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Socio-economic and Policy Aspects of Energy and Environment: Case of Solar-Energy and Carbon Footprint

Comment [u1]: U need to add social, economi and environmental (SEE) aspects of both issues Formatted: Font: 14 pt Formatted: Font: 14 pt Comment [u2]: Let us discuss to finalise the topic Comment [u3]: Carbon foot print of what? U need 2 mention product/ process or services here

A Term paper Prepared and Submitted by Chandramauli Chaudhuri M.Sc. Economics

As a part of Course Work on Socio-economic and Policy Issues in Energy and Environment Offered by Prof. Vinod Kumar Sharma Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai July-Dec, 2012



JEL Classification: Q42 Keywords: solar energy; renewable energy economics and policies; climate change

Comment [u4]: Discuss this with me

Cover-photo: The Blythe Solar Power project, USA. Source: US Government Approves World's Largest Solar Plant by Timon Singh,


27th November, 2010.



10 I. Financial and Market Barriers to Solar technology --------------------------------------------------------.5.3.7 I.6.15 I.20 I. INDIAN SCENARIO ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.2.Table of Contents ABSTRACT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.8 I.3. ECONOMIC & TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES -------------------------------------------------------. SOLAR ENERGY ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.7.6.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------.14 I. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Incentive for Further Developments -------------------------------------------------------------------------.6 I. INTRODUCTION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.24 II.30 II. Background -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 4 .1. CARBON FOOTPRINTS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. CONCLUSION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.20 I. Applications of Solar Technology -----------------------------------------------------------------------------. LITERATURE REVIEW ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.19 I.6.1. INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3.5 I.3.24 II. II.7. Non-Technical Barriers ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Infrastructure and Institutional Challenges -----------------------------------------------------------------. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS ------------------------------------------------.26 II. ECONOMIC & TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES --------------------------------------------------------. Reliability -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.19 I.2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.4.3.21 I.4.28 II.11 I.3.6.8. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.5 I. Barriers ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS -----------------------------------------------. Development and Deployment -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1. INDIAN SCENARIO -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. LITERATURE REVIEW -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.7.18 I.31 II.20 I.4.32 REFERENCES -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.19 I.9. Lack of System Integration and Incentives -----------------------------------------------------------------. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------.7 I.10 I.15 I. Current Developments -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.7. CONCLUSION -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3 TABLE OF CONTENTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.23 SECTION-II CARBON FOOTPRINTS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------.27 II.4 SECTION-I SOLAR ENERGY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. II.6. Energy Storage -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.18 I.2.

SECTION-I SOLAR ENERGY I.1.1)becusae of two separate sections already defiiend) 5 . INTRODUCTION Comment [u5]: It cab just 1 (and not I.


wikipedia.png 7 .1 shows the average insolation across the land surface (represented by black dots) required to replace the world primary energy supply with solar electricity. With the help of technology available today.5 to 7. The Earth receives about 174 peta-watts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere. Distribution of Solar Energy across the globe Source: http://en.3.3. Then they are able to approximate the amount of sunlight which falls on similar regions at the identical latitudes with similar climatic conditions.1. There are also a few other factors which need to be considered when determining the viability of solar energy at a given location.3.5 kWh/(m2day). we can capture this radiation and turn it into usable forms of solar energy for the purposes of heating or electricity generation. Direct estimates of solar energy are represented in watts per square meter (W/m2). Radiation for solar electric systems may be expressed in terms of kilowatthours per square meter (kW-h/m2). which we receive it in the form of heat and light.1. Radiation data for water and space heating mechanisms are usually represented in British thermal units per square foot (Btu/ft2). oceans and land masses. The amount of sunlight available at a particular place is one of the key factors to consider when estimating the usage of solar energy.3. Background Solar energy consists of electromagnetic radiations coming from the Sun. Insolation for most people range from 155 to 305 W/m2 or 3. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds.I. SOLAR ENERGY I. Figure I. Figure These are: • • • • • Time of the day Geographical position Season Local landscape Local weather Comment [u6]: Where ever any such data is given ref is a must Comment [u7]: Potential production? Scientists measure the amount of sunlight available in specific locations during different times of year.

