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2732

THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION

TO FLOW PROBLEMS IN RESERVOIRS

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN, SHELL OIL CO., HOUSTON, AND W. HURST, PETROLEUM

CONSULTANT, HOUSTON, MEMBERS AIME

ABSTRACT

For several years the authors have felt the need for a source

from which reservoir engineers could obtain fundamental

theory and data on the flow of fluids through permeable media

in the unsteady state. The data on the unsteady state flow are

composed of solutions of the equation

O'P + oP = oP

or' r Or at

Two sets of solutions of this equation are developed, namely,

for "the constant terminal pressure ca;;e" and "the constant

terminal rate case." In the constant terminal pressure case the

pressure at the terminal boundary is lowered by unity at zero

time, kept constant thereafter, and the cumulative amount of

fluid flowing across the boundary is computed, as a function

of the time. In the constant terminal rate case a unit rate

of production is made to flow across the terminal boundary

(from time zero onward) and the ensuing pressure drop is

computed as a function of the time. Considerable effort has

been made to compile complete tables from which curves can

be constructed for the constant terminal pressure and constant

terminal rate cases, both for finite and infinite reservoirs.

These curves can be employed to reproduce the effect of any

pressure or rate history encountered in practice.

Most of the information is obtained by the help of the

Laplace transformations, which proved to be extremely helpful

for analyzing the problems encountered in fluid flow. Tht'

application of this method simplifies the mOTe tedious mathe-

matical analyses employed in the past. With the help of La-

place transformations some original developments were ob-

tained (and presented) which could not have been easily

foreseen by the earlier methods.

INTRODUCTION

This paper represents a compilation of the work done over

the past few years on the flow of fluid in porous media. It

concerns itself primarily with the transient conditions prevail-

ing in oil reservoirs during the time they are produced. The

study is limited to conditions where the flow of fluid obeys the

Manuscript received at office of Petroleum Branch January 12, 1949.

Paper presented at the AIME Annual Meeting in San Francisco, Febru-

ary 13-17. 1949.

1 References are given at end of paper.

diffusivity equation. Multiple-phase fluid flow has not been

considered.

A previous publication by Hurst' shows that when the pres-

sure history of a reservoir is known, this information can be

used to calculate the water influx, an essential term in the

material balance equation. An example is offered in the lit-

erature by Old' in the study of the Jones Sand, Schuler Field,

Arkansas. The present paper contains extensive tabulated

data (from which work curves can be constructed), which data

are derived by a more rigorous treatment of the subject mat-

ter than available in an earlier publication. ' The applicatIon of

this information will enable those concerned with the analysis

of the behavior of a reservoir to obtain quantitatively correct

expressions for the amount of water that has flowed into the

reservoirs, thereby satisfying all the terms that appear in the

material balance equation. This work is likewise applicable to

the flow of fluid to a well whenever the flow conditions are

such that the diffusivity equation is obeyed.

DIFFUSITY EQUATION

The most commonly encountered flow system is radial flow

toward the well bore or field. The volume of fluid which flows

per unit of time through each unit area of sand is expressed

by Darcy's equation as

K oP

v =

fJ. Or

where K is the permeability, fJ. the viscosity and oP lor the

pressure gradient at the radial distance r. A material balance

on a concentric element AB, expresses the net fluid traversing

the surfaces A and B, which must equal the fluid lost from

within the element. Thus, if the density of the fluid is ex-

pressed by p, then the weight of fluid per unit time and per

unit sand thickness, flowing past Surface A, the surface near-

est the well bore, is given as

= ( pr

The weight of fluid flowing past Surface B, an infinitesimal

distance or, removed from Surface A, is expressed as

oP o( pr g; )

[pr - +

or or

or]

December, 1949 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME

305

T.P. 2732 THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

The difference between these two terms, namely,

o( pr

27rK or

- -- -------- or,

p or

is equal to the weight of fluid lo:t by the element AB, ()j'

OP

- 27rfr -- or

aT

where f is the porosity of the formation.

This relation gives tf:e equat:on of continuity for the radial

system, namely,

a (pr

K Or OP

- ---- fr --- (II-I)

p or aT

From the physical characteristics of fluids. it is known

that density is a function of pressure and that the density 01

a fluid decreases with decreasing pressure due to the fact that

the fluid expands. This trend in exponential form

is

p = p"e-"(I',,-I') (II-2)

where P is less than P,,, and c the compressibility of the fluid.

If we substitute Eq. II-2 in Eq_ II-I, the diffusivity equation

can be expressed using density as a function of radius and

time. or

(

02p + 2:.. 2!_) = (I1-3)

or' r Or fllc aT

For liquids which are only slightly compressible, Eq. II-2

simplifies to p Po [1- c (Po - P)] which further modifies

Eq. 1I-3 to give

(

-+ _1 __ OP ) = 1l.!'... Furthermore, if the

or- r or fpc aT

radius of the well or field. Rh, is referred to as a unit

radius, then the relation simplifies to

o'P 1 oP oP

- - + -- -- == ------

or' r Or at

(II-4)

where t = KT /fJlcR,,' and r now expresses the distance as a

multiple of R

h

, the unit radius. The units appearing in this

paper are always med in connection with Darcy's equation, so

that the permeability K must be expressed in darcys; the

time T in seconds. the porosity f as a fraction, the viscosity f'

in centipoises. the compressibility c as volume per volume

per atmosphere, and the radius Rb in centimeters.

LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION

In all publications, the treatment of the diffusivity equation

has been essentially the orthodox application of the Fourier-

Bessel series. This paper presents a new approach to the

solution of problems encountered in the study of flowing fluids,

namely, the Laplace transformation, since it was recognized

that Laplace transformations offer a useful tool for solving

difficult problems in less time than by the use of Fourier-

Bessel series. Also, original developments have been obtained

which are not easily foreseen by the orthodox methods.

If p(t) is a pressure at a point in the sand and a function

of time, then its Laplace transformation is expressed by the

infinite integral

(III-l)

where the constant p in this relationship is referred to as the

operator. If we treat the diffusivity equation by the process

implied by Eq. Ill-I, the partial differential can be trans-

formed to a total differential equation. This is performed by

multiplying each term in Eq. II-4 by e-'" and integrating with

respect to time between zero and infinity, as follows;

'L _ . ., (o'P 1 oP )

,ie' -,-+---

o Or- r or

x oP

dt = f e-;'t --dt

o· at

(III-2)

Since P is a function of radius and time, the integration with

respect to time will automatically remove the time function

and leave P a function of radius only. This reduces the left

side to a total differential with respect to r, namely,

x O'l'

J e-:"

oar'

Jo

a')' 1 e-

JO

' P dt f

d'P,JO)

dt = -----._- = _.-

or' dr'

and Eq. HI-2 hecomes

dr'

P, PRESSURE

q(t), RATE

I dP""

r dr

dP

dt

t, t2 t3

t, TIME

dt

etc.

FIG. lA - SEQUENCE CONSTANT TERMINAL PRESSURES.

1 B - SEQUENCE CONSTANT TERMINAL RATES.

306 PETROlEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

Furthermore, if we consider that P (l) is a cumulative pressure

drop, and that initially the pressure in the reservoir is every·

where constant so that the cumulative pressure drop

the integration of the right hand side of the equation becomes

dP

00

As this term is also a Laplace transform, Eq. III·2 can be writ·

ten as a total differential equation, or

d'P(p) + 1 dP,p)

dr' r dr

(III.3)

y

8

i! PLANE

________

--------------________ hM __

A

FIG. 2 - CONTOUR INTEGRATION IN ESTABLISHING THE CONSTANT

TERMINAL RATE CASE FOR INFINITE EXTENT.

y

i!

PLANE

(cr ,0)

FIG. 3 - CONTOUR INTEGRATION IN ESTABLISHING THE CONSTANT

TERMINAL RATE CASE FOR LIMITED RESERVOIR.

The next step in the development i, to reproduce the boun·

dary condition at the wdl bore or field radius, r = 1, as a

Laplace transformation and introduce this in the general solu·

tion for Eq. III·3 to give an explicit relation

By inverting the term on the right by the Mellin's inversion

formula, or other methods, we obtain the solution for the

cumulative pressure drop as an explicit function of radius

and time.

ENGINEERING CONCEPTS

Before applying the Laplace transformation to develop the

necessary work·curves, there are some fundamental engineer·

ing concepts to be considered that will allow the interpreta·

tion of these curves. Two cases are of paramount importance

in making reservoir studies, namely, the constant terminal

pressure case and the constant terminal rate case. If we know

the explicit solution for the first case, we can reproduce any

variable pressure history at the terminal boundary to deter·

mine the cumulative influx of fluid. Likewise, if the rate of

fluid influx varies, the constant terminal rate case can be used

to calculate the total pressure drop. The constant terminal

pressure and the constant terminal rate calOe are not inde·

pendent of one another, as knowing the operational form of

one, the other can be determined, as will be shown later.

Constant Terminal Pressure Case

The constant terminal pre3sure case is defined as follows:

At time zero the pressure at all points in the formation is con·

stant and equal to unity, and when the well or reservoir is

opened, the pressure at the well or reservoir boundary, r = 1,

immediately drops to zero and remains zero for the duration

of the production history.

If we treat the constant terminal pressure case symbolically,

the solution of the problem at any radius and time is given

by P = p(,.,t). The rate of fluid influx per unit sand thickness

under these conditions is given by Darcy's equation

q(T) = 21TK (r OP) " (IV.I)

/L or r = 1

If we wish to determine the cumulative influx of fluid in

absolute time T, and having expressed time in the diffusivity

equation as t = KT/f/LcRb" then

T 21TK f,acRo' t

Q('I') = f q(T) dT = J

o· /L K 0

= 21TfcRh

2

Q(t)

where

(

OP)

-- dt

or r = 1

(IV·2)

Q«) = / (OP ) dt (IV.3)

o or r = 1

In brief, knowing the general solution implied by Eq. IV·3,

which expresses the integration in dimensionless time, t, of the

pressure gradient at radius unity for a pressure drop of one

atmosphere, the cumulative influx into the well bore or into the

oil.bearing portion of the field can be determined by Eq. IV·2.

Furthermore, for any pressure drop, f,P, Eq. IV·2 expresses

the cumulative influx as

Q('I') = 21TfcR,,' f,P Q", (IV·4)

per unit sand thickness.*

* The set of symbols now introduced and the reoorted in

Hurst's1 earlier paper on water-drive are related as follows:

t

G(o;' O/R') = Q(l) and G(o;' B/R') r Q(t) dt where

o·

0;' e/R' = t

December, 1949 PETROlEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 307

T.P. 2732 THE APPLICATION OF THE lAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

When an oil reservoir and the adjoining water-bearing for-

mations are contained between two parallel and sealing fault-

ing planes, the flow of fluid is essentially parallel to these

planes and is "linear." The constant terminal pressure case

can also be applied to this case. The basic equation for linear

flow is given by

O'P

Ox'

oP

at

(IV-S)

where now t = KT / fl'c and x is the absolute distance meas·

ured from the plane of influx extending out into the water-

bearing sand. If we assume the same boundary conditions as

in radial flow, with P = P(x, t) as the solution, then by

Darcy's law, the rate of fluid influx across the original water-

oil contact per unit of cross-sectional area is expressed by

qUi = ( x=o

(IV-6)

The total fluid influx is given by

! K fl'c .t ( oP )

Q(T) = j q('l') dT = --. --- j -- dt

o I' K 0 Ox x=o

= f C Q(l) (IV-7)

where Q(" lS the generalized for linear flow and is

equal to

( OF )

Q(l) = J .-

o OX

dt (IV-8)

x==o

Therefore, for any over-all pressure drop L.F, Eq. IV-7 gives

Q{'j') = fcL.P Q,,) (IV-9)

per unit of cross-sectional area.

Constant Terminal Rate Case

In the constant terminal rate ca:-;e it is likewise assumed that

initially the pressure everywhere in the formation is constant

but that from the time zero onward the fluid is withdrawn

from the well bore or reservoir boundary at a unit rate. The

pressure drop is given by P = p(,.,t), and at the boundary of

the field, where r = 1, (OP/

O

r)..=l = -1. The minus sign

is introduced because the gradient for the pressure drop rela-

tive to the radius of the well or reoervoir is negative. If the

cumulative pressure drop is expressed as L.P, then

.' (IV-IO)

where q(t) is a constant relating the cumulative pressure drop

with the pressure change for a unit rate of production. By

applying Darcy's equation for the rate of fluid flowing into

the well or reservoir per unit sand thickness

where q(T) is the rate of water encroachment per unit area of

cross-ECction, and P

tt

) is the cumulative pressure drop at the

sand face per unit rate of production.

Superposition Theorem

With these fundamental relationships available. it remams

to be shown how the constant pressure case can be interpreted

for variable terminal pressures, or in the constant rate case,

for variable rates. The linearity of the diffusivity equation al-

lows the application of the superposition theorem as a se-

quence of constant terminal or constant rates in

such a fashion that it reproduces the pressure or production

hiHory at the boundary, r = 1. This is essentially Duhamel's

principle, for which reference can be made to transient electric

circuit theory in texts by Karman and Biot,S and Bush." It has

been applied t olhe flow of fluids by Muskat,' Schilthuis and

Hurst,' in employing the variable rate case in calculating the

pressure drop in the East Texas Field:

The physical significance can best be realized by an appli-

cation. Fig. I-A shows the pressure decline in the well bore

or a field that has been flowing and for which we wish to ob-

tain the amount of fluid produced. As shown, the pressure

history is reproduced as a series of pressure plateaus which

a sequence of constant terminal pressures. Therefore,

hy the application of Eq. IV-4, the cumulative fluid produced

in time t by· the pressure drop L.P", operative since zero time,

is expre,'ed hy Q(T) = 27rfcRb' ,0,1'" Q't). If we next consider

r-Q(t)

q(T! = -21rK ( QL.P) =-2

1r

K q(,) (oP(r,t))

I' Or" = 1 I' or r = 1 101---/

h

· h ' l·fi q('nl' Th f

w IC sImp I es to q(t) = --. ere ore, for any constant

21rK

rate of production the cumulative pressure drop at the field

radius is given by

P _ qcnl' P

,0, - 27rK (t)

(IV-ll)

Similarly, for the constant rate of production m linear flow,

the cumulative pressure drop is expressed by

L.P = qcnl' p

K (ti

(IV-I2)

FIG, 4 - RADIAL FLOW, CONSTANT TERMINAL PRESSURE CASE, INFIN-

ITE RESERVOIR, CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION VS. TIME.

