Best Practices to control late blight

Buenas Prácticas para el control de fitóftora
Huub Schepers

Outline presentation
Phytophthora infestans
Life cycle A1 & A2, oospores

Best Practices
Reduce primary sources of inoculum Resistant varieties Targeted use of fungicides Decision Support Systems (DSS)

Reduce environmental side effects Conclusions

Life cycle Phytophthora infestans

oospores

A1

A2

Migration late blight 1970-1980 (A1+ A2)

G. Forbes CIP

Genetic variation in sexual vs clonal populations
Clonal population (Central Africa) Sexually reproducing population (Netherlands)

AFLP E19-Mse16

Increased aggressiveness
Sexually reproducing population → more variation Adapted to higher/lower T’s Better survival on tubers Shorter life cycle Higher production of spores Breaking of cultivar resistance Wider host range

Consequences for control strategies?
Earlier spray start
(Hannukkala, 2007)

Influence of rotation
(Bødker, 2005)

Shorter spray intervals? More need for protection of new growth (preventive + curative)? Tuber protection?

Kato et al. 1997

Best Practice: Reduce primary inoculum sources

Infected seed

Oospores

Dumps

Infected fields

Reduce primary sources of inoculum
Regulations of Board for Arable Products) Inspected by NAK
Dumps: cover with black plastic before 15 April Volunteers: control after 1 Juli when > 2 plants/m2 per 0,3 ha Excessive blight: control when:
• > 1000 diseased leaflets/20 • > 2000 diseased leaflets/100 m2 m2
rode kaart (%) gele kaart (#) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
20 04 20 02 19 96 19 98 20 00 20 06 20 08
21.3 4 2.3 0.7 1 0.7 1.5 2.1 0

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

25
gele kaart (%)

22.6

20 15

rode kaart (%)

15.4 11.5

Warning: yellow card Red card: money fine

10
5.5

9.3 7.4

5 0
0

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Automatic control of volunteers in sugar beet

Camera recognition
Real time 4 km/hour

Best Practice: Use resistant varieties

Resistant varieties

Dose rates Shirlan - varieties
Sloordorp

dosis-response grafiek 2004 consumptierassen
Exponentieel (Bintje (3)) Exponentieel (Santé (4.5)) Exponentieel (Remarka (6.5)) Exponentieel (Agria (5.5))
7

Spunta 0.4

Agria 0.3

Kondor 0.2

Agria 0.4

Agria 1.5

Exponentieel (Aziza (7.5))

3

20.0
% loofaantasting (gem. 3 waarnemengen)

2.5

18.0
6

16.0
aantasting (%)

14.0 12.0

2
5

4

10.0 8.0 6.0
2 3

1.5

1

4.0 2.0 0.0 0 0.08 0.16 0.24 0.32 0.4 0.48 dosis
0

0.5
1

0
13-6 20-6 27-6 4-7 11-7 18-7 25-7 1-8 8-8 15-8 22-8

6-6

Klasse 1: 0,1-0,2 Aziza Biogold Festien Kantara Kartel Menco Mercator

Klasse 2: 0,2-0,3 Aveka Innovator Pimpernel Katinka Seresta Kondor

Klasse 3: 0,3-0,4 Diamant Remarka Felsina Ostara Premiere Agata Santé Monalisa Karnico Desiree Agria Starga

Klasse 4: 0,4 Frieslander Asterix Nicola Lady Rosetta Karakter Spunta Santana Mondial Bintje

Best Practice: Targeted use of fungicides

Targeted use of fungicides
Fungicide characteristics Action mode
protectant, curative eradicant rainfastness mobility

Effectiveness
leaf, new growing point stem, tuber oospores

Mode of action P. infestans fungicides

Potato blight fungicides
Biological efficacy
Protectant: has to be present on (or in) the leaf/stem surface before spore germination/penetration Curative (kick-back): is active during the immediate post infection period, but before symptoms appear Eradicant: fungus is killed/inhibited when sprayed on lesions (incl. anti-sporulant)

Mobility in plant
Contact: are on the surface of the potato plant Local-systemic: limited to translaminar movement and hardly any translocation from leaf to leaf and stem to foliage Systemic: translocation upwards (and downwards) in the plant

