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Switchgear and Substations

3.3 Low-Voltage Switchgear
System Configurations Table 3.3-2 and table 3.3-3 illustrate the technical aspects and influencing factors that should be taken into account when electrical power distribution systems are planned and network components are dimensioned. Simple radial system (spur line topology) All consumers are centrally supplied from one power source. Each connecting line has an unambiguous direction of energy flow. Radial system with changeover connection as power reserve – partial load: All consumers are centrally supplied from two to n power sources. They are rated as such that each of it is capable of supplying all consumers directly connected to the main power distribution system (stand-alone operation with open couplings). If one power source fails, the remaining sources of supply can also supply some consumers connected to the other power source. In this case, any other consumer must be disconnected (load shedding). Radial system with changeover connection as power reserve – full load: All consumers are centrally supplied from two to n power sources (stand-alone operation with open couplings). They are rated as such that, if one power source fails, the remaining power sources are capable of additionally supplying all those consumers normally supplied by this power source. No consumer must be disconnected. In this case, we speak of rating the power sources according to the (n–1) principle. With three parallel power sources or more, other supply principles, e.g. the (n–2) principle would also be possible. In this case, these power sources will be rated as such that two out of three transformers can fail without the continuous supply of all consumers connected being affected. Radial system in an interconnected grid Individual radial networks in which the consumers connected are centrally supplied by one power source are additionally coupled electrically with other radial networks by means of coupling connections. All couplings are normally closed. Depending on the rating of the power sources in relation to the total load connected, the application of the (n–1) principle, (n–2) principle etc. can ensure continuous and faultless power supply of all consumers by means of additional connecting lines. The direction of energy flow through the coupling connections may vary depending on the line of supply, which must be taken into account for subsequent rating of switching/protective devices, and above all for making protection settings. Radial system with power distribution via busbars In this special case of radial systems that can be operated in an interconnected grid, busbar trunking systems are used instead of cables. In the coupling circuits, these busbar trunking systems are either used for power transmission (from radial system A to radial system B etc.) or power distribution to the respective consumers.

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LV-side system configurations Simple radial system 1 Low cost of investment Low power losses High reliability of supply Great voltage stability Easy operation Easy and clear system protection High adaptability Low fire load
Rating: very good (1) to poor (5) fulfillment of a quality criterion

Quality criterion

Radial system with changeover connection as power reserve Partial load Full load 5 1 2 3 4 5

Radial system in an interconnected grid 1 2 3 4 5

Radial system with power distribution via busbars 1 2 3 4 5

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

Table 3.3-2: Exemplary quality rating dependent on the power system configuration

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.0