308 PETROlEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

the pressure drop ,6P" which occurs in time t" and treat this

as a separate entity, but take cognizance of its time of incep-

tion t

"

then the cumulative fluid produced by this increment

of pressure drop is Q(t) = 2trfcRb' ,6P, Q(t-tl)' By super-

imposing all the.'e effects of pressure changes, the total influx

in time t is expressed as

Q(T) = 27rfcRh' [,6Po Q(t) + ,6P,Q(t-t

,

) +

,6P,Q(tt,) + ,6P,Q(t-t

3

) + ] (IV-I3)

when t > I,. To reproduce the smooth curve relationship of

Fig. I-A, these pressure plateaus can be taken as infinitesim-

ally small, which give the summation of Eq. IV-13 by the

integral

, o,6P

QfT) = 27rfcR,,- j ---- Q(t-t') dt' .

o· at'

(IV-I4)

By considering variable rates of fluid production, such as

shown in Fig. I-B, and reproducing these rates as a series of

constant rate plateaus, then by Eq. IV -11 the pressure drop in

the well bore in time t, for the initial rate q" is ,6P

o

= qoP(t).

At time t" the comparable increment for constant rate is ex-

pressed as .q, - qo, and the effect of this increment rate on

the corresponding increment of pressure drop is ,6P, =

(q, - qJ p(t-tl)' Again by superimposing all of these effects,

the determination for the cumulative pressure drop is ex-

pressed by

,6P = q(o) Ptt ) + [q, (t, ) - q(O)] p(t-t,) + [q(t,) - q(t

,

)]

p(t-t .. ) + [q(t3) -q(f,)] p(t-t,) + (IV-I5)

2.01----+---I'---T"---t------ir-------f-----__+--------j

1.5r----__ -----!lr----__

"R =2.0

I. OJ----f--+-----+-----f-------+-----__+--------l

ASYMTOTIC VALUE 0.625

R = 1.5

o 0

FIG. 5 - RADIAL FLOW, CONSTANT TERMINAL PRESSURE CASE,

CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION VS. TIME FOR LIMITED RESERVOIRS.

If the increments are infinitesimal, or the smooth curve rela-

tionship applies, Eq. IV-I5 becomes

t dq(t')

,6P = q(o) P(t) + J -- p(t-t') dt'

o dt'

If q(o) = 0, Eq. IV-I6 can also be expressed as

t

(IV-I6)

,6P = J q(t') p'(t-t') dt' (IV-I7)

o

where p'(t) is the derivative of Pit) with respect to t.

Since Eqs. IV-I3 and IV-I5 are of such simple algebraic

forms, they are most practical to use with production history

in making reservoir studies. In applying the pressure or rate

plateaus as shown in Fig. 1, it must be realized that the time

interval for each plateau should be taken as small as possible,

so as to reproduce within engineering accuracy the trend of

the curves. Naturally, if an exact interpretation is desired, Eqs.

IV-I4 and IV-I6 apply.

FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

In applying the Laplace transformation, there are certain

fundamental operations that must be clarified. It has been

stated that if P (t) is a pressure drop, the transformation for

Pit) is given by Eq. III-I, as

To visualize more concretely the meaning of this equation, if

the unit pressure drop at the boundary in the constant termi-

nal pressure case is employed in Eq. III-I, its transform is

given by

00

-pt

-e

1

(V-I) PiP) = J e-

pt

1 dt = --- 1

o p

p

o

The Laplace transformations of many transcendental functions

have been developed and are available in tables, the most com-

plete of which is thc tract by Campbell and Foster.' It is there-

fore often possible after solving a total differential such as

Eq. 1I1-3 to refer to a of tables and transforms and deter-

mine the invcrse of PCP) or Pit). It is frequently necessary to

simplify PiP) before an inversion can be made. However, Mel-

lin's inversion formula is always applicable, which requires

analytical treatment whenever used.

There are two possible simplifications for PCP) when time

is small or time is large. This is evident from Eq. 111-3, where

p can be interpreted by the operational calculus as the oper-

ator d/ dt. Therefore, if we consider this symbolic relation,

then if t is lorge, p must be small, or inversely, if t is small,

p will be large. To understand this, if PiP) is expressed by an

involved Bessel relationship, the substitution for p as a small

or large value will simplify Pcp) to give Pit) for the corre-

sponding times.

Mellin's inversion formula is given on page 71 of Carslaw

and Jaeger:'

December, 1949 PETROlEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 309

T.P. 2732 THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

1

p(t·=--

, 271"i

eAt P d A

(A)

where P

(A)

is the transform P

(p)

Where this report is con-

corned with pressure drops, the above can be written as

1

P )-p -- r

(t, (t

2

) - 2 ..

At, Ato

(e -e -) P dA. (V-2)

(A) 71"1

'Y--i r:JJ

The integration is in the complex plane A = x + iy, along a

line parallel to the y-axis, extending from minus to positive

infinity, and a distance I' removed from the origin, so that all

poles are to the left of this line, Fig. 2. The reader who has a

comprehensive understanding of contour integrals will recog-

nize that this integral is equal to the integration a.round a

semi-circle of infinite radius extending to the left of the line

x = 1', and includes integration along the "cuts," which joins

the poles to the semi-circle. Since the integration along the

semi-circle in the second and third quadrant is zero for radius

infinity and t>O, this leaves the integration along the "cuts"

and the poles, where the latter, as expressed in Eq. V-2, are

the residuals.

Certain fundamental relationship3 III the Laplace trans-

formations are found useful: ll)

Theorem A If P,p, is the transform of p(», then

or the transform

= p fi,p,

dP(t)

of -- = p

dt

o

p(t=O)

approaches zero as time approaches infinity.

00

Theorem B The transform of r p(t') dt' is expressed by

o'

00 t _e-Pt

J e-

pt

J p(t') dt' dt = -- J p(t') dt'

o 0 p 0

p

o

1 IX)

+ J e-

pt

p(t) dt

po

or the transform of the integration p(t') with respect to t'

_ t

from zero to t is p'P)/p, if e-

pt

J p(t') dt' is zero for time

o

infinity.

Theorem C The transform for e±ct p,» is equal to

CD IX)

oJ e-

pt

e±ct P(l) dt = oJ e-(P:;:-O)t P,t} dt = P,p:cJ

if p - c is positive.

Theorem D If P,(p) is the transform of P,(t), and P,(p)

is the transform of P" t), then the product of these two trans-

forms is the transform of the integral

t

oJ p,(t') P"t-t') dt'

-r-PRESSURE DROP IN ATMOSPHERES- P(t)

1.80

I.

2.0011---+-

2.101--+_-_+-\-_1--\

FIG. 6 - RADIAL FLOW, CONSTANT TERMINAL RATE CASE, PRESSURE

DROP VS. TIME, Pit) VS. t

This integral is comparable to the integrals developed by the

superimposition theorem, and of appreciable use in this

paper.

CONSTANT TERMINAL PRESSURE AND

CONSTANT TERMINAL RATE CASES,

INFINITE MEDIUM

The analytics for the constant terminal pressure and ratc

cases have been developed for limited reservoirs'" when the

exterior boundary is considered closed or the production rate

through this boundary is fixed. In determining the volume of

water encroached into the oil-bearing portion of reservoirs,

few cases have' been encountered which indicated that the

sands in which the oil occurs are of limited extent. For the

most part, the data show that the influx behaves as if the

water-bearing parts of the formations are of infinite extent,

because within the productive life of oil recervoirs, the rate of

water encroachment does not reflect the influence of an ex-

terior boundary. In other words, whether or not the water sand

is of limited extent, the rate of water encroachment is such as

if supplied by an infinite medium.

310 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

Computing the water influx for an infinite reservoir with the

help of Fourier-Bessel expansions, an exterior boundary can

be assumed so far removed from the field radius that the pro-

duction for a considerable time will reflect the infinite caEe.

Unfortunately, the poor convergence of these expansions inval-

idates this approach. An alternative method consists of using

increasing values for exterior radius, evaluating the water in-

flux for each radius separately, and then drawing the envelope

of these curves, which gives the infinite case, Fig. 5. In such

a procedure, each of the branch curves reflects a water reser-

voir of limited extent. Inasmuch as the drawing of an envelope

does not give a high degree of acuracy, the solutions for the

constant terminal pressure and constant terminal rate cases

for an infinite medium are presented here, with values for

Q(t> and Pet) calculated directly.

The constant terminal pressure case was first developed by

Nicholson" by the application of Green's function to an instan-

taneous circular source in an infinite medium. Goldstein" pre-

sented this solution by the operational method, and Smith

13

employed Carslaw's contour method in its development. Cars-

law and Jaeger"'" later gave the explicit treatment of the

constant terminal pressure case by the application of the La-

place transformation. The derivation of the constant terminal

rate case is not given in the literature, and its development

is presented here.

The Constant Rate Case

As already discussed, the boundary conditions for the con-

stant rate case in an infinite medium are that (1) the pres-

sure drop P «, t) is zero initially at every point in the forma-

tion, and (2) at the radius of the field (r = l) we have

3.61------_t_---+

3.41------ _-T----4-+-il------4-------!-

2.8 s

IXIO 3 5

(

OP) .

-- = -1 at all tImes.

Or r=l

A reference to a text on Bessel functions, such as Karman

and Biot,' pp. 61-63, shows that the general solution for Eq.

111-3 is given by

(VI-I)

where 10 (rYp) and Ko(rYp) are modified Bessel func-

tions of the first and second kind, respectively, and of zero

order. A and B are two constants which satisfy a second order

differential equation. Since P (r.p) is the transform of the

pressure drop at a point in the formation, and because at a

point not yet affected by production the absolute pressure

equals the initial pressure, it is required that P (r,p) should

approach zero as r becomes large. As shown in Karman and

Biot,' 10 (r Y p ) becomes increasingly large and Ko (r V p)

approaches zero as the argument (r V p ) increases. There-

fore, to obey the initial condition, the constant A must equal

zero and (VI-l) becomes

(VI-2)

To fulfill the second boundary condition for unit rate of

production, namely (oPlor).,", = -1, the transform for

unity gives

1

p

(VI-3)

by Eq. V-I. The differentiation of the modified Bessel func-

tion of the second kind, Watson's Bessel Functions," W.B.F.,

p. 79, gives Ko'(z) = -K,(z). Therefore, differentiation Eq.

6.8

R-200

6.6

I

R-S 6,4

6.2

6.0

5.8

R-300

5.6

3 5 8

FIG. 7 - RADIAL FLOW, CONSTANT TERMINAL RATE CASE, CUMULATIVE PRESSURE DROP VS. TIME P(t) VS. t

December, 1949 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME

311

T,P, 2132 THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

VI-2, with respect to r at r = 1, gives

and since

(

OP) .-

- = -By p

or r=1

1

p

K,\ 'v p )

the constant B = lip'!' K, (V p ). Therefore, the transform

for the pressure drop for the constant rate case in an infinite

medium is given by

P,,·,p) = (VI-4)

p'/'K, (V p )

To determine the inver3e of Eq. VI-4 in order to establish

the pressure drop at radius unity, we can resort to the sim-

plification that for small times the operator p is large. Since

Kn(z) = e

2z

(VI-S)

for z large, W.B.F., p. 202, thell

1

P(l,P) (VI-6l

p"I'

The inversion for thi" transform

Foster, Eq. 516, as

JS given in Campbell and

2

(VI-7)

'/71"

In brief, Eq. VI-7 states that when t = K T/f/LcRb' is small,

which can he caw,ed by the boundary radius for the iield, R,,,

being large, the pressure drop for the unit rate of production

approximates the condition for linear flow.

To justify this conclusion, the treatment of the linear flow

equation, Eq. IV-S, by the Laplace transformation gives

dx'

pp'P) (VI-8)

for which the general solution is the expression

p'X,p) = Ae-

xVP

+ Be+xV---;;- (VI-9)

By repeating the reasoning already employed in this develop-

ment, the transform for the pressure drop at x = 0 gives

P(OVp) = IIp'/'

which is identical with (VI-6) with p the operator of t

KT/f/Lc.

The second simplification for the transform \ VI-4) is to

consider p small, which is equivalent to considering time, t,

large. The expansions for Ko (z) and K, (z) are given in Cars-

law and Jaeger," p. 248.

= - Io(z) + 'Y r + ( Z_)'

2 L

, (VI-IO)

+ (2!)' +-- (3!)' +

z

Kn(z) =- (_1)"+1 In(z) 110g-+'Y l

, 2 (

(

1 00 'J

+ - (_1)" ------ [ :::; m-

'

+

2 ,,0 r! (n+r)!

1 n-l ( Z )_n+2' (n-r-l)!

+ - :::; (-1)' - ----,-

2 ." 2 r!

(VI-ll)

where 'Y is Euler's constant 0.57722, and the logarithmic term

consists of natural logarithms. When z is small

z

Ko (z) - [log "2 -t- 'Y]

K,(z) liz

Therefore, Eq. VI-4 becomes

-log p + (Jog 2 - 'Y)

P (',1') = --:)--

p

(VI-12)

(VI-l3)

(VI-14)

The inversion for the first term on the right is given by Camp-

bell and Foster, Eq. 892, and the inverse of the second term by

FIG. 8 - CONSTANT RATE OF PRODUCTION IN THE STOCK TANK,

ADJUSTING FOR THE UNLOADING OF FLUID IN THE ANNULUS, Pit)

VERSUS t where Z = c/27rfcR,,', AND c is the VOLUME OF FLUID UN-

LOADED FROM THE ANNULUS, CORRECTED TO RESERVOIR CONDI-

TIONS, PER ATJvlOSPHERE BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE DROP, PER UNIT

SAND THICKNESS.

