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Now a days concrete is used for construction of buildings because they have good strength and durability compare to other type of construction. The concrete is made by proportioning the sand, aggregate, cement and mixing suitable quantity of water to it. The strength of concrete is based on the water cement ratio of the concrete. The apartment building is constructed as a concrete structure. Framed structures are normally used in all types of building such as institutional building, office building etc. because they have good load carrying capacity. So that the building is constructed as a framed structure. The apartment building consists of 2 buildings face to each other. Each floor consists of 4 individual houses. Therefore totally 16 houses are constructed in 1 building. In the selected site consist of good transportation facility, drinking water facility and all other facilities. The plinth area of 1 building is 1154sq.m. The design of apartment building involves slab design and column design. At first slab is designed by limit state method. During slab design the effect of various load such as live load and dead are determined by using IS 875

.

1

**CHAPTER – 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
**

Being left me necessity of a complex at vannarpettai a project at construction of a apartment building has been selected and the words related namely planning design and carried out. The proposed building consists of four floors. Lots of assessments of building have been carried out before itself regarding this topic some of them are described below. Mender, Priestley and Park (1988) proposed a stress-strain model for concrete subjected to uniaxial compressive leading and confined by transverse reinforcement. The influence of various types of confinement is taken into account be defining an effective lateral confining stress, which depends on the confinement to the transverse and later reinforcement. Krawinkler.H and Senevirata, G.D.P.K (1988) who as described the various concept on which the pushover analysis can be based. The accuracy of pushover prediction. He concludes that pushover analysis provides good estimate of global, as well as local inelastic, deformation demands and also expose design weakness that may remain hidden in an elastic analysis. Kara.L.Dooly and Joseph M.Braci (2001) he say the increase in column to beam strength rations resulted in improved performance by protecting the life safety of occupants and by preventing the formation of story mechanism. Seth. A. (2000) she has discussed the conventional retrofit methods for retrofitting of engineering concrete building in light of the predominant failure patterns of various structural in concrete and different parameters that governs the choices of retrofit. She suggests that advantages and disadvantages of various in terms of ductility.

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CHAPTER - 3 MATERIALS

Sand : The moisture content of the sand is 5 to 8%.

Sand particles consist of small grains silica.

** Sand should be grade one. 20 mm and 40 mm size aggregate :
**

The course aggregate should be free from salt, micca and impurities. The specific gravity of aggregate is not less than 2.5.

** The compressive strength of course aggregate is 145 N/sq.mm. Cement :
**

Fineness at cement should not be more than 10% original weight is 1.5 sieve

**numbers 9. The compressive strength at end of :
**

a.

3 days should be not less than 1.96 N/sq.mm.

b. 7 days should be not less than 17.17 N/sq.mm.

** Tensile strength at the end :
**

a.

3 days should not be less than 1.96 N/sq.mm.

b. 7 days should not be less than 2.45 N/sq.mm.

**Stone : Crushing strength of good stone should be greater than 100 N/sq.mm.
**

3

Specific gravity of good stone is greater than 2.7. The stone should not about water more than 0.4 by weight.

Brick : Crushing strength of brick should be more than 5.5 N/sq.mm. Brick should be free from organic matter solid and chemicals. Brick should have uniform colour.

Brick have uniform size 19cmx9cmx9cm.

Water :

PH value of water should be 7-8.5.

Turbidity of water is 5-10 ppm. The colour of cobalt should not be exceed 30 and should be perfectly less than 3.

The hardness should be more than 5 degrees but less than 8 degrees.

**Concrete : Minimum grade of concrete as per IS 456-2000 for R.C.C work M20.
**

Minimum grade of concrete as per IS 456-2000 for plain concrete work M15.

**Steel : The steel should be corrosive resistance.
**

For R.C.C work the bond strength between steel and concrete should be high.

4

Grade of steel for R.C.C work among the various grade of steel Fe415 and Fe250 grade of steel are used. Characteristic strength. • • For Fe415 = 415 N/sq.mm. For Fe250 = 250 N/sq.mm.

CHAPTER – 4

5

DRAWINGS

6

7

8

**CHAPTER – 5 DESIGN OF SLAB
**

General Slabs are the primary members (elements) of a structure which support the imposed loads directly on them and transfer the load safety to the supporting elements such as beams, walls, columns, etc. therefore, a slab should be safe and stable against the applied loads and should have the required strength and stiffness to satisfy the serviceability requirements. 5.1 DESIGN OF SLAB FOR KITCHEN ROOM Step 1 : Check the ratio (Two adjacent edges discontinuous) = = 1.1 < 2 The slab is two way slab. To find Effective depth d = = = D = = = 110 mm d + 20 110 + 20 130 mm 3.25/2.95 1.1

9

Step 3 : Effective Span 1. Clear span + eff. Depth = = 2. Clear Span + c/c of distance = = Effective span Step 4 : Loads 1. Self.wt of slab = = 2. Marble finish = = 3. 4. Live load Floor Finishes Total load W Ultimate load, Wu = = = = = (1 x 1 x 0.13) x 25 2.5 KN/m2 (.02x26.70) 0.534 KN/m2 2 KN/m2 1.428 KN/m2 7.212 KN/m2 1.5 x 7.212 10.818 KN/m2 = 2.95 + 0.23 3.18 m 2.95 + 0.11 3.06 m 3.06 m