where a stationary spherical reflector focuses light along a line perpendicular to the sphere's interior surface. Fresnel mirrors) to focus light on the container. Solar technologies can generally be classified as either passive or active depending on the way they capture. The solar bowl is a concentrating technology employed by the Solar Kitchen in Auroville. • Architecture and urban planning: Sunlight has had an influence on building design since the beginning of architecture.3. Applications of Solar Technology The amount of solar radiation reaching the surface of the planet in one year is more than twice as much as will ever be obtained from aggregation of all of the Earth's non-renewable energy resources of coal. The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for domestic hot water. ventilation and cooling technologies can be applied to reduce a portion of this energy usage. In the United States. mostly depending on distance from the equator. or indirectly with concentrated solar power (CSP). Often panel cookers use a reflective panel to direct sunlight onto an insulated container and generate high temperatures comparable to box cookers. aswell as referencing the position of an establishment to the Sun. Pondicherry. while passive solar technologies lower the requirement for alternative energy sources and are generally considered as demand side factors. Solar energy can be harnessed at different levels around the world. • Cooking: Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking. In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 °C can be provided by solar heating systems. Applications of solar energy in agriculture aside from growing crops include solar irrigation technologies and pumping water. natural gas. While the chimney warms. Solar active techniques use photovoltaic panels. PVs were at first used to provide power small or medium-sized projects. from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes powered by photovoltaic arrays. Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. Solar heating. Sunlight can be converted directly into electricity using photovoltaics (PV). oil. horticulture: Agriculture and horticulture attempt to optimize the reception of solar energy in order to optimize plantproductivity. A thermal chimney is a passive solar ventilation mechanism composed of a vertical shaft connecting the interior and exterior of an apartment. • Solar thermal: Solar thermal technologies can be used for water heating. heating.I. and plastic transparent materials have also been used to similar effect in poly-tunnels and row covers.65 EJ) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly 50% (10. • Agriculture. The most recent approaches to solar design use computer modeling. and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools. Passive solar techniques involve selecting materials with favorable designing spaces and thermal properties that naturally circulate air. drying and pasteurization. who designed their buildings facing the south to provide light and warmth. Advanced solar designs and urban planning were first employed by the Chinese and Greeks. Steam is produced in the receiver at 8 Comment [u8]: Need to give ref here – as it is very interesting but strong statement .2. fans and pumps to convert sunlight into various outputs. the inside air is heated up resulting in an updraft that pulls air through the building. Greenhouses transform solar light to heat energy. trough. Active solar techniques increase the energy supply and are considered to be supply side factors. These are an important part of horticulture today. transmit and distribute solar power.1 EJ) of the energy used in residential buildings. convert. space heating and cooling and process heat generation. Performance of this technique may be improved by using thermal or glazing mass materials in a way similar to the greenhouses. ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 30% (4. compact proportion. These cookers reach temperatures around 320 °C but require direct light for proper functioning. enabling year-round production of special crops and other plants not suited to the local climate. and mined uranium. and a computer control system moves the receiver to intersect this line. Reflector cookers use a number of designs (such as dish. The common features of passive solar architecture are orientation with respect to the Sun. India. shading pattern and thermal mass.

Solar water disinfection (SODIS) involves exposing water-filled plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles to sunlight for several hours. a feasible alternative is hydrogen production from protons. and for AC. ⎯ Concentrated solar power: Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. or photovoltaic cell (PV). are flexible parabolic dishes that combine aspects of trough and power tower concentrators. It is recommended by the World Health Organization as a viable method for household water treatment and safe storage. The multi-electron catalytic chemistry involved in making carbon-based fuels (such as methanol) from reduction of carbon dioxide is challenging. are the world‘s largest photovoltaic plants. A variety of fuels can be produced by artificial photosynthesis. both in Spain. frequency/phase. Solar induced chemical reactions can be divided into thermochemical or photochemical. the most developed are the parabolic trough. Solar energy may be used in a water stabilization pond to treat waste water without chemicals or electricity. PV converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. Hybrid solar lighting is an active solar method of providing interior illumination. though use of water as the source of electrons (as plants do) requires mastering the multi-electron oxidation of two water molecules to molecular oxygen. or in developing countries.the splitting of sea water 9 . Since 1985 the eventually 354 MW SEGS CSP installations. Various techniques are used to track the Sun and focus light. the concentrating linear Fresnel reflector. • Solar power: Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. which requires the use of inverters. Solar cells produce direct current (DC) power. especially in the developed countries with large markets. India is capable of cooking 35. lighthouses. These processes offset energy that would otherwise come from a fossil fuel source and can also convert solar energy into storable and transportable fuels. and the 214 MW Charanka Solar Park in India. and is then used for power generation or energy storage. In these grid-connected PV systems. which fluctuates with the intensity of the irradiated light. Over two million people in developing countries use this method for their daily drinking water. The world's largest Scheffler reflector system in Abu Road in Rajasthan. although algae may produce toxic chemicals that make the water unusable. which produces power at the desired voltage. in the Mojave Desert of California. A further environmental advantage is that algae grow in such ponds and consume carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. The Agua Caliente Solar Project. Many residential systems are connected to the grid wherever available. • Solar lighting: Day-lighting systems collect and distribute sunlight to provide interior illumination. Exposure times vary depending on weather and climate from a minimum of six hours to two days during fully overcast conditions. In certain applications such as satellites. Multiple solar cells are connected inside the modules. The first recorded instance of this was by 16th century Arab alchemists. developed by Wolfgang Scheffler in 1986. CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. ⎯ Photovoltaics: A solar cell.000 meals a day. or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). • Water treatment: Solar distillation can be used to make saline or brackish water potable.temperatures reaching 150 °C and then used for process heat in the kitchen. is the largest solar power plant in the world. is a device that converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. Other large CSP plants include the Solnova Solar Power Station (150 MW) and the Andasol solar power station (100 MW). Modules are wired together to form arrays. A wide range of concentrating technologies exists. In all of these systems a working fluid is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The passive technology directly reduces energy usage through replacement of artificial lighting and indirectly decreases non-solar energy use by lowering the requirement for air-conditioning. in the United States. either directly using photovoltaics (PV). Some have envisaged working solar fuel plants in coastal metropolitan areas by 2050. These systems collect sunlight using mirrors which detect the trajectory of the Sun and use fiber-optics to transmit it inside the building to supplement the usual lighting. then tied to an inverter. Commercial CSP plants were first developed in the 1980s. batteries or additional power generators are often added as back-ups. The concentrated heat is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. Scheffler reflectors. the Stirling dish and the solar power tower. This usually requires conversion to certain desired voltages or alternating current (AC). use of energy storage is optional. which form stand-alone power systems. • Solar chemical: Solar chemical processes use solar energy to drive chemical reactions.

