cedar Falls, New Hampton,
Bettendorf, Winthrop, Iowa City, Laporte
City, Van Horne, Clear Lake, Charles City,
and Mason City. The Section members
working the event were Greg Allison, Jor-
dan Mason, Andy Morrison, Andy
Suprenant, Jonathan Lowery, Jeff
Jantzen, and Kelly Jantzen.
KANSAS CITY
NOVEMBER 8
Speaker: Taylor Christmas, ASCE Stu-
dent Chapter president
Affiliation: University of Missouri, Kansas
City Engineering School
Topic: Details of past and upcoming bridge
building competitions
Activity: About 60 members and guests at-
tended this program, held at the univer-
sity in Kansas City, Mo.
NEBRASKA
OCTOBER 31
Activity: The Section presented money
from its scholarship fund to Burke High
School Industrial Technology Teachers Joe
Nebraska Section members and industrial technology students are shown at Burke High School.
Shown during the Oklahoma City Section
tour are (from left) Keith Theesen, Chair
Cary Reeves, and Tony Solics.
Matt Terell observes a student using the vir-
tual welding machine at the Oklahoma City
Section program.
Speaker Sgt. Tom Bell (left) is shown with
Paul Wittenbach, Tulsa Section vice chair.
Shown at the Houston Section October program are (from left) Cary Roth, speaker Walt
Stein, David Mesle, and Barney Burks.
Houston Section Chair Justin Gordy (left)
and Treasurer Barney Burks are shown at
the October program.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:20 PM Page 90
91 WELDING JOURNAL
Olafson and Andy Schatzberg for the pur-
chase of equipment needed for the
school’s welding education program. Offi-
ciating were Chairman Chris Beaty, Vice
Chair Eric Nordhues, and Treasurer Rich
Hanny.
OKLAHOMA CITY
OCTOBER 11
Speaker: Matt Terell, technical represen-
tative
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: The VRTEX® 360 virtual arc weld-
ing trainer
Activity: The Section members and weld-
ing students and Instructor Keith Theesen
from Caddo Kiowa Technology Center had
a hands-on training session with the vir-
tual welding equipment. The meeting con-
cluded with a tour of the Trinity Industries
rail car manufacturing operations, hosted
by Tony Solics.
TULSA
SEPTEMBER 25
Speaker: Sgt. Tom Bell
Affiliation: Tulsa Police Dept.
Topic: Industrial crime prevention
HOUSTON
OCTOBER 17
Speaker: Walt Stein, consultant
Affiliation: Metallurgical Process Control
Topic: Procurement of welding materials
Activity: The program was held at Brady’s
Landing in Houston, Tex.
OCTOBER 27
Activity: The Houston Section hosted its
fall seminar for 48 participants at NCI
Building Systems in Houston, Tex. The
theme was Welding Quality Management
for the Modern Fabricator. Education
Chair Saty Segu, and speakers James Shel-
ton, Ron Theiss, Fred Schweighardt, and
Harry Harrison presented the program.
ALASKA
OCTOBER 24
Activity: The Section members and weld-
ing students from local colleges toured
Unique Machine LLC in Anchorage,
Alaska. The facility offers CNC machin-
ing centers providing drill pipe threading
services for the oilfield, construction, min-
ing, and fishing industries.
PORTLAND
OCTOBER 23
Activity: The Section members toured
Oregon Metal Slitters in Portland, Ore.
Chris Holzgang led the tour of the rolling
and cutting steel sheet facility.
PUGET SOUND
NOVEMBER 1
Speaker: Ches King, west coast manager
Affiliation: Lloyds Register North America
Topic: Ship classification and its role in
ship construction
Activity: Kevin McGuire was awarded a
$500 Section scholarship. It was an-
nounced that the Everett C. C. Student
Chapter hosted a welding workshop for
First Robotics high school teams. More
than 70 people attended. Steve Pollard,
Chair Dan Sheets, and Treasurer Steve
Nielsen provided technical assistance.
Presenters at the Houston Section seminar are (from left) Saty Segu, James Shelton, Ron
Theiss, Fred Schweighardt, and Harry Harrison.
Attendees are shown during the Alaska Section tour of Unique Machine.
District 19
Ken Johnson, director
(425) 957-3553
kenneth.johnson@vigorshipyards.com
District 17
J. Jones, director
(940) 368-3130
jjones@Victortechnologies.com
District 18
John Bray, director
(281) 997-7273
sales@affiliatedmachinery.com
Chris Holzgang (blue hat) is shown with
Portland Section members in October.
Speaker Ches King (left) is shown with Ken
Johnson, Puget Sound Section chair.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:21 PM Page 91
JANUARY 2013 92
Attendees are shown at the Puget Sound Section’s Everett C. C. Student Chapter workshop.
Kevin McGuire (left) receives a scholarship
from Puget Sound Section Treasurer Steve
Nielsen (center) and Steve Pollard.
Presenter Gene Burr (left) chats with John
Steele, Colorado Section chair, at the Sep-
tember tour.
Ronda and Todd Peterson conducted the
Colorado Section members on a tour of their
facilities in October.
Shown at the New Mexico State University Artweld Competition are (from left) Epimenio
Hernandez, Casey SuhVari, and Jesus Hernandez.
Samuel Colton (left) is shown with Charles
Vega Schmidt, his host while traveling in
Spain.
District 20
William A. Komlos, director
(801) 560-2353
bkoz@arctechllc.com
COLORADO
SEPTEMBER 13
Activity: The Section members toured
Eaton Metal Products in Denver, Colo.,
to study the various welding processes re-
quired to manufacture above-ground stor-
age tanks. Gene Burr presented a histori-
cal overview of the company and its man-
ufacturing techniques.
OCTOBER 11
Activity: The Colorado Section members
toured Peterson Machining, Inc., in Boul-
der, Colo. The facility displayed its multi-
axis CNC milling and lathe equipment and
capabilities to run prototype and short to
long run production and product develop-
ment and tooling services for the medical,
aerospace, and research industries. Own-
ers Ronda and Todd Peterson conducted
the program.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:21 PM Page 92
93 WELDING JOURNAL
Samuel Colton poses with welding students at Juan de Herrera welding school in Spain.
Nanette Samanich (center), District 21 director, is surrounded by AWCIWT Student Chapter members, welding industry representatives,
and Ocotillo District boy scouts who earned their welding merit badges during the Welding Thunder 2012 event.
NEW MEXICO
NOVEMBER 1
Activity: The Section members attended
the first biannual Artweld Competition
held at Carlsbad Museum and Art Center.
The event was sponsored by the welding
department at New Mexico State Univer-
sity, Carlsbad, N.Mex. Taking top three
prizes for their welded entries were Jesus
Hernandez, Casey SuhVari, and Epimenio
Hernandez.
SAN DIEGO
AWCIWT Student Chapter
SEPTEMBER 27−NOVEMBER 6
Activity: Samuel Colton, professor of
welding and Advisor for the Arizona West-
ern College Institute of Welding Technol-
ogy Student Chapter, accepted an invita-
tion to present a paper at the Spanish
Welding Society conference in Madrid,
Spain. His host while in Spain was Charles
Vega Schmidt. He also made a presenta-
tion for the students at Juan de Herrera
welding school and participated in demon-
strations at the Lincoln Electric Co. Dis-
tribution Center open house event held in
Madrid. The AWS San Diego Section,
Miller Electric Co., and others contributed
to making Colton’s trip possible.
OCTOBER 20
Activity: Advisor Samuel Colton Sr. and
the AWCIWT Student Chapter members
worked with Ocotillo District boy scouts
to earn their welding merit badges during
the Welding Thunder 2012 event. The
merit badge counselors were Larry Leb-
sock, Gonzalo Huerta Sr., Gonzalo Huerta
Jr., and Samuel Colton Jr. Assisting were
District 21 Director Nanette Samanich
and representatives from Miller Electric
and ESAB.
District 22
Kerry E. Shatell, director
(916) 683-0315
kesi@pge.com
District 21
Nanette Samanich, director
(702) 429-5017
nan07@aol.com
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:22 PM Page 93
JANUARY 2013 94
Guide to AWS Services
American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166
(800/305) 443-9353; FAX (305) 443-7559; www.aws.org
Staff phone extensions are shown in parentheses.
AWS PRESIDENT
Nancy C. Cole
nccengr@yahoo.com
NCC Engineering
2735 Robert Oliver Ave.
Fernandina Beach, FL 32034
ADMINISTRATION
Executive Director
Ray W. Shook.. rshook@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(210)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Jeff Weber.. jweber@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)
Chief Financial Officer
Gesana Villegas.. gvillegas@aws.org . . . . . .(252)
Executive Assistant for Board Services
Gricelda Manalich.. gricelda@aws.org . . . . .(294)
Administrative Services
Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. jiml@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(214)
IT Network Director
Armando Campana..acampana@aws.org . .(296)
Director
Hidail Nuñez..hidail@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(287)
Director of IT Operations
Natalia Swain..nswain@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(245)
Human Resources
Director, Compensation and Benefits
Luisa Hernandez.. luisa@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(266)
Director, Human Resources
Dora A. Shade.. dshade@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(235)
International Institute of Welding
Senior Coordinator
Sissibeth Lopez . . sissi@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(319)
Liaison services with other national and international
societies and standards organizations.
GOVERNMENT LIAISON SERVICES
Hugh K. Webster . . . . . . . . .hwebster@wc-b.com
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C.,
(202) 785-9500; FAX (202) 835-0243. Monitors fed-
eral issues of importance to the industry.
CONVENTION and EXPOSITIONS
Jeff Weber.. jweber@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)
Director, Convention and Meeting Services
Matthew Rubin.....mrubin@aws.org . . . . . . .(239)
ITSA — International Thermal
Spray Association
Senior Manager and Editor
Kathy Dusa.kathydusa@thermalspray.org . . .(232)
RWMA — Resistance Welding
Manufacturing Alliance
Management Specialist
Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)
WEMCO — Association of
Welding Manufacturers
Management Specialist
Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)
Brazing and Soldering
Manufacturers’ Committee
Jeff Weber.. jweber@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)
GAWDA — Gases and Welding
Distributors Association
Executive Director
John Ospina.. jospina@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(462)
Operations Manager
Natasha Alexis.. nalexis@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(401)
INTERNATIONAL SALES
Managing Director, Global Exposition Sales
Joe Krall..jkrall@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297)
Corporate Director, International Sales
Jeff P. Kamentz..jkamentz@aws.org . . . . . . .(233)
Oversees international business activities involving
certification, publication, and membership.
PUBLICATION SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)
Managing Director
Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)
Welding Journal
Publisher
Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)
Editor
Mary Ruth Johnsen.. mjohnsen@aws.org . .(238)
National Sales Director
Rob Saltzstein.. salty@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . .(243)
Society and Section News Editor
Howard Woodward..woodward@aws.org . .(244)
Welding Handbook
Editor
Annette O’Brien.. aobrien@aws.org . . . . . . .(303)
MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS
Director
Ross Hancock.. rhancock@aws.org . . . . . . .(226)
Public Relations Manager
Cindy Weihl..cweihl@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(416)
Webmaster
Jose Salgado..jsalgado@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(456)
Section Web Editor
Henry Chinea...hchinea@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(452)
MEMBER SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253)
Director
Rhenda A. Kenny... rhenda@aws.org . . . . . .(260)
Serves as a liaison between Section members and AWS
headquarters.
CERTIFICATION SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Managing Director
John L. Gayler.. gayler@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(472)
Oversees all certification activities including all inter-
national certification programs.
Director, Certification Operations
Terry Perez..tperez@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Oversees application processing, renewals, and exam
scoring.
Director, Certification Programs
Linda Henderson..lindah@aws.org . . . . . . .(298)
Oversees the development of new certification pro-
grams, as well as AWS-Accredited Test Facilities, and
AWS Certified Welding Fabricators.
EDUCATION SERVICES
Director, Operations
Martica Ventura.. mventura@aws.org . . . . . .(224)
Director, Education Development
David Hernandez.. dhernandez@aws.org . . .(219)
AWS AWARDS, FELLOWS, COUNSELORS
Senior Manager
Wendy S. Reeve.. wreeve@aws.org . . . . . . . .(293)
Coordinates AWS awards, Fellow, Counselor nom-
inees.
TECHNICAL SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)
Managing Director
Andrew R. Davis.. adavis@aws.org . . . . . . .(466)
International Standards Activities, American Coun-
cil of the International Institute of Welding (IIW)
Director, National Standards Activities
Annette Alonso.. aalonso@aws.org . . . . . . .(299)
Manager, Safety and Health
Stephen P. Hedrick.. steveh@aws.org . . . . . .(305)
Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plas-
tics and Composites, Welding Iron Castings, Per-
sonnel and Facilities Qualification
Managing Engineer, Standards
Brian McGrath .... bmcgrath@aws.org . . . . .(311)
Structural Welding, Methods of Inspection, Me-
chanical Testing of Welds, Welding in Marine Con-
struction, Piping and Tubing
Senior Staff Engineer
Rakesh Gupta.. gupta@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(301)
Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International
Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc
Welding and Cutting Processes
Standards Program Managers
Efram Abrams.. eabrams@aws.org . . . . . . . .(307)
Thermal Spray, Automotive, Resistance Welding,
Machinery and Equipment
Stephen Borrero... sborrero@aws.org . . . . .(334)
Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and
Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook,
Railroad Welding, Definitions and Symbols
Alex Diaz.... adiaz@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)
Welding Qualification, Sheet Metal Welding, Air-
craft and Aerospace, Joining of Metals and Alloys
Patrick Henry.. phenry@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(215)
Friction Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cut-
ting, High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Weld-
ing, Welding in Sanitary Applications
Senior Manager, Technical Publications
Rosalinda O’Neill.. roneill@aws.org . . . . . . .(451)
AWS publishes about 200 documents widely used
throughout the welding industry
Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards
may be obtained only by sending a request in writ-
ing to Andrew R. Davis, managing director, Tech-
nical Services, adavis@aws.org.
Oral opinions on AWS standards may be ren-
dered, however, oral opinions do not constitute of-
ficial or unofficial opinions or interpretations of
AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and
should not be used as a substitute for an official
interpretation.
AWS FOUNDATION, Inc.
www.aws.org/w/a/foundation
General Information
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212, vpinsky@aws.org
Chairman, Board of Trustees
Gerald D. Uttrachi
Executive Director, Foundation
Sam Gentry.. sgentry@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)
Corporate Director, Workforce Development
Monica Pfarr.. mpfarr@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (461)
The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corpora-
tion established to provide support for the educa-
tional and scientific endeavors of the American Weld-
ing Society.
Promote the Foundation’s work with your financial
support. Call (800) 443-9353, ext. 212, for complete
information.
Society News January_Layout 1 12/12/12 4:22 PM Page 94
AWS Conferences & Exhibitions:

AWS invites you to join us in Las Vegas to expand your weld cracking
knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld
cracking as well as provide information on preventive measures.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
AWS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
for each hour of conference attendance. These PDHs can be applied toward AWS
recertifications and renewals.
Weld Cracking Conference
March 26-27, 2013 / Las Vegas
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site
at www.aws.org/conferences or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264.
























































































































cracking as well as provide information on preventive measures.
knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld
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recertifications and renewals.
for each hour of conference attendance.
WS Conf AAW
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Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.





recertifications and renewals.
for each hour of conference attendance.
WS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.






These PDHs can be applied toward for each hour of conference attendance.
WS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.






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WS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
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cracking conference_FP_TEMP 12/10/12 3:38 PM Page 95
POSTER ABSTRACT SUBMITTAL
ANNUAL FABTECH SHOW
Chicago, IL – November 18-21, 2013

Submission Deadline: April 19, 2013
(Complete a separate submittal for each poster.)
Primary Author (Full Name):
School/Company:
Mailing Address:

City: State/Province: Zip/Mail Code: Country:
Email:
Poster Title (max. 50 characters):
Poster Subtitle (max. 50 characters):
Co-Author(s):
Name (Full Name):
Affiliation:
Address:

City:
State/Province:
Zip/Mail Code:
Country: Email:
Name (Full Name):
Affiliation:
Address:

City:
State/Province:
Zip/Mail Code:
Country: Email:
Poster Requirements and Selection Criteria:
Only those abstracts submitted on this form will be considered. Follow the guidelines and word limits indicated.
Complete this form using MSWord. Submit electronically via email to mventura@aws.org or print and mail.
Any technical topic relevant to the welding industry is acceptable (e.g. welding processes & controls, welding procedures, welding design,
structural integrity related to welding, weld inspection, welding metallurgy, etc.).
Submittals that are incomplete and that do not satisfy these basic guidelines will not be considered for competition.
Posters accepted for competition will be judged based on technical content, clarity of communication, novelty/relevance of the subject & ideas
conveyed and overall aesthetic impression.
Criteria by category as follows:
(A) Student (B) Student (C) Student (D) Professional
Students enrolled in 2 yr. college
and/or certificate programs at time
of submittal.
Presentation need not represent
actual experimental work. Rather,
emphasis is placed on
demonstrating a clear
understanding of technical
concepts and subject matter.
Practical application is important
and should be demonstrated.
For students enrolled in
baccalaureate engineering or
engineering technology programs
at the time of submittal.
Poster should represent the
student’s own experimental work.
Emphasis is place on
demonstrating a clear
understanding of technical
concepts and subject matter.
Practical application and/or
potential relevance to the welding
industry is important and should
be demonstrated.
For students enrolled in graduate
degree programs in engineering or
engineering technology at time of
submittal.
Poster should represent the
student’s own experimental work.
Poster must demonstrate technical
or scientific concepts. Emphasis is
placed on originality and novelty of
ideas presented.
Potential relevance to the welding
industry is important and should be
demonstrated.
For anyone working in the welding
industry or related field.
Poster must demonstrate technical
or scientific concepts. Emphasis is
placed on original contributions
and the novelty of the presentation.
Potential relevance to the welding
industry is important and should be
demonstrated.
(E) High School
Junior or Senior high school
students enrolled in a welding
concentration at the time of
submittal.
Presentation should represent
technical concepts and application
to the welding industry.
Practical application and creativity
are important and should be
demonstrated.
Pages 96&97_FP_TEMP 12/12/12 9:24 AM Page 96

Check the category that applies:
(A) Student 2-yr. or
Certificate Program
(B) Student 4-yr.
Undergraduate
(C) Graduate
Student
(D) Professional (E) High School
Poster Title (max. 50 characters):
Poster Subtitle (max. 50 characters):
Abstract:
Introduction (100 words) – Describe the subject of the poster, problem/issue being addressed and it’s practical implications for the welding
industry.









Technical Approach & Results (200 words) – Explain the technical approach. Summarize the work that was done as it relates to the subject of
the poster.



















.
Conclusions (100 words) – Summarize the conclusions and how they could be used in a welding application.