**Step 5 : Design of bending moment & shear force = = = 3.25/2.95 = 1.1 0.028 0.024
**

10

i) Bending Moment in shorter direction Mx = = = ii) Bending Moment in longer direction My = = = iii) Shear force, Vu = = = Step 6 : Check for depth Mu limit 2.83 x 106 dreq Hence Safe. Step 7 : Area of Main Reinforcement i) Ast in shorter direction Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d = = = 0.138 fck b.d2 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 32 mm < dprovide = 110 mm Wu ly2 0.024 x 10.818 x 3.062 2.43 KNm 0.5 Wu lx 0.5 x 10.818 x 3.06 10.55 KN Wu lx2 0.028 x 10.818 x 3.062 2.83 KNm

11

2.83 x 106 Ast ii) Ast in longer direction Mu 2.43 x 106 Ast Step 8 : Spacing of Reinforcement a) Spacing in shorter direction

= =

0.87 x 415 x Ast x 110 90 mm2

= = =

0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 110 x 75 mm2

= Use 10mm φ bar i) = = ii) iii) 3d = =

x 1000

x 1000 300 mm c/c 345 mm 300 mm

**Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300mm c/c in shorter direction. b) Spacing in longer direction = Use 10 mm φ bar
**

i)

x 1000

=

12

x 1000

= ii) iii) 3d = =

300 mm c/c 345 mm 300 mm c/c

**Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c in longer direction. Step 9 : Check for shear stress
**

v

**= = = 0.15 N/mm2 = 1.3 x 0.28 0.364 N/mm2
**

v

Pt K

c

= = = K

c

/ 2 = 0.04 N/m

>

**Hence Safe. Step 10 : Check for deflection control (λ/d)max = (λ/d)max x Kt = = (λ/d)actual = = (λ/d)max > 28 mm (λ/d)actual
**

13

20 x 2 40 mm

Hence Safe.

Step 11 : Reinforcement Details

Figure 5.1 Reinforcement details of two way slab 5.2 DESIGN OF SLAB FOR BED ROOM – 2 Step 1 : Check the ratio (Two adjacent edges discontinuous) = = 1.1 < 2 4.45/4.05 1.1

**The slab is two way slab. To find Effective depth d = =
**

14

= D = = = Step 3 : Effective span 1) Clear span + eff. depth = = 2) Clear span + c/c of distance = = Effective span Step 4 : Loads 1) Self. Weight of slab = = 2) Marble Finish = = 3) Live Load 4) Floor Finishes Total load W Ultimate load, Wu = = = = = =

155 mm d + 20 155 + 20 175 mm

4.05 + 0.23 4.28 m 4.05 + 0.155 4.205 m 4.205 m

(1x1x0.175) x 25 4.375 KN/m2 (.02x26.70) 0.534 KN/m2 2 KN/m2 1.428 KN/m2 8.337 KN/m2 1.5 x 8.337 12.50 KN/m2

15

Step 5 : Design of BM & Shear = x y = = 4.45/4.05 = 1.1 0.04 0.035

i) Bending Moment in shorter direction Mx = = = ii) B ending Moment in longer direction My = = = iii) Shear force, Vu = = = Step 6 : Check for depth Mu limit 8.84 x 106 dreq = = = 0.138 fck b.d2 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 57 mm < dprovide = 155 mm y Wu ly2 0.035 x 12.5 x 4.2052 7.735 KNm 0.5 Wu lx 0.5 x 12.5 x 4.205 26.28 KN x Wu lx2 0.04 x 12.5 x 4.2052 8.84 KNm

Hence safe.

16

Step 7 : Area of Main Reinforcement i) Ast in shorter direction Mu 8.84 x 106 Ast ii) Ast in longer direction Mu 7.73 x 106 Ast Step 8 : Spacing a) Spacing in shorter direction = Use 10mm φ bar i) = = ii) iii) 3d = = x 1000 300 mm c/c 465 mm 300 mm c/c x 1000 = = = 0.87 fy Ast d 0.87x 415 x Ast x 155 x 140 mm2 = = = 0.87 fy d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 155 161 mm2

Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c

17

**Step 9 : Check for shear stress
**

v

**= = = 0.17 N/mm2 = 1.3 x 0.28 0.364 N/mm2
**

v

Pt K

c

= = =

/ 2 = 0.052 N/m

K

c

>

Hence Safe. Step 10 : Check for deflection control (λ/d)max = = = (λ/d)actual = = 27 mm (λ/d)basic x Kt 20 x 2 40 mm

(λ/d)max > (λ/d)actual Hence safe.