3. One way solar power storage can be accomplished is by using a battery bank to store the electricity generated by the PV solar power system.providing hydrogen to be run through adjacent fuel-cell electric power plants and the pure water by-product going directly into the municipal water system. Between 1970 and 1983 photovoltaic installations grew rapidly. Both wind power and solar power are intermittent energy sources of energy and are somewhat complementary. the first practical solar boat was constructed in England. Artificial photosynthesis involves the use of nanotechnology to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds. Aside from electrolysis driven by photovoltaic or photochemical cells. 97 MW). namely. By 1995. and the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies. On cloudy days or at night.3. In 1975. Using molten salts. there are two primary methods of energy storage with a photovoltaic solar power system. The early development of solar technologies was driven by the fact that the depleting resources of fossil fuels around the world may soon run out. 200 MW). Pumped-storage hydroelectricity stores energy in the form of water pumped when surplus electricity is available. solar energy can be stored efficiently at high temperatures. This credit offsets electricity provided from the grid when the system cannot meet demand. several thermochemical processes have also been explored. With grid-tied systems. have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. I.4 GW in Germany. A battery solar power storage system is used in a grid-tied PV system with battery backup and stand-alone PV systems. Energy Storage One of the major setbacks for solar energy systems is that the Sun doesn't provide a continuous source of energy. Many large national and regional research projects on artificial photosynthesis are now trying to develop techniques integrating improved light capture under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Photovoltaic production growth has averaged 40% per year since 2000 and installed capacity reached 39. (Arizona.4. as there tends to be more wind in the winter and more sun in the summer. 10 . • Solar vehicles: Australia hosts the World Solar Challenge where solar cars like the Nuna3 race through a 3. global warming concerns. passenger boats incorporating PV panels began appearing and are now used extensively. biogas and hydro-storage to provide load-following power around the clock. Some vehicles use solar panels for auxiliary power. Perovo Solar Park (Ukraine.3. Battery Banks and Grid Inter-Tie. 100 MW) and Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada. over 200 MW connected . the largest individual photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are Agua Caliente Solar Project. Salts are suitable storage medium because they are low-cost. of them 17. making energy storage an important aspect in order to provide the constant supply of energy. I. For homeowners generating solar electricity through the use of the PV system. Net metering programs give these systems a credit for the electricity they deliver to the grid. to keep the interior cool. from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation one.8 GW at the end of 2010. Since 1997.021 km (1. however falling oil prices in the early 1980s moderated the growth of photovoltaics from 1984 to 1996. Golmud Solar Park (China. Development and Deployment As of July 2012. The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the University of Kassel tested a combined power plant interconnecting alternate sources like solar. Hydrogen production technologies were a significant area of solar chemical research since the 1970s. thus reducing fuel consumption. the amount of energy our systems receive is reduced. increase to 397 MW). However on days with no sun and no wind the low generation of energy needs to be made up through some other alternatives. PV development has accelerated due to supply issues with oil and natural gas. such as for air conditioning. in absence of sunlight. Off-grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity. excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid. by splitting water to produce hydrogen fuel or then combining with carbon dioxide to make biopolymers such as methanol.877 mi) course from Darwin to Adelaide.

where CO2 concentrations remain below 440 ppm by 2100. Johansson et al (2004) de Vries et al (2007) .S.4. solargenerated electricity both from photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal projects has been rapid in the last 5 years. 2007). Figure I. lower the costs of mitigating climate change. The principal barrier to its broader use is its high relative cost. However it should be noted that the share of total U. and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise.S. PV costs are high mainly because of the characteristic low capacity factor of solar power.1 compares the technically feasible potential of different renewable energy options using the present conversion efficiencies of available technologies. thus. the contribution of solar energy to primary energy supply could reach 39 EJ/year by 2050. It will increase countries‘ energy security through reliance on an indigenous. constrained by limited hours of sunlight.I. "the development of affordable. The general perception among climate-scientists is that the deployment of solar energy in 2050 would vary from 1 to 12 EJ/year in absence of any climate change mitigation policies. spread across fewer productive hours compared to other energy sources. inexhaustible and mostly importindependent resource. Paggi (December. reduce pollution. In the most ambitious projection for climate change mitigation. According to the International Energy Agency reports in 2011. 2010) in which they state that the growth of U. solar power stations built with mirrors and solar cells could provide almost one-third of the world‘s energy needs by 2060 if people commit to limiting the climate change. LITERATURE REVIEW Over the years various researches have shown that solar energy technologies such as photo-voltaic panels.4. (2004) and de Vries et al (2007) 11 UNDP(2000). enhance sustainability.1. The high capital costs are. Even when evaluated on a regional basis. the technical potential of solar energy in most regions of the world is many times greater than current total primary energy consumption in those regions (de Vries et al. 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Solar Wind Geothermal Biomass Hydropower Ocean Figure I. (2011) argued that the expansion of solar power utilization depends on global climate change mitigation projections.4. they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared". An analysis of the solar-power feasibility in the US market was brought forward by William T. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments. Coyle. inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. The energy from the sun can play a key role in de-carbonizing the global economy alongside improvements in energy efficiency and imposing costs on greenhouse gas emitters. Fumiko Yamazaki and Mechel S. less than one percent. These advantages are global. Arvizu et al. Johansson et al. Technical Potential of renewable energy technologies Data source: UNDP (2000). electrical generation capacity and production is still minuscule.