Return this form, completed on both sides, via email to mventura@aws.org
MUST BE RECEIVED NO LATER THAN April 19, 2013
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Pages 96&97_FP_TEMP 12/12/12 9:25 AM Page 97
PERSONNEL
JANUARY 2013 98
Noble Gas Hires New Staff
Noble Gas Solu-
tions, Albany, N.Y.,
has named Rob
Collins business de-
velopment specialist
for the company’s
medical and spe-
cialty segment, and
Kevin O’Rourke and
Mitch Evans cus-
tomer service spe-
cialists. O’Rourke
previously worked at Woolferts Roost
Country Club. Evans most recently was
customer service advocate for Wellpoint.
IPC Names Principal
Engineer
IPC — Association Connecting Elec-
tronics Industries®, Bannockburn, Ill.,
has named Jasbir Bath principal engineer
within its assembly technology area. Bath,
who has about 20 years of experience in
the research and development of solder-
ing, surface mount, and packaging tech-
nologies using tin-lead and lead-free sol-
ders, is with Bath and Associates Consul-
tancy LLC, providing process consulting
and training services for the electronics
manufacturing industry.
O’Neal, Inc., Hires Process
Department Head
O’Neal, Inc., Greenville, S.C., a design
and construction firm, has hired Stella
Dominguez as a process department head.
Dominguez previously served as a biofuels
project engineer with BP-Biofuels in
Houston, Tex.
M. K. Morse Names
Regional Sales Manager
The M. K. Morse Co., Canton, Ohio, a
supplier of saw blades and power tool ac-
cessories, has named James Reid III re-
gional sales manager for the eastern
United States. Reid previously worked as
a sales manager and sales director in the
cutting tools industry.
Gateway Fills Key Post
Gateway Safety,
Cleveland, Ohio, has
appointed Greg
Schmidt to the
newly created posi-
tion of product de-
velopment manager,
concerned with eye,
face, head, hearing,
and respiratory pro-
tection. Previously,
Schmidt worked for
Applied Industrial
Technologies as product manager for
tools, safety, and general industrial prod-
ucts. Earlier, he served Rockwell Automa-
tion as a product manager and design
engineer.
Wall Colmonoy Staffs Its
European Headquarters
Wall Colmonoy Ltd. (UK), Pontar-
dawe, Wales, has appointed Kevin Nolan
managing director, Philip Tilston chief fi-
nancial officer, Steve Leahey operations
director, Mark Harrison continuous im-
provement manager, Nick Clark machine
shop business unit manager, John Lap-
ping sales manager for alloy products,
Richard Shaw sales manager for compo-
nents, and Alun Rodge technical manager.
FMA Elects Officers
Fabricators & Manufacturers Associa-
tion, International®, Rockford, Ill., has
elected Burke Doar chairman of the
board. Doar, who is vice president, sales
and marketing at TRUMPF, Inc., became
active on the board in 2005. Serving as vice
chairs are Carlos Rodriguez-Borjas with
Feralloy Corp. and Edwin Stanley with
GH Metal Solutions. Al Zelt, with ASKO,
Inc., serves as secretary/treasurer.
TRUMPF Designates NW
Sales Representative
TRUMPF, Inc., Farmington, Conn.,
has named Christopher Gildehaus North-
west direct sales representative, specifi-
cally for the northern parts of California
and Nevada. Previously, Gildehaus
worked in financial brokerage services in
the Boston, Mass., area.
Watts Specialties Appoints
Pipe Sales Manager
Watts Specialties, Puyallup, Wash., has
appointed David Carr sales manager,
based in Houston, Tex. With more than 27
years of experience in industrial sales of
pipe equipment, Carr will be responsible
for managing the company’s pipe-cutting
machinery industry.
IMS WaterJet Hires Shop
Foreman
IMS WaterJet,
Inc., a supplier of
waterjet cutting sys-
tems, has hired
Thomas DeMatteo
as shop foreman at
its new facility in Wa-
terbury, Conn. With
nearly 30 years of
manufacturing expe-
rience, DeMatteo
previously worked at
Radiall USA as a CNC toolmaker and
tooling engineer.
Folkerts Joins Battelle
Battelle, Tampa, Fla., has hired John
Folkerts, major general (ret.), U.S. Air
Force, to lead its business with Special Op-
erations Forces to further the company’s
business with Dept. of Defense Special
Operations Forces.
Obituaries
Keith Van Loon Flood
Keith Van Loon Flood, 68, died Sept. 22
in Albany, N.Y. Flood was an AWS Life
Member who served many years as treas-
urer of the Northern New York Section.
Rob Collins Mitch Evans
Kevin O’Rourke
Greg Schmidt
Philip Tilston Steve Leahey
Thomas DeMatteo
— continued on page 100
Personnel Jan._Layout 1 12/13/12 10:38 AM Page 98
general corporate_FP_TEMP 12/10/12 3:10 PM Page 99
He graduated from
Christian Brothers
Academy (CBA) in
1961 then completed
his studies at Albany
Business College.
He joined The Lin-
coln Electric Co.
where he worked 42
years as a district
sales manager be-
fore retiring in 2005.
He was active with
the CBA Alumni Association and Parents
Association, served as scoutmaster for
Schenectady County Council Troop 47,
and coached and managed his sons’
Colonie Little League baseball team.
During his retirement years, he enjoyed
meeting with cadets at West Point and his
friends at the Army Reserve Unit Com-
pany A 413QM Battalion, golfing, and va-
cations at Ocean Grove, N.J. He is sur-
vived by Sharon, his wife of 50 years, two
sons, a sister, and four grandchildren. Do-
nations to his memory may be made to
CBA, 12 Airline Dr., Albany, NY 12205.
Jay Chennat
Jay Chennat died Aug. 25. Active with
the Detroit Section, he was well known in
the laser-processing industry. He was a
long-time welding engineering technical
spacialist at Ford Motor Co. in Transmis-
sion Operations, and later at Advanced
Manufacturing working with body laser
applications. He previously worked for
Lumonics, Foro Energy, and held various
other consulting positions. He received
his master’s degree in welding engineer-
ing from The Ohio State University,
served as chair of the AWS Subcommittee
on Laser and Electron Beam Welding,
and was chairman of the Welding Hand-
book chapter on laser beam cutting. He
presented many papers at AWS, ICA-
LEO, ALAW, and other conferences, and
held patents in welding. He is survived by
his wife and two daughters.
Jerry Howard Hope
Jerry Howard
Hope, 72, died Sept.
7 at his home in Ren-
ton, Wash. An AWS
Life Member, he
was very active in
AWS national and
Puget Sound Sec-
tion activities. He
served as Section
chair 1985–1986,
and received the
Section and District
19 Meritorious awards on several occa-
sions. He served on the Certification
Committee, Certification of Welding In-
spectors Subcommittee, Test Supervisor
Instructors Subcommittee, and per-
formed as an AWS test supervisor for 15
years. Hope was born in Ventura, Calif.,
graduated from Pine Valley High School
in Halfway, Ore., and served in the U.S.
Navy before moving to Renton. After re-
tiring from Boeing, Hope served his local
community and remained active with
AWS. He is survived by two sisters, a
brother, a daughter, a son, and five grand-
children. Donations to his memory may be
made to AWS Puget Sound Section, PO
Box 2923, Everett, WA 98213-2923, c/o
Jerry Hope Memorial Scholarship Fund.
Edwin F. Crane
Edwin F. Crane died Sept. 13 in St.
Louis, Mo. He joined the American Weld-
ing Society in 1953, was an AWS Life
Member who was active with the St. Louis
Section. He is survived by two sons, three
grandchildren, and two great-grandchil-
dren. Donations to his memory may be
made to Webster Groves Baptist Church,
308 Summit Ave., St. Louis, MO 63119, or
to the The First Tee of Greater St. Louis,
PO Box 15175, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Thurman Dale Hesse
Thurman Dale “Terry” Hesse, 73, died
Nov. 16 in Madison, Wis. He was a mem-
ber of the Madison-
Beloit Section, an
AWS Life Member,
served eight years as
a District director,
and was a member
of numerous techni-
cal committees. He
received his bache-
lor’s degree at the
University of Wis-
consin (UW)-Plat-
teville and master’s
at UW-Stout. He
taught welding and metallurgy at MATC
for more than 30 years.♦
Jerry Hope
Keith Flood
Thurman Hesse
JANUARY 2013 100
— continued from page 98
PERSONNEL
amperage rating charts. Full-page spreads
offer photos, diagrams, and detailed in-
formation on the products and consum-
ables.
Bernard Welding Equipment
www.bernardwelds.com
(800) 946-2281
Programming System
Generates Tool Paths
The LaCam3D offline programing sys-
tem enables process developers and end-
users to generate tool paths quickly, even
for laser material deposition (LMD) tasks
that have nonstandard welding strategies.
The generated paths are translated into
machine code and can be tested for possi-
ble collisions via a machine simulation.
The system provides functionalities for
LMD strategies that enable the LMD se-
quence and welding direction of individ-
ual paths to be modified. It comes with a
simulation tool that can check in advance
whether the planned LMD process will
cause the laser processing head to collide
with the part.
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser
Technology ILT
www.ilt.fraunhofer.de/en.html
+49 241 8906-0
Guides for Cutting Pipes
Come in Five Sizes
The Pipe-Pro cutting guides come in
five sizes with four cutting templates on
each guide. To use, place around the pipe,
mark the desired angle, remove, then cut.
They work for various pipe cutting needs,
including fencing, corrals, handrails, or
race cars.
Nation Wide Products
www.pipeproguides.com
(800) 797-3709
PRODUCT & PRINT
SPOTLIGHT
— continued from page 26
Personnel Jan._Layout 1 12/12/12 2:37 PM Page 100
awo.aws.org
Online Welding Safety Certificate Course
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
ventilation, fire protection, handling of gases, and much more.
Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety
OSHAestimates that
4 out of every 1,000
welders will
experience a fatal
injury or accident over
their working lifetime
Online elding Safet W Online y Certificate Course elding Safety Certificate Course y Certificate Course
their working lifetime
injury or accident over
experience a fatal
welders will
4 out of every 1,000
estimates that A OSH
their working lifetime
injury or accident over
experience a fatal
4 out of every 1,000
estimates that
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
their working lifetime
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety
awo safety_FP_TEMP 12/10/12 3:36 PM Page 101
International Institute of Welding Launches
White Paper
The International Institute of Welding (IIW) launched its
White Paper, Improving Global Quality of Life through Optimum
Use and Innovation of Welding and Joining Technologies.
The document, available online at http://publ.com/6lULyGu,
was developed by IIW experts in the fields of materials welding
and joining technologies, training and education, as well as de-
sign and assessment of welded structures. It describes strategic
challenges and agendas for the welding industries, personnel, sci-
entists, and end-users through the next 10 years (2012–2021).
The agenda also details strategies for improving quality of life
through using new materials, design, and advanced joining tech-
nologies to reduce manufacturing cost and improve structural
performance and life-cycle via better personnel, inspection, and
integrity assessment rules while meeting the societal expecta-
tions in health, safety, environmental, and growth issues. Its pub-
lication has been sponsored by several sources, including the
American Welding Society.
Deere to Invest in Improvements
Deere & Co. will invest approximately $58 million to enhance
operations at John Deere Seeding, Moline, Ill., where the com-
pany manufactures planting equipment. It will be made in con-
junction with the implementation of a new factory master plan
targeting efficiency and quality enhancements. Improvements
include increased automation and robotics use. Currently, this
division has approximately 800 employees and does not antici-
pate a big change to total employment as a result of the
announcement.
Industry Notes
• The owners of JWF Industries, Johnstown, Pa., established a
scholarship in honor of their late father, John J. Polacek Sr.
In partnership with Pennsylvania Highlands Community Col-
lege, the scholarship will be offered to new and currently en-
rolled students in the welding program. For more details and
an application, due by Jan. 31, email scholarship@jwfi.com.
• North Idaho College has been awarded a $2.97 million grant
intended to create an aerospace center. It is expected to cre-
ate 520 new jobs by 2015, according to grant application pro-
jections. The college anticipates offering courses by fall 2013.
• Markal, Elk Grove Village, Ill., unveiled a new, multilingual
Web site at www.markal.com featuring the “Find a Marker”
online search tool, plus an updated product database.
• CONCOA, Virginia Beach, Va., a designer and manufacturer
of gas controls, is celebrating its 25th anniversary. The com-
pany commemorated the occasion with a luncheon, open
house, and guided facility tours.
• Rolled Alloys’ recently opened Richburg, S.C., facility has
reached full operating status. The 33,000-sq-ft service center
features an inventory of stainless steel bar stock. Also, the
company opened its new facility in Windsor, Conn. This
40,000-sq-ft service center will replace the current location.
• The Manufacturing Institute has partnered with the Preci-
sion Machined Products Association to expand Right Skills
Now, a fast-track machining training program aligned to the
National Association of Manufacturers-Endorsed Manufac-
turing Skills Certification System.
• Georgian American Alloys, Inc., Miami, Fla., has recently ac-
quired the membership interests of CC Metals & Alloys, a
producer and supplier of high-grade ferrosilicon alloys, from
affiliated Optima Group LLC in exchange for company
shares.
• Siemens Industry’s Metallurgical Services Offline Mainte-
nance group expanded capacity at its Benton Harbor, Mich.,
facility for roll overlaying and steelmaking technology.
• Joining Technologies, Inc., East Granby, Conn., an industrial
laser applications and welding services provider, is celebrating
its 20th anniversary. The company was founded by Michael
Francoeur.
• Bernard and Tregaskiss partnered to launch a new branding
initiative. Bernard will now offer only semiautomatic gas
metal arc guns, while the Tregaskiss brand will be focused on
robotic gas metal arc guns and peripherals.
• At Austin Polytechnical Academy, Chicago, Ill., Mayor Rahm
Emanuel recently announced the city will invest $1.25 mil-
lion in advanced manufacturing education programs led by
the Chicago Manufacturing Renaissance Council.
• PFERD Inc., a subsidiary of August Rüggeberg GmbH & Co.,
Marienheide, Germany, and Superior Abrasives, Dayton,
Ohio, reported Superior has been acquired by the Rüggeberg
Group. It will be named Superior Abrasives LLC.
• Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Kalamazoo, Mich., is
offering Machine Tool Operator, CNC Operator, and Weld-
ing Certificates. For more information, visit www.kvcc.edu.
• The National Safety Council launched the Campbell Institute.
Believing environmental, health, and safety management is at
the core of business vitality, it is committed to helping move
organizations forward on their continuous improvement goals.
• Taylor-Wharton International, LLC, a technology, service,
and manufacturing network for gas applications, is relocat-
ing its corporate headquarters from Mechanicsburg, Pa., to
Minneapolis, Minn., adding 25–30 new jobs.
• Thanks to local support and America’s Farmers Grow Rural
Education
SM
, Tully Central School District, N.Y., received a
$10,000 grant to get students interested in the industry by
purchasing welding equipment for agriculture mechanics and
construction courses at the junior high and high schools.
• IMS WaterJet, Inc., moved its HQ to a new location in Wa-
terbury, Conn. The larger site will enable rapidly producing,
designing, and fabricating elaborate, specialized machines.◆
JANUARY 2013 102
NEWS OF THE INDUSTRY
— continued from page 10
NI January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 2:54 PM Page 102
Join us in Houston for the debut of the AWS Pipeline Welding Conference! Our featured
speakers will cover a multitude of topics including the welding of high-strength X80 pipe
steels, orbital processes used in pipeline construction throughout the world, the new FRIEX
system from Belgium and many other exciting topics.
AWS Conferences:
Pipeline Conference
June 4
th
– 5
th
/ Houston
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at
www.aws.org/conferences or call 800-443-9353, ext. 224.
Highlights
Learn about the progress of new and innovative developments
in pipeline welding.

business growth.
AWS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional
Development Hour) for each hour of conference attendance.
and renewals.
pipeline conference_FP_TEMP 12/10/12 3:45 PM Page 103
SERVICES
JANUARY 2013 104
CLASSIFIEDS
The world's first and only completely
online NDT & CWI training program!
NDT Training to meet global standards
including SNT-TC-1A, ISO 9712, etc.
Visit www.worldspec.org today and save
$100 instantly by entering the discount
code: aws59c2
Call toll free: 1-877-506-7773
CERTIFICATION
& TRAINING
CWI PREPARATORY
Guarantee – Pass or Repeat FREE!
80+ HOUR COURSE
MORE HANDS–ON/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Pascagoula, MS Jan. 28–Feb. 8
Houston, TX Jan. 14–25
Houma, LA Feb. 18–Mar. 1
Ellijay, GA Mar. 11–22
56+ HOUR COURSE
EXTRA INSTRUCTION TO GET A HEAD START
Pascagoula, MS Jan. 31 – Feb. 8
Houston, TX Jan. 17–25
Houma, LA Feb. 21–Mar. 1
Ellijay, GA Mar. 14–22
40 HOUR COURSE
GET READY – FAST PACED COURSE!
Pascagoula, MS Feb. 4–8
Houston, TX Jan. 21–25
Houma, LA Feb. 25–Mar. 1
Ellijay, GA Mar. 18–22
Test follows on Saturday at same facility &
includes additional self study for weekend
FOR DETAILS CALL OR E-MAIL:
(800) 489-2890
info@realeducational.com
Also offering: 9–Year CWI Recertification,
RT Film Interpretation, MT/PT/UT Thickness,
Welding Procedure Fundamentals,
CWS, SCWI, Advanced Inspection Courses
2013
Place Your
Classified Ad Here!
Contact Frank Wilson,
Senior Advertising
Production Manager
(800) 443-9353,
ext. 465
fwilson@aws.org
Put Your Products and
Services to Work in the April 2013
Welding Marketplace
Spread the word on your company around the world by promoting a
full-color photo of your newest and hottest welding product or
services to more than 80,000 AWS members and customers in the
famous welding product photo guide, WELDING MARKETPLACE.
As an extra bonus your ad will be posted on the AWS Web site with
an active link to your Web site. Also a digital link of Welding
Marketplace will be sent to more than 69,000 AWS members. Make
AWS members your customers! Closing date is February 15, 2013
Call the AWS sales team at: (800) 443-9353, Rob
Saltzstein at ext. 243, salty@aws.org or Lea Paneca at
ext. 220, lea@aws.org