18

Step 11 : Reinforcement Details

Figure 5.2 Reinforcement details of two way slab 5.3 DESIGN OF SLAB FOR DINING HALL Step 1 : Check the ratio (One end short edge discontinuous) = = 1.1 < 2 The slab is two way slab. 3.65/4.2 1.5

**To find Effective depth
**

19

d

= = = 140 mm d + 20 140 + 20 160 mm

D

= = =

Step 3 : Effective span 1) Clear span + eff. Depth = = 2) Clear span + c/c of distance = = Effective span Step 4 : Loads 1) Self. Weight of slab = 2) Marble Finish = = 3) Live Load 4) Floor Finishes Total load W Ultimate load, Wu = = = = = (1x1x0.14) x 25 = 3.65 + 0.23 3.88 m 3.65 + .14 3.79 m 3.79 m

**3.5 KN/m2 (.02x26.70) 0.534 KN/m2 2 KN/m2 1.428 KN/m2 7.46 KN/m2 1.5 x 7.46
**

20

= Step 5 : Design of BM & SHEAR = x y = =

11.2 KN/m2

4.2/3.65 = 1.15 0.053 0.043

i) Bending Moment in shorter direction Mx = = = ii) B.M in & longer direction My = = = iii) Shear force, Vu = = = Step 6 : Check for depth Mu limit 8.52 x 106 dreq = = = 0.138 fck b.d2 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 55 mm < dprovide = 140 mm y Wu ly2 0.043 x 11.2 x 3.792 6.9 KNm 0.5 Wu lx 0.5 x 11.2 x 3.79 21.224 KN x Wu lx2 0.053 x 11.2 x 3.792 8.52 KNm

Hence safe.

21

Step 7 : Area of Main Reinforcement i) Ast in shorter direction Mu 8.52 x 106 Ast ii) Ast in longer direction Mu 6.9 x 106 Ast Step 8 : Spacing a) Spacing in shorter direction = Use 10mm φ bar i) = =

ii)

= = =

0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 140 175 mm2

= = =

0.87 fy Ast d 0.87x 415 x Ast x 140 x 140 mm2

x 1000

x 1000 300 mm c/c 420 mm 300 mm c/c

3d

= =

iii)

**Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c
**

22

**b) Spacing in longer direction = Use 10mm φ bar i) = =
**

ii)

x 1000

x 1000 300 mm c/c 420 mm 300 mm c/c

3d

= =

iii)

**Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c Step 9 : Check for shear stress
**

v

**= = = 0.15 N/mm2 = 1.3 x 0.28 0.364 N/mm2
**

v

Pt K

c

= = =

/ 2 = 0.0625 N/m

K

c

>

Hence Safe.

Step 10 : Check for deflection control (λ/d)max = (λ/d)basic x Kt

23

= = (λ/d)actual = =

20 x 2 40 mm

27 mm

(λ/d)max > (λ/d)actual Hence safe. Step 11 : Reinforcement Details

Figure 5.3 Reinforcement details of two ways slab

**5.4 DESIGN OF SLAB FOR LIVING HALL Step 1 : Check the ratio (Interior Panel)
**

24

= = 1.21 < 2 / The slab is two way slab. To find Effective depth d = = = D = = = Step 3 : Effective span 1) Clear span + eff. Depth = = 2) Clear span + c/c of distance = = Effective span Step 4 : Loads 1) Self. Wt of slab = = =

5.1/4.2 1.21

165 mm d + 20 165 + 20 185 mm

4200 + 230 4430 mm 4200 + 185 4385 mm 4385 mm

(1x1x0.185) x 25 4.625 KN/m2

25

2) Marble Finish

= =

(.02x26.70) 0.534 KN/m2 2 KN/m2 1.428 KN/m2 8.587 KN/m2 1.5 x 8.587 12.9 KN/m2

3) Live Load 4) Floor Finishes Total load W Ultimate load, Wu

= = = = =

Step 5 : Design of Bending Moment & Shear force = x y = = 5.1/4.2 = 1.21 0.037 0.024

i) Bending Moment in shorter direction Mx = = = ii) B.M in & longer direction My = = = iii) Shear force, Vu = = y Wu ly2 0.024 x 12.8 x 4.3852 7 KNm 0.5 Wu lx 0.5 x 12.9 x 4.385

26

x Wu lx2 0.037 x 12.9 x 4.3852 9.7 KNm

=

28.28 KN

Step 6 : Check for depth Mu limit 9.7 x 106 dreq Hence safe. Step 7 : Area of Main Reinforcement i) Ast in shorter direction Mu 8.52 x 106 Ast ii) Ast in longer direction Mu 7 x 106 Ast Step 8 : Spacing a) Spacing in shorter direction =

27

= = =

0.138 fck b.d2 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 60 mm < dprovide = 165 mm

= = =

0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 165 166 mm2

= = =

0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 165 x 119 mm2

x 1000

Use 10mm φ bar i) = = ii) iv) 3d = = x 1000 300 mm c/c 495 mm 300 mm c/c

Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c b) Spacing in longer direction = Use 10mm φ bar i) = = ii) iv) 3d = = x 1000 300 mm c/c 495 mm 300 mm c/c x 1000

**Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c Step 9 : Check for shear stress
**

v

= = = 0.17 N/mm2 = / 2 = 0.05 N/m

Pt

=

28

K

c

= = K

c

1.3 x 0.28 0.364 N/mm2

v

>

Hence Safe. Step 10 : Check for deflection control (λ/d)max = (λ/d)basic x Kt = = (λ/d)actual = = 26 mm 20 x 2 40 mm

(λ/d)max > (λ/d)actual Hence safe.