Eq. V-I. Therefore, the pressure drop at the boundary of the

field when t i,; large is given by

1

p,,) = -2 [log 4t - 'Y ]

1

-- [log t + 0.80907 ]

2

(VI-IS)

The solution given bv Eq. VI-IS is the solution of the con-

tinuous point source problem for large time 1. The relationship

has been applied to the flow of fluids by Bruce," Elkins," and

others, and is particularly applicable for study of interference

between flowing welk

The point source solution originally developed by Lord Kel-

vin and in Carsl aw18 can be expressed as

1 :r e-" 1 (1 )

P"',I) =- ,J -- dn =--) -Ei -- r

2 It n 2 4t

(VI-16l

often referred to as the logarithmic integral or the Ei-func-

tion. Its values are given in Tahle" of Sine, Cosine, and Expo-

nential Integrah Volumes I and II, Federal Works Agency,

W.P.A., City of New York. For large values of the time, t,

I

Eq. VI-16 reduces to P". 1) = -- [log 4t - 'Y] which is Eq.

2

VI-IS, and this relation is accurate for values of t> 100.

312 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

By this development it is evident that the point source solu-

tion does not apply at a boundary for the determination of the

pressure drop when t is small. However, when the radius, Rb ,

is small, such as a well radius, even small values of the abso-

lute time, T will give large values of the dimensionless time t,

and the point source solution is applicable. On the other

hand, in considering the presmre drop at the periphery of a

field (in which case Rb can have a large numerical value) the

value of t can be easily less than 100 even for large values of

absolute time, T. Therefore, for intermediate times, the rig-

orous solution of the constant rate case must be used, which

we will now proceed to oLtain.

To develop the explicit solution for the constant terminal

rate case, it is necessary to invert the Laplace transform, Eq.

V 1-4., by the Mellin's inversion formula. The path of integra-

tjon for this transform is described by the "cut" along the

negative real axis, Fig. 2, which give6 a single valued function

on each side of the "cut." That is to say that Path AB re-

quired by j<;q. V -2 is equal to the Pat11 AD and CB, both of

which are descnbed by a semi-circle of radius infillity. Since

lts integration is zero JIl the second and third quadrant, this

leaves the mtegratlOn along l'atils Du and UC equal LO AB.

The integration on tlie upper portion of the "cut' can be ob-

tained by making A = u' e which yields

At, At, -

1 _JC(e -e )Ko(VAr)

--:;-:-- J d A

0

A"I' K,( V A

-u't -u'L

1 J:; (e '-e -) Ko (u e' r) du

J

trIO lrr 17r

u' e K, ( u e' ) (VI-17)

Carslaw and Jaeger" (page 249) shows that modified Bassel

i7l"

±-

2

functions of the first and second kind of arguments z e

can be expressed by the regular Bessel functions as complex

values, as follows:

and

The

171"

±-

2

10 (z e )

i7l"

±-

2

Ko (z e )

I, (z e 2)

171"

±-

2

K,(z e )

L(z)

± .L(z).

71"

-2 [J,(z) + i Y,(z) ]

substitution of the corresponding

(VI-I8)

values for

Likewise, the integration along the under portion of the

negative real "Cilt" is expressed by A =

At, At, -

} Ko (V A

271" CXJ

1

A3;" K,(V A

-171"

u' e

-1 CXJ (e-u't'_e-u2t2) Ko (u e-

i

7l"/2 r) du

-J

71" 0 -i7l"/2 -i7l"/2

u e K,(u e )

Using Eq. VI-18, yields the relationship

and

-u

2

t, -u

2

t.

1 CXJ(e -e -)[Y,(u)Jo(ur)-J,(u)YO(ur)]

-;;:-) + Y,'(u)]

du

(VI-20)

The integration along Paths DO and OC is the sum of the

relations VI-I9 and VI-20, or

Pcr. '1) - Per. t,) =

2 [Y,(u) .To(ur) -J,(U) Yo(ur)] du

-;;:-) u'[J,'(u) + Y,'(u)]

Initially, that is at time zero, the cumulative pressure drop at

any point in the formation is zero, Per. = O. Hence, the

pressure drop since zero time equals:

-u

2

t

2 CXJ (1- e ) [J,(U) Yo(u r) - Y,(u) Jo(u r)] du

Pe,·.t) = -;;:-). u'[J,'(u) + Y,'(u)]

(VI-2I)

which is the explicit solution of the constant terminal rate case

for an infinite medium.

To determine the cumulative pressure drop for a unit rate

of production at the well bore or field radius, (where r = 1)

then Eq. VI-21 changes to

-u't

2 CXJ(I-e ) [J,(U) Yo(u)-Y,(u) Jo(u)] du

P(l.t) =--:;;0.1 u' [J,'(u) +Y,'(u)]

By the recurrence formula given in W.B.F., p. 77

2

J,(u) Yo(u) - L(u) Y,(u) =

7I"U

Equation VI-22 simplifies to

4 CXJ (1- e-u't) du

p(t)=,f

71" 0 u" [J,

2

(U) + Y,'(u)]

Constant Terminal Pressure Case

(VI-22)

(VI-23)

(VI-24)

As already shown, the transform of the pressure drop in

an infinite medium is P (r.p) = B Ko ( v'p r). In the constant

terminal pressure case it is assumed that at all times the pres-

sure drop at r = 1 will be unity, which is expressed as a

transform by Eq. V-I

P(1.P) = lip

By solving for the constant B at r = 1 in the above formula,

i7l"/2 i7l"/2 fidB I K(v') h

Ko (u e r) and K, (u e ) from Eq. VI-18 in Eq. VI-17 we n = 1 PoP ,so t at the transform for the

gives the integration along the upper portion of the negative pressure at any point in the reservoir is expressed by

real "cut" as

-u

2

t -u't,

1 ct:J (e '_e

) [Y,(u) -Jo(ur) -J,(U) Yo(ur)] du

. u' [J,'(u) + Y,'(u) ]

(VI-I9)

where the imaginary term has been dropped.

- Ko(Vp r)

p(r.p) = ---- (VI-2S)

p Ko( v'p)

The comparable solution of VI-25 for a cumulative pressure

drop can be developed as before by considering the paths of

Fig. 2, with a pole at the origin, to give the solution

December, 1949 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 313

T.P. 2732

THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

P(r, (1)-P(r, t,) =

2 Yo(ur)-Yo(u) Jo(ur)]du

71" ) u'[lo'(u) + Yo'(u)] (VI-26)

If we are interesterl in the cumulative fluid influx at the field

radius, r = 1, then the relationship Eq. IV-3' applies, or

( oP )

Q(t) = J -- dt

o Of r= 1

(IV-3)

The determination of the transform of the gradient of the

pressure drop at the field's edge follows from Eq. VI-25,

)r=l=

since K: (z) = - K, (z). Since the pressure drop P (r, t) corre-

sponds to the difference between the initial and actual pres·

sure, the transform 0.£ the gradient of the actual pressure at

r = 1 is given by

or r=1

or

K,( V p )

which corresponds to the integrand of Eq. IV·3. Further, from

the definition given by Theorem B, namely, that if P (p) is the

t

transform of P(th then the transform of oJ p(t') dt' is given by

P (p) I p and the La place transform for Q,,) is expressed by

(VI-27)

The application of the Mellin's inversion formula to Eq. VI-27

follows the paths shown in Fig. 2, giving

,

-u t

(1- e .\ du 4 IX'

Q(t) = - J -,---------

71"' 0 u [Jo'(u) + Yo2(U) ]

(VI.28)

With respect to the transform Q(P)' there is the simplification

that for time small, p is large, or Eq. VI-27 reduces to

Q(P) = lip'!'

and the inversion is as before

2

Q(t) = --- 1'/'

V--:;-

(VI.29)

(VI-30)

which is identical to the linear flow case. For all other values

of the time, Eq. VI·28 must be solved numerically.

Relation Between Q(p) and Pip)

It is evident from the work that has already gone before,

that the Laplace transformation and the superimposition the·

orem offer a basis for interchanging the constant terminal

pressure to the constant terminal rate case, and vice versa. In

any reservoir study the essential interest is the analyses of

the flow either at the well bore or the field boundary. The

purpose of this work is to determine the relationship between

Q (t), the constant terminal pressure case, and P (t), the con-

stant terminal rate case, which explicitly refer to the boundary

r = 1. Therefore, if we conceive of the influx of fluid into a

TABLE I - Radial Flow, Constant Terminal Pressure

and Constant Terminal Rate Cases for Infinite

Reservoirs

1.0(10)-'

5.0 "

1.0(10)-1

1.5 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

1.0(10)1

1.5 "

2.0 H

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 ((

9.0 "

1.0(10)'

1.5 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)'

1. 5(10)1

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)'

1.5 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 H

9.0 "

1.0(10)'

1.5 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 H

4.0 u

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)11

1.5 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 H

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)"

0.112

0.278

0.404

0.520

0.606

0.689

0.758

0.898

1.020

1.140

1.251

1.359

1.469

1.570

2.032

2.442

2.838

3.209

3.897

4.541

5.148

5.749

6.314

6.861

7.417

9.965

1.229(10)1

1. 455 "

1.681 "

2.088 !'

2.482 "

2.860 "

3.228 "

3.599 "

3.942 "

4.301 "

5.980 "

7.586 "

9.120 "

10.58

13.48 "

16.24 "

18.97 "

21. 60 "

24.23 "

26.77 "

29.31 "

P

(t)

0.112

0.229

0.315

0.376

0.424

0.469

0.503

0.564

0.616

0.659

0.702

0.735

0.772

0.802

0.927

1.020

1.101

1.169

1.275

1.362

1.436

1.500

1.556

1.604

1.651

1.829

1.960

2.067

2.147

2.282

2.388

2.476

2.550

2.615

2.672

2.723

2.921

3.064

3.173

3.263

3.406

3.516

3.608

3.684

3.750

3.809

3.860

1.5(10)'

2.0 "

2.5 "

3;0 "

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 H

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)'

1.5 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 ((

9.0 "

1.0(10)'

1.5 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)'

1.5 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 '(

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)1

TABLE I - Continued

1. 828(10)'

2.398 "

2.961 "

3.517 "

4.610 "

5.689 "

6.758 "

7.816 "

8.866 "

9.911 "

10.95 "

1. 604(10)'

2.108 "

2.607 "

3.100 "

4.071 "

5.032 "

5.984 "

6.928 "

7.865 "

8.797 "

9.725 "

1.429(10),

1. 880 "

2.328 "

2.771 "

3.645 "

4.510 "

5.368 "

6.220 "

7.066 "

7.909 "

8.747 "

1.288(10)'

1. 697 "

2.103 "

2.505 "

3.299 "

4.087 "

4.868 "

5.643 "

6.414 "

7.183 "

7.948 "

1.5(10)"

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 H

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)1'

1.5 "

2.0 "

4.136(10)'

5.315 "

6.466 "

7.590 "

9.757

11.88 "

13.95 "

15.99 "

18.00 "

19.99 "

21. 96 "

3.146(10)3

4.079 "

4.994 "

5.891 "

7.634 "

9.342 "

11.03 "

12.69 "

14.33 "

15.95 "

17 .56 "

2.538(10)'

3.308 "

4.066

4.817 "

6.267 "

7.699 "

9.113 "

10.51 "

11.89 "

13.26 "

14.62 "

2126(10)5

2.781 "

3.427 "

14.064 "

5.313 "

6.544 "

7.761 "

8.965 "

10.16 "

11.34 "

12.52 "

1.17(10)10

1.55 "

1.92 "

2.29 "

3.02 "

3.75 "

4.47 "

5.19 "

5.89 "

6.58 "

7.28 "

1.08(10)"

1.42 "

314 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

T ABLE II - Constant Terminal Pressure Case

Radial Flow, Limited Reservoirs

R = 1.5 R -= 2.0 H == 2.5

1

R = 3.0

", = 2.8899

", = 9.3452

", = 1.3606

== 4.6458 ,,

"._', -_-- 0.8663 I

3.0875

", = 0.6256

", = 2.3041

5.0(10)-2

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)-1

1.1 "

1.2 H

1.3 "

1.4 "

1.5 "

1.6 "

1. 7 "

I 8 "

1: 9 "

2.0 "

2.1

2.2 "

2.3 "

2.4 "

2.5 "

2.6 "

2.8 "

3.0 "

3.2 "

3.4 "

3.6 I(

3.8 "

4.0 "

4.5 "

5.0 H

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

0.276

0.304

0.330

0.354

0.375

0.395

0.414

0.431

0.446

0.461

0.474

0.486

0.497

0.507

0.517

0.525

0.533

0.541

0.548

0.554

0.559

0.565

0.574

0.582

0.588

0.594

0.599

0.603

0.606

0.613

0.617

0.621

0.623

0.624

5.0(10)-'

7.5 "

10(10)-1

1.25 "

1.50 "

1. 75 "

2.00 "

2.25 "

2.50 "

2.75 "

3.00 "

3.25 "

3.50 "

3.75 "

4.00 "

4.25 "

4.50 "

4.75 "

5.00 "

5.50 "

6.00 "

6.50 "

7.00 "

7.50 "

8.00 "

9.00 "

1.00

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.6

1.7

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

4.0

5.0

gm U(1,?)-l U(1,?)-l

0.404 2.0" 0.599 5.0"

0.458 2.5" 0.681 6.0"

0.507 3.0" I 0.758 7.0"

0.553 3.5" 0.829 8.0"

0.597 4.0" 0.897 9.0"

0.638 4.5" 0.962 1.00

0.678 5.0" 1.024 1.25

0.715 5.5" 1.083 1.50

0.751 6.0" 1.140 1.75

0.785 6.5" 1.1951 2.00

0.817 7.0" ;248 2.25

0.848 7.5" 1.229 2.50

0.877 8.0" 1.348 2.75

0.905 8.5" 1.395 3.00

0.932 9.0" 1.440 3.25

0.958 9.5" 1.484 3.50

0.983 1.0 1.526 3.75

1. 028 1.1 I. 605 4.00

1. 070 1.2 1. 679 4.25

1.108 1.3 1. 747 4.50

1.143 1.4 1.811 4.75

1.174 1.5 1.870 5.00

1.203 1.6 1.924 5.50

1.253 1.7 1.975 6.00

1.295 1.8 2.022 6.50

1.330 2.0 2.106 7.00

1.358 2.2 2.178 7.50

1.382 2.4 2.241 8.00

1.402 2.6 2.294 9.00

1.432 2.8 2.340 10.00

1.444 3.0 2.380 11.00

1.453 3.4 2.444 12.00

1.468 3.8 2.491 14.00

;.487 4.2 2.525 16.00

1.495 4.6 2.551 18.00

1.499 5.0 2.570 20.00

1.500 6.0 2.599 22.00

8.0 2.619

Q't)