Examples spray schedules
Emergence 1 of 2 2á3 sprays sprays Fast growth 3 sprays Bulking 4 sprays Tuber protection 3 sprays

Curzate M Shirlan Revus Revus Fubol Gold Revus Valbon Tattoo C Acrobat Curzate M

Curzate M Shirlan Revus Revus Revus Infinito Valbon Tattoo C Acrobat Ranman

Shirlan Shirlan Shirlan Shirlan Infinito Shirlan Shirlan Infinito Shirlan Unikat pro

Shirlan Shirlan Shirlan Shirlan Ranman Ranman Ranman Shirlan Ranman

Best Practice: Decision Support Systems

Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Integrate and organize all relevant information
Life cycle Weather (historical & forecast) Fungicides Variety resistance Disease pressure

Rules are formed by experience/trials Many DSS in EU

Additional value of DSS
Provides an effective control strategy
Prevents mistakes under critical conditions Adjusts fungicide choice

Justifies why sprays are applied (certification) When possible saves
Costs Environment

DSS use (1)
DSS on PC of grower or advisor
Advantage → site specific In NL circa 20% of growers
Average disease pressure 62 stations

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1-mei 1-jun 1-jul 1-aug 1-sep 1-okt

Proeven 2009

Prophy

Plant-Plus

DSS use (2)
Internet Fax Mobile phone

DSS in trials (2009)

5 locations 3 varieties (S, MR, R) Plant-Plus or Prophy Only protect forecasted critical days (S) Only protect forecasted critical days (MR) Include influx of spores (R)

DSS-trial Westmaas (2009)
strategie ras pootdatum opkomstdatum bespuiting week 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 percentage aantasting week 36 29-mei 0,4 Shirlan niet 8-jun 0,4 Shirlan 15-jun 0,6 Revus 26-jun 0,4 Shirlan niet 6-jul 0,4 Shirlan 13-jul 2,0 Valbon 21-jul 2,0 Valbon 27-jul 0,4 Shirlan 7-aug 0,4 Shirlan 14-aug 0,4 Shirlan niet 26-aug 0,4 Shirlan 1-sep doodgesp. 0% niet niet 8-jun 0,4 Shirlan 15-jun 0,2 Shirlan 26-jun 0,3 Shirlan niet 9-jul 1,6 Infinito 17-jul 0,3 Shirlan 21-jul 0,3 Shirlan niet niet 13-aug 2,0 Valbon niet niet 1-sep doodgesp. 0% niet niet 8-jun 0,2 Shirlan 15-jun 0,1 Shirlan 26-jun 0,1 Shirlan niet 9-jul 1,6 Infinito 17-jul 0,1 Shirlan 21-jul 0,2 Shirlan niet niet 13-aug 2,0 Valbon niet niet 1-sep doodgesp. 0% niet niet 9-jun niet 26-jun niet 9-jul 17-jul niet niet 4-aug A Lady Olympia 15-apr 25-mei B Lady Olympia 15-apr 25-mei C Agria 15-apr 18-mei D Bionica 15-apr 22-mei

0,1 Shirlan 0,1 Shirlan 1,6 Infinito 0,1 Shirlan

doodgesp.

0%

11,0

5,75

3,75

1,75

Environmental side effects
Reduce environmental impact of fungicides to control late blight by 75% in 2012 Each active ingredient has a rating= “pollution points” for environmental side effects regarding:
Leaching into groundwater Water organisms Soil organisms

“Pollution points” are calculated using registration data The reduction target is not measured in number of sprays or kg’s but in these “pollution points”

Environmental points 1996-2007
Milieubelasting per type aardappel Nederland 01- 07 tov 1996-'98

100,0
) 0 0 0 . 1 x ( e r a t c e h r e p P B M

10,0

uitspoeling bodem water

1,0

0,1
96-981 2 3 4 5 6 7 896-981 2 3 4 5 6 7 896-981 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 cons. aardappel pootaard. zetmeelaard.

Conclusies P. infestans
P. infestans will continuously adapt itself (evolution) 4 important Best practices
Reduction of primary sources of inoculum Input of fungicides can be reduced on varieties with a durable resistance Fungicide characteristics linked with disease pressure and growth stage of potato crop DSS integrate & organize all information

This integrated approach increases the efficacy of control, reduces the costs and environmental side effects

© Wageningen UR

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