Germany has an installed solar power capacity of 29. China‘s GCL-Poly has begun construction of a 340 MW project in Dantong. Hanwha. Between 1860 and the First World War. In July 2009. Kurokawa et al. it has begun looking at solar as an alternative to nuclear sources for meeting its energy demands. India. The years immediately following the oil-shock in the seventies saw much interest in the development and commercialization of solar energy technologies. However. can generate electricity equivalent to 1.6 billion in solar projects. will meet the continent‘s entire electricity necessities. 2011). Even Asian countries like China. Japan had installed solar capacity of 1. This trend has essentially been driven by Chinese companies and has had a disruptive effect on the market. EPIA‘s mission is to give its global membership a distinct and effective voice in the European market. On 18 November 2009. the European solar energy yield was approximately 17. A major driver is the 53-cent per unit ‗‗feed in tariff‘‘ (FiT) announced by the Japanese government. In China. Recently the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (also known as the National Solar Mission) has been a major initiative on the part of the Government of India and the state governments to address ecologically sustainable growth while also considering the challenges India face in the field of energy security. by capturing the sun‘s heat. September. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global effort to meet the challenges of climate change. especially in the EU. behind this recent trend of growing significance. India unveiled a US$19 billion plan to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020. During 2010. has today a little over 1. Q-Cells. which will be among the largest single-unit solar farms in the world. with plans to generate 1. Solar energy markets have regained momentum since early 2000.300 GW – about double the country‘s total generation 12 . this incipient solar energy industry of the 1970s and early 80s collapsed due to the sharp decline in oil prices and a lack of sustained policy support (Bradford.3 TW-h and an annual turnover of €2. solar energy technology has a long history. 2004).000 MW. The turnover was concentrated in local.000 MW of installed capacity. In many regions of the world one square-Km of land is sufficient to generate more than 125 GW-h of electricity per year through CSP technology. a range of technologies were developed to generate steam. 21. India went from 2. which got into solar power generation much earlier.71% of the European land mass. 2012.6bn.300 MW this year.300 MW. According to M. and they have been used in space satellites for electricity generation since the late 1950s (Hoogwijk. South Korea and Japan have now started taking solar power technology with a note of seriousness. The total installed capacity of solar based electricity generation capacity has increased to more than 40 GW by the end of 2010 from almost negligible capacity in the early nineties (REN21.300 km2) of the wastelands located in the northern and western regions. it was reported that India was ready to launch its National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change. However. Till 2011. It is expected to add 7. where solar radiation is among the highest in the country.Ramesh in the Business Line (The Hindu). covered with current PV modules.9 GW of photovoltaic systems were connected to the grid in 2011. Around 650 MW of this came under Gujarat‘s Government‘s FiT-based program. Currently the annual turnover of the European Photovoltaic market is of approximately €36 billion. the use of solar-powered equipment and applications would be made compulsory in all government buildings. The recent takeover of the well-known German solar cell manufacturer. From August 2011 to July 2012.The European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) represents members active along the whole solar PV value chain in the European Union.000 MW of power by 2013. small and medium businesses. mainly Germany and the US provided the market for solar technology. Until now. (2007) estimated 4% of the surface area of the world‘s deserts may produce enough electricity to meet the world‘s current energy requirements. The mission is one of the several program initiatives that are part of National Action Plan on Climate Change. In Europe. But the country is expected to end 2012 with 4.500 MW in 2012. Japan is the fourth largest energy consumer in the world in spite of the small population of 120 million that occupies only 2. by a less-known South Korean company. 2006). causing around 40 companies in the US and Europe to close down. exhibiting phenomenal growth recently. to run engines and irrigation pumps (Smith. The US is projected to add 3. After the Fukushima disaster.1% of world population. Solar PV cells were invented at Bell Labs in the United States in 1954. the Chinese Government has raised its long-term installation target from 20 GW to 50 GW by 2020.000 MW will be installed in China in the next two years. A similar view is observed in EPIA (2007) estimates that just 0.5 MW of grid connected photovoltaics to over 1.000 MW. IMS Research forecasts that 10. It is expected that Japanese companies will invest $9. Under the plan. 1995). is symbolic of the recent trend that has been in evidence in the last couple of years — solar manufacturing shifting from the West to Asia.700 MW. 1% (26. as well as hospitals and hotels.