0.755

0.895

1.023

1.143

1.256

1.363

1.465

1.563

1.791

!.D97

2.184

2.353

2.507

2.646

2.772

2.886

2.990

3.084

3.170

3.247

3.317

3.381

3.439

3.491

3.581

3.656

3.717

3.767

3.809

3.843

3.894

3.928

3.951

3.£67

3.985

3.993

3.997

3.999

3.999

4.000

I

7.0 2.613 24.00

9.0 2.622 I

____ __

R = 3.5

", = 0.4851

", == 1.8374

1.00

1.20

1. 40

1.60

1.80

2.00

2.20

2.40

2.60

2.80

3.00

3.25

3.50

3.75

4.00

4.25

4.50

4.75

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

7.50

8.00

8.50

9.00

9.50

10.00

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

20

25

30

35

40

1.571

1. 761

1. 940

2.111

2.273

2.427

2.574

2.715

2.849

2.976

3.098

3.242

3.379

3.507

3.628

3.742

3.850

3.951

4.047

4.222

4.378

4.516

4.639

4.749

4.846

4.932

5.009

5.078

5.138

5.241

5.321

5.385

5.435

5.476

5.506

5.531

5.551

5.579

5.611

5.621

5.624

5.625

TABLE II - Continued

R = 4.0

", = 0.3935

", = 1.5267

2.00

2.20

2.40

2.60

2.80

3.00

3.25

3.50

3.75

4.00

4.25

4.50

4.75

5.00

550\

6.00

6.50

7.00

7.50

8.00

8.50

9.00

9.50

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

20

22

24

26

30

34

38

42

46

50

2.442

2.598

2.748

2.893

3.034

3.170

3.334

3.493

3.645

3.792

3.932

4.068

4.198

4.323

4.560

4.779

4.982

5.169

5.343

5.504

5.653

5.790

5.917

6.035

6.246

6.425

6.580

6.7'2

6.825

6.922

7.004

7.076

7.189

7.272

7.332

7.377

7.434

7.464

7.481

7.490

7.494

7.497

R = 4.5

", = 0.3296

", = 1.3051

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

34

38

42

46

50

60

70

80

90

100

2.835

3.196

3.537

3.859

4.165

4.454

4.727

4.986

5.231

5.464

5.684

5.892

6.089

6.276

6.453

6.621

6.930

7.208

7.457

7.680

7.880

8.060

8.365

8.611

8.809

8.968

9.097

9.200

9.283

9.404

9.481

9.532

9565

9.586

9.612

9.621

9.623

9.624

9.625

R = 5.0

", = 0.2823

", = 1.1392

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

34

38

42

46

50

60

70

80

90

100

120

3.195

3.542

3.875

4.193

4.499

4.792

5.074

5.345

5.605

5.854

6.094

6.325

6.547

6.760

6.965

7.350

7.706

8.035

8.339

8.620

8.879

9.338

9.731

10.07

10.35

10.59

10.80

10.98

11.26

11.46

11.61

11. 71

11.79

11.91

11.96

11.98

11.99

12.00

12.0

R = 6.0

", = 0.2182

", = 0.9025

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

10.5

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

22

24

25

31

35

39

51

60

70

80

PO

100

JlO

120

130

140

150

160

180

200

220

5.148

5.440

5.724

6.002

6.273

6.537

6.795

7.047

7.293

7.533

7.767

8.220

8.651

9.063

9.456

9.829

10.19

10.53

10.85

11.16

11.74

12.26

12.50

13.74

14.40

14.93

16.05

16.56

16.91

17.14

17.27

17.36

17.41

17.45

17.46

17.48

17.49

17.49

17.50

17.50

17.50

weB or field as a constant rate problem, then the actual cumu-

lative fluid produced as a function of the cumulative pressure

drop is expressed by the superposition relationship in Eq.

IV-14 as

t

Q(T) = 27rfCRb' J --- Q(t-t') dt'

o dt'

(IV-14)

when is the cumulative pressure drop at the well bore

affected by producing the well at constant rate which is estab-

lished by

q,'1") IL P(t)

=

2rrK

The substitution of Eg. 1'/-11 ill IV-14 give;

q(T) flLCRb' d P(t')

Q(T) = K ) ---;w-- Q(t'l')

(IV-H)

dt'

Since the rate is constant, Q(T)=q(T) x T, and as t=KT/flLcR,;

this relation becomes

t dP(t')

t = f -- Q(tl') dt' (VI-31)

o dt'

To express Eq. VI-31 in transformation form, the transform

for t is lip', Campbell and Foster, Eq. 408.1. The transform

for P (t) at r = I is P (p), and it follows from Theorem A that

dP(t)

the transform of is pP(V) as the cumulative pressure

dt

drop P, t) for constant rate is zero at time zero. Finally from

Theorem D, the transform for the integration of the form Eq.

VI-31 is equal to the product of the transforms for each of the

two terms in the integrand, or

R _

7.0

", = 0.1767

", = 0.7534

9.00

9.50

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

22

24

26

28

30

35

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

120

140

160

180

200

500

6.851

7. ,27

7.389

7.902

8.397

8.876

9.341

9.791

10.23

10.65

11.05

11.46

11.85

12.58

13.27

13.92

14.53

15.11

16.39

17.49

18.43

19.24

20.51

21.45

22.13

22.63

23.00

23.47

23.71

23.85

23.92

23.96

24.00

TABLE II - Continued

R _ 8.0

", = 0.1476

a, = 0.6438

t

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

22

24

26

28

30

34

38

40

45

50

55

60

70

80

90

100

120

140

160

180

200

240

280

320

360

400

500

6.861

7.398

7.920

8.431

8.930

9.418

9.895

10.361

10.82

11.26

11. 70

12.13

12.95

13.74

14.50

15.23

15.92

17.22

18.41

18.97

20.26

21.42

22.46

23.40

24.98

26.26

27.28

28.11

29.31

30.08

30.58

30.91

31.12

31.34

31.43

31.47

31.49

31.50

31.50

R _ 9.0

a

,

0.1264

a, = 0.5740

t

10

15

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

40

42

H

46

48

50

52

54

56

58

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

120

140

160

180

200

240

280

320

360

400

440

480

7.41,

9.945

12.26

13.13

13.98

14.79

15.59

16.35

7.10

17.82

18.52

19.19

19.85

20.48

21.09

21.69

22.26

22.82

23.36

23.89

24.39

24.88

25.36

26.48

27.52

28.48

29.36

30.18

30.93

31.63

32.27

34.39

35.92

37.04

37.85

38.44

39.17

39.56

39.77

39.88

39.94

39.97

39.98

R _10.0

"1 = 0.1104

", = 0.4979

t

15

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

40

42

44

46

48

50

52

54

56

58

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

120

140

160

180

200

240

289

320

360

400

440

480

9.965

12.32

13.22

14.09

14.95

15.78

16.59

17.38

18.16

18.91

19.65

20.37

21.07

21. 7(;

22.42

23.07

23.71

24.:13

24.94

25.53

26.11

26.67

23.02

29.29

30.49

31.61

32.67

33.66

H.60

35.48

38.51

40.89

42.75

44.21

45.36

46.95

47.94

48.54

48.91

49.14

49.28

49.36

Oecember, 1949 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 31!

T.P. 2732

THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

1

p'

(VI-32)

Evidence of this identity can be confirmed by substituting

Eqs. VI·4 and VI-27 in Eq. VI-32. In brief, Eq. VI-32 is the

relationship between constant terminal pressure and constant

terminal rate cases. If the Laplace transformation for one is

known, the transform for the other is established. This inter-

change can only take place in the transformations and the

final solution must be by inversion.

Computation of PIt) and Q(O

To plot P(t) and Q(t) as work-curves, it is necessary to de-

termine numerically the value for the integrals shown in Eqs.

VI-24 and VI-28. In treating the infinite integrals for PIt) and

Q,t), the only difficult part is in establishing the integrals for

values of u. For larger values of u the integrands con-

verge fairly rapidly, and Simpson's rule for numerical integra-

tion has proved sufficiently accurate.

To determine the integration for Q(t) in the region of the

origin, Eq. VI-28 can be expres;;ed as

-u't

4 .0 (1- e ) du

Qo(t) =-;;) u'[Jo'(u) +Yo'(u)J

(VI-33)

,

where the value for 0 is taken such that 1 _ e-

u

t ,...., u't,

whieh is true fgr u't equal to or less than 0.02, or 0 = \' 0.02/ t

and the simplification for Eq. VI-33 becomes

4t Ii du

Qo(t) = ... ,)' u[Jo'(u) + Yo'(u)J

For n less than 0.02, J 0 (u) = 1, and

2 u 2

Yo (u) ,...., - i log - + "Y = - i log u - 0.11593

... 2 ...

As the logarithmic term is most predominant in the denom.

inator for small values of u, this eqnation simplifies to

a du t

Q (t) = t f -=-:--------=-::-

,1 o· u [log u - 0.11593], [0.11593 -log 6J

(VI-34}

The integration for P, t)

4 0=0.02

close to the origin is expressed by

-u't

(l-e ) du

P (t) =, J

a ... 0

(VI-35 )

u'[J,'(u) + y,'(u)]

For u equal to or less than 0.02, J,(u) = 0, and Y,(u) =

2/ ... u so that Eq. VI-35 reduces to

a

P (t) = J

a n

-u't

(1- e )

----- du

u

If we let n = u't

-n

1 .o't (1 - e )

P (t) = -- j ----- dl!

" 2 o· n

Further,

.O't (l - e -n) dn

.J

o n

-n

/ (1- e ) dn

. n

Since Euler's constant "Y is equal to

Substitution of this relation in Eq. VI-38 gives

.o't(l-e-n)dn ldn

J --- ="Y + , j - dn - , J -

o n "·t n o-t n

(VI-36)

(VI-37)

( VI·38)

and sinee the seeond term on the right is the Ei·funetion al-

ready discussed in the earlier part of this work, Eq. VI-37

reduces to

P (t)

a

1

[ 'Y - Ei (- o't) + log 6't J

2

(VI-39)

TABLE III - Constant Terminal Rate Case Radial Flow - Limited Reservoirs

R

,

_ 1.5

R _ 2.0 R

_ 2.5

I

R

_ 3.0 R

_ 3.5

I

R

_ 4 R =

f3, = 6.3225 f3, = 3.1965

f3,

= 2.1564

f3,

= 1.6358

f3,

= 1.3218 f3, = 1.1120 fJ, = 0.9609

fJ,

= 11.924

f3,

= 6.3118

f3,

= 4.2230 fJ, = 3.1787 f3, = 2.5526 fJ, = 2.1342 fJ, = 1.8356

t

PIt)

t

I PIt)

t

PIt)

t

PIt)

t

P(t)

t P t

P(t) (t)

-.---------------

6.0(10)-' 0.251 22(10)-1 0.443 4.0(10)-1 0.565 5.2(10) 0.627 1.0 0.802 1.5 0.927 2.0 1.023

8.0 " 0.288 2.4 " 0.459 4.2 " 0.576 5.4 " 0.636 1.1 0.830 1.6 0.948 2.1 1.040

1.0(10)-1 0.322 2.6 H 0.476 4.4 " 0.587 5.6 " 0.645 1.2 0.857 1.7 0.968 2.2 1.056

1.2 " 0.355 2.8 " 0.492 4.6 " 0.598 6.0 It 0.662 1.3 0.882 1.8 0.988 2.3 1.072

1.4 " 0.387 3.0 " 0.507 4.8 " 0.608 6.5 u 0.683 1.4 0.906 1.9 1.007 2.4 1.087

1.6 " 0.420 3.2 H 0.522 5.0 If 0.618 7.0 If 0.703 1.5 0.929 2.0 1.025 2.5 1.102

1.8 " 0.452 3.4 u 0.536 5.2 H 0.628 7.5 If 0.721 1.6 0.951 l.2 1.059 2.6 1.116

2.0 H 0.484 3.6 " 0.551 5.4 .. 0.638 8.0 " 0.740 1.7 0.973 2.4 1.092 2.7 1.130

2.2 " 0.516 3.8 " 0.565 5.6 " 0.647 8.5 " 0.758 1.8 0.994 2.6 1.123 2.8 1.144

2.4 " 0.548 4.0 " 0.579 5.8 " 0.657 9.0 " 0.776 1.9 1.014 2.8 1.154 2.9 1.158

2.6 u 0.580 4.2 " 0.593

6.0 /4

0.666 9.5 " 0.791 2.0 1.034 3.0 1.184 1.171

2.8 u 0.612 4.4 " 0.607 6.5 " 0.688 1.0 0.806 2.25 1.083 3.5 1.255 3.2 1.197

3.0 " 0.644 4.6 " 0.621 7.0 It 0.710 1.2 0.865 2.50 1.130 4.0 1.324 i 1.222

3.5 " 0.724 4.8 " 0.634 7.5 " 0.731 1.4 0.920 2.75 1.176 4.5 1.392 3.6 1.246

4.0 " 0.804 5.0 " 0.648 8.0 " 0.752 1.6 0.973 3.0 1.221 5.0 1.460 .8 1.269

4.5 " 0.884 6.0 " 0.715 8.5 " 0.772 2.0 1.076 4.0 1.401 5.5 1.527 4.0 1.292

5.0 " 0.964 7.0 " 0.782 9.0 .. 0.792 3.0 1.328 5.0 1.579 6.0 1.594 4.5 1.349

5.5 " 1.044 8.0 u 0.849 9.5 " 0.812 4.0 1.578 6.0 1.757 6.5 1.660 5.0 1.403

6.0 " 1.124 9.0 " 0.915 1.0 0.832 5.0 1.828 7.0 1.727 5.5 1.457

1.0 0.982 2.0 1.215 8.0 1.861 6.0 1.510

2.0 1.649 3.0 1.596 9.0 1.994 7.0 1.615

3.0 2.316 4.0 1.977 10.0 2.127 8.0 1. 719

5.0 3.649 5.0 2.358 9.0 1.823

I

.0'0 1.927

11.0 2.031

12.0 2.135

13.0 2.239

14.0 2.343

15.0 2.447

316

PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

The values for the integrands for Eqs. VI·24 and VI·23

have been calculated from Bessel Tables for or greater than

()'o2 as given in W.B.F., pp. 666·697. The calculations have

been somewhat simplified by using the square of the modulus

of

IHo(l) (u) l=iJo(u) +i Yo(u) I and iH,<l)(u) i=iJ,(u) +i Y,(u) I

which are the Bessel functions of the third kind or the Hankel

functions.