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JAN 2013 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 12/14/12 8:31 AM Page 104
JOE FULLER LLC
We manufacture tank turning rolls
3–ton through 120–ton rolls
www.joefuller.com
email: joe@joefuller.com
Phone: (979) 277-8343
Fax: (281) 290-6184
Our products are made in the USA
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE OR RENT
For sale or rent
The world’s very
best portable end
prep tools and
abrasive saws
800-343-6926
www.escotool.com
105 WELDING JOURNAL
MITROWSKI RENTS
Made in U.S.A.
Welding Positioners
1-Ton thru 60-Ton
Tank Turning Rolls
Used Equipment for Sale
www.mitrowskiwelding.com
sales@mitrowskiwelding.com
(800) 218-9620
(713) 943-8032
Place Your
Classified Ad Here!
Contact Frank Wilson,
Senior Advertising
Production Manager
(800) 443-9353,
ext. 465
fwilson@aws.org
JAN 2013 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 12/13/12 9:02 AM Page 105
JANUARY 2013 106
Arcos Industries, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC
www.arcos.us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 233-8460
Astaras, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
www.e3tungsten.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .web contact only
Atlas Welding Accessories, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
www.atlaswelding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 962-9353
AWS Education Services . . . . . . . .69, 72, 95, 101, 103, 107
www.aws.org/education/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353
AWS Membership Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71, 99
www.aws.org/membership/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353
Camfil Farr Air Polution Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
www.camfilfarrapc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 479-6801
Champion Welding Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
www.championwelding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 321-9353
Commercial Diving Academy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
www.commercialdivingacademy.com . . . . .(888) 974-2232
Cor-Met . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
www.cor-met.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 848-2719
Diamond Ground Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
www.diamondground.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(805) 498-3837
Divers Academy International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
www.diversacademy.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 238-3483
Fischer Engineering Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
www.fischerengr.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 754-1750
Fronius Perfect Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
www.fronius-usa.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(810) 220-4414
Gedik Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
www.gedikwelding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+90 216 378 50 00
Greiner Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
www.greinerindustries.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 782-2110
Gullco International, Inc. - U.S.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
www.gullco.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(440) 439-8333
Hardface Technologies by Postle Industries . . . . . . . . . .57
www.postle.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(216) 265-9000
Harris Products Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
www.harrisproductsgroup.com . . . . . . . . . .(800) 733-4043
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
www.welding.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 332-9448
IMPACT (North American Ironworkers) . . . . . . . . . . . .63
www.impact-net.org/www.ironworkers.org .(800) 545-4921
Intercon Enterprises, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
www.intercononline.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 665-6655
Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
www.koike.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 621-4025
Lincoln Electric Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC
www.lincolnelectric.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(216) 481-8100
Midalloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
www.midalloy.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 776-3300
Miller Electric Mfg. Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
www.MillerWelds.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(920) 734-9821
OTC Daihen, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
www.daihen-usa.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 682-7626
Select Arc, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC
www.select-arc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 295-5215
Thermal Arc Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
www.ThermalArcOnTheMove.com . . . . . . .(866) 279-2628
Thermal Dynamics/Victor Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
www.thermaldynamicsautomation.com . . .(866) 279-2628
TRUMPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
www.us.trumpf.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .web contact only
Uniweld Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
www.uniweld.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 323-2111
Weld Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
www.weldengineering.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(508) 842-2224
Weld Hugger, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
www.weldhugger.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(877) 935-3447
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awo welding fundamentals_FP_TEMP 12/10/12 3:37 PM Page 107
PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM ABSTRACT SUBMITTAL
ANNUAL FABTECH SHOW
Chicago, IL - November 18-21, 2013

Submission Deadline: March 29, 2013
(Complete a separate submittal for each paper to be presented.)
Primary Author (Full Name):
Affiliation:
Mailing Address:

City: State/Province Zip/Mail Code Country:
Email:
Co-Author(s):
Name (Full Name):
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Address:
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State/Province
Zip/Mail Code
Country: E-Mail:
Name (Full Name):
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City:
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Country: E-Mail:
Name (Full Name):
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Address:

City:
State/Province:
Zip/Mail Code:
Country: E-Mail:
Answer the following about this paper
Original submittal? Yes No Progress report? Yes No Review paper? Yes No Tutorial? Yes No
What are the welding/Joining processes used?
What are the materials used?
What is the main emphasis of this paper? Process Oriented Materials Oriented Modeling
To what industry segments is this paper most applicable?
Has material in this paper ever been published or presented previously? Yes No
If “Yes”, when and where?
Is this a graduate study related research? Yes No
If accepted, will the author(s) present this paper in person? Yes Maybe No
Keywords: Please indicate the top four keywords associated with your research below





Guidelines for abstract submittal and selection criteria:
Only those abstracts submitted on this form will be considered. Follow the guidelines and word limits indicated.
Complete this form using MSWord. Submit electronically via email to mventura@aws.org
Technical/Research Oriented Applied Technology Education
New science or research.
Selection based on technical merit.
Emphasis is on previously unpublished
work in science or engineering relevant to
welding, joining and allied processes.
Preference will be given to submittals with
clearly communicated benefit to the
welding industry.
New or unique applications.
Selection based on technical merit.
Emphasis is on previously
unpublished work that applies known
principles of joining science or
engineering in unique ways.
Preference will be given to submittals
with clearly communicated benefit to
the welding industry.
Innovation in welding education at all
levels.
Emphasis is on education/training
methods and their successes.
Papers should address overall
relevance to the welding industry.






Check the category that best applies:

Technical/Research Oriented Applied Technology Education
SIONAL PROFES
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Page 108&109_FP_TEMP 12/12/12 9:41 AM Page 108

Proposed Title (max. 50 characters):
Proposed Subtitle (max. 50 characters):
Abstract:
Introduction (100 words max.) – Describe the subject of the presentation, problem/issue being addressed and its
practical implications for the welding industry. Describe the basic value to the welding community with reference to
specific communities or industry sectors.






Technical Approach, for technical papers only (100 words max.) – Explain the technical approach, experimental methods
and the reasons why this approach was taken.






Results/Discussion (300 words max.) – For technical papers, summarize the results with emphasis on why the results
are new or original, why the results are of value to further advance the welding science, engineering and applications.
For applied technology and education papers, elaborate on why this paper is of value to the welding community,
describe key aspects of the work developed and how this work benefits the welding industry and education.








.Conclusions (100 words max.) – Summarize the conclusions and how they could be put to use – how and by whom.







NOTE: Abstract must not exceed one page and must not exceed the recommended word limit given above
Note: The Technical Program is not the venue for commercial promotions of a company or a product. All presentations should avoid
the use of product trade names. The Welding Show provides ample opportunities for companies to showcase and advertise their
processes and products.
Return this form, completed on both sides, via email to mventura@aws.org