Canada 68 times over. Minimum technical potential 4.737 31.190. the U.1. and available land area. Regional distribution of annual solar energy potential Data Source: Johansson et al. annual average sky clearance.322 2.000 Total photovoltaic peak power capacity (MWp) Total 2010 Total photovoltaic peak power capacity (MWp) Total 2011 Figure I.038 744 505 702 750 2.4. 13 .000 25. Energy Information Administration.S.839 8.000 30.2. Recently. the U.4.492 Maximum technical potential 176. UN Energy Statistics Database and CIA World Fact-book. 2007).wikipedia.744 54. As can be easily seen from the table.000 20.213 870 12.0.951 80.529 23.S.113 227.000 15.731 575 1. IEA (2010) Note: The minimum and maximum technical potential reflect different assumptions regarding annual clear sky irradiance.4.267 Electricity demand (2008) 390 74 266 14 92 70 27 76 61 255 140 1.834 21.040 1. CAIT 8. Figure I. ‗Climate Change SOS‘ demonstrated how we can meet our projected energy demand many times over – Brazil 67 times over.000 10.678 206.capacity projected for year 2020 (Hang et al.719 37.4.2 shows the total photovoltaic peak power capacity (MWp) across 12 countries from years 2010 and 2011.108 Primary energy demand (2008) 2. (2004).826 3. 5 times over.822 114 1.746 1.975 98. 0 Germany Japan United States France China South Korea Australia Brazil Canada India United Kingdom Ukraine 5.860 979 907 2.752 9. Top 25 nations ranked according to solar and wind energy potential Data source: http://en. using comprehensive data sets from NREL. Australia 54 times Table I. solar energy supply is significantly greater than demand at the regional as well as global level. China 2 times over.1 presents regional distribution of annual solar energy potential along with total primary energy demand and total electricity demand in year 2008. Russia 20 times over.675 597 96 4.681 264.446 Region North America Latin America & Caribbean Western Europe Central and Eastern Europe Former Soviet Union Middle East & North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Pacific Asia South Asia Centrally Planned Asia Pacific OECD Total Table I.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Comment [u9]: SEE aspects are most importa for your TP 14 .I.5.

3 258.16 1 3.59 130.59 6.05 1.8 441.33 Waste to Energy 43.I.53 52.81 505.6 70.25 5.1 213 2707 1856 35 330 2607 1856 6713 4 16321 15 0.05 3208.3 532.1.6.35 18.38 2.14 0.57 31.6.68 Solar Power (MWp) Total Capacity Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal A & N Islands Delhi Others India 192.15 3034.5 81.7 644.05 2.65 8.25 5.59 130.9 20.14 4.11 111.3 20.7 501.2 421.8 2 9 0.1 170.01 25.33 5.03 36.1 20 4 4.58 52.11 76.05 901.17 86. 2910 (www.03 36.57 2094.indiastat.16 281.45 31.03 0.82 98.1 501.25 15.65 5 16 89.9 5.1 110.1.29 827.45 5.05 0.2 20 90.04 79. Source-wise Cumulative Grid Interactive Renewable Power Installed Capacity across the major states in India 15 .5 35. State/Source-wise Cumulative Grid Interactive Renewable Power Installed Capacity in India Source: Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No.25 3342.11 61.45 31.03 4 291 4.16 3514. INDIAN SCENARIO Bio-Power States/UTs Small Hydro Power Wind Power Biomass Power 363.18 1 600.59 4.69 16.87 115.25 15.5 23.32 133.6.09 16.25 143.98 182.72 9.67 88.4 5.67 64.47 28.01 676.8 274.43 178.81 23380.54 31.63 79.5 10 16 Comment [u10]: What does this mean Figure I.5 249.4 Table I.47 28.11 7371.1 2.3 154.

6 111.93 33.6.46 28.8 22 347.65 201.1 587.82 157.12 1.49 5109.43 31.45 12.98 93. Selected State-wise Funds Released for Solar Lighting Systems under JNNSM in India (2010-2011 and 2011-2012) 16 .55 181.96 59.73 4. (www.4 2. in Lakh) 75.4 104.6 5.3 6 5.08 1342 2010-11 626.28 326.55 131. Assam Bihar Chandigarh Chhattisgarh Delhi Gujarat Goa Haryana HP J &K Karnataka Kerala Meghalaya Lakshadweep Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Puducherry Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Tripura IREDA/Bands AIWC/WEC Misc India 2009-10 29.2 103 113.65 States/UTs Andhra Pradesh Arunachal P.08 164. dated on 23.61 11.4 27.63 5730.51 1841.69 118.2.4 2011-12 2 64 200 128.8 58.37 69.46 54.23 15.53 2.6.4 250.0 58. State-wise Expenditure on Development of Solar Energy (Including Research and Development) under Solar Thermal Energy Program in India (2009-2010 to 2011-2012-upto 31. 151.indiastat.1.6.88 36.8 0.66 89.88 671.24 1124.44 8.7 1 15.2012.8 586.6 22583.86 212.28 3.08 2. Selected State-wise Funds Released for Solar Lighting Systems under JNNSM in India (2010-2011 and 2011-2012) Source: Lok Sabha Starred Question No.03 15.55 4.4 207.39 971.05 15.95 404.2011) Data Source: www.37 24.48 2.92 2.0 3274 Table I.I.7 4. Current Developments States Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand Others India Funds Released (Rs.4 92.88 91.96 25 55.57 2224.05 59.42 Table I.3.44 1193 3259.13 16 Figure I.84 0.34 822.17 25 25 1.10.27 3.31 334.92 29.2 4.75 2933.indiastat.41 117.81 50.07 48.6.46 132.56 59.