Table I shows the calculated values for Q(t) and p(t) to

three significant figures, starting at t = 0.01, the point where

linear flow. and radial flow start deviating. P (t) is calculated

only to t = 1,000 since beyond this range the point source

solution of Eq. VI-IS applies. The values for Q,t) are given

lip to t = 10".

The reader may reproduce these data as he sees fit; Fig. 4

is an illustrative plot for Q(t), and Fig. 7 is a semi-logarithmic

relationship for P't1-

LIMITED RESERVOIRS

As already mentioned, tIte solutions for limited reservoirs

of radial symmetry have been developed by the Fourier-Bessel

type of expansion.""" Their introduction here is not only to

show how the solutions may be arrived at by the Laplace

transformation, but also to furnish data for P(1l and Q(t)

curves when such cases are encountered in practice.

No Fluid Flow Across Exterior Boundary

The first exam pIe considered is the constant terminal pres-

sure case for radial flow of limited extent. The boundary con-

ditions are such that at the well bore or field's edge, r = 1,

the cumulative pressure drop is unity, and at some distance

removed from this boundary at a point in the reservoir r = R,

there exists a restriction such that no fluid can flow past this

barrier so that at that point ( a

P

_) = O.

'Or r=R

The general solution of Eq. VI-l still applies, but to fulfill

the boundary conditions it is necessary to re-determine values

for constants A and B. The transformation of the boundary

condition at r = I is expres!'ed as

1

- = AI" (\1 p ) + BKo (\1 p )

p

(VII-I)

and at r = R the condition is

(VII-2)

since it is shown in W.B.F., p. 79, that Ko' (z) = - K, (z), and

10' (z) = I, (z). The solutions for A and B from these two

,imultaneous algebraic expressions are

A=K,(YpR)/p[K,(V-pR) I..(yp)+K.(Yp) I,(YpR)]

and

B=I, (Yp R)/p[K,( Yp R) Io( Vp) +Ko( '/p) 1,( Yp R)]

By substituting these constants in Eq. VI-I, the general solu-

tion for the transform of the pressure drop is expressed by

p[K,(ypR) Io(Y-p) +I,(YpR) Ko(YPlJ

(VII-3)

To find Q(t) the cumulative fluid produced for unit pres-

sure drop, then the transform for the pressure gradient at

r = I is obtained as follows:

a p'l' [K, ( Y p R) 10 ( Y p ) + I, ( Y p R) Ko ( Y p ) ]

where the negative sign is introduced in order to make Q (t)

T ABLE III - Continued

R - 5 R

_ 6.0

It _ 7.0

R _ 8.0

I

R

_ 9.0

R - 10

fJ, = 0.8472 fJ, = 0.6864

fJ,

= 0.5782 fJ, = 0.4999

fJ,

= 0.4406 fJ, = 0.3940

fJ,

= 1.6112

fJ, = 1.2963 fJ, = 1.0860

fJ,

= 0.9352

fJ,

= 0.8216 fJ, = 0.7333

I

I

t

PIt)

t

p(t)

t

P(t)

t P

I

t P t

P(t) ,t)

I

(1)

-------------------------------

3.0 1.167 4.0 1.275 6.0 1.436 8.0 1.556 10.0 1.651 12.0 1. 732

3.1 1.180 4.5 1.322 6.5 1.470 8.5 1.582 10.5 1.673 12.5 1. 750

3.2 1.192 5.0 1.364 7.0 1.501 9.0 1.607 11.0 1.693 13.0 1. 768

3.3 1.204 5.5 1.404 7.5 1.531 9.5 1.631 11.5 1. 713 13.5 1. 784

3.4 1.215 6.0 1.441 8.0 1.559 10.0 1. 653 12.0 1. 732 14.0 1.801

3.5 1.227 6.5 1.477 8.5 1.586 10.5 1.675 12.5 1. 750 14.5 1.817

3.6 1.238 7.0 1.511 9.0 1.613 11.0 1.697 13.0 1. 768 15.0 1.832

3.7 1.249 7.5 1.544 9.5 1.638 11.5 1. 717 13.5 1. 786 15.5 1.847

3.8 1.259 8.0 1.576 10.0 1.663 12.0 1. 737 14.0 1.803 16.0 1.862

3.9 1.270 8.5 1.607 11.0 1.711 12.5 1. 757 14.5 1.819 17.0 1.890

4.0 1.281 9.0 1.638 12.0 1. 757 13.0 1. 776 15.0 1.835 18.0 1.917

4.2 1.301 9.5 1.668 13.0 1.801 13.5 1. 795 15.5 1.851 19.0 1.943

I 4.4 1.321 10.0 1.698 14.0 1.845 14.0 1.813 16.0 1.867 20.0 1. 968

4.6 1.340 11.0 1. 757 15.0 1.888 14.5 1.831 17.0 1.897 22.0

4.8 1.360 12.0 1.815 16.0 1. 931 15.0 1.849 18.0 1.926 24.0 2.063

5.0 1.378 13.0 1.873 17.0 1. 974 17.0 1. 919 19.0 1.955 26.0 2.108

I

5.5 1.424 14.0 1.931 18.0 2.016 19.0 1.986 20.0 1.983 28.0 2.151

B.O 1.469 15.0 1.988 19.0 2.058 21.0 2.051 22.0 2.037 30.0 2.194

6.5 1.513 16.0 2.045 20.0 2.100 23.0 2.1J6 24.0 2.090 32.0 2.236

7.0 1.556 17.0 2.103 22.0 2.184 25.0 2.180 26.0 2.142 34.0 2.278

7.5 1.598 18.0 2.160 24.0 2267 30.0 2.340 28.0 2.193 36.0 2.319

8.0 1.641 19.0 2.217 26.0 2.351 35.0 2.499 30.0 2.244 38.0 2.360

9.0 1.725 20.0 2.274 28.0 2.434 40.0 2.658 34.0 2.345 40.0 2.401

10.0 1.808 25.0 2.560 30.0 2.517 45.0 2.817 38.0 2.446 50.0 2.604

11.0 1.892 30.0 2.846 40.0 2.496 60.0 2.806

12.0 1. 975

I

45.0 2.621 70.0 3.008

13.0 2.059

I

50.0 2.746

14.0 2.142

15.0

---

December, 1949 PETROlEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 317

T.P. 2732 THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

pOSJtJve. Theorem B shows that the integration with respect

to time introduC'es an additional operator p in the denomi·

nator to give

which indicate the poles. Since the modified Bessel functions

for positive real arguments are either increasing or decreas·

ing, the bracketed term in the denominator does not indicate

any poles for positive real values for p. At the origin of the

plane of Fig. 2 a pole exists and this pole we shall have to

investigate first. Thus, the substitution of small and real

values for z (Eqs. VI.12 and VI.13) in Eq. VII·4, gives

[I,(Vp R) K,(Vp] -K,(Vp R) 1,(Vp )]

p'I'[K,(V p R) lo(Vp ) + L(Vp R) K.,(Vp l]

(VII.4)

In order to apply Mellin's inversion formula, the first con·

,ideration is the roots of the denominator of this equation

- (R'-l)

TABLE IV - Constant Terminal Rate Case Radial Flow

Pressure at Exterior Radius Constant

R == 1.5 == 2.0 R == 2.5 I R == 3.0 R == 3.5

A, == 3.4029 A, == 1.7940 A, == 1.2426 A, == 0.9596 A, == 0.7852

A, == 1.9624

... ____ A_,_==_9---,._52_0_7_________ A_,_==---,-4_._80_2_1___ I _____

A

c_. _=--,' :-3_.2_2_65____ 1 ____ A_._== 2.4372

Pit) t I

5.0(10)-'

5.5 "

6.0 'I

7.0 1/

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0(10)-1

1.2 "

1.4 u

1.6 "

1.8 "

2.0 "

2.2 It

2.4 It

2.6 "

2.8 "

3.0 " I'

3.5 1/

4.0 "

4.5 Ie

5.0 II

6.0 "

7.0 u

8.0 II

0.230

0.240

0.249

0.266

0.282

0.292

0.307

0.328

0.344

0.356

0.367

0.375

0.381

0.386

0.390

0.393

0.396

0.400

0.402

0.404

0.405

0.405

0.405

0.405

2.0(10)-1

2.2 "

2.4 "

2.6 It

2.8 "

3.0 II

3.5 "

4.0 ((

4.5 "

5.0 II

5.5 "

6.0 II

6.5 It

7.0 H

7.5 H

8.0 "

8.5 "

g.o II

9.5 "

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

0.424

0.441

0.457

0.472

0.485

0.498

0.527

0.552

0.573

0.591

0.606

0.619

0.630

0.639

0.647

0.654

0.660

0.665

0.669

0.673

0.682

0.688

0.690

0.692

0.692

0.693

0.693

t

3.0(10)-1

3.5 "

4.0 H

4.5 'f

5.0 "

5.5 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

1.0

I

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

0.502

0.535

0.564

0.591

0.616

0.638

0.659

0.696

0.728

0.755

0.778

0.815

0.842

0.861

0.876

0.887

0.895

0.990

0.905

0.908

0.910

0.913

0.915

0.916

0.916

0.916

0.916

5.0(10)-1

5.5 "

6.0 It

7.0 "

8.0 I'

9.0 H

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

8.0

10.0

-0-.6-17-- - 50(10)--;- --0-.6-20-

0.640 6.0 " 0.665

0.662 7.0 " 0.705

0.702 8.0 " 0.741

0.738 9.0 " 0.774

0.770 1.0 0.804

0.799 1.2 0.858

o 850 1.4 0.904

0.892 1.6 0.945

0.927 1.8 0.981

0.955 2.0 1.013

0.980 2.2 1.041

1.000 2.4 1.065

1.016 2.6 1.087

1.030 2.8 1.106

1.042 3.0 1.123

1.051 3.5 1.158

1.069 4.0 1.183

1.080 5.0 1.215

1.087 6.0 1.282

1.091 7.0 1.242

1.094 8.0 1.247

1.096 9.0 1.250

1.097 10.0 1.251

1. 097 12.0 1.252

1.098 14.0 1.253

1.099 16.0 1.253

I

318

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

'J.O

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.4

3.8

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

R == 4.0

A, == 0.6670

A, == 1.6450

0.802

0.857

0.905

0.947

0.986

1.020

1.052

1.080

1.106

1.130

1.152

1.190

1.222

1.266

1.290

1.309

1.325

1.347

1.361

1.370

1.376

1.382

1.385

1.386

1.386

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

50.0

R == 6.0

A, == 0.4205

A, == 1.0059

1.275

1.320

1.361

1.398

1.432

1.462

1.490

1.516

1.539

1.561

1.580

1.615

1.667

1.704

1. 730

1.749

1. 762

1.771

1.777

I. 781

1.784

1. 787

1.789

1. 791

1. 792

TABLE IV -- Continued

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

45.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

80.0

R == 8.0

A, == 0.3090

A, == 0.7286

1.499

1.527

1.554

1.580

1.604

1.627

1.648

1. 724

1.786

1.837

1.879

1.914

1.943

1.967

1.986

2.002

2.016

2.040

2.055

2.064

2.070

2.076

2.078

2.079

n == 10

A, == 0.2448

A, == 0.5726

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

45.0

50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

90.0

10.0(10)1

11.0 "

12.0 H

13.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 I(

1.651

1. 730

I. 798

1.856

1.907

1.952

2.043

2.111

2.160

2.197

2.224

2.245

2.260

2.271

2.279

2.285

2.290

2.293

2.297

2.300

2.301

2.302

2.302

2.302

2.303

PETROlEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME

R == 15

A, = 0.1616

A, == 0.3745

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

45.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

SO.O

90.0

10.0(10)'

12.0 If

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0 H

20.0 H

22.0 u

24.0 H

26.0 "

28.0 H

30.0 "

1.960

2.003

2.043

2.080

2.114

2.146

2.218

2.279

2.332

2.379

2.455

2.513

2.558

2.592

2.619

2.655

2.677

2.689

2.697

2.701

2.704

2.706

2.707

2.707

2.708

December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

and by the application of Mellin's inversion formula applied

at the origin, then

lished by the Mellin's inven;ion formula by letting A = u'e

hr

;

then by Eqs. VI·IS

1 (R'-l) R'-l

----dA=--

A 2

(VII·5)

I f At-

- e Q(A)d A =

27ri

A" A" etc.

-u't

du I fe [.I,(uR) Y,(u) - Y,(uR) .I,(u)]

7ri u'[J,(uR) Yo(u) - Y,(uR) .In(U)]

(VII,6)

a1 , a'2, etc.

where at, a" and an are the roots of

An investigation of the integration along the negative real

"cut" both for the upper and lower portions, Fig. 2, reveals

that Eq. VIl-4 is an e\'en function for which the integration

along the paths is zero. However, poles are indicated along

the negative real axis and residuals together with Eq.