Step 11 : Reinforcement Details

29

Figure 5.4 Reinforcement details of two way slab

5.5 DESIGN OF SLAB FOR BED ROOM-1 Step 1 : Check the ratio (One short edge discontinuous) = = 1.27 < 2 The slab is two way slab. 4.45/3.5 1.27

**To find Effective depth
**

30

d

= = = 135 mm d + 20 135 + 20 155 mm

D

= = =

Step 3 : Effective span 1) Clear span + eff. Depth = = 2) Clear span + c/c of distance = = Effective span = 3500 + 230 3730 mm 3500 + 155 3655 mm 3655 mm

Step 4 : Loads 1) Self. Weight of slab = = 2) Marble Finish = = 3) Live Load 4) Floor Finishes = = (1x1x0.155) x 25 3.875 KN/m2 (.02x26.70) 0.534 KN/m2 2 KN/m2 1.428 KN/m2

31

Total load W Ultimate load, Wu

= = =

7.837 KN/m2 1.5 x 7.837 11.75 KN/m2

Step 5 : Design of BM & SHEAR = x y = = 4.45/3.5 = 1.27 0.036 0.028

i) Bending Moment in shorter direction Mx = = = ii) B.M in & longer direction My = = = iii) Shear force, Vu = = = y Wu ly2 0.028 x 11.75 x 3.6552 4.4 KNm 0.5 Wu lx 0.5 x 11.75 x 3.655 21.5 KN x Wu lx2 0.036 x 11.75 x 3.6552 6.12 KNm

**Step 6 : Check for depth Mu limit = 0.138 fck b.d2
**

32

6.12 x 106 dreq

= = Hence safe.

0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 47 mm < dprovide = 155 mm

Step 7 : Area of Main Reinforcement i) Ast in shorter direction Mu 6.12 x 106 Ast ii) Ast in longer direction Mu 4.4 x 106 Ast = = = 0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 155 x 79 mm2 = = = 0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 155 111 mm2

**Step 8 : Spacing a) Spacing in shorter direction = Use 10mm φ bar i) spacing = = x 1000 300 mm c/c
**

33

x 1000

ii) iii)

3d =

=

465 mm

300 mm c/c

Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c b) Spacing in longer direction = Use 10mm φ bar i) = = ii) v) 3d = = x 1000 300 mm c/c 465 mm 300 mm c/c x 1000

**Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c Step 9 : Check for shear stress
**

v

**= = = 0.16 N/mm2 = 1.3 x 0.28 0.364 N/mm2
**

v

Pt K

c

= = = K

c

/ 2 = 0.041 N/m

>

34

Hence Safe. Step 10 : Check for deflection control (λ/d)max = (λ/d)basic x Kt = = (λ/d)actual = = 27 mm 20 x 2 40 mm

(λ/d)max > (λ/d)actual Hence safe. Step 11 : Reinforcement Details

Figure 5.5 Reinforcement details of two way slab 5.6 ONE WAY SLAB FOR BALCONY Step 1 : Check the ratio

35

= = 4 > 2

4.4/1.1 4

Hence it is one way slab. Step 2 : Effective depth d = = = D = = = Step 3 : To find Effective span 1) Clear span + eff. Depth = = 2) Clear span + c/c of distance = = Effective span = 1.1 + 0.23 1.33 m 1.1 + 0.07 1.17 m 1.17 m 50 mm d + 20 50 + 20 70 mm

Step 4 : Load Calculation 1) Self Weight of slab = (1x1x0.07) x 25

36

= 2) Marble Finish = = 3) Live Load 4) Floor Finish Total load W Ultimate load, Wu = = = = =

1.75 KN/m2 (.02x26.70) 0.534 KN/m2 2 KN/m2 1. 428 KN/m2 6.178 KN/m2 1.5 x 6.178 9.267 KN/m2

Step 5 : Ultimate Moment and Shear Force Mu = = = Vu = = = 0.125 Wu l2 0.125 x 9.267 x 1.172 1.6 KNm 0.5 Wu l 0.5 x 9.267 x 1.17 5.42 KN

Step 6 : Limiting Moment of Resistance Mu limit = = = 0.138 fck b.d2 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x 502 x 10-6 6.9 KNm

37

Mu < Mu limit, section is under reinforced. Step 7 : Main Reinforcement Mu 1.6 x 106 Ast Spacing a) Spacing Use 10mm φ bar Spacing = = b) 3d = = v) = x 1000 300 mm 3 x 50 150 mm 300 mm c/c = x 1000 = = = 0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 50 92 mm2

Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 150 mm c/c Step 8 : Distribution Reinforecement Ast = = = 1.2% x bD 1.2% x 1000 x 50 84 mm2

38

a) Spacing

=

x 1000

**Use 8 mm φ bar Spacing = = b) 3d = =
**

b)

x 1000 300 mm c/c 3 x 50 15 mm 300 mm

=

**Provide 8 mm φ bar @ 150 mm c/c Step 9 : Check for shear stress
**

v

= = = 0.1 N/mm2 = = 0.092 N/m

**Pt Permissible shear stress K
**

c

=

= =

1.3 x 0.28 0.364 N/mm2

v

K

c

>

Hence the shear stresses are within safe permissible limits. Step 10 : Check for deflection

39

(L/d)max Kt Kc Kf (L / d)max

= = = = = = 1.4 1 1 (Refer IS 456 - 2000) 32 x 1.3 41

(L / d)actual

= = 23 < 41

(L/d)max > (L/d)actual Hence design is safe.