977 States/UTs A & N Islands Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chandigarh Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh J &K Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Lakshadweep Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Puducherry Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Other India Lanterns 6296 38544 14433 1211 50117 1675 3192 4807 1065 31603 73116 22970 43822 16374 7334 54367 5289 9444 68683 4787 24875 8331 6317 9882 1637 17495 4716 5200 16818 42360 60188 64023 17662 125797 864430 Home Light 405 1998 10349 5870 6471 275 7233 0 362 9231 49668 16848 23083 7312 37348 32326 0 2917 3434 3865 7840 5395 868 5156 25 8620 91754 4640 7536 26066 147546 91307 130901 24047 770696 Street Light 358 4186 1071 98 955 898 1923 301 707 2004 20074 4072 5806 620 2694 1735 1725 6138 8420 928 1273 431 271 5834 417 5354 6852 242 6350 1199 91727 8568 8076 9150 210457 Pump 5 613 18 45 139 12 226 89 15 85 469 6 39 0 551 810 0 87 239 40 19 37 3 56 21 1857 283 0 829 151 575 26 48 0 7393 Table I.1 18 0 0 0 0 4 0.05 0.05 1.72 180.indiastat.72 374.65 0 7.03 775 528 16451.73 150 25.7 28 17 .57 2943.6.1 210 775.142 0 92.6 676.85 235.7 100 575 905.375 0.9 225. 1353 Data Source: www.1 0.515 0 121 3430.4 2 0 0 0 6 0.025 4.05 0 0. State-wise Cumulative Installation of Solar Photo Voltaic (SPV) Systems in Indi Source: Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question No.8 17.1 3.05 1.4.1 17.6 0 2500 82 1.81 190.025 0 0 0 4 2.75 0.Solar Photo Voltaic System Numbers Power Plants Stand Alone (KWp) 167 731.095 Grid Connected (MW) 0.025 0.41 47.325 44.5 308.5 109 72 84.

6. Barriers Comment [u12]: Both these are important 18 .3.I. Incentive for Further Developments Comment [u11]: Both these are important I.6.2.

lack of maturity of company and technology. lack of awareness of PV by architects. resulting in diseconomies of scale and higher transaction costs much greater on the smaller projects • In addition to the above mentioned factors we may also state a few reasons behind the market failure and non-market failure barriers that hinder energy efficiency implementation. engineers..7..g. For e. ECONOMIC & TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES I. the organizational structure (i. service/performance.g. limiting consumer choice (e.. 2003. fossil fuel interests have historically received subsidies and continue to obtain Research & Development support.I. including lack of integration with building materials. Financial and Market Barriers to Solar technology In this section we aim to summarize the importance of project financing for solar energy technology and the necessity to analyze the market acceptability and entry barriers to the clean technology.1. technical and electricity market barriers inhibit distributed electricity generation such as provided by renewable energy sources like solar power. contractor. The financial aspects include: • Risks associated with financing solar energy generation projects: ⎯ Creditworthiness risks: concern by lenders about project‘s ability to service debt from the future cash flows. aesthetics. In addition to this according to H. For e. fuel economy is not a separate option for automobiles) I. the building design process. For e. However renewable energy lacks equal assistance. not setting energy prices based on time-of-use discourages consumers from using energy more efficiently during high-price periods Social costs: not considering the negative impacts of energy usage on the society into its cost. and lack of proven acceptance in the marketplace ⎯ Technology risks: concern that the technology will underperform or become obsolete prematurely. In most of the countries. For e. facility manager. lack of information/experience to make comparisons with other energy technologies ⎯ Market competition risks: concern by financiers about high capital costs of solar energy projects and the low cash flows compared with other traditional sources of energy ⎯ Revenue security risks: need for revenue security to pay back the capital investment Dis-economies of scale and other cost issues: competitive disadvantage of the energy projects because of small-size production as compared to traditional energy projects. Elinimeiri.7.g. codes and standards. Market failures: • • • • • Misplaced incentives: energy decisions made by an agent may not be in the best interest of the consumer. lack of integration of with typical building process. electricity bills do not detail the energy consumption of specific end uses Market barriers: • • • Low priority of solar energy: although conventional energy is still relatively cheap.g. the reduced air pollution due to cleaner energy production Insufficient and inaccurate information: consumers not informed about energy. however consumers typically do not understand negative externalities of conventional energy Capital market barriers: limited access to capital and high interest rates inhibit energy efficiency improvements Incomplete markets for energy efficiency: energy efficiency is an inseparable part of many products. Also..7.2.e.g. the effects of air pollution from fuel combustion Social benefits: not considering the social positive impacts of efficient energy usage into its. and building components (constructability. and owner). and cost) acts as a major setback. a landlord may not install energy-efficient appliances because the renter pays the energy bills Distortionary fiscal and regulatory policies: policies remove incentives for energy efficiency.g. For e. developing an economic case for building19 . Sozer and M.. Lack of System Integration and Incentives Across the world..