MUST BE RECEIVED NO LATER THAN MARCH 29, 2013
Page 108&109_FP_TEMP 12/12/12 9:42 AM Page 109
D. K. Aidun
M. C. Akuner
A. AlShawaf
J. Antonini
A. Arora
R. E. Avery
N. K. Babu
S. Bag
D. Bechetti
M. Bloss
S. Boetcher
J. E. M. Braid
R. Branan
J. Brauser
K. L. Brown
X. Cao
C. L. Chan
K. R. Chan
B. Y. J. Chao
C. C. Chen
J. Chen
J. Chen
D. E. Clark
M. J. Cola
K. Colligan
G. E. Cook
B. Craig
M. Cunningham
E. N. C. Dalder
P. Dawson
L. De Filippis
A. Debiccari
B. DeForce
F. M. Diez
P. J. Ditzel
H. Dong
H. Doude
W. Drake
D. Dunbar
M. Dutoit
D. Eno
R. Etien
Z. Fang
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K. Graff
J. Greer
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All papers published in the Welding Journal’s Welding Research Supplement undergo Peer Review before publication for: 1) originality
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Y. P. Yang
H. Zhang
W. Zhang
Y. M. Zhang
Y. N. Zhou
Principal Reviewers
JANUARY 2013 110
Peer Review 2013[1]_Layout 1 12/12/12 9:56 AM Page 110
Introduction
Prized for its excellent strength-to-
weight ratio, magnesium and its alloys are
currently under intense investigation for
use in many applications in the automo-
tive and aerospace industries (Refs. 1–3).
However, steel sheet is still the most com-
monly used material in the automotive in-
dustry for fabrication of autobody struc-
tures. The ability to make hybrid
structures of magnesium alloy and steel
sheet would be desirable for many appli-
cations in the automotive industry, be-
cause the overall weight of the autobody
could be reduced resulting in better fuel
efficiencies and lower environmental im-
pact. Therefore, there is increasing inter-
est in identifying and developing new tech-
niques and processes that can be used to
make dissimilar joints between magne-
sium alloys and steel sheet (Refs. 3–9).
Joining magnesium alloys to steel by
conventional fusion welding technologies
is difficult due to the large difference in
the melting points between Mg (649°C)
and Fe (1538°C). In addition, the boiling
point of magnesium is only 1091°C, so di-
rect contact with molten steel causes cata-
strophic vaporization of the magnesium
(Refs. 3–8). Moreover, the maximum solid
solubility of Fe in Mg is estimated to be
only 0.00041 at.-% Fe (Ref. 6) and wetting
of steel by molten magnesium is very poor
(Ref. 8).
The weldability of magnesium to steel
using the hybrid laser-arc welding (Refs. 5,
6, 8, 9) and resistance spot welding (Refs.
4, 7) processes has been examined. Zhao
et al. (Ref. 5) used a hybrid laser-gas tung-
sten arc welding (GTAW) process to join
AZ31B magnesium alloy and 304 stainless
steel. However, oxides that formed at the
interface were found to cause joints with
poor tensile strength. Using the same
welding technique, Liu et al. (Refs. 8, 9)
studied lap joining of AZ31B Mg alloy to
Q235 steel with Sn and Cu interlayers.
Mg
2
Sn and Mg
2
Cu intermetallic com-
pounds were found to form along the grain
boundaries of the Mg alloy when using the
Sn and Cu interlayers, respectively. The
use of Sn and Cu interlayers was reported
as the main reason for the elimination of
gaps along the steel-fusion zone interface
and the improvement of wetting proper-
ties of the steel by molten magnesium
alloy (Refs. 8, 9). Finally, in a recent study,
Liu et al. (Refs. 4, 7) used resistance spot
welding to join AZ31B magnesium alloy
to DP600 Zn-coated steel. They found
that a preexisting transition layer of
Fe
2
Al
5
between the Zn coating and the
steel improved wetting and bonding be-
tween the steel and the magnesium alloy.
Review of the literature suggests that
joining Mg alloys to steel will be possible
provided the temperatures required for
joining are kept below the boiling point of
the magnesium alloy (1091°C) and pro-
vided another interlayer element is used
that can interact and promote wetting and
bonding between both immiscible alloys.
For this reason, brazing can be a superior
choice in joining dissimilar metals such as
magnesium and steel because brazing
SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL, JANUARY 2013
Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council
Interfacial Microstructure of Diode Laser
Brazed AZ31B Magnesium to Steel Sheet
Using a Nickel Interlayer
The formation of a nano-scale Fe(Ni) transition layer on the steel during laser
brazing was found to be responsible for the formation of a metallurgical bond
between the steel and magnesium
BY A. M. NASIRI, D. C. WECKMAN, AND Y. ZHOU
KEYWORDS
Laser Brazing
AZ31B Mg Sheet
Steel Sheet
Dissimilar
Intermetallic Compound
A. M. NASIRI(amnasiri@uwaterloo.ca), D. C.
WECKMAN, and Y. ZHOU are with Department
of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering, Cen-
tre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of
Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
ABSTRACT
The brazeability of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy and steel sheet with a microlayer
of electro-deposited Ni in a single flare bevel lap joint configuration has been investi-
gated. The macro- and microstructure, element distribution, and interfacial phases of the
joints were studied by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Wetting of the
steel by the Mg-Al brazing alloy was improved significantly through the addition of a Ni
electroplated interlayer. Bonding between the magnesium brazing alloy and the steel was
facilitated by the formation of a transition layer composed of a solid solution of Ni in Fe
on the steel followed by a layer of α-Mg + Mg
2
Ni eutectic. A band of AlNi intermetal-
lic compound with different morphologies also formed along the steel-fusion zone in-
terface, but was not directly responsible for bonding. Ni electroplating was found to sig-
nificantly improve the brazeability and mechanical performance of the joint. The average
fracture shear strength of the bond reached 96.8 MPa and the joint efficiency was 60%
with respect to the AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy base metal. In all cases, failure occurred in the
fusion zone very close to the steel-fusion zone interface.
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temperatures are generally lower than the
melting points of both base metals. In ad-
dition, very fast heating and cooling rates
can be used during the brazing process to
minimize the thickness of intermetallic
compounds that might form along the in-
terfaces (Ref. 10).
The benefits of using laser brazing and
laser welding-brazing technologies for
joining dissimilar materials are also be-
coming increasingly recognized due to the
combined attributes of furnace brazing
and laser welding (Ref. 11). With a more
localized energy input and more precise
control of the laser beam energy, high
joining speeds and accompanying high
cooling rates can be realized with minimal
heating of the parts. Also, laser brazing
and laser welding-brazing can prevent or
minimize excessive formation of detri-
mental intermetallic phases. If intermetal-
lic layers can be limited to thicknesses
below 10 μm, acceptable joint strengths
and mechanical properties may be ob-
tained (Refs. 12–14).
In our previous study (Ref. 15), a diode
laser brazing process was developed for
joining Mg alloy sheet to aluminized steel
sheet where the Al-12Si coating served as
the interlayer. This coating was found to
promote wetting of the steel by the mag-
nesium brazing alloy; however, a preexist-
ing layer of brittle θ-FeAl
3
along the
braze-steel interface was found to degrade
the mechanical properties of the joint as
failure of the joint always occurred by frac-
ture of this brittle intermetallic layer. Fol-
lowing a review of binary and ternary
phase diagrams, nickel was identified as a
potentially viable interlayer element be-
tween the steel and Mg-9Al-2Zn brazing
alloy used. Therefore, the purpose of this
present study was to investigate the braze-
ability, interfacial microstructure, and me-
chanical properties of the laser brazed
AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy to steel
sheet with an electrodeposited layer of Ni
on the steel to act as the interlayer ele-
ment. It is expected that development of
this laser brazing technology for joining of
steel-interlayer-Mg alloy combinations
with a strong metallurgical bond between
the steel and Mg alloy will facilitate in-
creased application and use of Mg alloys
in the automotive industry.
Experimental Procedure
In this study, 2-mm-thick commercial-
grade twin-roll strip cast AZ31B-H24 Mg
alloy sheet and 1-mm-thick steel sheet
were used as the base materials. The
chemical compositions of the base materi-
als are given in Tables 1 and 2. A 2.4-mm-
diameter TiBraze Mg 600 filler metal
(Mg-Al-Zn alloy) with solidus and liq-
uidus temperatures of 445° and 600°C, re-
spectively, was chosen for this study. The
commercial flux used in the experiments
was Superior No. 21 manufactured by Su-
perior Flux and Manufacturing Co. This
powder flux was composed of LiCl (35–40
wt-%), KCl (30–35 wt-%), NaF (10–25 wt-
%), NaCl (8–13 wt-%), and ZnCl
2
(6–10
wt-%) (Ref. 16).
The AZ31B Mg and steel sheets were
cut into 60- × 50-mm specimens. Prior to
laser brazing, the oxide layers on the sur-
faces of the magnesium sheets were re-
moved by stainless steel wire brushing. All
the specimens were ultrasonically cleaned
in acetone to remove oil and other con-
taminants from the specimen surfaces.
The edge of each steel sheet was bent
in order to make a single-flare bevel lap
joint after clamping against the magne-
sium sheet. After bending, the steel speci-
mens were cleaned in acetone and then
ground to 1000 grit using SiC abrasive
paper and again ultrasonically cleaned in
acetone. The prepared surfaces were then
immediately electroplated with elec-
trolytic pure nickel. In the Ni electroplat-
ing process, the clean steel sample was the
cathode and graphite was the anode. The
composition of the electroplating solution
and the electroplating conditions are
listed in Table 3. Figure 1A shows a
schematic of the Ni electrodeposition
process used. In order to get a uniform 5-
μm-thick Ni layer on the steel, different
cathode current densities and plating
times were tested. Electrodeposition of Ni
using a cathode current density of 120
mA/cm
2
for 10 min was found to provide a
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Fig. 1— A — Schematic of the Ni electrodeposition process on steel; B —
transverse section of the Ni electrodeposited layer on the steel substrate.
Table 1 — Measured Chemical Composition of the AZ31-H24 Mg Alloy Sheet and TiBraze Mg 600
Filler Metal (wt-%)
Al Zn Mn Si Mg
AZ31B-H24 3.02 0.80 0.30 0.01 Bal.
TiBraze Mg 600 9.05 1.80 0.18 — Bal.
Table 2 — Measured Chemical Composition of
the 1-mm-Thick Steel Sheet (wt-%)
C 0.01
Mn 0.5
P 0.010
S 0.005
Fe Bal.
A
B
Nasiri Supplement January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 1:44 PM Page 2
5.5 ± 0.9-μm-thick pure Ni coating layer
on the steel with a defect-free interface.
Figure 1B shows a SEM micrograph of the
cross section of the nickel-coated steel.
The white layer on top of the steel is the
Ni coating layer. The coating was of uni-
form thickness with a void-free interface.
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer
(EDS) analysis of the electrodeposited
layer on the steel showed a pure Ni coat-
ing layer.
After the electroplating process, the
prebent steel sheet was clamped against
the magnesium sheet to make a single-
flare bevel lap joint as shown in Fig. 2A.
The filler metal was cut into pieces and
preset on the workpiece at the weld inter-
face with some flux before heating and
brazing by the laser beam.
An integrated Panasonic 6-axis robot
and Nuvonyx diode laser system with a
maximum power of 4.0 kW and a 0.5- ×
12-mm rectangular laser beam intensity
profile at the focal point was used for laser
brazing. This energy distribution is more
suitable for brazing processes compared
with the nonuniform Gaussian-distributed
circular beams generated by CO
2
and
Nd:YAG lasers (Ref. 17). The beam was
focused on top of the filler metal.
In order to limit oxidation, helium
shielding gas was provided in front of the
molten pool with a flow rate of 30 L/min
from a 6-mm-diameter soft copper feed-
ing tube. Laser brazing was performed
using a range of laser powers, travel
speeds, and beam offset positions.
After laser brazing, transverse cross
sections of the brazed specimens were cut
and mounted in epoxy resin. The samples
were then mechanically polished using
300, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 grades of SiC
grinding papers followed by polishing
using a 1-μm diamond suspension. The
polished specimens were etched to reveal
the microstructure of the braze metal and
AZ31B base material. The etchant was
comprised of 20 mL
acetic acid, 3 g picric
acid, 50 mL ethanol,
and 20 mL water (Ref.
18).
Macro- and mi-
crostructures of the
etched joints were ex-
amined using an optical
metallographic micro-
scope. The microstruc-
ture and composition of
different zones of the
joint cross section were
determined using a
JEOL JSM-6460 scan-
ning electron micro-
scope (SEM) and EDS.
Phase characterization
of the phases formed in
the steel-fusion zone in-
terface and on the frac-
ture surfaces was car-
ried out using X-ray
diffraction (XRD)
phase analysis in a
Rigaku AFC-8 diffrac-
tometer with Cu target,
50 kV acceleration volt-
age, and 40 mA current.
A transmission electron microscope
(TEM) foil of the steel-fusion zone inter-
facial region was prepared using a focused
ion beam (FIB) and in-situ lift out tech-
nique. After attaching the TEM foil to a
copper grid, final thinning was performed
on the sample at an acceleration voltage of
30 kV, followed by 10 kV, and 1 kV for the
final polishing step to get a 100-nm-thick
TEM sample. The TEM studies were per-
formed with a JEOL 2010F TEM
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Fig. 2 — A — Schematic of the laser brazing system used for joining AZ31
Mg and Ni electro-plated steel sheets in the single-flare bevel lap joint config-
uration showing the position of two thermocouples used for temperature
measurements; B — schematic of the 5-mm-wide tensile shear test specimen.
Table 3 — Composition of Ni Electroplating Solution and Electroplating Parameters
Plating Solution Composition (g/L) Electrodeposition Parameters
NiSO
4
•6H
2
O 263 Cathode current density 45–120 mA/cm
2
Na
2
SO
4
215 Time 5–20 min
H
3
BO
3
31 pH 3
Temperature 25°C
Anode Graphite (8 cm
2
)
Cathode Carbon Steel (6 cm
2
)
Fig. 3 — A laser-brazed Ni electroplated steel/AZ31B joint made using 8
mm/s travel speed and 2.2-kW laser beam power: A — Top bead; B —
transverse section of the joint.
A
A
B
B
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equipped with an EDS.
As shown in Fig. 2B, 5-mm-wide rec-
tangular-shaped specimens were cut from
the brazed joints and subjected to tensile-
shear tests with a crosshead speed of 1
mm/min. Shims were used at each end of
the specimens to ensure shear loads in the
lap joint while minimizing induced cou-
ples or bending of the specimens. Average
tensile shear strength was calculated from
tensile specimens to estimate the static
mechanical resistance and joint efficien-
cies of the joints.
Results
A photograph of a laser-brazed Ni elec-
troplated steel/AZ31B joint and a typical
cross-sectional view of the joint are shown
in Fig. 3. This brazed joint was made using
2.2 kW laser power, 8 mm/s travel speed,
and 0.2 mm beam offset to the steel side.
The joint exhibited a uniform brazed area
with good wetting of both base materials.
Partial melting of the AZ31B base metal
was observed. In contrast, when bare steel
was used, no bonding occurred between
the steel sheet and the braze alloy fusion
zone (FZ) and wetting of the steel by the
braze metal was very poor (Ref. 15). The
5.5-μm-thick Ni electrodeposited layer on
the surface of the steel significantly im-
proved the wetting of the steel by molten
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Fig. 4 — Transverse sections of a laser brazed joint. A — Optical micrograph
of the entire joint and SEM images in different positions along the steel-FZ
interface; B — position A; C — position C; D — position E; E — position F.
Fig. 5 — Typical temperature vs. time profiles measured during laser
brazing at the top and bottom side of the joint.
A
C
E
D
B
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Mg-Al filler metal. Detailed microstruc-
tural analysis of the fusion zone and
AZ31B Mg alloy after the laser brazing
process has been reported in our previous
investigation (Ref. 15). This paper focuses
on microstructural analysis of the steel-fu-
sion zone interface.
Microstructural Evolution along the
Steel-FZ Interface
Figure 4 shows the microstructure at
different locations of the steel-FZ inter-
face. The Ni coating was not detected as a
separate layer along the interface after the
LBP, which would suggest that it had en-
tirely melted and gone into solution in the
liquid immediately adjacent to the inter-
face. It was observed that the microstruc-
ture of the FZ-steel interface changed sig-
nificantly across the FZ-steel interface
from the bottom (Position A, Fig. 4B) to
top (Position F, Fig. 4E) side of the joint.
In order to explain this change of mi-
crostructure during the laser brazing
process, temperature distribution across
the interface vs. time was measured during
laser brazing using two thermocouples,
one attached to the top side and the other
to the bottom side of the steel sheet (see
Fig. 2A). According to the measured tem-
perature profiles shown in Fig. 5, the steel
sheet experienced maximum tempera-
tures of 1151.1° and 652.7°C on the top
and the bottom side, respectively. There-
fore, a 500°C temperature gradient was
measured between the top and bottom
side of the steel sheet during the laser
brazing process, since the laser beam was
focused on the top of the filler metal, as
shown in Fig. 2A (Ref. 15). This tempera-
ture difference and gradient across the
joint interface during the laser brazing
process is believed to be the main reason
for the prominent change of microstruc-
ture across the FZ-steel interface.
As shown in Fig. 4B, at the bottom of
the interface a few diamond-shaped bright
phases were formed near the steel-FZ in-
terface. In order to identify these phases,
a TEM foil was prepared from position B
of Fig. 4A. Figure 6 shows the TEM im-
ages, EDS plot, and selected area diffrac-
tion pattern (SADP) of these submicron
particles. The diffraction pattern shows a
standard diffraction pattern of AlNi (with
BCC structure) with [011] zone axis of the
particle. According to an EDS analysis of
the diamond-shaped bright phases shown
in Fig. 4B, the composition of the particles
was 49.6 ± 1.3 at.-% Ni, 45.4 ± 4.7 at.-%
Al, and 5.0 ± 2.5 at.-% Mg, thus confirm-
ing that the diamond-shaped particles
were mainly composed of AlNi inter-
metallic compound (IMC). Representa-
tive concentration profiles of Ni, Al, and
Mg across one AlNi particle are shown in
Fig. 6D, which indicates that a trace
amount of magnesium was found in this
particle. It has been reported that each of
the Al-Ni binary intermetallics has some
solubility for substitutional magnesium
atoms (Ref. 19).
Figure 7 shows the XRD spectra ob-
tained from the middle of the steel-FZ in-
terface. The area covered by the X-ray
beam was a 300-μm-diameter circle. This
XRD result confirmed the existence of
AlNi IMC, Fe, β-Mg
17
Al
12
, and α-Mg.
The AlNi IMC compound was not found
at the middle of the FZ area, whereas the
XRD pattern in Fig. 7 showed some weak
peaks suggesting that AlNi IMC had
formed mainly at the steel-FZ interface.
It was observed that upon moving from
the bottom to the middle of the interface,
which was associated with increasing tem-
perature, the morphology of the IMC phase
along the interface changed from the dia-
mond-shaped AlNi to a faceted dendritic-
shaped phase (see Fig. 4C, D).
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer
analysis results indicated this dendritic
phase contained 43.0 ± 1.6 at.-% Ni, 52.1 ±
2.0 at.-% Al, and 4.9 ± 0.5 at.-% Mg. This
composition again corresponded with the
AlNi IMC phase. In this area, the first pre-
cipitated phase from the liquid was AlNi
IMC, the same as at the bottom of the joint.
This phase grew steadily in a faceted den-
dritic shape. As the interface temperature
increased with moving from position A to
position E in Fig. 4A, the growth morphol-
ogy of the AlNi phase changed from dia-
mond-shaped to a faceted dendritic shape,
as demonstrated in Fig. 4D. Continuous
growth of the AlNi was observed in this area
with some dendrites having long secondary
dendrite arms (see Fig. 4D).
At the top of the joint (position F in
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Fig. 6 — AlNi particle characterization at position B shown in Fig. 4A: A, B — TEM images; C — SADP in
the [011] zone axis of this particle; D — EDS composition line scans across an AlNi particle indicating line
scans of Ni, Al, and Mg.
A
C
D
B