40

Step11:ReinforcementDetails

Figure 5.6 Reinforcement details of two way slab 5.7 DESIGN OF SLAB FOR TOILET Step 1 : Check the ratio (One end edge discontinuous) = = 1.44 < 2

41

2.6/1.8 1.44

The slab is two way slab. Step 2 : To find Effective depth d = = = D = = = Step 3 : Effective span 1) Clear span + eff. Depth = = 2) Clear span + c/c of distance = = / Effective span Step 4 : Loads 1) Self. Wt of slab = = 2) Marble Finish = = 3) Live Load 4) Floor Finishes = = (1x1x0.09) x 25 2.25 KN/m2 (.02x26.70) 0.534 KN/m2 2 KN/m2 1.428 KN/m2

42

70 mm d + 20 70 + 20 90 mm

1800 + 230 2030 mm 1800 + 90 1890 mm 1890 mm

=

Total load W Ultimate load, Wu

= = =

6.212 KN/m2 1.5 x 6.212 9.318 KN/m2

Step 5 : Design of BM & SHEAR = x y = = 2.6/1.8 = 1.44 0.047 0.028

i) Bending Moment in shorter direction Mx = = = ii) Bending Moment in longer direction My = = = iii) Shear force, Vu = = = Step 6 : Check for depth Mu limit = 0.138 fck b.d2

43

x Wu lx2 0.047 x 9.318 x 1.892 1.6 KNm

y Wu ly2 0.028 x 9.318 x 1.892 1 KNm 0.5 Wu lx 0.5 x 9.318 x 1.89 8.8 KN

6.12 x 106 dreq

= =

0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 25 mm < dprovide = 90 mm

Hence safe.

Step 7 : Area of Main Reinforcement i) Ast in shorter direction Mu 6.12 x 106 Ast ii) Ast in longer direction Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 70 x 40 mm2 = = = 0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 70 65 mm2

1 x 106 = Ast Step 8 : Spacing a) Spacing in shorter direction = Use 10mm φ bar i) Spacing = = =

x 1000

x 1000 300 mm c/c

44

ii) iii)

3d

= =

210mm 300 mm c/c

Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 210 mm c/c

**b) Spacing in longer direction = Use 10mm φ bar
**

i)

x 1000

Spacing

= =

x 1000 300 mm c/c 210 mm 300 mm c/c

ii) iii)

3d

= =

**Provide 10 mm φ bar @ 210 mm c/c Step 9 : Check for shear stress
**

v

= = = 0.12 N/mm2 = 1.3 x 0.28 0.364 N/mm2 / 2 = 0.05 N/m

Pt K

c

= = =

45

K

c

>

v

Hence Safe.

Step 10 : Check for deflection control (λ/d)max = (λ/d)basic x Kt = = (λ/d)actual = = 27 mm 20 x 2 40 mm

(λ/d)max > (λ/d)actual Hence safe. Step 11 : Reinforcement Details

46

Figure 5.7 Reinforcement details of two way slab

**CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF BEAM
**

General Structure and structure member shall be designed to have adequate Strength at least equal to structure effects of design loads and forces, which occur during construction method of design. The following methods are in design of structural elements such as slabs, beams, columns, footing and staircase. They are i. Working stress method ii. Limit state design

47

iii. Ultimate load design method i. Working stress method: This is the oldest systematic analytical design method. In this method stress-strain relation is considered linearly till the yield stress. One of the limitations of this method is uneconomical section. But this method is simple. ii. Limit state design: In this comprehensive method which will take care of both strength and serviceability requirements. iii. Ultimate load design method: In this method a section is said to have formed plastic hinge when all the fiber yield. After it is continue to resist load which has caused plastic hinge but will not resist any more load. In this project the structural elements are designed by limit state method.

