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SPORTS AND NUTRITION
NUTRITION OR DIET Nutrition can be defined as food or nourishment needed to keep an organism growing and healthy. It also refers to the process of providing or receiving food or other life-supporting substances. Our diet consists of a variety of food stuffs. The heat and energy derived from the oxidation of food stuffs, helps us in doing work, in our growth and development, in protecting us from disease and in the repair of worn out tissues. All the essential nutrients required for man are not found in a single substance. It is therefore necessary to make proper selection of food stuffs for the constitution of the required diet. ELEMENTS OF DIET A diet which contains all the food stuffs necessary to maintain the body in good health should be made up of the following basic elements:CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are the main energy source for all types of exercise. Carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in the body and the amount of glycogen stored in the body affects endurance. Carbohydrates are the compounds of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen with chemical formula CH2O. A large part of an athlete’s diet should be carbohydrate. The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for body. Foods high in carbohydrate include pasta, rice, starchy vegetables (e.g. potatoes, carrots, corn, and sweet potatoes), fruit and bread. Not all carbohydrates are equal in providing needed nutrients, however. Focusing on carbohydrate from whole grains, fruits and vegetables will make sure vitamins, minerals, fiber and other important nutrients are part of one’s diet, while filling up on too many sweets and processed foods can negatively impact sports performance. PROTEIN Protein is essential to build and repair muscle tissue. They are complex organic compound which form of Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen. Protein allows muscles to contract, gain in size and increase in strength. Loading up on protein does not guarantee larger muscles. Protein in excess of the body’s needs is stored as fat, not protein. Muscles growth comes from hard work, proper training and balanced nutrition. Food sources of protein include lean meat and poultry (fish and chicken), dried beans and peas, nuts seeds and dairy products. Protein needs for active athletes, especially endurance sports, are higher than for non-athletes. FAT Fats contain atoms of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. Provides energy, protects the body’s organs and helps with the absorption of some vitamins. When fats are eaten as part of healthful foods, they provide an important energy source for athletes in training. Good choices include the fats from nuts, seeds, vegetable oils. VITAMINS All vitamins and minerals are important. Vitamins are complex compounds of carbon. They are important for metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. They do not give us energy directly. Vitamins are divided into two groups – Fat soluble vitamins: These vitamins are soluble in fat. They come into our body through fats and they are stored in liver and fatty tissues. These vitamins are A, D, E and K.
fats. The amount of calories needed depends on many different factors. The carbohydrates should be 60 to 70 percent and fats should be 10 to 15 percent in our diet. A player should drink at least 8 to 10 glasses of plain water daily. These vitamins are B and C. while good nutrition only supports and builds up the body.2 Water soluble vitamins: These vitamins are soluble in water. calcium. weight. COMPONENTS OF DIET Carbohydrates and Fats: These components provide energy to our body. It has been observed that Vitamins in required quantity are essential for good performances but extra vitamins added to normal diet of athletes do not show any improvement in performances. the excess carbohydrates and fats are converted to fats and deposited in the body. carbohydrates and other nutrients is adequately met for maintaining health and vitality. height. Zinc. minerals. Fluoride. 5 to 6 liters water in a day is the recommended daily intake for most people. They are needed in small quantity but they are very essential for proper growth and development of body. sex. Proteins should be 15 to 20 percent in our diet. Replacing the fluids lost during exercise is essential to sustaining performance. amino acids. increasing the risk of injury. Maintain normally body function 2. Good nutrition cause many positive effects:1. Prevent disease 4. The important minerals required by our body are Iron. Water helps move nutrients throughout the body and helps remove waste from the body. muscles mass and fat mass. It depends upon age. sex. It helps to create new muscles tissues and repair any injured tissues. sodium. However. When eaten in proper volume. They are not stored in body. as well as cause the breakdown of muscle and bone. Proteins: Proteins helps in the growth and development of body. Intake of such a food helps in the growth and development of our body and protects us from diseases. preventing dehydration and avoiding injury. Few calories can also negatively affect workouts and energy levels. minerals and water : These components help in proper functioning and defence of various organs. Maintain healthy weight 3. such as age. Iodine. If you eat excess proteins to what you actually need. Phosphorus. Potassium and Copper. The effects of good nutrition on the body are as visible as the effects of bad nutrition on the body. if the ingested volume exceeds the energy use. Chloride. Water Water is critical to all body functions and makes up about 70 percent of a person’s body weight. The quantity of food required also differs from person to person. Provide stress relief . vitamins. MINERALS Minerals contain certain elements required by our body. profession and physiological conditions. your body has optimal energy levels. Water is also very important. ROLE OF DIET ON PERFORMANCE To have enough energy for exercise. so we need them moiré frequently. The difference is that bad nutrition can destroy the body. the body will surely convert it to fats for storage. BALANCED DIET Balanced diet may be defined as one which contains a variety of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for energy. an adequate number of calories must be consumed. Vitamins.
To reach one’s highest potential. During competition one should take fluids as and when required. So. Players should take a carbohydrates drink or meal about two hours before competition or training. chicken etc. .5 hour before competition. it is recommended. The experts do not recommend a large amount of concentrated glucose in less than hour before exercise. Calories. carbohydrate. all of the body’s systems must be working optimally. but tables of caffeine are not recommended. meats. gas forming foods. or spicy foods should be avoided before competition. Diet of the players should not be different on the day of competition. nutrition is the most important influence on sports performance. Fruits. greasy foods. vitamins. may be included in such diet. milk. Fats. Aside from training.3 Players should follow the following guidelines for their good performance:Before training/competition carbohydrates provide the energy to sustain the workout. cooked vegetables. Caffeine in the form of coffee helps mobilization of free fatty acid. fat. protein. Adequate fluids loading should be started at least 2. The best way to achieve this is to eat a variety of nutritious foods. minerals and fluids all play unique and crucial role. After competition diet must be rich in carbohydrates as well as proteins.
Fat b. 3. Explain nutrition and balance diet. Carbohydrates c. SHORT ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS (60 WORDS) 1.4 MODEL QUSTIONS LONG ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS (150 WORDS) 1. 4. Vitamins and minerals 5. 2. Elaborate the role of following in assisting sports performance: a. 5. Define nutrition. Discuss the role of carbohydrates and protein for better sports performance. Give a brief introduction of the components of diet. What do you understand by balance diet? Explain in detail. Explain the importance of nutrition for sports person in detail. Protein d. Explain the various important elements of diet required for a sports person in detail. 2. 3. Explain the role of diet on sports performance of an individual in detail. How vitamins minerals and water helps a sports person? Explain. . Write down effects of good nutrition. 4.