Fig. 7 — X-ray diffraction pattern of the steel-FZ
interface.
Nasiri Supplement January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 1:44 PM Page 5
Fig. 4A), the morphology of the interfacial
phase changed further and a high volume
fraction of a particle-like phase with the
composition of 48.4 ± 1.4 at.-% Ni, 50.1 ±
1.2 at.-% Al, and 1.5 ± 0.4 at.-% Mg was
detected (Fig. 4E). This phase was also
found to be AlNi IMC phase. It should
also be noted that formation of the AlNi
phase consumed almost all of the Al con-
tent of the melt near the steel-FZ inter-
face. Thus, no β-Mg
17
Al
12
was observed
near the interface compared with the cen-
tral part of the FZ.
Solidification of the Remaining Melt
between the AlNi IMC Phase and Steel
At the bottom of the joint, AlNi IMC
first crystallized from the liquid close to
the interface and then supersaturated α-
Mg solid solution containing 10.6 ± 3.6
at.-% Ni, 3.2 ± 1.7 at.-% Al, and 2.9 ±
1.5 at.-% Fe (dark regions in Figs. 4B and
8) solidified from the liquid during cooling
along with the AlNi phase. In some loca-
tions between the bottom and middle of
the interface, some gray lamellar phases,
as shown in Figs. 8C and 9, were also ob-
served between the AlNi IMC layer and
the steel. Figure 9A shows the position of
AlNi precipitates with respect to the steel-
fusion zone interface in the prepared sam-
ple during focused ion beaming for TEM
analysis. Figure 9B, C shows TEM images
of this lamellar (plate-like) phase. Ac-
cording to EDS analysis, the white lamel-
lae corresponded to α-Mg and the dark
lamellae containing 27.6 ± 7.2 at.-% Ni
and 72.3 ± 7.3 at.-% Mg represented the
Mg
2
Ni stoichiometric intermetallic com-
pound (also confirmed by SADP analysis).
Based on these results, these two phases
next to each other are the Mg-Mg
2
Ni
lamellar eutectic.
Formation of the Mg-Mg
2
Ni lamellar
eutectic was not uniform and continuous
along the interface. As shown in Fig. 8A,
B, in some locations between the steel
and the AlNi IMC layer, Mg
2
Ni crystal-
lized in the form of a lamellar gray phase
and in other locations it was not seen and
a dark solid solution of Mg containing
small amounts of Ni, Al, and Fe was
formed. In the middle portion of the in-
terface, the AlNi phase crystallized first
in the liquid (Fig. 4D). Then, dark α-Mg
solid solution containing 5.8 ± 2.1 at.-%
Ni, 1.2 ± 0.3 at.-% Al, and 3.1 ± 0.5 at.-
% Fe formed during cooling along with
AlNi phase. Finally, at the top of the
joint, the AlNi phase precipitated heavily
in the liquid along the interface and then
the remaining liquid solidified during
cooling in the form of α-Mg solid solution
(containing 2.4 ± 0.6 at.-% Ni, 0.3 ± 0.1
at.-% Al, and 3.4 ± 0.3 at.-% Fe) along
with and among AlNi particles (see Fig.
4E). Upon moving from the bottom to
the top of the interface, the Fe content of
the remaining liquid between AlNi IMC
and the steel increased from 2.9 to 3.4 at.-
% due to more diffusion of Fe from the
steel side to the FZ at higher tempera-
ture. In contrast, Al and Ni showed op-
posite behaviors due to an increase in the
thickness of AlNi IMC from the bottom
to the top portion of the joint (from 5 to
30 μm).
Transition Layer
Based on the TEM analysis, the AlNi
phase did not grow epitaxially on the steel
substrate, but instead nucleated and grew in
the liquid adjacent to the interface and was
surrounded by either α-Mg + Mg
2
Ni eu-
tectic phases or just α-Mg phase close to the
interface. On the other hand, while it may
appear in Fig. 8 that all of the electroplated
Ni had melted and gone into solution in the
liquid and the α-Mg may have nucleated
and grown epitaxially from the steel surface,
it is well known that Mg and Fe are an im-
miscible couple. From a crystallographic
point of view, it is not possible for magne-
sium to nucleate on steel due to the very
large lattice mismatching of Fe and Mg
(Ref. 4). Therefore, another layer or phase
must be responsible for bonding between
the steel and fusion zone.
Further high-magnification mi-
crostructural analysis of the steel-fusion
zone interface was performed by TEM to
find an explanation for the observed in-
terfacial phases. Figure 10A shows a TEM
image of the steel-fusion zone interface. A
continuous nano-interlayer (50–200 nm
thick) phase was observed along the inter-
face, which was bonded to the steel side on
one side and to the fusion zone on the
other side. Higher magnification of this
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Fig. 8 — SEM images of the steel-FZ interface show the
solidification morphology of remaining melt between
the IMC layer and steel side: A — Position A in Fig. 4A
near bottom side; B — position B in Fig. 4A; C — Mg-
Mg
2
Ni eutectic phases.
A
C
B
A
B
C
Fig. 9 — A — TEM sample attached to a copper
grid; B, C — TEM images of the lamellar phases
formed along the steel-FZ interface.
Nasiri Supplement January 2013_Layout 1 12/12/12 1:44 PM Page 6
layer (as shown in Fig. 10B) confirmed
good coherency between this layer and
steel as well as the fusion zone. According
to EDS point analysis, the Ni content of
the transition layer varied between 17 and
40 at.-%. Figure 10C shows the selected
area diffraction pattern (SADP) on the
transition layer that identified it as Fe(Ni)
solid solution with face-centered cubic
(FCC) structure. Therefore, this layer
proved to be the key factor for realizing a
metallurgical bond between the steel and
fusion zone. Representative concentra-
tion profiles of Fe, Ni, and Mg across the
interface between the fusion zone and the
steel are shown in Fig. 10D. It is evident
from these line scans that Fe, Ni, and Mg
diffused into each other as a result of the
high temperature experienced during the
laser brazing process. As a result, two dif-
fusion or transition layers formed between
the steel and fusion zone. According to the
element distributions of Fe, Ni, and Mg
(see Fig. 10D), in transition layer I with a
thickness of almost 70 nm from the steel
side, the Fe content decreased gradually
while the Ni content increased. In this
layer, solid-state diffusion of Ni and Fe
into each other is believed to control the
overall thickness of this layer.
Another diffusion layer (transition
layer II) was observed in Fig. 10D between
the transition layer I and the fusion zone.
The thickness of this layer was ≈ 60 nm. A
slight diffusion of magnesium from fusion
zone into transition layer II was detected.
It would appear that there was sufficient
solubility of the Mg in this Fe(Ni) inter-
layer for diffusion of the Mg to occur and
that wetting and bonding of the α-Mg +
Mg
2
Ni eutectic phases had in fact oc-
curred with the thin Fe(Ni) interlayer that
had formed during laser brazing, and not
directly with the steel.
Mechanical Properties
Due to the nonsymmetric configura-
tion of the 5-mm-wide tensile-shear test
specimens (see Fig. 2B), a combination of
shear and tensile forces existed at the in-
terface. Consequently, the joint strengths
are reported here as fracture load, since it
is not possible to separate tensile and
shear stresses. The average tensile shear
strength of the laser brazed steel-Ni-
AZ31B joints using the Mg-Al filler metal
was found to be 153.7 ± 2.7 kgf (or 1506.3
± 24.5 N). This is 153% higher than ten-
sile shear strength of the laser brazed Al-
coated steel-AZ31B Mg alloy specimens
obtained in our previous study (Ref. 15).
The low standard deviation of the tensile
shear strength of the laser brazed steel-Ni-
AZ31B joints (±2.7 kgf) compared with
the laser brazed steel-Al-AZ31B joints
(±11 kgf) indicated that the laser brazing
process was inherently stable and repro-
ducible. If only the shear plane is consid-
ered, the average shear strength of the
joints was 96.8 MPa, or 60% of that of
AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy base metal.
All tensile-shear specimens fractured
in the FZ very close to the steel-FZ inter-
face. Typical fracture surfaces of both the
fusion zone side and steel side after tensile
shear testing are shown in Fig. 11. Figure
11A, C are low-magnification SEM micro-
graphs of the fracture surfaces of the fu-
sion zone side and steel side, respectively,
and dimples are shown at high magnifica-
tion in Fig. 11B, D. This uniform distribu-
tion of the dimples is characteristic of duc-
tile fracture surfaces. These fracture
surfaces indicated that the specimens
failed under conditions similar to tensile
test with a strong shear stress component
(tensile-shear test). The effect of shear
stress on the morphology of the dimples is
very evident in these micrographs. The
vertical direction in each of the micro-
graphs is parallel to the direction of the
shear, and the elongation of the dimples
under the action of shear stress is evident
in Fig. 11B, D. The AlNi IMC compound
was not found at the fracture surfaces.
The EDS analysis results of the frac-
ture surfaces of both the steel and FZ side
also indicated that crack propagation dur-
ing the tensile shear tests had occurred en-
tirely in the FZ. Based on the EDS results,
the composition of the fracture surface for
both steel side and FZ side were similar to
the FZ, meaning fracture passed through
the FZ near the steel-FZ interface.
Figure 12 shows the XRD pattern from
the fractured surface of the joint on the
steel side. Fe, α-Mg, and AlNi peaks were
seen in this X-ray diffraction result. These
findings were consistent with the SEM and
EDS analysis results.
Discussion
From the above results, the interaction
between the filler metal and surface of the
Ni-plated steel can be explained as follows
(see Fig. 13):
Firstly, the solid-state Ni-plated steel is
in contact with the liquid filler metal (Mg-
Al alloy) at the laser brazing temperature
and, subsequently, the liquid Mg-Al alloy
flows over the Ni surface — Fig. 13A.
Secondly, dissolution and diffusion of
Ni atoms into the liquid occur, as shown in
Fig. 13B. At the same time, some solid-
state diffusion of Ni atoms into the steel
also occurs. A slight diffusion of Fe atoms
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B
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Fig. 10 — A— TEM image of the steel-fusion zone interface; B— higher magnification of the selected
square area in A; C — SADP in the [011] zone axis of the interfacial phase; D — EDS line scan analy-
sis of Fe, Ni, and Mg at the steel-fusion zone interface.
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into the liquid was also observed. Mean-
while, Mg atoms from the liquid may
slightly diffuse into the Ni-alloyed steel
side. Therefore, a thin
diffusion or transition
layer forms continu-
ously along the inter-
face between steel and
fusion zone from the
bottom side to the top
side of the joint. This
transition layer is a
solid solution of Ni in
Fe (with low content of
Mg for transition layer
II). This Fe(Ni) solid
solution with FCC
crystal structure is
more favorable for
bonding to Mg than
having a body-cen-
tered cubic (BCC)
phase along the inter-
face. Zhang et al. (Ref.
20) used an edge-to-
edge matching crystal-
lographic model to
predict all orientation
relationships between crystals that have
simple hexagonal close-packed (HCP)
and BCC structures, and they found that
the lattice mismatching of HCP (Mg) and
BCC (Fe) is very large. On the basis of the
observation in our study, a diffusion layer
composed of Fe and Ni with FCC struc-
ture can provide the conditions for the
heterogeneous nucleation of α-Mg during
solidification. The result is formation of a
metallurgical bond between the steel and
magnesium alloy. A recent study by Liu et
al. (Ref. 4) showed that a nano-layer of
Fe
2
Al
5
on steel can also be a transition
layer to bond Fe to Mg due to the low en-
ergy interfaces and good match of lattice
sites between Fe and Fe
2
Al
5
as well as Mg
and Fe
2
Al
5
. The same behavior was ob-
served for the Fe(Ni) transition layer in
this study. Formation of a transition zone
was also reported in other studies (Refs.
5–8) using different joining techniques,
when an interlayer was used between steel
and Mg alloy. These transition layers on
steels were reported to make it possible to
join Mg and steel.
Thirdly, during the solidification
process, the AlNi phase with a high melt-
ing point (1133°C) precipitates from the
liquid and grows in a form of faceted den-
drites very close to the interface — Fig.
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Fig. 11 — SEM images of typical fracture surfaces after the tensile shear test. A, B — Fusion zone side at different magnifications; C, D — steel side at differ-
ent magnifications.
Fig. 12 — X-ray diffraction pattern of the fracture surface of the steel side.
D
C
B A
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13C. These faceted dendrites form due to
kinetic difficulties in forming new planes
of atoms (Ref. 21). In this type of dendrite,
the growing direction of dendrite arms are
ones that are capped by relatively slow
growing planes (usually low-index planes)
(Ref. 21). The slowest growing plane
would be expected to be the closest-
packed planes. Weinberg and Chalmers
(Ref. 22) reported that the axis of a pyra-
mid, whose sides are the most closely
packed planes, is generally the major den-
drite direction. As a result, for AlNi
faceted dendrites with BCC structure, this
direction is <100>. Therefore, the
process of solidification at the middle part
of the joint starts with the nucleation and
growth of the AlNi-faceted dendrites
along the <100> growth direction.
Fourthly, if the Ni content of the re-
maining liquid between the steel side and
formed AlNi precipitates is high enough,
Mg
2
Ni with a melting point of 762°C nu-
cleates (see Fig. 13C). Formation of
Mg
2
Ni depends on sufficient Ni concen-
tration in the remaining liquid near the
steel-FZ interface after formation of the
AlNi IMC. The Ni content of the remain-
ing liquid after precipitation of AlNi in-
creases from 2.4 at.-% at the top side of
the interface to 10.6 at.-% at the bottom
portion because formation of the AlNi
IMC layer consumed the Ni atoms near
the interface and the volume fraction of
this phase increased from the bottom to
the top portion of the joint.
Based on the above analysis, high
enough concentration of Ni in the re-
maining liquid close to the bottom side of
the joint after formation of AlNi IMC re-
sulted in formation of the Mg
2
Ni + α-Mg
lamellar eutectic in the form of a gray
phase between the AlNi IMC and steel. In
order for this lamellar eutectic to grow,
the local composition of the fusion zone
should be close to the eutectic composi-
tion (10 at.-% Ni, according to the Mg-Ni
binary phase diagram) (Ref. 21). Reac-
tions between Mg in the fusion zone and
Ni along the interface caused formation of
the Mg-Ni eutectic phase. This reaction
can be represented by the following bal-
anced chemical reaction:
L(10 at.-% Ni)←508°C→Mg
2
Ni
(33 at.-% Ni)+Mg(0 at.-% Ni) (1)
Therefore, at the bottom of the inter-
face, two reactions occurred; the first one
was precipitation of AlNi from the liquid
and the second was the eutectic reaction
between Mg and Ni in the FZ (reaction 1).
In the case of reaction sequences, first
AlNi forms near the interface and then the
remaining liquid with a low Al content be-
tween the AlNi IMC and steel-FZ inter-
face, which is still rich in Ni, undergoes a
eutectic reaction with Mg and results in
the formation of the lamellar
α-Mg + Mg
2
Ni eutectic.
With the formation of the
AlNi IMC layer, diffusion of
Ni atoms from the steel side to
the FZ is blocked. Therefore,
the concentration of Ni in the
remaining liquid between the
interface and preformed AlNi
phase is expected to be higher
than the remaining liquid on
the other side of the AlNi
phase. The result is the forma-
tion of Mg
2
Ni just between
the AlNi phase and steel (see
Fig. 8A, B).
In the top portion of the
interface, with the nucle-
ation and growth of the AlNi
particles, most of the Ni
atoms are consumed. There-
fore, the Ni content of the
remaining liquid would not
be enough for formation of
the Mg
2
Ni phase.
Conclusions
1. With the addition of an
electrodeposited Ni inter-
layer on steel sheet, single
flare bevel lap joints of
AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy to
steel sheet were rendered
possible by the laser brazing
process, and a uniform
brazed area with good wet-
ting and bonding of both base
metals was achieved.
2. Dissolution of the Ni
coating layer during the laser
brazing process led to the
formation of new AlNi IMC
phases and also a Mg-Ni eu-
tectic zone along the inter-
face. The AlNi intermetallic
layers at the steel-FZ inter-
face formed in the sequence
of diamond-shaped, den-
dritic, and nodules from the
bottom to the top portion of
the joint.
3. The formation of a
nano-scale Fe(Ni) transition
layer on the steel by solid-
state interdiffusion between
Fe and Ni during laser braz-
ing was found to be responsi-
ble for the formation of a
metallurgical bond between
the steel and the Mg-Al braz-
ing alloy.
4. The average shear strength of the
joints reached 96.8 MPa, 60% that of the
base metal of AZ31B Mg alloy. Fracture
surface analysis showed that fracture oc-
curred in the FZ close to the steel-FZ
interface.
Acknowledgments
The authors wish to acknowledge sup-
port of the American Welding Society
(AWS) Graduate Fellowship program, the
Natural Sciences and Engineering Re-
search Council of Canada (NSERC), and
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Fig. 13 — Formation of transitional layer and intermetallic com-
pounds during laser brazing of Ni-plated steel-AZ31B with Mg-Al
filler metal: A — Wetting of the Ni-plated steel by molten filler metal
and dissolution and diffusion of Ni into the FZ and steel substrate; B
— formation of the transitional layer and aggregation of Ni along the
interface; C — nucleation and growth of AlNi IMC, and epitaxial
growth of the remaining liquid in the form of α-Mg + Mg
2
Ni eutectic
onto the thin Fe(Ni) interlayer.
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Magnesium Network of Canada (Mag-
NET) for sponsoring this work. The au-
thors would like to acknowledge the help-
ful comments of Dr. Scott Lawson from
the Centre for Advanced Materials Join-
ing at the University of Waterloo.
References
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2. Mao, H. K., and Bell, P. M. 1979. Equa-
tions of state of MgO and Fe under static pres-
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3. Liu, L. 2005. Welding and Joining of Mag-
nesium Alloys, Cambridge, UK: Woodhead
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4. Liu, L., Xiao, L., Feng, J., Li, L., Esmaeili,
S., and Zhou, Y. 2011. Bonding of immiscible
Mg and Fe by coated nanoscale Fe
2
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5
transi-
tion layer. Scripta Materialia 65 (11): 982–985.
5. Zhao, X., Song, G., and Liu, L. 2006. Mi-
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tungsten inert gas lap welding. Transactions of
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6. Qi, X., and Song, G. 2010. Interfacial struc-
ture of the joints between magnesium alloy and
mild steel with nickel as interlayer by hybrid laser-
TIG welding. Materials & Design 31: 605–609.
7. Liu, L., Xiao, L., Feng, J. C., Tian, Y. H.,
Zhou, S. Q., and Zhou, Y. 2010. The mecha-
nism of resistance spot welding of magnesium
to steel. Metallurgical and Materials Transac-
tions A 41A: 2651–2661.
8. Liu, L., Qi, X., and Wu, Z. 2010. Mi-
crostructural characteristics of lap joint be-
tween magnesium alloy and mild steel with and
without the addition of Sn element. Materials
Letter 64: 89–92.
9. Liu, L. M., and Qi, X. 2009. Effects of cop-
per addition on microstructure and strength of
the hybrid laser-TIG welded joints between
magnesium alloy and mild steel. Journal of Ma-
terials Science 44: 5725–5731.
10. Lockwood, L., and Shapiro, A. E. 2005.
Brazing of magnesium. Brazing Handbook, 5th
edition, Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society.
11. Sierra, G., Peyre, P., Deschaux Beaume,
F., Stuart, D., and Fras, G. 2008. Steel to alu-
minium braze welding by laser process with Al-
12Si filler wire. Science and Technology of Weld-
ing and Joining 13(5): 430–437.
12. Wagner, F., Zerner, I., Kreimeyer, M.,
Seefeld, T., and Sepold, G. 2001. Characteriza-
tion and properties of dissimilar metal combi-
nations of Fe/Al and Ti/Al-sheet materials.
Proc. ICALEO’01 (CD-ROM), Jacksonville,
Fla., October, LIA, Orlando, Fla.
13. Miao, Y., Han, D., Yao, J., and Li, F.
2010. Microstructure and interface characteris-
tics of laser penetration brazed magnesium
alloy and steel. Science and Technology of Weld-
ing and Joining 15(2): 97–103.
14. Kreimeyer, M., Wagner, F., and Vollert-
sen, F. 2005. Laser processing of aluminum-ti-
tanium-tailored blanks. Optics and Lasers in En-
gineering 43: 1021–1035.
15. Nasiri, A. M., Li, L., Kim, S. H., Zhou,
Y., Weckman, D. C., and Nguyen, T. C. 2011.
Microstructure and properties of laser brazed
magnesium to coated steel. Welding Journal
90(11): 211-s to 219-s.
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17. Saida, K., Song, W., and Nishimoto, K.