Limit state method : The acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability requirements before fail over occur is called a “Limit State”. The aim of design is to achieve acceptable probabilities that the structure will not become unfit for use for which it is intended. That is it will not reach a limit state. All relevant limit states shall be considered in design to ensure adequate degree of safety and serviceability. a) Safety requirements : Limit state of collapse : Flexure Compression Shear

48

Torsion b) Serviceability requirements : Limit states of serviceability : Deflection Cracking Vibration c) Other limit states regarding : Durability Fatigue Fire resistance etc, 6.1 DESIGN OF BEAM 1 Design for maximum bending moment as a ‘T’ beam Maximum moment = 138.4052.11 KN m Factored moment = = Cross sectional dimension Eff. Depth d = = = Overall depth = = = 384 mm 400 mm 400 + 50 450 mm 1.5 x 52.11 KN m 90.10 KN m

49

Effective width of the flange bf = = = c/c of rib = + 300 + 6x150 2.23 m 3m

Hence the eff. Width of flange bf is 2.23m Moment capacity of flange Muf = = = Since 0.36 fckbf Df (d-0.42 Df) 0.36 x 20 x 2230 x 150 x (400 – 0.42 x 150) 811.36kN.m

Mu < Muf

Hence the section is considered as rectangular with b=bf Reinforcements Mu 78.20 x 106 = 0.87 fy Ast d

0.87 x 415 x Ast x 400 Ast = = = 4 4 nos 605 mm2

Solving No of bars

50

Provide 4 bars of 25 mm diameter and two hanger bars of 12 mm diameter on the compression face. Shear reinforcements = = Pt = = = Refer table 19 of IS:456 = < Hence shear reinforcement is provided Balance shear V us = = = Vu – ( d) 0.63 N/mm2 0.63% = 1.35 N/mm2

135.15 x 103-(0.5 x 300 x 400) 91.58 kN

Using 8 mm diameter two legged stirrups is : = = 130mm

**But Sv < 0.75 d or 300 mm whichever is less 0.75d = 0.75 x 400
**

51

=

300 mm

Hence provide 8 mm diameter two legged stirrups at 130 mm c/c throughout the length of the beam. Reinforcement details

Figure 6.1 Reinforcement detail of ‘T’ beam B1

6.2 DESIGN OF BEAM 2 Design for maximum bending moment as a ‘T’ beam Maximum moment = = Factored moment = = Cross sectional dimension Eff. Depth d = 165.61 – 52.11 KN m 1.5 x 52.11 KN m 107.72 KN m

52

400 mm Overall depth = = Effective width of the flange bf = = = c/c of rib = + bw + 6D + 300 + 6X 150 2.23 m 3m 400 _ 50 450 mm

Hence the eff. Width of flange bf is 2.23m Moment capacity of flange Muf = = 0.36 fckbfDf(d-0.42 Df) 0.36 x 20 x 2230 x 150 x (400 – 0.42 x 150) 811.36kN.m Since Mu < Muf

Hence the section is considered as rectangular with b=bf Reinforcements Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d

**94.95 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 400 Solving No of bars Ast = 756 mm2 =
**

53

=4 4 nos Provide 4 bars of 25 mm diameter and two hanger bars of 16 mm diameter on the compression face. Shear reinforcement = =

= 1.53 N/mm2 76 Pt = = =0.63% Refer table 19 ofIS:456 = 0.63 N/mm2 < Hence shear reinforcement is provided Balance shear Vus = Vu – ( bwd) = 161.58 x 103 – (0.5 x 300 x 400) = 101kN Using 8 mm diameter two legged stirrups is: Sv =

54

= = 80mm But Sv <0.75 d or 300 mm whichever is less 0.75d = 0.75 x 400 = 300mm Hence provide 8 mm diameter two legged stirrups at 80 mm c/c throughout the length of the beam.

Reinforcement details

Figure 6.2 Reinforcement detail of ‘T’ beam B2 6.3 DESIGN OF L BEAM (for beam3) Design for maximum positive B.M of mid span as an L beam

55

Maximum positive moment = = Factored moment = = Design shear force Net shear force = = Cross section dimension Eff. Depth d = =

83.61 – 29.87 KNm 1.5 x 29.87 44.08 KNm

56.36 kN

= 293 mm 300 mm

Overall depth

= =

300 + 50 350 mm

Effective width of the flange bf where Lo bw Df bf = = = = = + bw + 3Df 4700 mm 300 mm 200m + 300 + 3x200

56

= bw approximate lever arm zapp = = = Approximate area of steel =

1.29 m 0.3 mm

0.9% d1 x 350 27mm

Ast (app)

= = = 4596 mm2

Using 32 mm No of bars

bars = = 6 Nos

**Check Xu Max = = Axial neutral axis Assuming the N.A. lie on the Flange
**

57

0.48 x 300 144mm

Xu

= = = 178.02 mm 200 mm

Where Df

= Xu < Df

Hence assumption is correct.

RESULT Provide area of steel = 4#25mm φ of bar

Reinforcement details

58

Figure 6.3 Reinforcement details of L beam B3

CHAPTER 7 DESIGN OF COLUMN

59

7.1 DESIGN OF COLUMN SUBJECTED UNIT AXIAL LOAD AND UNIAXIAL BENDING Column Design Factored load = = Factored moment, Mu = = Area if column Size of column Area Use 20 mm d1 = = 300 x 300 mm 90000 mm2 1.5 x (58.88 + 66.61) x 2 94.12 KN 1.5 x (25.74 x 4) x 1.5 154.59 KNm

bars for longitudinal reinforcement and a clear cover 40 mm = = = + 40 50 mm = 0.167 0.15