. Clouds..g.7. improved public image. and improved visual impact). Reliability Weather and geographic location can affect the reliability of solar power. standards. Solar panels must be cleaned and cleared of dirt. According to their study the most common economic and non-technical factors that hinder the growth of the solar energy sector are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Lack of government policy Lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy usage and environmental degradation Lack of credibility: need credible endorsements of Photovoltaic technology (PV) to instill consumer confidence. snow and other debris to operate at top efficiency. less-known technologies Networks: ⎯ Poor connectivity: companies are not well connected to other companies with an overlapping technology base ⎯ Wrong guidance about future markets: individual companies are guided by the network in wrong directions. and interconnection and net-metering guidelines Poor perception by public of renewable energy system aesthetics Lack of stakeholder/community participation in energy choices and projects 20 . I. Johnson provide an analytical framework for studying how new technologies may transform the energy sector. Zuboy in their paper ―Non-technical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature‖. It also outlines issues that must be researched to understand the transformation of the energy system into one that employs more renewable energy.integrated PV is hindered by lack of complete financial and technical data.3. rain and snow can obstruct the collection of solar power. implicit endorsements include utility PV programs and government tax credits Inconsistent inspection process: inspection process varies by community and should be streamlined to reduce delays High cost of solar technologies compared with other conventional sources of energy Difficulty overcoming established energy systems Inadequate financing options for projects Failure to account for all costs and benefits of energy choices Inadequate workforce skills and training Lack of adequate codes.7. Infrastructure and Institutional Challenges The paper ―The Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technology: An Analytical Framework and Key Issues for Research‖ by S.5. including cost-reducing factors (e. Margolis and J.7. They may be summarized as follows: • • • Poorly articulated demand: consumers unable to articulate price/performance demand during early stage of technology diffusion Local search processes: companies tend to build on their existing technological base when making improvements instead of pursuing new. or the network fails to share required knowledge among companies Institutions: ⎯ Legislative failures: legislation creates bias toward established technologies ⎯ Educational system failures: educational system supports current technologies over potential new technologies or fails to react quickly enough to emergence of new technologies ⎯Skewed capital market: supply of capital does not emerge spontaneously in response to needs of emerging technology ⎯Underdeveloped organization and political power of new entrants: including lack of industry organizations and ways to share information • I. tax credits.g.4. and solar batteries require ongoing maintenance. and increased rents) and hard-to-quantify benefits (e. I. enhanced power reliability. energy cost savings. Jacobsson and A. Non-Technical Barriers A list of the most frequently recognized non-technical barriers to use of solar energy technology has been identified by R.

However. either crystalline silicon cells or thin film. higher electricity generation rates and the availability and proper utilization of sunlight are the principal challenges that should be taken into consideration. Italy and Spain. There are two major options for solar electricity: distributed systems. will be contingent upon the proper enforcement of regulations. it is almost impossible forany recommendation to satisfy all three goals. solar photo-voltaic. lower maintenance and operating costs. Sustained policy support will be necessary to assure the first two trends continue. and small environmental impacts. High prices along with concerns about energy security and fossil fuel impacts on the environment has spurred a renewed and more intensive effort to develop and commercialize alternative energy resources. According to Shi Zhengrong. All the centralized PV and solar thermal projects occupy large tracts of land and will have a variety of impacts on water. land.‖ ⎯International Energy Agency. Solar as well as other alternatives is vying for a more mainstream role in the global energy market. Centralized systems on the other hand enjoy a comparative cost advantage from economies of scale and allow far more rapid and certain growth in capacity toward meeting the standards of renewable portfolio. "We are at a tipping point. solar thermal electricity and solar fuels – can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces: climate change. Specifically. 2011. The future viability of solar energy projects will however be determined by a number of factors. and centralized systems that are distant from the center of demand. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Energy is the driving force behind the world economy. The availability and amount of sunlight. and universal access to modern energy services. in which production is close to or at the point of consumption. The necessary policy recommendations that maybe suggested need to satisfy the priorities of increased economic development. Lowering of production costs. monitoring. especially in developing countries. With increasing energy demands. and evaluation of related actions. • • ―If effective support policies are put in place in a wide number of countries during this decade. Technological advances will be the key catalyst in the decline in the cost of production and the rising fossil fuel prices which will make solar power economically more attractive to the consumers. the recommendations are required to balance the following objectives: • Socially Equitable ⎯Affordable ⎯Accessible ⎯ Acceptable Environmentally Sustainable ⎯ Minimise negative environmental impacts ⎯ Minimise negative health impacts ⎯ Safe Economically Stimulating ⎯ Competitive ⎯ Reliable and efficient Comment [u13]: Just recommendation is fine as u r not investigating here with your primary dat calculations . chairman and CEO of SunTech Power. although not always critical (success of Germany and Japan). He opines "Solar power will be able to compete without subsidies against conventional power sources in half the world by 2015". energy prices have been on the rise through most of the last decade. no transmission costs. The effectiveness of the policy recommendations. if implemented. no water requirements. including the generation of electricity from solar energy. Most distributed systems use photo-voltaic. the founder. does contribute in raising productivity of the system and lowering production cost.8. Therefore the concept of sustainable development involves balancing the achievements in each area. poverty reduction and improved environmental protection. They are now starting to compete in the real world without subsidies".I. easily integrated with current infrastructure. 21 . and transmission costs. A variety of factors favor distributed PV over centralized PV or thermal options: low or no siting costs. No longer are renewable power sources like solar and wind a luxury of the rich. and diminishing fossil fuel reserves and supplies. wildlife. unsubsidized solar power has already entered a competitive zone with fossil fuels in India. as of 2012. as the needs of one area can conflict with the needs of another. energy security. solar energy in its various forms – solar heat. Hawaii.