2005. Diode laser brazing of aluminum alloy to
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18. Vander Voort, G. F. 1999. Metallography
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19. Belov, N. A., Eskin, D. G., and Avxen-
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AWS Expands International Services
With international membership on the rise, the American Welding Society (AWS)
launched a series of country-specific Web sites known as microsites for members to
access information in their native languages.
Multilingual microsites are now live for Mexico at www.aws.org/mexico, China at
www.aws.org/china, and Canada (English/French) at www.aws.org/canada. They fea-
ture information on services offered by AWS in each country, membership benefits,
exposition information, online education, and access to AWS publications and tech-
nical standards.
Other countries will be added later.
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Introduction
As with most welding processes, fric-
tion stir welding (FSW) produces a non-
homogenous macrostructure whose
regions, illustrated in Fig. 1, include the
heat-affected zone (HAZ), thermome-
chanical-affected zone (TMAZ), and weld
nugget or stir zone (SZ). Each zone is
characterized by a unique microstructure
related to different levels of thermome-
chanical processing. The tool rotation and
travel impart a nonsymmetrical flow pat-
tern that is observed in the nonsymmetric
weld structure of the transverse section in
Fig. 1. The side where the tool rotation
and travel vectors are in the same direc-
tion is labeled the advancing side (AS),
and where they are opposed is labeled the
retreating side (RS). Because FSW is a
solid-state process, correlation of the tem-
perature at the workpiece/weld tool inter-
face with the processing parameters
presents challenges. Understanding of this
correlation is needed for control of the
processing temperature and optimization
of the resulting mechanical properties.
Because the maximum temperature in
FSW is generally considered to be at the
shear interface between the SZ and the
TMAZ (Refs. 1–3), understanding the
variation in temperature in this region
with respect to processing parameters is
necessary. Numerous studies report the
resulting weld temperature to be most
strongly influenced by the tool rotation ve-
locity (Refs. 2–7). In addition to under-
standing the temperature, the heating rate
can also affect the kinetics of the phase
changes in age-hardenable alloys such as
the AA2xxx series. Since the FSW process
is considered to involve a large shear strain
at high rates (Refs. 2, 8–12), the heating or
up-quenching times associated with the
process may be very rapid (Ref. 13).
Determining the temperature at the
workpiece/weld tool interface was directly
approached using embedded thermocou-
ples in 2xxx series aluminum alloys (Refs.
1, 2, 14–20), and it has provided informa-
tion on the relative homologous tempera-
ture in the range of 0.80 to 0.90 T
m
(where
T
m
is the melting temperature of the Al
with a value of 933 K). Little variance has
been reported with SZ temperature meas-
urements of 525°C in AA2024 (Ref. 17)
and 480°–520°C in AA2195 (Ref. 14),
where the increase in temperature corre-
sponded to an increase in tool rotation.
Positioning the thermocouple close to the
shear zone has noted difficulties due to
potential displacement by the resulting
material flow and response to rapid heat-
ing conditions. Thus, most thermocouple
measurements have been used to validate
a numerical model with extrapolation of
measured temperatures outside the SZ to
the workpiece/weld tool interface. At-
tempts to model the temperature in the
shear region have often resulted in over-
prediction of the weld temperature, which
has been attributed to slippage occurring
at the workpiece/weld tool interface (Refs.
21, 22). While relationships between peak
temperature and processing conditions
have been shown (Refs. 2, 14), they are not
considered to change the overall tempera-
ture field significantly (Ref. 22).
Conversion of weld power to thermal
energy has also being pursued to deter-
mine the weld temperature (Refs. 23–27),
and may have validity if the temperature
does not exceed the eutectic or solidus
temperature resulting in tool slippage and
reduced efficiency (Refs. 13, 21).
Since the processing temperature con-
trols the resulting mechanical properties,
as affected by microstructural variations,
interpretation of the resulting grain size
and precipitate state can be used to verify
processing temperatures and provide in-
sight as to the heating conditions, and
hence, strain rate experienced during
FSW of age-hardenable alloys (Refs. 8–10,
12, 13, 28). Due to the complex nature of
the FSW process, various characterization
methods at different length scales are
often needed to interpret the results. Al-
though much research has been published
on the resulting microstructure and me-
chanical properties of FSW in the age-
hardenable 2xxx series (Refs. 14, 15, 19,
20, 27–39), these studies generally charac-
terized a single FSW obtained with a sin-
gle set of processing parameters that
covered a range of tool rotations from 120
to 1040 rev/min. Further adding to the dif-
ficulty of comparing findings, not all stud-
ies document details of the tool design and
processing parameters. Thus, assessing
whether the microstructural evolution ob-
served is due to the material, tool design,
processing parameters, or some combina-
tion is difficult and sometimes results in
conflicting findings. Studies on 2024 (Refs.
Processing Effects on the Friction
Stir Weld Stir Zone
This investigation attempts to understand the true temperature at the
workpiece/weld tool interface
BY J. SCHNEIDER, R. STROMBERG, P. SCHILLING, B. CAO, W. ZHOU, J. MORFA, and O. MYERS
ABSTRACT
While many researchers have carefully mapped out the various microstructural re-
gions of a friction stir weld (FSW), concluding that each region undergoes different
thermomechanical cycles during the process, these studies generally have only con-
sidered one set of FSW parameters. By considering only the shear zone (SZ) over a
range of FSW process parameters, it can be observed that material within this region
is also subjected to different thermomechanical cycles. Whether this results from a
temperature increase with higher rev/min and/or material held for an increased time
at temperature, is still not understood. This study, however, does give insight into the
often conflicting results published regarding the microstructural evolution in a FSW.
KEYWORDS
Aluminum
Friction Stir Welding
Heat-Affected Zone
Shear Zone
Solid-State Welding
J. SCHNEIDER, J. MORFA, and O. MYERS are
with Mechanical Engineering Department, Mis-
sissippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss.
R. STROMBERG is with Hysitron, Inc., Min-
neapolis, Minn. P. SCHILLING is with Mechan-
ical Engineering Department, University of New
Orleans, New Orleans, La. B. CAO and W.
ZHOU are with Advanced Materials Research In-
stitute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans,
La.
Schneider 1-13_Layout 1 12/13/12 1:00 PM Page 11
19, 30, 33–35) report a range of complex
precipitate morphologies in the SZ with
coarse particles dissolving providing solute
for postweld natural aging. In contrast,
studies on 2219 report either particle
coarsening (Refs. 36–38, 40) and/or the
dissolution of the Al
2
Cu phase in the SZ
(Refs. 15, 20). Nonhomogeneities ob-
served at the macroscale have been attrib-
uted to banding of large constituent
particles, which correspond to tool rota-
tion variations in 2024 (Refs. 41, 42), dif-
ferent tempers of 2219 (Ref. 36), or
overpass repair welds in 2219 (Ref. 38).
While differences in the microstructural
characterization of 2195 in
two different studies were at-
tributed to variations in phase
transformations kinetics as in-
fluenced by FSW process pa-
rameters (Refs. 14, 31), no
systematic study has been con-
ducted to verify.
Conductivity measurements
provide a well-established non-
destructive evaluation (NDE)
technique for determining the
temper of a metal. However, its
sensitivity is affected by varia-
tions in alloy uniformity due to
heat treatment condition, the
degree of cold work, presence
of residual stresses, or effect of
thermal exposure (Refs.
43–45). Thus, a combination of
NDE techniques are often used
to evaluate the temper of an
alloy such as combining eddy
current with hardness testing.
While these standard tech-
niques are typically used at the
macroscale where homogeneity
of the thermomechanical pro-
cessing is assumed, characterization at the
microscale can provide insight into nonho-
mogenous variations.
This study evaluated the combined use
of conductivity measurements with hard-
ness testing at the macro and micro length
scales to evaluate the resulting mi-
crostructure in a FSW SZ formed by vary-
ing the tool rotation. The range of tool
rotations in the study was selected based
on earlier studies where a large change in
the resulting SZ strength was observed
(Ref. 46). Microstructural features were
correlated with conductivity and hardness
measurements. The results in this study
were also compared with temperature cal-
culations based on conversion of weld
power to thermal energy (Ref. 27).
Experimental Procedure
Friction stir welds were made in rolled
panels of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 approx-
imately 610 mm long, 152 mm wide, and 6.4
mm thick that were butted together. Nomi-
nal composition of the 2219 alloy (wt-%) is
Cu 6.30%, Mn 0.30%, Zr 0.17%, V 0.10%,
Ti 0.06%, Fe 0.15%, Si 0.10%, and balance
Al. The FSW tool consisted of a 12.7-mm-
diameter UNF left-handed pin, a 30.5-mm-
diameter scrolled shoulder, and a pin length
of approximately 6.2 mm. All FSWs were
performed with a zero degree lead angle
and in-position control. A RM-1 model
FSW machine from Manufacturing Tech-
nology, Inc. (MTI), was used to produce the
welds with the data recorded using a high-
speed National Instruments Data Acquisi-
tion system.
Metallographic specimens were taken
of the transverse section of each FSW seg-
ment. The specimens were mounted and
polished using standard metallurgical pro-
cedures. All samples were etched using
Keller’s reagent to document the
macrostructure as recorded with a Nikon
D1 camera. Surface topography was ob-
tained in a scanning probe microscopy
(SPM) using a diamond Berkovich probe
mounted on the Hysitron TI 950™. Prior
to SPM, the specimens were mechanically
reground and repolished using 1.0- and
0.5-micron alumina on the pad followed by
colloidal silica.
Indentation experiments were con-
ducted using the Hysitron TI 950™ instru-
ment equipped with the nanoECR™
(electrical contact resistance) package and
a conductive boron-doped diamond
Berkovich probe with a tip radius of ap-
proximately 150 nm. The nanohardness of
each transverse specimen was measured
across the width approximately 1.3 mm
below the crown surface. One hundred in-
dents with a spacing of 250 µm were made
using a 5-s loading to a peak of 10 mN, 5-
s hold, and 5-s unloading segments, which
corresponded to an average indentation
contact depth of 485 nm.
To measure the nanoconductivity, the
nanoECR™ package was used, which en-
ables simultaneous electrical measure-
ments to be made during standard
nanoindentation testing. During testing, a
fixed voltage was applied to the sample via
a conducting stage and the resultant cur-
rent flow through the sample was meas-
ured through the conducting tip. Voltage
was held constant at 2 V and the measured
current was used to calculate the average
current density based on the contact area
of the indenter at peak loading.
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Fig. 1 — Transverse view of a conventional friction stir weld with regions of interest labeled.
Fig. 2 — Miniature tensile specimens fabricated from the FSW
nuggets. A — Shown are the specimens from the FSW transverse mi-
crostructure with the specimen geometry superimposed; B — an end
mill was used to machine the dogbone geometry; C — which was then
sliced into individual specimens using wire EDM.
A
B
C
Schneider 1-13_Layout 1 12/13/12 1:00 PM Page 12
Bulk eddy current measurements were
made with Rohmann GmbH Elotest M2
with a probe diameter of approximately
1.3 cm, which was operated at a frequency
of approximately 1 MHz. The values were
recorded as % IACS, where the electrical
conductivity of annealed Cu was refer-
enced as 100% IACS at 20°C, and IACS
refers to the International Annealed Cop-
per Standard, which was established in
1913 (Ref. 47). Advertised accuracy of
measurements was ± 0.1% IACS. Because
the probe diameter was larger than the
weld cross section, some air was picked up.
Although this may have resulted in slightly
lower values for % IACS, the comparative
trend was considered valid.
To evaluate the mechanical properties
of only the SZ of the FSW, tensile speci-
mens were designed with the gauge sec-
tion entirely within the transverse section
of the FSW SZ, as shown in Fig. 2A. The
geometry was first machined, and then
sliced using wire electrical discharge ma-
chining (EDM) into individual specimens
2.0 cm long × 0.64 cm wide × 0.03 cm thick,
as shown in Fig. 2B and C, respectively.
The tensile specimens were tested in uni-
axial tension using a stepper-motor-driven
miniature tensile tester with a 0.5-kN (100-
lbf) load cell. All tests were run at ambi-
ent temperature at a constant crosshead
velocity of 0.05 mm/min with a data-
acquisition rate of 1 sample per s. The
maximum load (F
max
) was divided by the
initial specimen cross-sectional area (A) to
calculate the engineering stress (σ). Yield
strength (σ
YS
) was defined using the
0.02% offset criteria (Ref. 48) and ulti-
mate tensile strength (UTS) was defined
using the maximum load carried by the
specimen cross-sectional area.
A JEOL 6500 F field emission, scan-
ning electron microscope (FE-SEM) with
an Oxford electron backscatter detector
(EBSD) was used to obtain orientation
image maps (OIM) of the SZ. Analysis
was performed in 0.4-μm steps over 215-
× 161-μm rectangular areas in the banded
regions of the transverse sections. All
OIM scans were obtained using an excita-
tion condition of 20 kV with a working dis-
tance of 20 mm. EBSD/OIM was used to
determine grain size based on a 5-deg mis-
orientation angle.
Transmission electron microscope
(TEM) foils, 3 mm in diameter, were
punched from the SZ region of the FSW
specimens and were prepared for imaging
using traditional techniques of mechanical
thinning, two-sided dimpling, and ion
milling to electron transparency. Initial
images were obtained in a JEOL JEM-
100CX TEM with a tungsten filament op-
erated at an accelerating voltage of 100 kV
to obtain bright field image (BFI). Com-
plementary higher-resolution BFIs and se-
lected area diffraction (SAD) patterns
were obtained using a JEOL 2010 200
KeV field emission (FE) TEM.
A Rigaku Smartlab X-ray diffractome-
ter (XRD) with Cu-k X-ray was used to
identify the minor phases present in the
aluminum matrix. A continuous scan was
made at a rate of 0.035 deg/min over a 2-θ
range of 18 to 55 deg.
The SZ temperature was taken to be
that of the workpiece/weld tool interface
or the shear zone. The shear zone tem-
perature was calculated from the meas-
ured experimental torque values using an
alternative heat index (Ref. 27). This nu-
merical approach considered the power
generated by rotating an axial symmetric
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Table 1 — Summary of FSW Conditions and Corresponding Shear Strain Rate
RPM Tool Radius Shear Zone Shear
(mm) Thickness Strain Rate
(mm) (s
-1
)
150 6.35 0.13 5 × 10
4
200 6.35 0.13 6 × 10
4
300 6.35 0.13 9 × 10
4
Fig. 3 — Flow stress of 2219-T87 vs. temperature
showing a precipitous drop at 0.5T
m
before reach-
ing an almost constant, linear plateau in the range
of 0.7 to 0.9 T
m
(Ref. 50).
Fig. 4 — Phase diagram for the Al-Cu binary sys-
tem (Ref. 51).
Table 2 — Grain Size as Inferred from EBSD/OIM
Specimen Grain Size (μm)
AS RS
150 2.5 1.8
200 2.8 2.6
300 4.1 4.2
A B
Fig. 5 — A — A low-magnification image of the base metal in which a few large overaged particles
(200–500 nm) can be observed; B — the higher-magnification image shows the θ’ strengthening phases
in the base metal matrix.
Schneider 1-13_Layout 1 12/13/12 1:00 PM Page 13
plug of metal around the tool. By assum-
ing that 100% of the weld torque was con-
verted into thermal energy and contact
conditions remain constant, an energy bal-
ance was used to equate the heat input
(Q
g
) with the heat loss terms as given in
Equation 1. The heat loss terms included
conduction, through the weldment (Q
w
),
anvil (Q
a
), and spindle (Q
sp
), in addition
to convection, which captured the pre-
heating of metal (Q
v
) passing through the
shear surface in advance of the weld.
Q
g
= Q
w
+ Q
a
+ Q
sp
+Q
v
(1)
The resulting relationship given in Equa-
tion 2 was used to determine a FSW tem-
perature from the actual weld torque (M
t
)
(Refs. 27, 49) where ω was the tool rota-
tion, τ was the flow stress, R
s
was the ra-
dius of shear surface, R was the radius of
the tool pin, and H was the length of the
tool pin.
(2)
The flow stress (τ) was approximated by
M
t
* ΔT such that as the shear zone temper-
ature approached T
m
, the flow stress ap-
proaches zero (Refs. 27, 49). This linear
approximation was based on Fig. 3, which
plots the flow stress vs. temperature for
AA2219-T87 7 and shows a precipitous drop
at around 0.5 T
m
reaching a constant, linear
plateau at approximately 0.7 T
m
(Ref. 50).
The value of flow stress at T
m
was assumed
to be zero. Thus, considering the range of
published temperature measurements for
FSW Al alloys of 0.8 to 0.9 T
m
, the corre-
sponding flow stress was relatively unaf-
fected by temperature and was considered
linear just prior to reaching T
m
.
Results and Discussion
AA2219 is an Al-Cu alloy whose nom-
inal composition is slightly above the max-
imum solid solubility as shown in the
equilibrium diagram in Fig. 4 (Ref. 51).
This yields a microstructure composed pri-
marily of the saturated α-aluminum ma-
trix plus a small amount of excess θ phase.
The T87 temper used in this study refers
to a heat treatment that artificially ages
the Cu-rich precipitates in the α-matrix
through a well-accepted sequence of equi-
librium transformation given in Equation
3, where α
ss
refers to a solid solutionized
Al matrix.
α
ss
→GPI→GPII→θ′→θ (3)
The T8 temper refers to a solid-solution
heat treatment of the α phase at 535°C,
followed by cold work and artificial aging
at 175°C for 18 h (Ref. 52). This results in
a base metal with the main strengthening
metastable phase of θ′phase as shown in
Fig. 5. Figure 5A is a low-magnification
image of the base material microstructure,
which shows a few large Cu-rich particles
around 200–500 nm, corresponding to the
excess θ phase. Figure 5B is a higher mag-
nification image that shows the
θ′strengthening metastable phase with a
reported morphology of tetragonal discs
that are semicoherent with the α-alu-
minum matrix (Ref. 53).
The FSW process is considered to
occur at high strain rates and impart a high
strain to the metal surrounding the weld
tool (Refs. 2, 8–12). Thus, the kinetics of
the dynamic microstructural evolution
would be expected to differ from the static
equilibrium conditions (Refs. 13, 19). The
occurrence of a high strain rate acting on
the metal as it moves around the weld tool
implies very rapid deformational heating
and associated up-quenching followed by
slow cooling. The strengthening precipi-
tates in the base metal undergo coarsen-
ing during the FSW process and eventually
lose their strengthening effectiveness due
to elevated temperatures and/or longer
times at elevated temperatures.
Near the workpiece/weld tool interface,
where the rate of heating was the highest
due to the high shear strain rates, the Cu-
rich phases underwent dissolution. During
the rapid up-quenching, if the eutectic
temperature was exceeded at the work-
piece/weld tool interface, the remaining θ
phase may have liquated (Refs. 13, 54).
However, if the temperature remained
below the eutectic, an increasing degree of
dissolution of the Cu-rich phases was ex-
pected as the rate of temperature rise in-
creased at the workpiece/weld tool inter-
face, thereby increasing the solute
concentration. At lower strain rate regions
away from the shear zone, the Cu-rich
phases would have continued to coarsen,
depleting the solute from the α matrix
(Ref. 19).
Estimations of the strain rate associated
with FSW have been based on various ana-
lytical or numerical models that rely on ma-
terial property databases (Refs. 8–11) in
addition to use of the Zener-
Holloman parameter, which relates grain
size to strain rate (Ref. 12). These methods
have provided estimates in the range of 10
4
to 10
1
s
–1
, respectively, with lower values cal-
culated from the Zener-Holloman method.
Studies have indicated that the grain size at
Q R
R
R
H
R
g
s
=