Hence use chart

=

**Calculation for longitudinal reinforcement The non dimensional parameter is = = 0.20
**

60

= = Refer char 33 in sp 16 = Pt = = Ast = = use 20 mm φ bar No. of bars = = = Design of lateral ties The diameter of lateral ties of following a. Not less than 5mm b. = = 5 mm 7.56 8Nos 0.26 0.16 x 20 3.2 x 300 x 300 2880 mm2 0.29

Hence adopt 8 mm φ ties Spacing of lateral ties, the lesser of the following a. Least dimension of column = 300mm

61

b. 16 times of longitudinal reinforcement

= =

16 x 20 320 mm 48 x 8 380 mm

c. 48 times of lateral reinforcement

= =

Hence provide 8 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c as lateral ties. Reinforcement details

Figure 7.1 Reinforcement details of column subjected to uniaxial load 7.2 Design of inner column Factored load = = Assume 1% of reinforcement Refer chart 25 ((100.14 + 115.3)/2) x 1.5 161.58 KN

62

= Ag Assume Size of column =

10.5 N/mm2 16158 mm2

Area of steel Ast Ast = = = Use 20mm No of bars bar = = = 3.86 4 Nos 1 % of c/s area x 300 x 300 900 mm2

Provide 4 nos of 20 mm φ bar as longitudinal reinforcement Moment due to minimum eccentricity Emin = = = (or) Emin = 20mm + + 16 MM

63

Take maximum value Emin 0.05D = = = 20 mm 0.05 x 300 15 mm

20mm < 15mm ‘Hence ok’ Design of lateral ties The diameter of lateral ties of the following. i. Not less than 5 mm ii. = 20/4 = 5 mm Hence adopt 8 mm φ ties. Spacing of lateral ties, the lesser of following a. Least dimension of column b. 16 times of longitudinal reinforcement = = = c. 48 times of lateral reinforcement = = 300 mm 16 x 20 320 mm 48 x 8 384 mm

Hence provide 8 mm φ bar @ 300 mm c/c as lateral tiles.

64

Reinforcement details

Figure 7.2 column subjected to axial load 7.3 DESIGN OF COLUMN SUBJECTED TO AXIL LOAD AND BIAXIAL BENDING Column Design of outer column Maximum factored axial load = = Maximum factored moment = = Equivalent moment Mu Size of column = = = (95.85 + 67.6) x 1.5 245.175 KNm (25.74 + 52.1) x 1.5 103.87 Knm 168.92KNm 300mm x 300mm

65

= Refer IS 450 – sp 16, chart 44 = = Check Refer IS 450 – sp 16, chart 44 = Asc = = = Number of bar = =

0.136

0.312

0.18 PbD/100 (3.6x300x300)/100 3240 sq.mm

10 number

Provide 4 number of bar 20mm & 6 number of dia 20mm for distribution bar. Percentage of reinforcement P = = = = Mux1 = 0.315x20x300x3002 4.27 = 0.21

66

= Due to symmetry Mux1 = Muy1 Refer chart 63 Puz = = = an = = = = = Hence the section safe Design of lateral ties =

168KNm 168 KNm

1973 KN

0.125 1.5

0.614

0.96<1

The diameter of lateral ties shall not be lesser the following. a. Not less than 5 mm b. = 20/4 = 5 mm

Hence adopt 8 mm φ ties. Spacing of lateral ties the lesser of the following a. Least dimension of column b. It times of longitudinal reinforcement

67

= =

300 mm 16 x 20

= c. 48 times of lateral reinforcement = =

320 mm 48 x 8 384 mm

Hence provide 8 mm φ bars @ 300 mm c/c lateral ties Reinforcement details

Figure 7.3 column subjected to Biaxial load

CHAPTER -8

68

DESIGN OF FOOTING

8.1 Design of footing of outer column Load calculation Maximum column axial load = = Self wt of column = = Total column load = = Factored load = = Safe bearing capacity of soil Ultimate bearing capacity of soil = = = Area of footing required = = 0.3x X 0.3x X B B Area, A = = = = = 4.75 m2 4.75 7.5m 7.5 x 0.3 = 2.25m 7.5 x 0.3 = 2.25m 2.25 x 2.25

69

(55.30 + 56.36) x 5 558.3 KN (0.3x0.3x3x25) x 5 33.75 KN 558.3 + 33.75 592 KN 592 x 1.5 890 KN 125 KN/m2 125 x 1.5 187.5 KN/m2

= Projection beyond column face

5.0625m2

L

= =

(2.25-0.3) 0.98m

B.M @ section Mu = = = 0.5 x 175.59 x 0.982 84.035 KNm

Depth of footing a) From moment consideration we have Mu = 0.138 fck bd2

70

84.035 x 106 = d Steel required Mu = =

0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 180 mm

0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 Ast x 350 = 695 mm2

84.035 x 106 = Ast Provide 16 mm of bars Spacing

= = =

x 1000 x 1000 280 mm c/c 0.12% of bd 0.0012 x 1000 x 400 480 mm2

Minimum reinforcement

= = =

**Use 12 mm φ bars Spacing = = = Check for shear Induced shear = Vu = 175 x 0.7
**

71

x 1000 x 1000 300 mm c/c

**= Nominal shear stress = = = % of steel provided = = = Design of shear strength
**

c

122.5 KN Vu/bd

0.35 N/mm2 100

0.19% 0.41 N/mm2

v

=

<

c

Hence it is safe Reinforcement details

**Figure 8.1 Outer column 8.2 DESIGN OF FOOTING FOR INNER COLUMN
**

72

Load calculation

= =

{100.17 + 68.82} x 5 844.8 KN = (0.3 x 0.3 x 3x 25) x 5

Self Weight of column = Total column load = = Factored load = = Safe bearing capacity of soil Ultimate bearing capacity of soil = = = Area of footing required = = .3x X.3x x = =