developing public-private partnerships. as appropriate. wind. It will increase countries‘ energy security through reliance on an indigenous. ocean. removing non-economic barriers. These advantages are global. inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. With a view on the recent success of these strategies we may also take into consideration the following policy measures for the future development of solar energy generation: • Renewable energy equipment should be exempted from sales and property taxes: Homeowners and businesses that install new solar energy systems should be rewarded for being early adopters. biomass. State tax credit for residential and commercial solar thermal heating and solar electric systems: The tax credits not only financially help people who want to install solar energy technology but also help to draw businesses. few so far have elaborated comprehensive policy sets. • Standards for solar in all state facilities and guidelines for solar in major constructions: The state should take the lead and set standards by which state buildings are to utilize solar energy technologies to reduce energy consumption and reduce their exposure to the increasing costs of energy. in the area of solar hydrogen and fuels. Public research and development efforts are critically needed. reduce pollution. financing difficulties loom large. New business and financing models are required. A set of comprehensive guidelines for both solar electric and solar thermal can outline those areas which the solar industry feels a knowledgeable inspector should understand to adequately inspect a newly installed solar system. Policies to favor the use of direct solar heat in industry are still very rare. obstacles to grid access and permitting hamper the deployment of solar electricity. Support policies include a significant part of subsidies as long as solar technologies are not fully competitive. The number of governments at all levels who consider implementing policies to support the development and deployment of solar energy is growing by the day. Principal-agent problems continue to inhibit the solar power generated electricity mechanisms to be implemented in buildings. landfill gas. lower the costs of mitigating climate change. in consultation with industry and in as predictable a manner as possible. in particular for up-front financing of off-grid solar electricity and process heat technologies in developing countries. RPS goals has been achieved by a combination of solar. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments. grid upgrades. storage and balancing plants. The development of affordable. enhance sustainability. • Statewide guidelines for solar installations to streamline permitting and inspections: Building and planning department inspectors need to know the technical details of the new solar technology being installed in order to effectively permit and inspect newly installed systems. Once state standards are set. Incentive policies must not be abandoned before new electricity market design ensures investments in competitive solar energy technologies. However. and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. municipal solid waste. inexhaustible and costly import-independent resource. and used as guidelines for all new construction throughout the state. along with the associated jobs. hydroelectric. the energy produced is free. Exemption of renewable energy equipment from sales and property taxes will reduce the time period for solar energy investments to pay for themselves. for example. • 22 .The governments of many states over the years have created these various financial incentives to encourage the use of solar power. or fuel cell technologies. geothermal. Renewable portfolio standards impose a government mandate that utilities generate or acquire a certain percentage of renewable power regardless of increased energy procurement costs. In totality a broad range of policies will be needed to unlock the considerable potential of solar energy. The recent growth in installment is concentrated in too few countries. into the area to manufacture the equipment needed to support the solar industry. they can be adapted. hydrogen. they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared. These include establishing incentives for early deployment. subsidizing research and development and developing effective support for innovation. such as feed-in tariff programs. They must be adjusted to reflect cost reductions. Although the initial equipment costs are high.


1. INTRODUCTION Comment [u14]: Spee d up writing this sectio too 24 .SECTION-II CARBON FOOTPRINTS II.









Bradford. 2009 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act – EEG.webcitation.. van Vuuren. Jacobsson. Solar Generation V – 2008. M. Policies and Measures. US Government Approves World's Largest Solar Plant. CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 625–640.A.R.. 2010. The World Bank.‖ Energy Policy (29:14). Elnimeiri. C. IEA. D. 2003. (2011). (2011). 35. (October 2005). D. P. T.‖ Proceedings of the 2003 International Solar Energy Conference. Brown. Energy Policy. M. ―Market Failures and Barriers as a Basis for Clean Energy Policies.pdf www.. Economics and Policies. L.dailykos. Sozer. Paris: REN21 Secretariat. Singh.wikipedia. G. Johnson. S. (July 2000). pp.J. (2006). Environment and Energy Team. A. OR: Energy Trust of Oregon.A. M. pp. March 15-18. Murphy. Renewable energy sources: Their global potential for the first-half of the 21st century at a global level: An integrated SECTION-I SOLAR ENERGY • • • • • • • • International Energy Agency. J. The Economic Transformation of the Global Energy Industry. pp. Cambridge. EPIA/Greenpeace (2008). Hawaii.energytrust. PV Focus Group Report. http://www.Solar Energy Perspectives: Executive Summary.. (2007).com/ http://www. 527533.indiastat. 2011. NREL/TP-60038723.pdf www.. http://en..P. New York. ―Identification of Barriers to PV Application into the Building Design. Global Status Report. REN21 (2005 to 2011 Issues).com) accessed on (write date or duration ) www. Kurdgelashvili. Global Renewable Energy. Portland.M.. McKenna J. 1197–1207. T. ―The Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technology: An Analytical Framework and Key Issues for Research. (November 2001). (2003). M. A Review of Solar Energy: Markets. P. Development Research Group. Financing Projects That Use Clean-Energy Technologies: An Overview of Barriers and Opportunities. (October 2002). NY: American Society of Mechanical SECTION-II CARBON FOOTPRINTS 33 . Goldman. and Hoogwijk. H.‖ Energy Policy (28:9). Golden. 27th November. http://en. Kohala Coast. Narbel.wikipedia.nrel. Solar Revolution. Dymond. de Vries B. Greenpeace and European Photovoltaic Industry Association. • • • • • SECTION-II CARBON FOOTPRINTS Websites: SECTION-I SOLAR ENERGY Comment [u15]: Check this example for how wirte the weibsite reference Comment [u16]: Check this example for how wirte the weibsite reference Indiastate (2012): Website of India State ( www. MA: The MIT Press.