+








ωτ π 2
1
3
3
3
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Table 3 — Tensile Strength of the FSW SZ Specimens
Specimen Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength
(MPa) (MPa)
150 151 ± 2 269 ± 11
200 163 ± 11 295 ±11
300 190 ± 2 332 ± 9
PM 396 469
Fig. 6 — Macrographs of the FSWs in this study with horizontal line indicating location
of nanoindentations.
Table 4 — Bulk Eddy Current Measurements
Specimen Eddy Current
(% IACS)
150 26.2 ± 0.1
200 26.2 ± 0.7
300 22.7 ± 0.1
Schneider 1-13_Layout 1 12/13/12 1:00 PM Page 14
the workpiece/weld tool interface are
smaller than in the FSW wake, which has
been attributed to grain growth during the
slow cooling of the workpiece (Ref. 55). As
grain sizes have been reported to increase
with increasing tool rotation due to post-
weld grain growth, use of the Zener-Hollo-
man method results in an underestimation
of the strain rate. The highest shear strain
rate has been estimated based on a kine-
matic approach that does not rely on an as-
sumption of material properties at the FSW
conditions (Refs. 11, 49). Using this ap-
proach, an estimate of the mean shearing
strain rate (γ) across the shear surface of
thickness (δ) at the workpiece/weld tool in-
terface has been made using Equation 4
(Ref. 11).
(4)
In Equation 4, r is the radius of the shear
surface approximated by the pin tool ra-
dius and ω is the angular velocity of the
metal inside the shear surface taken to be
approximately the same as that of the tool.
The shear zone thickness, δ, is estimated
to be on the order of 0.1 times the pin di-
ameter (Refs. 1, 3, 46, 49). The estimated
shear strain rates are summarized in Table
1 showing increasing rates as the tool ro-
tation increases. As the travel speed was
constant in this study at 114 mm/min, the
higher strain rate corresponded to a faster
heating rate at the shear surface sur-
rounding the SZ. Note that this was an in-
stantaneous shear strain rate that the
material experienced as it crossed the
shear zone. Neighboring material adjacent
to the shear zone experienced less shear-
ing, and hence, lower temperatures. The
intertwining of these two flow paths in the
SZ region was reported to result in the
shear textures or onion ring pattern ob-
served in the FSW SZ (Refs. 56, 57)
Macrographs of the etched transverse
sections of the three welds are shown in
Fig. 6. They were repolished to obtain the
SPM surface profiles shown in Fig. 7. Pref-
erential polishing around the harder Cu-
rich particles reveal an increasing number
as the rotation is increased from 150 to
200 rev/min. However, at 300 rev/min, a
decrease in the average size and the vol-
ume fraction of hard Cu-rich particles as-
sumed to be the θ phase was observed.
This would correspond to an increased
dissolution rate of the θ phase as the
rev/min, and hence the strain rate, in-
creased above a critical level.
The representative grain size measure-
ments for the three FSWs in this study were
obtained using electron backscattered dif-
fraction (EBSD)/orientation image map-
ping (OIM). Table 2 summarizes the
variation in grain size observed between the
AS and RS of the FSWs. The larger, more
uniform grain size in the 300 rev/min FSW
specimen was consistent with exposure to
higher temperatures or longer cooling times
for the workpiece, similar to other reports
(Refs. 39, 55). Thus, the higher SZ strength
at the higher revs/min cannot be attributed
to Hall-Petch strengthening, but rather to
the precipitate state.
The horizontal dashed line, shown on
the macrographs in Fig. 6, indicate the lo-
cation of the nanoindentations summa-
rized in Fig. 8. While a reduction in hard-
ness was observed for the welds made at
150 and 200 rev/min, the 300 rev/min FSW
had a higher value. Table 3 lists a compar-
ison of the FSW strengths to the base
metal. Although all FSWs had a lower
strength than the base metal, a trend to-
ward increased tensile strength was noted
for the SZ as the tool rotation increased.
Estimating a weld temperature based on
conversion of power to heat, assuming a
100% efficiency and constant contact con-
ditions, predicted a higher temperature at
the higher tool rotation. For natural aging
to occur, Cu-rich phases in the 2219-T87
material would have to dissolve and in-
crease the amount of solute in the α-ma-
trix in the wake of the FSW. TEM images
indicated that the θ phase was dissolved,
thus replenishing the solute in the α phase
for postweld natural aging.
On the basis of the hardness data and
corresponding SPM images, there was a sig-
nificant change in either the localized tem-
perature or the heating rate between the
FSWs made at 300 rev/min and the 150 and
200 rev/min. There was no evidence of ex-
ceeding the eutectic temperature, either by
 γ
ω
δ

( )
r *
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Fig. 7 — SPM images show higher amounts of precipitates on the surfaces of the FSWs made at A — 150 rev/min; B — 200 rev/min; than on the C — 300
rev/min sample surface.
Fig. 8 — Nanohardness measurements on FSW samples showing higher hardness at 300 rev/min
due to natural aging.
.
Schneider 1-13_Layout 1 12/13/12 1:00 PM Page 15
a decrease in FSW torque or in the mi-
crostructure. A reduction in the volume
fraction of the θ phase accompanied by a
coarsening of the θ′ phase cannot be ex-
plained by equilibrium kinetics, which
would predict the dissolution of the smaller
particles and coarsening of the larger parti-
cles within a constant temperature field.
Table 4 summarizes the bulk eddy cur-
rent measurements. Similar readings were
obtained for the 150 and 200 rev/min spec-
imens, whereas the 300 rev/min specimen
was significantly lower. It has been re-
ported that the hardness does not have a
1-to-1 correlation with electrical conduc-
tivity in heat-treatable alloys (Ref. 45). At
sufficiently high temperatures, dissolution
of particles increased the amount of solid-
solution solute causing a decrease in elec-
trical conductivity. The increased solute
presence results in natural aging of the
weld nugget postweld thereby increasing
the hardness. This hardness reversion with
decreased electrical conductivity has been
reported in other 2xxx series aluminum al-
loys (Refs. 45, 58) similar to the findings
in this study. Although the combined use
of eddy current and hardness testing was
not generally used for identification of
2xxx series aluminum alloys (Ref. 45), it
was useful for understanding the precipi-
tate state in the difference zones of a
FSWs by correlation with complementary
microscale techniques.
To further probe the bulk eddy current
measurements, corresponding nanocurrent
density measurements were calculated from
indents applied in the center SZ region and
the base metal region which was assumed to
be near the edge of the transverse specimen.
Figure 9 presents a bar graph plot showing
the relative occurrence of each current den-
sity for the SZ (lighter color) and the base
metal (darker color). At all rev/min condi-
tions, a low occurrence of current densities
in the range of 13–27 A/mm
2
is observed
only in the SZ region. Comparing Fig. 9A
and B, corresponding to the 150 and 200
rev/min specimens respectively, an increase
can be observed in the occurrence of the
current densities in the range of 11–21
A/mm
2
. This increase in higher current den-
sities for the 200 rev/min specimen corre-
sponds to a decrease in the occurrence of
the lower current densities (< 10 A/mm
2
).
For the 300 rev/min specimen in Fig. 9C, the
major occurrence of current densities is in
the range of 1–5 A/mm
2
with similar behav-
ior noted for the SZ and the base metal.
Very few higher current densities in the SZ
are observed in the narrower range 18–22
A/mm
2
.
To understand this variation, individual
current density measurements were made
directly on the Cu-rich particles and com-
pared with the Al matrix as shown in Fig. 10.
As can be observed, a higher current den-
sity range of 11–16 A/mm
2
was associated
with the large Cu-rich particles. with a lower
current density range of 1–7 A/mm
2
was as-
sociated with the matrix. Thus, the his-
tograms can be interpreted as the 150 and
200 rev/min FSWs having a higher concen-
tration of larger Cu-rich particles in the SZ
than in the 300 rev/min FSW. This corre-
sponded with the decrease in eddy current
measurements as the volume fraction of
large Cu-rich particles decreased. This was
also consistent with predominant coarsen-
ing of the θ phase at lower revs/min and
greater dissolution at the higher revs/min.
To investigate the details of the precip-
itate state, TEM images were obtained as
summarized in Figs. 11–13 for FSWs at
150, 200, and 300 rev/min respectively. At
150 and 200 rev/min, a mixed precipitate
state was observed, which included a range
of large Cu-rich precipitates that were
identified as CuAl
2
or θ phase. Smaller θ′
disc-shaped strengthening precipitates,
ranging from 20–50 nm, were also ob-
served in Fig. 11, which coarsen to 50 to
150 nm in Fig. 12. In Fig. 13, for the 300
rev/min specimen, a more uniform coars-
ening of the smaller θ′ precipitates was ob-
served, which was also observed in the
superlattice reflections in the accompany-
ing SAD pattern of Fig. 13C due to in-
creased volume fraction (Ref. 20). The
microstructure of the 300 rev/min speci-
men showed almost none of the larger
overaged phase or CuAl
2
precipitates as
compared with Figs. 11 and 12. Instead,
the microstructure was similar to that of
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Fig. 9 — Histograms of current density from indents performed within the weld nugget and at the outer edge of each sample. High current density “outliers” are linked
to the presence of Cu-rich precipitates.
Fig. 10 — Piezo-automation results confirming higher current density for indents placed on Cu-rich
precipitates.
Table 5 — FSW Temperatures Calculated
Using the Alternative Heat Index
Specimen Calculated Temperature
(°C)
150 523
200 532
300 542
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