33.75 KN 844.8 + 33.75 878.55 KN 1.5 x 876.55 KN 1317.8 KN 150 KN/m2 150 x 1.5 225 KN/m2

7 m2 7 m2 8.5m

size of square footing is 2.55 x 2.55 m Soil pressure Pu = = Projection beyond the column faces Cantilever projection = = Depth of footing from B.M consideration

73

202.66 KN/m2 <225 KN/m2

1.125 m

B.M at the section xx Mx = = 202.66 x 1.125 x 1.125/2 128.25KNm

Equating the Movement of resistance to the m 1 ax B.M, We have Mu = 0.138 fck bd2 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 215 mm

128.25 x 106 = d =

But the depth based on shear consideration will be nearly double Overall depth D Steel Requirement Steel required parallel to long direction (Moment my) Mu Ast Use 16 mm φ bars Spacing = = Minimum reinforcement = = = x 1000 220 mm c/c 0.12% of bd 0.0012 x 1000 x 450 540 mm2 = = 0.87 fy Ast 933 mm2 = 300mm

74

**Use 12 mm φ bars Spacing = = = Check for shear Induced Vu = = Nominal shear stress
**

v

x 1000 x 1000 200 mm c/c

202.66x.7 140 KN = = = 0.36 N/mm2 100 Vu/bd

% of steel provided

= = =

0.23% 0.41 N/mm2 < Ks

c

Design of shear strength

Ks

c

=

v

Hence it is safe

75

Reinforcement Details

Figure 8.2 Inner Column reinforcement details

CHAPTER – 9

76

DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

Data No of steps in the flight Tread (T) Rise (R) Width of landing beam = = = = 10 300 mm 150 mm 300 mm

Use M20 concrete grade and Fe415 steel Step 1 : Effective span Effective spar = = = = Thickness of waist slab = = = = Adopt, Over all depth (D) Effective depth d = = = Step2: load calculation

77

(No of steps x Tread) + width of landing beam (10x300) + 300 3300 mm 3.3 m.

0.165 m 165 mm

165 mm 165-25 140 mm

Dead load of slab On horizontal span = = = Dead load of steps Per meter length = = = Finishes Live load Total load w Factored load, Wu = = = = = Step 3 : B.M calculation M = = = 18.05 x 3.32 24.57 KNm Area x density of concrete ½ x 1 x 0.15 x 25 1.875 KN/m 0.55 KN/m 2KN/m 12.03 KN/m 1.5 x 12.03 18.05 KN/m 4.61 KN/m

**Step 4 : check for depth of waist slab Mu = 0.138 fck b d2
**

78

24.57 x 106 dreq

= =

0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2 94.35 mm < dprovided = 140

Hence it is safe step 5 : Main Reinforcement Mu 24.57 x 106 Ast Assume 12 mm φ bar Spacing = = = x 100 210 mm 210 mm c/c. = = = 0.87 fy Ast d 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 140 527 mm2

Step 6 : Distribution reinforcement Ast = = = Use 8 mm φ bar Spacing = = x 1000 250 mm c/c 0.12 % of bD x 1000 x 165 198 mm

79

Step 7 : Reinforcement details

Figure 10. Reinforcement details of dog legged staircase

CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSION

80

The modern apartment building is designed by using limit state method. All the drawing using AUTOCAD. The structural elements such as slabs, beams, columns, footings and staircases are designed as per IS 456-2000 and Sp-16. In this project, two different types of beam such as L beam and T beam were designed by limit state method. The isolated footing and combined rectangular footing are provided for the construction of the apartment building. By this project, we understood the practical problem in the field of structural Engineering. We get skill about performing the project by using civil Engineering methodologies. By doing manual design . We hope this project is formed a new day to extend the boundaries of our knowledge in static analysis and design of structure.

REFERENCE

1. Arul Manickam A.P, “Structural Engineering”. Pratheeba publishers, (2004). 2. IS 456: 2000 “ Plain and Reinforced concrete” – code of practice (Fifth revision).

81

3. Krishna raju, “Design of reinforced concrete structures”, (2002). 4. Murugan.M,, “Structural Analysis”, Samuthira Publications, (2007). 5. SP-16, “Design for reinforced concrete” to 456-1978. 6. Varghese P.C, “Limit state Design of Reinforced concrete”, second Edition, (2002). 7. Vaidyanthan. R.Perumal. P, “Structural Analysis” – Volume I, Laxmi Publications, (2005).

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