VII·S make up the wlution for the constant terminal pre

("acc for the limited radial The re,iduaI, are e,tab·

[.L(anR) Yn(an) - Yt(anR) .In(a.,)] = 0 (VII.7)

and the pole, are represented on the negatiye real axis

by An = - an', Fig. 3. The residuals of Eq. VII·6 are the series

expansion

TABLE IV - Continued

A, = 0.1208 A, = 0.0964S A = 0.08032

-----'----,-

R = 40

A, = 0.06019

A, = 0.1384

R = 50

A =

A: -- 0.110

R := 20 R' = 25 n = 30 I

A, = 0.2788 A, = , A: = 0.1849

t P tiP' t P' t P

'tl

t P't) (t) (t) ttl

------------ ---- -- ------------- ------- -------- --------

30.0 2.,48 50.0 2.389 70.0 2.551 120(10)1 2.813 20.0(10)1 3.064

I ltg :: ::

45.0 2.338 65.0 1 2.514 10.0(10)1 2.723 18.0 " 3.011 26.0 " 3.193

50.0 2.388 70.0 2.550 12.0 " 2.812 20.0 " 3063 28.0 " 3.229

60.0 2.475 75.0 2.583 14.0 " 2.886 22.0 " 30.0 " 3.263

70.0 2.547 80.0 2.614 16.0 " 2.950 24.0 " 3.152 35.0 " 3.339

80.0 2.609 85.0 2.643 &5 " 2.965 26.0 " 3.191 40.0 " 3.405

90.0 2.658 90.0 2.671 17.0 " 2.979 28.0 " 3.226 45.0 " 3.461

10.0(10)1 2.707 95.0 2.697 17.5 " 2.992 30.0 " 3.259 50.0 " 3.512

10.5 " 2.728 10.0(10)1 2.721 18.0 " 3.006 35.0 " 3.331 55.0 "

11.0 " 2.747 12.0 " 2.807 20.0 " 3.054 40.0 " 3.391 60.0 " 3.591>

11.5 " 2.764 14.0 " 2.878 25.0 " 3.150 45.0 " 3.440 65.0 " 3.630

12.0 " 2.781 16.0 " 2.936 30.0 " 3.219 50.0 " 3.482 70.0 " 3.661

12.5 " 2.796 18.0 " 2.984 35.0 " 3.269 55.0 " 3.516 75.0 " 3.688·

13.0 " 2.810 20.0 " 3.024 40.0 " 3.306 60.0 " 3.545 80.0 " 3.713

13.5 " 2.823 22.0 " 3.057 45.0 " 3.332 65.0 " 3.568 85.0 " 3,731>

14.0 " 2.835 24.0 " 3.085 50.0 " 3.351 70.0 " 3.588 90.0 " 3.754

14.5 " 2.846 26.0 " 3.107 60.0 " 3.375 80.0 " 3.619 95.0 " 3.771

15.0 " 2.857 28.0 " 3.126 70.0 " 3.387 90.0 " 3.640 10.0(10)' 3.787

16.0 " 2.876 30.0 " 3.142 80.0 " 3.394 10.0(10)' 3.655 12.0 " 3.833

18.0 " 2.906 35.0 " 3.171 90.0 " 3.397 12.0 " 3.672 14.0 " 3.862

20.0 " 2.929 40.0 " 3.189 10.0(10)' 3.399 14.0 " 3.681 16.0 " 3.881

24.0 " 2.958 45.0 " 3.200 12.0 " 3.401 16.0 " 3.685 18.0 " 3.892

28.0 " 2.975 50.0 " 3.207 14.0 " 3.401 18.0 " 3.687 20.0 " 3.900

30.0 " 2.980 60.0 " 3.214 20.0 " 3.688 22.0 " 3.904

40.0 " 2.992 70.0 " 3.217 25.0 " 3.689 24.0 " 3.907

50.0 " 2.995 80.0 " 3.218 26.0 " 3.90!)

90.0 " 3.219 I 28.0 " 3.9W

TABLE IV -Continued

----------'---'-'---"------,-------------;---- -,-- "-"-------,-----------

It = 60 R = 70 R = 80 R = 90 R = 100

t t

P,"

------1------1·------------ ---------.-- --------1------ ----------,-

3.0(10)2

4.0 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 /I

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

25.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 H

40.0 "

45.0 "

50.0 "

55.0 "

December, 1949

3.2m

3.401

3.512

3.602

3.676

3.739

3.792

3.832

3.908

3.959

3.996

4.023

4.043

4.071

4084

4.090

4.092

4.093

4.094

4.094

50(10)'

6.0 "

7.0 .•

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

2.1.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 "

45.0 "

50.0 "

55.0 "

60.0 "

65.0 "

70.0 "

75.0 "

80.0 "

3.512

3.603

3.689

3.746

3.803

3.854

3.937

4.003

4.054

4.095

4.127

4.181

4.211

4.228

4.237

4.242

4.245

4.247

4.247

4.248

4.248

4.248

4.248

60(10)'

7.0 "

8.0 ..

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

15.0 If

16.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

25.0 (j

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 ((

45.0 "

50.0 ((

60.0 "

70.0 ((

80.0 "

90.0 H

10.0(10)'

11.0 "

3.603

3.689

3.747

3.805

3.857

3.946

4.019

4.051

4.080

4.130

4.171

4.248

4.297

4.328

4.347

4.360

4.308

4.3i6

4.380

4.381

4.382

4.382

4.382

80(10)'

9.0 "

1.0(1,)'

1.2 "

1.3 "

1.4 "

1.5 "

1.8 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

3.5 "

4.0 H

4.5 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9,0 H

10.0 "

11.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

PETROlEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME

3.747

3.803

3.858

3.949

3.988

4.025

4.058

4.144

4.192

4.285

4.349

4.394

4.426

4.448

4.404

4.482

4.491

4.496

4.498

4.499

4.499

4.500

4.500

1. 0(10)3

1.2 "

1.4 "

1.6 "

1.8 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 II

3.5 "

4.0 H

4.5 "

5.0 "

5.5 u

6.0 "

6.5 "

7.0 II

7.5 "

8.0 II

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.5 "

15.0 "

3.859

3.949

4.026

4.092

4.150

4.200

4.303

4.379

4.434

4.478

4.510

4.534

4.552

4.565

4.579

4.583

4.588

4.593

4.598

4.601

4.604

4.605

319

T.P. 2732 THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

e-

an

't[l,(a

o

R) Y,(a

n

) -Y,(anR) ll(an)]

d . (VII.8)

ao'limd)J,(uR) Yo(u) -Y, (uR) Jo(u)]

etc.

Therefore, the solution for Q (t) is expres>'ed by

ll' -. 1 (jJ

Q(I, = .---- 2

2 a,. a,

-fln't

e ],'(floll)

-----

fl,,'[lo'(fl n) -],')fl"R)]

(VII.lO)

since

etc.

J,'(z) = L(z) -J,(Z)/Z (VII·9)

and

J.'(z) =-J,(z)

which are recurrence formulae for both first and kind

of Bessel functions, W.B.F., p. 45 and p. 66, then by the iden·

tities of Eqs. VII·7 and VI.23, the relation VII·8 reduces to

This is essentially the solution developed in an earlier work:

hut Eq. VII·lO is more rapidly convergent than the solution

previously reT,orted.

The values of Q(,) for the constant terminal pressure case

for a limited reservoir have been calculated from Eq. VII·IO

for R = 1.5 to 10 and are tabulated in Table 2. A reproduction

of a portion of these data is given in Fig. 5. As Eq. VII·IO is

rapidly convergent for t greater than a given value, only two

(jJ e-a,,'t J,' (aoR)

- 2 :!:

aha, fl,,'[J..'(an ) -J,'(a"R)]

etc.

T ABLE IV - Continued

--------_._-_ .. _------_. __ . __ ._---------

t R = 200 p(,,_' ___ _ t R 300 Pet) _ __ t He = 1

400

__ I ____ P._'_=_5_00 __

p

(t)

--------.--- - - --- - - ----- -- -- ---- - -- ---- - - ----- --- 1

1.5(10)' 4.061 60(10)' 4.754 1.5(10)' I 5.212

2.0 " 4.205 8.0 " 4.898 2.0 " 5.356

2.51" 4.317 10.0 " 5.010 3.0 " 5.556

3.0 " 4.40S 12.0 " 5.101 4.0 " 5.689

4.485 14.0 " 5.177 5.0 " 5.781

4.01" 4.552 16.0 " 5.242 6.0 " 5.845

5.01" 4.663 18.0 " 5.299 7.0 " 5.889

6.0 " 4.754 20.0 " .1.348 8.0 " 5.920

7.0 " 4.829 24.0 " 5.429 9.0 " 5.942

8.0 " 4.894 28.0 " 5.491 10.0 " 5.957

9.0 " 4.949 30.0 " 5.517 11.0 " 5.967

10.0 " 4.996 40.0 " 5.606 12.0 " 5.975

12.0 " 5.072 50.0 " 5.652 12.5 " 5.977

14 0 " 5.129 60.0 " 5.676 13.0 " 5.980

16.0 " 5.171 700 " 5.690 14.0 " 5.983

18.0 ., 5203 80.0 " .5.696 16.0 " 5.988

20.0 " 5.237 90.0 " 5.700 18.0 " 5.990

2.5.0 " 5.264 10.0(10)' 5.702 20.0 " 5.991

30.0 " 5.282 12.0 " 5.703 24.0 " 5.991

35.0 " 5.290 14.0 " 5.704 26.0 " 5.991

40.0 " 5294 15.0 " 5.704

. __ ._-_._-'----

TABLE IV - Continued

R = 700 R = 800 R = 900

t

2.0(10)'

2.5 "

3.0 "

3.5 It

4.0 "

4.5 "

5,0 "

6.0 u

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

25.0 H

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 "

t

R 1000

5.356

5.468

5.559

5.636

5.702

5.759

5.810

5.894

5.960

6.013

6.055

6.088

6.135

6.164

6.183

6.195

6.202

6.211

6.213

6.214

6.214

R = 600

40(10)'

4.5 H

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

111.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

25.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 "

::

R

t

1200

5.703

5.762

5.814

5.904

5.979

6.041

6.094

6.139

6.210

6.262

6.299

6.326

6.345

6.374

6.387

6.392

6.395

6.397

6.397

p(t)

---------·----1----- ·----1----·--1----- ---------.-.-.---- ..----

5.0(10)'

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

25.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 "

45.0 "

50.0· "

60.0 "

70.0 t(

80.0 H

5.814

5.905

5.982

6.048

6.105

6.156

6.239

6.305

6.357

6.398

6.430

6.484

6.514

6.530

6.540

6.545

6.548

6.550

6.551

6.551

7.0(10)'

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

25.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 H

40.0 "

45.0 "

50.0 "

55.0 "

60.0 "

70.0 "

80.0 "

100.0 "

5.983

6.049

6.108

6.160

6.249

6.322

6.382

6.432

6.474

6.551

6.599

6.630

6.650

6.663

6.1171

6.676

6.6i9

6.682

6.684

6.684

8.0(10)'

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

25.0 "

30.0 "

40.0 "

45.0 "

50.0 "

55.0 "

60.0 "

70.0 H

80.0 "

90.0 "

10.0(10)'

6.049

6.108

6.161

6.251

6.327

6.392

6.447

6.494

6.587

6.652

6.729

6.751

6.766

6.777

6. i85

6.794

6.798

6.800

6.801

1.0(10)'

1.2 "

1.4 "

.1.6 "

1.8 "

2.0 "

2.5 "

3.0 "

3.5 "

4.0 "

4.5 "

5.0 "

5.5 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

6.161

6.252

6.329

6.395

6.452

6.503

6.605

6.681

6.738

6.781

6.813

6.837

6.854

6.868

6.885

6.895

6.901

6.904

6.907

6.907

6.908

-------'--_._._------- ------'-------'--------'-------'-------'-----

320 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME

2.0(10)'

3.0 "

4.0 "

5.0

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0

19.0 "

20.0 "

21.0 "

22.0 "

23.0 "

24.0 "

6.507

6.704

6.833

6.918

6.975

7.013

7.038

7.056

7.067

7.080

7.085

7.088

7.089

7.089

7.090

7.090

7.090

7.090

7.090

December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

terms of the expansion are necessary to give the accuracy

needed in the calculations.

Likewise froll'l the foregoing work it can be easily shown

that the transform of the pressure drop at any point in the

formation in a limited reservoir for the constant terminal rate

case, is expressed by

[K,(V p R) Io(Y' p r) +I, (Y p R) Ko(Y p r)]

p'J' [I, (Y p R) K, ( Y p ) - K, (Y p R) I, \' p )]

(VII.ll )

An examination of the denominator of Eq. VII·ll indicate,

that there are no roots for positive values of p. However, a

<Iouble pole exists at p = O. This can be determined by ex·

panding K,. (z) and K, (z) to Eecond degree expansions for

small values of z and third degree expansions for I.. (z) and

I, (z). and substituting in Eq. VII·ll. It is fonnd for small

values of p. Eq. VII·ll reduce, to

1

P(r,P) ==-

p

H' It (Il' -. r') It' log It

log - - ---- + ---

(R'-I) r 2(lt'-I) (R'-I)'

(R' + 1) 1 2

- 4(R'_I),f +-;; (R'-I)

(VII.I2)

This equation now indicates both a single and double pole at

the origin, and it can be shown from tables or by applying

Cauchy's theorem to the Mellin's formula that the inversion (If

Eq. VII·I2 is

p, = __ [r' + t ] (VII.13 \

,.1) (R'-l) 4

R' r3R'-4R' log R-2R'-Il

----loo-r-

(R'-l) .., 4(R' _1)'

which holds when the time, t, is large

As in the preceding case, there are poles along the negative

real axis, Fig. 3, and the residuals are determined as before

by letting A = u' e

iTr

, and Eqs. VI·IS give

TABLE IV - Continued

----------c---- ---------;----------'C.---------- ......... ---.--.--. ---

R:= 1400 R:=

t

P(t>

t

2.0(10)5 6.507 2.5(10)5

2.5 H 6.619 3.0 H

3.0 j( 6.709 3.5 "

3.5 " 6.785 4.0 H

4.0 " 6.849 5.0 "

0.0 " 6.950 6.0 "

6.0 H 7.026 7.0 "

7.0 H 7.082 8.0 "

8.0 " 7.123 9.0 H

9.0 H 7.154 10.0 "

10.0 " 7.177 15.0 "

15.0 " 7.229 20.0 H

20.0 " 7.241 25.0 H

25.0 u 7.243 30.0 "

30.0 " 7.244 35.0 H

31.0 " 7.244 40.0 "

32.0 H 7.244 42.0 "

33.0 " 7.244 44.0 "

I

1600

P(t>

6.619

6.710

6.787

6.853

6.962

7.046

7.114

7.167

7.210

7.244

7.334

7.364

7.373

7.376

7.377

7.378

7.378

7.378

R := 1800

3.0(10)'

4.0 "

5.0 H

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

15.0 H

20.0 "

30.0 H

40.0 "

50.0 "

51.0 "

52.0 "

53.0 "

54.0 "

56.0 "

6.710

6.854

6.965

7.054

7.120

7.188

7.238

7.280

7.407

7.459

7.489

7.495

7.495

7.495

7.495

7.495

7.495

7.495

TABLE IV - Continued

R = 2000

4.0(10)'

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 II

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 u

16.0 "

18.0

20.0 "

25.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 H

50.0 "

60.0 "

64.0 "

6.854

6.966

7.056

7.132

7.196

7.251

7.298

7.374

7.431

7.474

7.506

7.530

7.566

7.584

7.593

7.597

7.600

7.601

7.601

R := 2200

5.0(10)'

5.5 ..