O
c
c
u
r
e
n
c
e
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

O
c
c
u
r
e
n
c
e
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

O
c
c
u
r
e
n
c
e
150 RPM
200 RPM
300 RPM
Schneider 1-13_Layout 1 12/13/12 1:00 PM Page 16
the base metal shown in Fig. 5.
To obtain a bulk characterization of
the precipitate state in the FSW nugget,
corresponding XRD analysis was also
conducted. The XRD data are summa-
rized in Fig. 14 with the minor peaks
identified as the stable θ phase (Ref. 59).
The θ phase peaks increased in intensity
for the SZ of the 150 rev/min weld shown
in Fig. 14B, decreased in intensity in Fig.
14C of the 200 rev/min weld, with further
reductions in the 300 rev/min weld in Fig.
14D, which were similar in intensity to
the base metal in Fig. 14A. This bulk
XRD analysis was in agreement with the
TEM images in Figs. 11–13.
Using the torque data from the FSW
panels, an alternative heat index (Ref. 27)
was used to calculate the FSW tempera-
tures as summarized in Table 5. The calcu-
lated temperatures ranged from 0.86–0.88
T
m
, corresponding to the empirically pub-
lished range of 0.80–0.90 T
m
for FSW of
AA2xxx alloys (Refs. 1, 2, 14–20). The phase
diagram in Fig. 4 for Al-Cu binary system
showed the nominal 6.30% Cu alloy was
slightly above the maximum solid solubility
composition. The α and θ phases can form
a eutectic at a composition of 33.2 wt-% Cu
with a eutectic temperature of 548°C. The
calculated temperatures were in agreement
with experimental studies that showed an
increase in peak temperature as the tool ro-
tation increased. However, whether the
small amount of temperature difference was
responsible for the variations observed in
the microstructure is questionable. Rather
than a critical temperature threshold being
crossed, it was proposed that only the ma-
terial flow that crosses the severe shear zone
into the SZ experiences heating rates that
drive the stable θ phase into dissolution.
Since a constant tool travel was maintained,
the corresponding higher shear strain rate
in addition to the higher tool rotation re-
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Fig. 11 — A and B — TEM images of the 150 rev/min FSW specimen; C — corresponding SAD pattern for the [100]
Al
zone axis of the aluminum matrix.
Fig. 12 — A and B — TEM images of the 200 rev/min FSW specimen; C — corresponding SAD pattern for the [100]
Al
zone axis of the aluminum matrix.
Fig. 13 — A and B — TEM images of the 300 rev/minFSW specimen; C — corresponding SAD pattern for the [100] zone axis of the aluminum matrix. Note
the superlattice reflections in the SAD pattern corresponding to the Θ' phase.
A
B
C
A
B
C
A B
C
Schneider 1-13_Layout 1 12/13/12 1:10 PM Page 17
sulted in this material staying at tempera-
ture longer. Thus, the high heating rate in-
crease combined with a longer time at
temperature at 300 rev/min resulted in the
θ dissolution that replenished the solute in
the supersaturated α phase for postweld
natural aging.
Based on the macro and micro scale
data, the SZ of the FSW had a mixed state
of stable and metastable Cu-rich phases. To
obtain both dissolved larger particles and
coarsened small particles implied that the
material was subjected to two different tem-
perature fields (Refs. 56, 57). This was ex-
plained using the kinematic model for FSW
in which some material flow lines near the
weld tool crossed a severe high shear rate
region while other material flow lines fur-
ther from the weld tool were subjected to
lower shear rates and hence lower temper-
ature (Refs. 11, 49, 56, 57).
Other researchers have observed de-
creased second phase particle size in the
FSW microstructure corresponding with in-
creased tool rev/min, which was attributed
to fragmentation resulting from the shear-
ing action of the material flow in the FSW
process (Refs. 60, 61). Although agglomer-
ation of θ particles have also been reported
in a study at higher tool revs/min (Ref. 40),
in addition to a study on second pass repair
FSWs (Ref. 38).
The results in this study were consistent
with another study on the microstructural
evolution in AA2219-T87 (Ref. 15). Al-
though that study (Ref. 15) only reported
one set of unknown FSW parameters, sim-
ilar FSW strengths and precipitate state
were reported that align with the results of
the 200 rev/min specimen in this study. Cor-
relation of microstructural evolution with
the FSW temperature relied on the use of
thermocouples mounted away from the SZ
(Ref. 15). The measured temperature was
extrapolated to the SZ resulting in a esti-
mated value of 475°C or 0.8 T
m
, which is
lower than the 532°C or 0.86 T
m
tempera-
ture calculated from the FSW data in this
study for the shear zone.
Conclusions
In all the FSWs, a coarsening of the θ′
phase was observed that resulted in the
decreased SZ hardness and tensile
strength. The solute lost from the α-ma-
trix due to the coarsening of the θ′ phases
was eventually replaced by the dissolution
of the θ phase at the higher tool rotation,
which promoted postweld natural aging.
Occurrence of coexisting coarsened θ′ and
θ phases in the SZ result from the com-
bined effect of two flow streams of metal,
which were subjected to different thermo-
mechanical processing conditions. Thus,
only the metal flow stream that crossed the
severe shear zone experienced either
higher temperatures or more severe shear
as influenced by the tool rotation. At
higher revs/min, the material also remains
around the tool for a longer time, which
suggests time at temperature was also crit-
ical to the final precipitate state.
Using the alternative heat indexing
method, the calculated temperature at 300
rev/min was estimated to be 542°C, which
was close to the 548°C eutectic temperature
shown on the Al-Cu phase diagram in Fig.
3. This provided a temperature rate suffi-
cient for up-quenching to dissolve the
θ phase in the FSW nugget region, but in-
sufficient temperature to cause spontaneous
melting of the θ phase. The resulting mi-
crostructure was similar to the base metal in
conductivity as shown in Fig. 10 and hard-
ness as shown in Fig. 8. While the calculated
temperatures for the shear zone were not
extreme over the range of FSW parameters
investigated, they did highlight a region
where critical changes in the microstructure
in the SZ occurred. It was speculated that
further increases in FSW rev/min may result
in liquation as evidenced by a drop in weld
power or torque. These FSWs were not per-
formed as higher rev/min conditions in com-
bination with the tool used in this study have
resulted in voids.
The results of these experiments
showed that processing parameters of
FSW have a strong impact on precipitate
position and dispersion, affecting localized
mechanical and electrical properties. Due
to the nonhomogeneity of the resulting
FSW SZ, microscale hardness and con-
ductivity measurements were useful in un-
derstanding the effect of precipitate state
on the resulting electrical properties.
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Fig. 14 — XRD results showing increasing presence of stable CuAl
2
precipitates from the base metal (A); to
the 150 rev/min FSW (B). Intensity of the stable CuAl
2
decreases slightly in the 200 rev/min FSW (C); re-
verting to similar intensity as the base metal in the 300 rev/min FSW (D).
A
C D
B
Schneider 1-13_Layout 1 12/13/12 1:00 PM Page 18
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Introduction
Ship structures are subject to a com-
plex dynamic loading during service that is
superimposed on residual stress present as
a result of fitup and fabrication. There-
fore, high-performance steels for ship
structure applications have been a con-
stant goal pursued by the United States
Navy. In order to meet the requirement
for good combination of high strength and
low-temperature fracture toughness,
high-yield-strength steels (HY series) and
high-strength, low-alloy steels (HSLA se-
ries) have been under development by the
Navy for the last 50 years. Among them,
HY-100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65 are
used extensively in surface ship and sub-
marine construction today, and they will
continue to be the principal structural ma-
terials in the foreseeable future (Refs.
1–3).
Navy shipbuilding has been heavily re-
liant on welding as a fabrication tech-
nique, and it has been of great practical
importance to conduct weldability testing
of steels. Among various weldability issues
of high-strength steels, hydrogen-induced
cracking (HIC) (also referred as cold
cracking) in the heat-affected zone
(HAZ) following welding is of concern
(Refs. 4–6), and thereby it is important to
evaluate the naval steels’ susceptibility to
HAZ HIC. Within the HAZ, the coarse-
grained HAZ (CGHAZ) is the most sus-
ceptible to formation of untempered
martensite with coarse grain size (Refs. 7,
8), and therefore potentially the most sus-
ceptible to HIC (Ref. 9). Based on the
strong microstructure influence on HIC,
CCT diagrams for the CGHAZ of HY-
100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65 have been
constructed, as described in an earlier
publication (Ref. 10). In parallel with that
study, the susceptibility to HIC has been
evaluated for the same three steels.
In the present investigation, the im-
plant test is used to evaluate susceptibility
to HIC. The microstructure of the weld
CGHAZ from this test is characterized,
and fractography is conducted to illustrate
the HIC fracture behavior. The HIC test
experimental results will be used to de-
velop a weldability database of current
Navy steels, which can serve as a bench-
mark for the future development of high-
performance steels.
Materials and Experimental
Procedure
HY-100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65
were provided in the form of rolled plate
by the Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Carderock Division, West Bethesda, Md.
Table 1 summarizes the chemical compo-
sitions of the three steels used in this in-
vestigation. The steel plates were ma-
chined into the implant specimens, whose
dimensions are listed in Table 2.
The implant test used in the present in-
vestigation was first developed by Henri
Granjon at the Institut de Soudure
(French Welding Institute) (Ref. 11). In
the implant test, a cylindrical sample with
a 0.5-in.- (12.7-mm-) long 10-32 UNF
thread on one end is inserted into a clear-
ance hole in the center of the specimen
plate. The other end with a 0.5-in.- (12.7-
mm-) long 1/4-20 UNC thread is inserted
into a threaded connection rod of the
loading system so that it is possible to
apply a tensile load on the specimen after
welding. A weld bead was then deposited
on the top surface of the specimen plate
directly over the threaded sample and
hole, creating a HAZ in the 10-32 UNF
thread region, as shown in Fig. 1.
The thread serves to create a stress
concentration in the HAZ region, thereby
causing HIC to occur in the HAZ instead
of the fusion zone. Two minutes after com-
pletion of welding, the sample is loaded in
tension when the temperature of the weld
assembly is in the range of 100°–150°C.
The tensile load is provided by The Ohio
State University Modified Implant Testing
System (OSU-MITS), as shown in Fig. 2,
which was specially designed and built to
Evaluation of Heat-Affected Zone
Hydrogen-Induced Cracking in Navy Steels
The implant test was conducted on HY-100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65,
plus the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility was quantitatively evaluated
BY X. YUE AND J. C. LIPPOLD
KEYWORDS
Implant Test
Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
CGHAZ Microstructure
Fracture Behavior
HSLA-100
HY-100
HSLA-65
X. YUE (yuexinosu@gmail.com) and J. C. LIP-
POLD are with the Welding Engineering Program
at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
Based on a paper presented at FABTECH 2012 in
Las Vegas, Nev., November 12–14, 2012.
ABSTRACT
The implant test was conducted on HY-100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65 to evaluate
their susceptibility to heat-affected zone (HAZ) hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC).
The stress vs. time to failure curve was plotted, and the normalized critical stress ratio
(NCSR) and embrittlement index for each steel were determined, which can be used to
quantitatively evaluate HIC susceptibility. The coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) mi-
crostructure of the three steels was characterized by means of optical and transmission
electron microscopy. In addition, SEM fractography was conducted to study the HIC
fracture behavior. Intergranular (IG), quasi-cleavage (QC), and microvoid coalescence
(MVC) fracture modes were found to occur sequentially during the crack initiation and
propagation process. The fracture behavior observed in the present investigation is in
good agreement with Beachem’s model. It can be concluded based on the implant test
results that, among the three steels, HY-100 is the most susceptible to HAZ HIC while
HSLA-100 and HSLA-65 exhibit good resistance. The difference in the HIC suscepti-
bility of the three steels is further explained by combining the microstructure charac-
terization of the CGHAZ and fracture behavior. These results can serve as a bench-
mark for the future development of high-performance Navy steels.
Yue and Lippold Supplement January 2013 corr_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:52 AM Page 20
accurately control loading during the test.
The design of the OSU-MITS ensures the
implant specimen is free of bending, tor-
sion, or shock loading. It has the capabil-
ity of providing tensile loads of up to
10,000 lb (4500 kg), and the entire system
is easily moved. The times to failure for a
series of tests performed at various stress
levels were recorded by a computer
equipped with a data-acquisition system
connected to the OSU-MITS. The load
(stress) applied is then plotted against the
time to failure. The highest stress at which
no failure occurs after 24 h loading is de-
fined as the lower critical stress (LCS),
which is taken as an index to determine
susceptibility to HIC.
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) was
used to deposit the weld bead on the top
surface of the specimen plates. The weld-
ing consumable used was the 0.047 in. (1.2
mm) Pipeliner®111M (AWS E111T1-
GM) provided by The Lincoln Electric Co.
Welding parameters were as follows: 25 V,
current 225–235 A, travel speed 12 in./min
(5.1 mm/s), and wire feed speed 300
in./min (127 mm/s). This corresponds to a
heat input in the range of 28.1 to 29.4
kJ/in. (1.11 to 1.16 kJ/mm). Ar + 25%CO
2
is the recommended shielding gas for this
consumable; however, in order to mini-
mize the hydrogen loss, pure argon at a
flow rate of 45 ft
3
/h (21.2 L/min) was used
instead.
Welding with this consumable can pro-
duce diffusible hydrogen content in the
range of 4–5 mL/100 g for typical perform-
ance as stated in the product specification.
Previous tests show that cracking did not
occur without intentional introduction of
diffusible hydrogen. Then, in order to in-
troduce sufficient diffusible hydrogen to
cause HIC in HAZ, a thin film of lubricat-
ing oil was applied evenly on the specimen
plate surface before welding, and the
amount of oil was carefully controlled each
time. This produced an average diffusible
hydrogen content of 8.1 mL/100 g (four
samples were tested with a standard devia-
tion of 0.2 mL/100 g), which was measured
using the gas chromatograph method in ac-
cordance with AWS A4.3.
Metallographic samples were sec-
tioned perpendicular to the welding direc-
tion through the axis of the implant speci-
mens. Then they were mounted, polished,
and etched with 5% nital and examined
using an optical microscope. The TEM
samples were evaluated in a Philips
CM200 TEM operated at 200 kV. Vickers
hardness measurements were conducted
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Fig. 1 — Schematic drawing of the implant test.
Fig. 2 — The OSU Modified Implant Testing System (OSU-MITS) and implant specimen. A —
Full view of the testing system; B — close-up view showing an implant specimen under loading and
an unloaded one on the top right corner; C — the implant specimen.
Table 1 — Chemical Composition of the Test Steels
Element (wt-%) HY-100 HSLA-100 HSLA-65
C 0.18 0.051 0.074
Mn 0.28 0.90 1.35
Si 0.21 0.25 0.24
P 0.008 0.008 0.011
S 0.002 0.002 0.006
Cu 0.15 1.17 0.25
Ni 2.32 1.58 0.34
Cr 1.37 0.60 0.14
Mo 0.26 0.37 0.06
V <0.01 <0.01 0.058
Nb <0.01 0.017 0.018
Ti <0.01 <0.01 0.012
A
B C
Yue and Lippold Supplement January 2013 corr_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:52 AM Page 21
on the as-polished samples using a 1-kg
load, in accordance with ASTM E 384-10.
Results and Discussion
Weld Macrostructure and Hardness
Figure 3 shows a transverse section of
a typical test weld taken along the axis of
the implant specimen. The fusion bound-
ary separating the weld metal and implant
specimen is clearly discernable. Due to the
excessive grain growth and possible for-
mation of susceptible (high hardness) mi-
crostructure, HIC will most likely occur in
the CGHAZ region, which is just adjacent
to the fusion boundary. Note that the
HAZ in the implant specimen is much
wider than that in the adjacent plate due
to the difference in heat flow and temper-
ature gradient.
Vickers hardness measurements were
taken along the axis of the implant speci-
mens of the three steels, as shown in Fig.
4A–C. The hardness variation from weld
metal to HAZ and the base metal is ap-
parent with the hardness of the weld metal
is in the range of 360 to 380 HV. The
hardness of CGHAZ of HY-100 is
higher than that of the weld metal, which
is in the range of 420 to 440 HV. While
for HSLA-100 and HSLA-65, their
CGHAZ hardness is lower than the weld
metal, in the range of 325 to 340 HV and
300 to 317 HV, respectively. The location
of the CGHAZ, as shown in Fig. 4A–C,
is determined by metallographic obser-
vation. It should be noted that the red dot-
ted line is only the approximate boundary
between the CGHAZ and adjacent fine-
grained HAZ (FGHAZ).
Microstructure Characterization of CGHAZ
of the Three Steels
Figure 5 shows the optical and TEM
bright-field microstructure of the
CGHAZ from the HY-100 implant speci-
men. Martensite forms in the CGHAZ of
this steel, and the packet of the martensite
laths (Ref. 12) can be seen in the higher
magnification TEM microstructure, as
shown in Fig. 5B. The dark thin film be-
tween martensite laths is probably re-
tained austenite (Refs. 13, 14). The for-
mation of lath martensite is consistent
with a CGHAZ in HY-100 with hardness
in the range of 420 to 440 HV.
The CGHAZ microstructure of
HSLA-100 is shown in Fig. 6A–C. Marten-
site and bainite with a needle-like mor-
phology form in the CGHAZ as shown in
Fig. 6A. Similar to HY-100, because the
carbon content of HSLA-100 is relatively
low (0.051 wt-%), the martensite formed
is of the lath type, whose morphology is
clearly seen in Fig. 6B. It is shown in Fig.
6C that parallel laths with small intra-lath
platelet-like precipitates form in the mi-
crostructure. The precipitates are most
likely cementite, and they are directionally
oriented. This morphology is characteris-
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Fig. 3 — Typical implant test specimen sectioned near the implant axis. HY-100. 5% nital etch.
Fig. 4 — Vickers hardness measurements taken along
the axis of the implant specimen. A — HY-100; B —
HSLA-100; C — HSLA-65.
Table 2 — Specimen Plate/Implant Specimen Dimensions
Specimen Plate
Material A36 Steel
Plate thickness in. (mm) 0.5 (12.7)
Plate width in. (mm) 2 (50.8)
Plate length in. (mm) 4 (101.6)
Length of the test bead in. (mm) 3.5 (88.9)
Hole diameter in. (mm) 0.201 (5.1)
Implant Specimen
Material HY-100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65
Total length of implant specimen in. (mm) 1 (25.4)
Type of thread 10-32 UNF
Pitch in. (mm) 1/32 (0.79)
Major diameter in. (mm) 0.1900 (4.83)
Minor diameter in. (mm) 0.1517 (3.85)
Thread length in. (mm) 0.5 (12.7)
Thread angle 60 deg
Thread root radius in. (mm) 0.004 (0.1)
Yue and Lippold Supplement January 2013 corr_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:53 AM Page 22
tic of lower bainite (Ref. 15). Therefore,
the HSLA-100 CGHAZ microstructure is
a mixture of lath martensite and bainite,
which has hardness in the range of 325 to
340 HV.
The CGHAZ microstructure of
HSLA-65 is shown in Fig. 7A–C. It can be
seen in Fig. 7A that a small amount of fer-
rite forms along the prior austenite grain
boundaries. The morphology of packets of
parallel laths free of precipitates can be
seen in Fig. 7B, which is the feature of lath
martensite. Similar to HSLA-100, direc-
tionally aligned intra-lath cementite
platelets can be observed in Fig. 7C, which
confirms the presence of lower bainite.
The difference is that these cementite
platelets are coarser than the ones form-
ing in HSLA-100. The formation of a mix-
ture of ferrite, bainite, and martensite re-
sults in a HSLA-65 CGHAZ with the
lowest hardness (300 to 317 HV) among
the three steels.
The Implant Test Results
A series of composite weldments of
specimen plates and steel implants
welded with the same parameters was
subject to different levels of tensile load-
ing after welding, and the time to failure
at each stress level was recorded. These
data were used to generate the implant
test curves for the three steels, as shown
in Fig. 8A–C. The tensile stress is equal
to the load divided by the cross-sectional
area of the root diameter of the 10-32
thread. Because the lower critical stress
(LCS) is an important index to quantify
HIC susceptibility, tests run at the high-
est stress at which the implant specimen
does not fail after 24 h tensile loading
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Fig. 5 — CGHAZ microstructure of HY-100. A — Optical; B — bright-field TEM.
Table 3 — Implant Test Results
Steel CGHAZ Max CGHAZ Tensile Lower Critical Nominal Yield NCSR
b
Embrittlement
Hardness Strength
a
Stress Strength Index
c
(HV) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
HY-100 440 212 (1462) 72 (496) 100 (689) 0.72 0.34
HSLA-100 340 154 (1062) 83(572) 100 (689) 0.83 0.54
HSLA-65 317 145 (1000) 76 (524) 65 (448) 1.17 0.52
(a) The CGHAZ tensile strength is converted from the CGHAZ max hardness using the ASTM hardess conversion chart.
(b) NCSR stands for normalized critical stress ratio, which is the ratio of lower critical stress to nominal yield strength.
(c) Embrittlement index is the ratio of lower critical stress to the CGHAZ tensile strength.
Fig. 6 — CGHAZ microstructure of HSLA-100. A — Optical; B and C — bright-field TEM.
Yue and Lippold Supplement January 2013 corr_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:53 AM Page 23
were repeated twice to verify the LCS.
The delayed nature of HIC can be seen
from Fig. 8A–C, and, as expected, there
is a longer incubation time before im-
plant specimen fracture with lower ap-
plied stress levels. It is also found that at
comparable stress levels, the incubation
time of HY-100 is shorter than that of
HSLA-100.
The implant test results for the three
steels are provided in Table 3. The LCS is
determined to be 72 ksi (496 MPa), 83 ksi
(572 MPa), and 76 ksi (524 MPa) for HY-
100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65, respec-
tively. Because the three steels have dif-
ferent strength levels, a normalization
procedure for critical stress is required.
Also, in order to avoid the effect of vari-
ation in notch tensile stress on quantita-
tively rating HIC susceptibility, instead of
using the embrittlement index used by
Sawhill (Ref. 16), a normalized critical
stress ratio (NCSR) is used in the present
investigation. This is simply the ratio of
LCS to nominal yield strength of the test
steels (Ref. 17). Therefore, an exact
measure of HIC on percent degradation
from nominal yield strength could be de-
termined. As the nominal yield strength
is 100 ksi (689 MPa), 100 ksi (689 MPa),
and 65 ksi (448 MPa) for HY-100, HSLA-
100, and HSLA-65, respectively. The
NCSR is determined accordingly to be
0.72, 0.83, and 1.17 for HY-100, HSLA-
100, and HSLA-65, respectively.
Beside the NCSR, a new embrittle-
ment index, which is the ratio of the lower
critical stress to CGHAZ tensile
strength, is proposed in the present in-
vestigation to compare the HIC suscepti-
bility of the three steels. Due to marten-
site formation in the CGHAZ, the
maximum CGHAZ hardnesses is 440,
340, and 317 HV for HY-100, HSLA-100,
and HSLA-65, respectively. And they are
much higher than the three steels’ re-
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Fig. 7 — CGHAZ microstructure of HSLA-65. A — Optical; B and C — bright-field TEM.
Fig. 9 — Fracture morphology of HY-100 implant specimen at a stress level of 91.3 ksi (629 MPa) that
failed after 3 min of loading. A — General fracture appearance (white arrow indicates the direction of
crack growth); B — region I (IG); C — region II (QC); D — region II (MVC).
Fig. 8 — The implant test result curves of the following: A — HY-100; B — HSLA-100; C — HSLA-65.
Yue and Lippold Supplement January 2013 corr_Layout 1 12/13/12 10:15 AM Page 24
spective base metal hardnesses, which
are 283, 284, and 201 HV for HY-100,
HSLA-100, and HSLA-65, respectively.
That means the weld CGHAZ has a
higher tensile strength than the base
metal for the three steels. If the tensile
strength of the CGHAZ can be deter-
mined, then the influence of diffusible
hydrogen on the CGHAZ degradation
can be expressed by the ratio of lower
critical stress to CGHAZ tensile
strength. However, it is difficult to meas-
ure the CGHAZ tensile strength directly
from the implant test, that is because if no
hydrogen is introduced into the weld, the
failure will occur in the lower strength
base metal rather than in the higher-
strength CGHAZ. As a result, the maxi-
mum CGHAZ hardness is converted into
the CGHAZ tensile strength according
to the ASTM hardness conversion chart,
which are determined to be 212 ksi (1462
MPa), 154 ksi (1062 MPa), and 145 ksi
(1000 MPa) for HY-100, HSLA-100, and
HSLA-65, respectively. The embrittle-
ment index is determined accordingly to
be 0.34, 0.54, and 0.52 for HY-100,
HSLA-100, and HSLA-65, respectively.
The higher the embrittlement index, the
lower the HIC susceptibility, which
means the degradation of CGHAZ ten-
sile strength due to diffusible hydrogen is
not serious. Note that the CGHAZ ten-
sile strength is not experimentally deter-
mined but only an approximation; how-
ever, it can still be used as an index to
evaluate the steels’ HIC susceptibility.
Based on the above implant test re-
sults, both the NCSR and embrittlement
index show that HY-100 undergoes the
most serious degradation due to the ef-
fect of diffusible hydrogen among the
three steels, while HSLA-100 and HSLA-
65 are less susceptible to HIC compared
with HY-100. For HSLA-100 and HSLA-
65, their embrittlement index is almost
the same, that is because of their rela-
tively lower carbon and alloy addition
(lower hardenability as shown in Table 3,
Ref. 10) as well as their finer grain size
compared with HY-100. However, it
should be noted that NCSR of HSLA-65
(1.17) is higher than that of HSLA-100
(0.83), which means the CGHAZ degra-
dation from base metal yield strength due
to the effect of diffusible hydrogen for
HSLA-100 is more severe than HSLA-65.
Thereby, it indicates HSLA-65 has better
resistance to HIC than HSLA-100.
Fracture Behavior
Figure 9A–D shows the fracture mor-
phology of the HY-100 implant specimen
at a stress level of 91.3 ksi (629 MPa) that
failed after 3 min of loading. It shows that
the fracture surface can be divided into
three regions, which are region I, region
II, and final failure region. Region I is in
close vicinity to the thread root, where the
highest stress concentration exists. A
coarse intergranular (IG) fracture mode is
dominant in region I, where the grain size
is in the range of 70–90 μm as shown in
Fig. 9B. It can be concluded that cracking
initiates in the location where CGHAZ
and thread root coincides, or somewhere
closely behind the thread root (Ref. 18), as
a result of stress concentration as well as
the presence of coarse-grained lath
martensite in the CGHAZ. The white
arrow in Fig. 9A indicates the crack prop-
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failed after 12 min of loading. A — General fracture appearance (white arrow indicates the direction of
crack growth); B — region I (IG); C — region II (QC); D — region II (MVC).
Fig. 11 — Fracture morphology of HSLA-100 implant specimen at a stress level of 102.4 ksi (706 MPa)
that failed after 1.5 min of loading. A — General fracture appearance (white arrow indicates the direc-
tion of crack growth); B — region I (IG); C — region II (QC); D — region II (MVC).
Yue and Lippold Supplement January 2013 corr_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:53 AM Page 25
agation direction. As the crack propa-
gates, region II with different features is
shown on the fracture surface. Both quasi-
cleavage (QC) and microvoid coalescence
(MVC) can be observed in region II,
which are shown in Fig. 9C and D. With
further propagation, overload failure will
take place. Note that the boundaries sep-
arating the three regions are not distinct,
and the division of the fracture surface is
based on the fracture morphology.
Figure 10A–D shows the fracture mor-
phology of an HY-100 implant specimen
at a stress level of 80.3 ksi (554 MPa) that
failed after 12 min of loading. Similar to
the sample shown in Fig. 9, three distinct
regions can also be seen on the fracture
surface. The fracture mode at crack initi-
ation in region I is essentially intergranu-
lar. Again, it is shown that the CGHAZ is
the most susceptible to HIC among the
HAZ regions. Relative to the previous
sample, a small difference in fracture mor-
phology exists in that the area of IG fail-
ure increases with decreasing the tensile
loading. Both QC and MVC can be ob-
served in region II, as shown in Fig. 10C
and D.
The fracture morphology of an HSLA-
100 implant specimen at a stress level of
102.4 ksi (706 MPa) that failed after 1.5
min is shown in Fig. 11A–D. Similar to
HY-100, the fracture surface can also be
divided into three regions as shown in Fig.
11A. Region I with predominant IG frac-
ture can only be observed in a small area
close to the thread root, as shown in Fig.
11B. In addition to the clear faceted IG
shown on the fracture surface, the prior
austenite grain boundary can also be ob-
served on the thread surface, and it is con-
tinuous across the boundary separating
the fracture surface and thread surface. It
shows that cracking initiates in the
CGHAZ when a critical amount of hydro-
gen diffuses to the stress concentration
area. The prior austenite grain boundary
becomes the weak link under the influ-
ence of both hydrogen and stress so that
the relative grain boundary sliding occurs
in the CGHAZ. That is why the prior
austenite grain boundary can be observed
on the thread surface. In region II, both
QC and MVC fracture modes can be ob-
served as shown in Fig. 11C and D.
By decreasing the tensile stress in
HSLA-100 to 85.8 ksi (592 MPa), the im-
plant specimen failed after 60 min of load-
ing. The fracture morphology of this sam-
ple is shown in Fig. 12A–D. It is shown in
Fig. 12B that IG fracture can be observed
in a small area of region I. Both QC and
MVC can be observed in region II, as
shown in Fig. 12C and D.
The fracture morphology of the
HSLA-65 implant specimen is shown in
Fig. 13A–D. As shown in Fig. 13B, there is
some faceted IG fracture with a smaller
grain size in region I near the thread root
even though it is not so clear as compared
to the fracture surface of the HY-100
specimen. This is probably because of the
mixture of ferrite, bainite, and martensite
in the CGHAZ. In region II adjacent to re-
gion I, both QC and MVC can be ob-
served, as shown in Fig. 13C and D.
The occurrence of IG, QC, and MVC
fracture modes on the fracture surface
can be explained using Beachem’s model
(Refs. 19, 20), as shown in Fig. 14. As-
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Fig. 12 — Fracture morphology of HSLA-100 implant specimen at a stress level of 85.8 ksi (592 MPa)
that failed after 60 min of loading. A — General fracture appearance (white arrow indicates the direction
of crack growth); B — region I (IG); C — region II (QC); D — region II (MVC).
Fig. 13 — Fracture morphology of HSLA-65 implant specimen at a stress level of 77.5 ksi (534 MPa) that
failed after 23 min of loading. A — General fracture appearance (white arrow indicates the direction of
crack growth); B — region I; C — region II (QC); D — region II (MVC).
Yue and Lippold Supplement January 2013 corr_Layout 1 12/13/12 9:53 AM Page 26
sume when the implant specimen is sub-
ject to loading after welding, the combi-
nation of stress intensity factor and hy-
drogen concentration at the crack tip
corresponds to point a in Fig. 14. The hy-
drogen concentration is not sufficient to
initiate a crack, so cracking will not occur
immediately. During the incubation pe-
riod, atomic hydrogen continuously dif-
fuses to the triaxially stressed region, and
after some time, it will reach the critical
level indicated by point b in Fig. 14. A
crack will then be initiated in the
CGHAZ and grow intergranularly. As
the crack propagates, the stress intensity
factor increases while the hydrogen level
decreases to point c, promoting a QC
fracture mode. As the crack continues to
grow, and if the combination of stress in-
tensity factor and hydrogen concentra-
tion reaches point d, the fracture mode
will change to MVC. If the stress inten-
sity factor continues to increase to the
critical value K
C
, ultimate failure will
take place.
Microstructure and the fracture be-
havior taken together can explain the dif-
ference in HIC susceptibility of the three
steels. As shown from fractography,
cracking will always initiate in the
CGHAZ, and the intergranular fracture
occurs first. For the same welding condi-
tions, the HY-100 CGHAZ microstruc-
ture is high-hardness (420 to 440 HV)
martensite, while a mixture of bainite and
martensite with lower hardness (325 to
340 HV) forms in the HSLA-100
CGHAZ. For HSLA-65, the CGHAZ has
the lowest hardness (300 to 317 HV)
among the three steels as a result of the
presence of ferrite, bainite, and marten-
site.
It has been shown previously (Ref. 10)
that the prior austenite grain size is the
largest in HY-100, and the smallest in
HSLA-65, with HSLA-100 intermediate.
Based on the fracture surface observa-
tions from the implant tests, HY-100 has
the coarsest IG fracture and the largest
area of IG fracture region among the
three steels, while both of these features
are the smallest for HSLA-65. As a result
of different grain size, microstructure
and associated hardness of the CGHAZ
at the same welding condition, the HIC
susceptibility of the three steels is differ-
ent, which is indicated by the value of
NCSR and embrittlement index of the
three steels. Therefore, it can be con-
cluded that HY-100 is the most suscepti-
ble to HIC among the three steels, while
HSLA-65 is the least.
Conclusions
The results of the present investigation
can be summarized as follows:
1. In the present welding condition, the
hardness of the CGHAZ is in the range of
420–440, 325–340, and 300–317 HV for
HY-100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65, re-
spectively.
2. Lath martensite with a thin film of
retained austenite is observed in the
CGHAZ of HY-100. For HSLA-100, lath
martensite and bainite form in the
CGHAZ. While for HSLA-65, a mixture
of ferrite, bainite, and martensite forms in
the CGHAZ.
3. When the average diffusible hydro-
gen content is 8.1 mL/100 g, the lower crit-
ical stress (LCS) is 72 ksi (496 MPa), 83 ksi
(572 MPa), and 76 ksi (524 MPa) for HY-
100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65, respec-
tively. The normalized critical stress ratio
(NCSR) is determined accordingly to be
0.72, 0.83, and 1.17 for HY-100, HSLA-
100, and HSLA-65, respectively.
4. A new embrittlement index is pro-
posed, that is the ratio of the LCS and
tensile strength of the CGHAZ, which is
approximated by the hardness. Using this
approach, the embrittlement index is de-
termined to be 0.34, 0.54, and 0.52 for
HY-100, HSLA-100, and HSLA-65,
respectively.
5. Based on morphology and fracture
mode, the fracture surface of the three
steels can be divided into three regions.
In region I, the crack will initiate in the
CGHAZ and grow intergranularly. Both
quasi-cleavage (QC) and microvoid coa-
lescence (MVC) can be observed in re-
gion II. Final failure occurs under over-
load conditions.
6. As the crack initiates and propa-
gates, IG, QC, and MVC fracture mode
will occur in sequence. The observation
of the three fracture modes on the frac-
ture surface can be explained using
Beachem’s model.
7. Among the three steels, HY-100 has
the coarsest IG fracture and the largest
area of IG fracture, while both of these
are the smallest for HSLA-65.
8. Based on the implant test results,
HY-100 is the most susceptible to HIC
because of the formation of a high-hard-
ness martensitic microstructure and large
prior austenite grain size in the CGHAZ.
HSLA-100 is less susceptible as a result of
formation of bainite and martensite with
lower hardness and smaller grain size.
HSLA-65 shows resistance to HIC, re-
sulting from the mixture of ferrite, bai-
nite, and martensite with the lowest hard-
ness and smallest grain size in the
CGHAZ.
Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge the
financial support of the Office of Naval Re-
search, Award No. N000140811000. Grant
Officers: Dr. Julie Christodoulou and Dr.
William Mullins.
The authors would also like to thank
Johnnie DeLoach, Matthew Sinfield, and
Jeffrey Farren with the Naval Surface War-
fare Center Carderock Division, West
Bethesda, Md., for providing the steels used
in this study and valuable discussions re-
garding the weldability of these steels. De-
jian Liu and Geoffrey Taber are acknowl-
edged for their constructive ideas and help
on building the implant testing system.
In addition, Badri Narayanan, John
Procario, and Garr Eberle with The Lin-
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Fig. 14 — Combined effect of stress intensity factor and hydrogen concentration at crack tip on the frac-
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coln Electric Co. are thanked for provid-
ing the Pipeliner®111M welding consum-
able used in the implant test.
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