6.0 H

6.5 "

7.0 H

7.5 "

8.0 I'

8.5 "

9.0 H

10.0 "

12.0 "

16.0 "

20.0 "

25.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 "

50.0 "

60.0 "

70.0 H

SO.O ..

i

6.966

7.013

7.057

7.097

7.133

7.167

7.199

7.229

7.256

7.307

7.390

7.507

7.579

7.631

7.6ft1

7.677

7.686

7.693

7.69&

7.69&

7.696

-- -

-----------;----------------------------_._ .. - - _._-- .... -. __ ._-----

I R := 2800 I R := 3000 I

R := 2400 R := 2690

t PIt) t PIt>

---------[------- -_._---[------- -------[---_.-- -----[------- ------ .-. ----

6.0(10)'

7.0 "

8.0 "

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

16.0 "

20.0 H

24.0 "

28.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 ..

50.0 "

60.0 "

70.0 "

SO.O H

90.0 "

95.0 "

December, 1949

7.057

7.134

7.200

7.259

7.310

7.398

7.526

7.611

7.668

7.706

7.720

7.745

7.760

7.770

7.7SO

7.782

7.783

7.783

7.783

7.0(10)5

8.0 "

9.0

10.0 "

12.0 "

14.0 "

16.0 "

18.0 "

20.0 "

24.0 "

28.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 "

50.0 "

60.0 H

70.0 "

SO.O "

90.0 "

10.0(10)'

7.134

7.201

7.259

7.312

7.401

7.475

7.536

7.588

7.631

7.699

7.746

7.765

7.799

7.821

7.845

7.856

7.860

7.862

7.863

7.863

8.0(10)'

9.0 H

10.0 "

12.0 "

16.0 "

20.0 "

24.0 "

28.0 "

30.0 "

35.0 "

40.0 "

50.0 H

60.0 "

70.0 "

80.0 "

90.0 II

10.0(10)'

12.0 "

13.0 "

7.201

7.260

7.312

7.403

7.542

7.644

7.719

7.775

7.797

7.840

7.870

7.905

7.922

7.930

7.934

7.936

7.937

7.937

7.937

1.0(10)'

1.2 "

1.4 "

1.6 "

1.8 "

2.0 jl

2.4

2.8 "

3.0 "

3.5 "

4.0 "

4.5 "

5.0 "

6.0 "

7.0 "

8.0 jl

9.0 "

10.0 "

12.0 "

15.0 ..

PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME

7.312

7.403

7.4SO

7.545

7.602

7.651

7.732

7.794

7.320

7.871

7.908

7.935

7.955

7.979

7.992

7.999

8.002

8.004

8.006

8.006

321

T.P. 2732 THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

1

f

A" A" etc.

= Yo(ur) - Y

,

(uR) lo(ur)] du (VII-l4)

lI"i u'[J,(uR) Y, (u) -J,(U) Y, (uR)]

f3" f3" etc.

where f3" f3" etc., are roots of

[J,(f3"R) Y, (f3n) -J,(f3n) Y,(f3nR)] = 0 . (VII-lS)

with An = -f3,,'. The residuals at the poles in Eq. VII-I4 give

the series

00

2

fll,f3" etc.

-f3o t ]

e [J, (f3nR) Yo (f3nr) - Y, (f3nR) Jo (f3n)

d

I1n' lim.- [JI(uR) Y, (u) -J, (u) YI(uR)]

du

(VII-16)

By the recurrence formulae Eqs. VII-9, the identity VII-IS,

and Eq. VI-23, this series simplifies to

00 e-

f3n

't JI(f3"R) [J,(f3n) Y,,(f3nr) - Y, ([3,.) J

o

(f3nr )]

11" ---------------::--,--::------

f31' f3" etc. f3,,[Jt'([3,R) -Jt'(fln)]

(VII-17)

Therefore. the sum of all residuals, Eqs. VII-I3 and VII-17 is

the solution for the cumulative pressure drop at any point in

the formation for the constant terminal rate case in a limited

reservoir. or

2 (r' ) R' (3R<-4R' log R-2R'-I)

P ---- -+t - ---logr - -'--------,--,---

(r,t)- (R'-I) 4 (R'-I) 4(R'-I)'

-f3:t

e II(f3"R) [J,(fln) Yo (f3nr) - Y

,

(f3n) Io(flnr )]

fln [I,' (flnR) -1,' (f3n) ]

(VII-IS)

which is essentially the solution given by Muskat; now de·

veloped by the Laplace Transformation. Finally, for the cumu·

lative pressure drop for a unit rate of production at the well

hore, r = 1, this relation simplifies to

P = __ 2 ____ t) __ (3R'-4R'logR-2R'-1)

(t) (R' _ I) 4 4(R' _ I)'

00 c -(:I:t J,' (f3nR)

+2

f3,. f3, f3"'[J,'(f3,,R) - J,'(f3n)]

(VII.19

The calculations for the constant terminal rate case for a

reservoir of limited radial extent have been determined from

Eq. VII-19. The summary data for R = 1.5 to 10 are given in

Table .3. An illustrative graph is shown in Fig. 6. The effect

of the limited reservoir is quite pronounced as it is shown

that producing the reservoir at a unit rate increases the pres-

sure drop at the well bore much faster than if the reservoir

were infinite, as the constant withdrawal of fluid is reflected

very soon in the productive life by the constant rate of drop

in pressure with time.

Pressure Fixed at Exterior Boundary

As a variation on the condition that ( dP = 0 )

dr r=R

we

may assume that the pressure at r = R is constant. In effect,

this assumption helps to explain approximately the pressure

history of flowing a well at a constant rate when, upon open·

ing, the bottom hole pressure drops very rapidly and then

levels out to be ('orne constant with time. The case has been

developed by Hurst' using a cylinder source and by Muskat'

using a point source solution.

When developing the solution by means of the Laplace

transformation, it is assumed that the exterior boundary r = R,

I> (R,p) = 0, which fixes the pressure at the exterior boundary

as constant. Since the above-quoted references contain com·

plete details, the final solutions are only quoted here for

completeness' sakc.

Cylindrical source:

00

1\"

e -An't Jo'(A"R)

An'[JI'(A,,) - Jo'(AnR)]

where An is the root established from

J,(An) Yn(AnR) - YI(An) J..(AnR) = 0

Point source:

2

-I'n't J ( )

r.r.; e . 0 J.l-IJ

p(t) = 10gR-- ------

R' n=l I'n' J

I

' (I'nR)

(VII-20)

(VII-21)

(VII-22)

where the root 1'" is determined from lo(l'uR) = 0, W.B.F.,

p. 74S. Table 4 is the summary of the calculated P (t) em·

ploying Eq. VII-20 for R = 1.5 to 50, the cylinder source

solution, which applies for small as well as large times. The

data given for R = 60 to 3,000 are calculated from the point

source sohtion Eq. VII-22. Plots of these data are given in

Fig. 7.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS

The work that has gone before shows the facility of the

Laplace transformation in deriving analytical solutions. Not

yet shown is the versatility of the Laplace transformation in

arriving at solutions which are not easily foreseen by the ortho·

dox methods. One such solution derived here has shown to be

of value in the analysis of flow tests.

When making flow tests on a well, it is often noticed that

the production rates, as measured by the fluid accumulating

in the stock tanks, are practically constant. Since it is

desired to obtain the relation between flowing bottom hole

pressure and the rate of production from the formation, it is

necessary to correct the rate of production as measured in the

flow tanks for the amount of oil obtained from the annulus

between casing and tubing. To arrive at the solution for this

problem, we use the basic equation for the constant terminal

rate case given by Eq. IV·Il, where q(T) is the constant rate of

fluid produced at the stock tank corrected to reservoir condi.

ditions, but p(t) is a pseudo pressure drop which is adjusted

mathematically for the unloading of the fluid from the annulus

to give the pressure drop occurring in the formation.

It is assumed that the unloading of the annulus is directly

reflected by the change in bottom hole pressure as exerted by

a hydrostatic head of oil column in the casing. Therefore, the

rate of unloading of the annulus qA(T), expressed in cc. per

second corrected to reservoir conditions, is equal to

d.6.P

C--

dT

(VIII.I)

where C is the volume of fluid unloaded from the annulus

per atmosphere bottom hole pressure drop per unit sand thick·

ness. The rate of fluid produced from the formation is then

given by q(T) - qA(T)' As the bottom hole pressure is continuo

ously changing, the problem becomes one of a variable rate.

The substitution of the form of Eq. IV·1l in the superposition

theorem, Eq. IV·16, gives

322 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

A. F. VAN EVERDINGEN AND W. HURST T.P. 2732

and from Eq. VIII. 1

Lo.P = ~ - ;. [q (1", - C dLo.P ] P' (t. t', dt' (VIII.2)

2"X 0' dT'

Since T = fiLcRb' tjK, and the unit rate of production at the

q(T,iL

surface corrected to reservoir conditions is q(t, = -=--, Eq.

2"X

VIII·2 becomes

Lo.P = J [ q(t', - C dLo.P ] p'(t.t" dt'

o dt'

(VIII.3)

where C = C/21T'fcRb'.

Eq. VIII·3 presents a unique situation and we are con·

fronted with determination of Lo.P, the a c t ~ l a l pressure drop,

appearing both in the integrand and to the left side of the

equation. The Laplace transformation offers a means of solv·

ing for Lo.P which, by orthodox methods. would be difficult

to accomplish.

It will he recognized that Theorem D, from Chapter V, is

applicable. Therefore, if Eq. VIII·3 can he changed to a La·

place transformation, Lo.P can bc solved explicitly. If we

express the transform of the constant rate q(t) as q/p, the

transform of p'(t) as pp(p, and the transform of Lo.P as Lo.P,

so that the transform for dLo.P / dt is PLo.P, then it follows

that

- q - .- -

Lo.P= [--C pLo.P]p Pu"

p

and on solution gives

Lo.P =

(VIII.4)

(VIII.S)

Since q = qcniL/21T'K, then the term ------ in Eq.

[1 + C p'p(P)]

VIII·S can be interpreted as the transform of the pseudo pres·

sure drop for the unit rate of production at the stock tank.

No mention has been made as to what value can be substi·

tuted for PIP)' If we wish to apply the cylinder source, Eq.

VI·4 applies, namely,

Ko(Yp)

PIP' =----- (VIII.6)

p'l' K,(Yp)

However, from the previous discussion it has been shown

that for wells, t is usually large since the well radius is small,

and the point source solution of Lord Kelvin's applies, namely,

1 CI:! e-"

PIt) =- f - du

2 1/4 t u

(VI.16)

the Ei·function. Therefore, to apply this expression in Eq.

VIII·S, it is necessary to obtain the Laplace transform of the

point source solution of Eq. VI·16. By an interchange of

variables, this equation becomes

1 t e-l/

4t

PIt) =- f -- dt

2 0 t

(VIII.7)

and it will be recognized from CUl1lpoell and Foster, Eq. 920.1,

that the integrand is the transform for Ko( yp). Further,

the integration with respect to time follows from Theorem B,

Chapter V, so that the transform of Eq. VIII·7 is the relation

- K,(Yp)

p'P) =-----

p

(VIII.S)

The same reoult can be gleaned from Eq. VIII·6 since for t

large, p is small and K, (Yp) = 1/ yp. Substitution of

this approximation in Eq. VIII·6 yields Eq. VIII-S. Therefore,

introducing the expression for p(p, in Eq. VIII·S gives

- q Ko(Yp)

Lo.P = --------- (VIII·9)

p [1 + C p Ko(Yp)]

for which it is necessary only to find the inverse of

Ko(Yp)

(VIII.10)

p [1 + C p Ko(Yp)]

to obtain values for P(t), the cumulative pressure drop for unit

rate of production in the stock tank which automatically takes

cognizance of the unloading of the annulus.

The inverse of the form of VIII·I0 by the Mellin's inversion

formula can be determined by the path described in Fig. 2.

The analytical determination is identical with the constant

terminal rate case given in Section VI. Therefore, the cumu·

lative pres.,ure drop in the well bore, for a unit rate of pro-

duction at the surface, corrected for the unloading of the fluid

in the casing, is the relation

-u't

(l-e ) Jo(u) du

-7r -1r

u[ (1 + u'C"2 Yo(u))' + (u'C"2 Jo(u))']

(VIII.ll)

Fig. S presents a plot of the computed values for P (t) cor-

responding to C from 1,000 to 75,000. It can be observed that

the greater the unloading from the casing, the smaller the

actual pressure drop is in a formation due to the reduced rate

of fluid produced from the sand. For large times, however, all

curves become identified with the point source solution which

is the envelope of these curves. After a sufficient length of

time, the change in bottom hole pressure is so slow that the

rate of production from the formation is essentially' that pro·

duced by the well, and the point source solution applies.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to thank the Management of the Shell Oil

Co., for permission to prepare and present this paper for

publication. It is hoped that this information, once available

to the industry, will further the analysis and understanding

of the behavior of oil reservoirs.

The authors acknowledge the help of H. Rainbow of the

Shell Oil Co., whose suggestions on analytic development

were most helpful, and of Miss L. Patterson, who contributed

the greatest amount of these calculations with untiring effort.

REFERENCES

1. "Water Influx into a Reservoir and Its Application to the

Equation of Volumetric Balance," William Hurst, Trans.,

AIME,1943.

December, 1949 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 323

T.P. 2732

THE APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION TO FLOW PROBLEMS

IN RESERVOIRS

2. "Analysis of Reservoir Performance," R. E. Old, Trans.,

AIi\IE, 1943.

:l. "Unsteady Flow of Fluids in Oil Reservoirs," William

Hurst, Physics, January, 1934.

1-. "The Flow of Compressible Fluids Through Porous Me-

dia and Some Problems in Heat Conduction," M. Muskat,

Physics, March, 1934.

.s. Mathematical Methods in Engineering, Karman and Biot,

p. 403, McGraw-Hill, 1940.

6. Operational Circuit Analysis, Vallnevar Bush, Chapter V,

John Wiley and Sons, 1929.

7. "Variations in Reservoir Pressure in the East Texas Field,"

R. 1. Schilthuis and W. Hurst, Trans., AIME, 1935.

R. "Fourier Integrals for Practical Applications," G. A.

Campbell and R. M. Foster, American Telephone and

Telegraph Company.

9. Operational Methods in Applied Mathematics, H. S. Cars-

law and' 1. C. Jaeger, Oxford Univ. Press, 1941. (Chap-

ter IV).

10. I bidllln. p. 5 to 7.

11. "A Problem in the Theory of Heat Conduction," J. W.

Nicholsen, p. 226, Proc. Roy!. Soc., 1921.

12. "Some Two·Dimensional Diffusion Problems with Circu-

lar Symmetry," S. Goldstein, p. 51, Proc. London Math.

Soc. (2), Vol. XXXIV, 1932.

13. "Heat Flow in an Infinite Solid Bounded Internally by a

Cylinder," L. P. Smith, p. J. App. Physics, 8, 1937.

11. "Some Two-Dimensional Problems in Conduction of Heat

with Circular Symmetry," H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger,

p. 361, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2), Vo!' XlVI.

15. "Heat Flow in the Region Bounded Internally by a Cir-

cular Cylinder," 1. C. Jaeger, p. 223, Proc. Royal Soc.,

Edinb. A, 61, 1942.

16. A Treatise on the Theor)' oj Bessel Functions, C. W.

Watson, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1944.

17. Modern Analysis, E. T. Whitt<lkcr and C. \Y. \'i,'atson,

Cambridge Univ. Pre.,s, 1944.

la. The Conduction of Heat, H. S. Carslaw, pp. H9·1S3.

MacMillan and Company, 1921.

19. "Pressure Prediction for Oil Reservoirs," W. A. Bruce,

Trans., AIME, 1943.

20. "Rc.,ervoir Performance and Well Spacing," Lincoln F.

Elkins, Oil and Cas Journal, Nov. 16, 194(), API. 1946.

21. Condllction of IIeat in Solids, H. S. Carslaw nnd .I. C.

Jaeger, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1947.

lYote: This book came to our notice only after the text of

this paper was prepared and for that reason refer-

ences to its contents arc incomplete. The careful

reader will ohserve that, for instance, equation VI-21

in this paper is similar to equation (16), p. 283

when k and a 'are given unit values; abo that

"Limited Reservoirs" contains equations quite simi-

lar to those appearing in Section 126, "The Hollow

Cylinder," of Carslaw and Jaeger's book. * * *

DISCUSSION

Comments on "The Relation Betlcecn Electrical Resistivity

and Brine Satltration in Reservoir Rocks," by H. F. Dunlap.

H. L. Bilhartz, Ellis Shuler, and C. R. Bailey. Published ill

the October, 1949 issue of the JOliR'I\L OF PETHOLElTM TECH·

NOLOGY.

By C. E. Archie, Shell 0:'1 Co., HOllston, Tex(ls

I wish to compliment thc authors on their experimental work

of measuring the resistivities of cores. Meamrements of this

nature are difficult, particularly on small core samples.

The conclusion that the saturation exponent, n, w'ed when

interpreting eIer:trical logs. varies appreciably from 2.0 does

!lot follow from the data. It is true that individual samples

indicated an n vdue considerably different, for instance, the

St rawn sandstone given in Tnble I where n = 1.J 8. Hocks arc

heterogeneous. however. and Illore than one sample must be

measured. Onc sample is of little value in predicting any

property of thc formation as a whole; therefore, only data

where several pieces of the formation have been analyzed can

he considered conclusive to be used to predict a value for n.

Of the data presentcd in paper. the measurements made on

the Cotton Valley sandstone ,eern to mect this requirement,

see Table I, where six samples were measured. The average

value of n equab 1.8. This value cannot be said to vary appre-

ciahly from 2.0. (It is true that n varied from 1.5 to 2.0, but

experimental error variations on the same were 1.7

to 2.0, see sample No.6, Table I.) In vicw of the experimental

error involved and the limited number of analyses run, the

more logical conclusion would be that the data on the Cotton

Valley sandstone give weight to the assumption that n may

be expected to he of the order of 2.0 for sandstones.

This later data, together with the data given on a chart

presented with my comments on the paper, "Estimation of

Interstitial Water from the Electricai Log," by Milton Wil-

liams. also presented at the San Antonio meeting, indicates

that the average value of n for consolidated sandstone "in

situ" may be closer to ].9 than 2.0 which has formerly been

m'ed. * * *

Allthor's Reply to C. E. Archie--

The average of all of our own measurements on saturation

exponents for various consolidated sandstone and limestone

cores is about 1.75, and, as Archie properly points out, the

scatter in the determinations on cores taken from a single

formation is considerable. However, we have never measured a

saturation exponent for a consolidated core which was sig-

nificantly greater than two, and the great majority are some·

what less, the lowest value measured being that of 1.17 for

the Strawn sandstone sample reported in the paper. For un·

consolidated material, the values have usually been two or

above. Exactly what the most nearly correct average value to

w'e of consolidated sand"tones would be is difficult to e,;timate

in vicw of the limited data available, but we would estimate

a value of 1.7 to 1.8 rather than 1.9 to 2.0. However, more

data might wcll change this average value. For formations

of particular interc'it, it is helieved desirable to determine an

exponent from meadJrcrncnts on a numher of core

,amples rather than to lL'e any assumed universal average

",:Le. Thc fact that variation could occur, rather than the

!l.-e of any particular average number for the exponent, was

the thesis of the paper. * * *

324 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

DISCUSSION

Comments on. "The Relation Between Electrical Resistivity

and Brine Saturation in Reserroir Rocks" by H. F. Dunlap,

H. L. Bilhartz, Ellis Shuler and C. R. Bailey. Published in

the October, W49 isslle of .!ourlIrtl of Prtrolcum Technology.

By M. R. J. Wyllie and If' alter D. Rose, Gulf Research and

DeFelopment Compal1Y. Pittsburgh, Pel1nsylvania

This paper and the re,ults it give, concerning the llumerical

value of the exponent n in the re.,istivity index-saturation rela-

tionship, I = S.,-n, is a most valuable and timely contribution

to the rather sparse literature on a subject vital to electric

log interpretation. Inamlllch as the results obtained provide

some opportunity for checking certain theoretical conclusions

we reached in a recent paper,' it is of particular interest to us.

The results obtained by the authors clearly show that the

exponent n is not a constant with a value of about 2.0 as is

generally assumed, but varies from core to core and may thus

be considered some function of rock texture. On the basis

of our theoretical development, we forecast that the exponent

n would vary with rock texture (as measured in terms of

irreducible wetting phase saturation, Sw;) and with saturation

of wetting pha;'e itself. It is the latter prediction which

is denied hy Dunlap et al when they explicitly state that the

available evidence indicates that the saturation exponent, n,

does not vary with saturation. While we would like to believe

thio; to be true (since an exponent n which was always inde-

pendent of satnration, if albeit dependent upon rock texture,

would introduce one welcome simplification in a complex

problem) we do not believe that this is the only interpretation

of all the results extant. including those of Dunlap et a1. The

results of ,Vyckoff and Botse!''' Leverett' and other workers on

e,;sentially unconsolillated sands do indeed show a relatively

constant exponent n, but those of Morse, Terwilliger and

Y uster" and tbo'e of the Hussian workers quoted by Guyod'

show a marked dependence of n on saturation in certain

instances. The variation of the exponent n with saturation

shown in Fig. 5 of the paper of Dunlap et al is apparently

attributed by these workers to non-equilibrium conditions.

Elsewhere, however, it is stated that when, at high desaturat-

ing pressures and apparent equilibrium, widely varying values

of the saturation exponent were found in different parts of

the core, the results were considered unreliable and not

reported.

We have shown' that an analytical expression for the ex-

ponent n can he fonnd of the form:

InS/TIT,

11=

\Vhere.

Sw = the lIetting pila,,' -atm'1tioll as a fra(,tion of the jlore

volume.

T = the tortuosity of t he porous medium at 100 per cent

welting phace sat Ination, and is defined ae; the

of the ratio of mean actual pore length to bed length,

'L = the effective tortuosit", similarly defined. for the sat·

uration, Swo

From the above expression if n is to he a com,tant independent

of saturation. it follows that TIT" = where x is a con-

stant having the value 2n. The ratio TIT" is itself a measure

of fluid distribution and may be expected to vary somewhat

with the manner in which a particular saturation has been

obtained. Thus, the fact that the exponent II for a Strawn

sandstone sample was found by Dunlap et al to vary when

the mode of saturation was changed from floolling to capillary

pre'Sllre desaturation is quite explicable in terms of a varia-

tion in the T/T" ratio at a particular saturation. That the

ratio T /T" for any particular mode of saturating or desaturat-

ing a POroll- medium should be uniquely related to the degree

of "aturation bv an expression of the form T ITe = Sw x-' ap,

pears to u" to be possible in certain cases. hut we see no rea·

son to believe that this relationship is universally true of all

porous media. In particular we would expect to find pore size

distribution as a big factor in determining TIT .. , since the

tendency for the wetting phase to he displaced first from the

larger pores by an entering non·wetting phase must necessar-

ily ailect T/Te in " manner which is not always expressible

in terms of S" x_, with x a constant.

\Ve would thus like to ask Dunlap and his co,workers

whether upon further consideration they are convinced that

there is never a genuine variation of the exponent n with

saturation, In addition, we would he interested to learn whether

any of the results discarded became of their apparent unre-

liability showed apparent values of n between 3 and 4.5, i.e ..

in a range covering certain observations made by Williams and

by the Russian workers quoted by Guyod and considered

possible by us on theoretical grounds. In general, however, it

would appear that to a first approximation and in the absence

of more specific knowledge a value for n of about 2.0 - 2.5 is

still the best average value to assume for log interpretation.

In the light of the results reported by Williams we would

particularly query the conclusion that n is gener<\lly less than

2 for consolidated media.

REFERENCES

]. "Some Theoretical Considerations Related to the Quanti-

tative Evaluation of the Physical Characteristics of Reser-

voir Rock from Electrical Log Data." M. R. J. Wyllie and

Walter D. Rose. (Submitted for publication in the Jour.

0/ Petro Tech.)

2. "Estimation of Interstitial Water from the Electric Log."

lVI. Williams. AJME, San Antonio, Oct. 7. 1949.

"The Flow of Gas-Liquid Mixture.; through Unconsolidated

Sands," R. D. Wyckoff amI H. C. Bot,et. PhYsics, 7. (9).

.)2:>, (1936).

1. "Flow of Oil-Water Mixtures through Uneon."olidated

Sanlh," M. C. Leverett. Trans, AIME, 1:32, 149, (1939).

;). "itelative Permeability Measurements on Small Core

Sample"." R. A. Morse, P. L. Terwilliger and S. T. Yuster.

Oil and Gas JOllr" 46, (16).109, (1947).

G. "Electrical Logging Developments in the U.S.S.H.": Part 6,

H. Guyod, World Oil, 123 (4). 110, (191.3). * * *

December, 1949 PETROlEUM TRANSACTIONS, AI ME 324-A

Allthor's Reply to M. R. J. Wyllie and Walter D. Rose

In reply to the specific questions posed by Wyllie and Roce,

we would like to make the following comments:

First, we are of course not convinced on the basis of our

rather limited experimental evidence that there is never a

genuine variation of the saturation exponent, n, with saturation.

Our own data on several consolidated sandstone cores do not

,,11Ow any evidence of this variation, even in the region close

to irreducible water, where the theory of Wyllie and Rose

would indicate that n should approach a value of minus

infinity. (See Fig. 4 in Wyllie and Rose's forthcoming paper,

which the authors have kindly furnished us.) This figure is

of interest. also, in that it indicates that for cores having

irreducible waters of leo.;s than 30%, n is approximately con-

stant with saturation until the water saturation reaches a value

not greatly different from irreducible water. :Wost of the

material which we worked with had irreducible waters of less

than 30<;{. This variation dose to the irreducible water sat-

uration, which is postulated by Wyllie and Rose, could not be

expected to be detected by om experiments.

In answer to the second question, some of the results which

we discarded indicated saturation exponents as high as six.

However, as was stated in our paper, the criterion used for the

reliability of the data was not the value of the saturation ex-

ponent, but the constancy of this value as obtained on different

sections of the same core. If large and systematic variations

in n were obtained for various sections of the core from top

to bottom, this was taken to mean that the average brine sat-

uration ohtained for the entire core was not the same as the

saturation in the individual sections. If this is so.. a plot of

re,i,tance vs. an incorrect saturation would 'of course hI"

meaningless.

Regarding the average value of the saturation exponent for

consolidated and unconsolidated media, we can only reiterate

that in our limited experience we have never observed a sat-

uration exponent which was significantly greater than two for

con,olidated material, whereas for unconsolidated material the

values have nearly always heen two or above. * * *

324-B PEH:OLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME December, 1949

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