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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

Doordarshan is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati, a public service broadcaster nominated by the Government of India. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. On September 15, 2009, Doordarshan celebrated its 50th anniversary. Doordarshan had a modest beginning with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. The regular daily transmission started in 1965 as a part of All India Radio. The television service was extended to Mumbai and Amritsar in 1972. Up until 1975, only seven Indian cities had a television service and Doordarshan remained the sole provider of television in India. In 1976 each office of All India Radio and Doordarshan were placed under the management of two separate Director Generals in New Delhi. Finally Doordarshan as a National Broadcaster came into existence.

1.1 Channels
Presently, Doordarshan operates 21 channels  2 All India channels-DD National and DD News  11 Regional languages Satellite Channels (RLSC)  4 State Networks (SN)  1 International channel  1 Sports Channel (DD Sports)  2 channels (Rajya Sabha TV & DD-Lok Sabha)

1.1.1 List of Channels National
    DD National DD News Rajya Sabha TV DD-Lok Sabha

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 

DD Sports DD Bharathi

Regional
           DD Bangla DD Kashmir DD Urdu DD Punjabi DD NorthEast DD Sahyadri DD Gujarati DD Malayalam DD Podhigai DD Saptagiri DD Odia

Fig 1.1: Logos of some Dhoordarshsan channels

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1.1.2International broadcasting
DD India broadcasts internationally via satellite and it is available in 146 countries worldwide.

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CHAPTER-2 TYPES OF BROADCASTING
We basically know 3 types of methods by which the signal is received by the customers. Now let us see the 3 types of methods 1. Cable television 2. Direct To Home (DTH) 3. Transmitter service Basically the signals are sent over a band of frequencies. There are several bands are available with their own frequency ranges. And here for this transmitting and receiving we see the bands namely Ku and C bands. So let us see about Ku band.

2.1 Ku band
The Ku band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies. This symbol refers to "K-under" (originally German: Kurz-unten) in other words, the band directly below the K-band. Ku band is primarily used for satellite communications, most notably for fixed and broadcast services, and for specific applications such as NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite used for both space shuttle and ISS communications. Ku band satellites are also used for backhauls and particularly for satellite from remote locations back to a television network's studio for editing and broadcasting. The band is split into multiple segments that vary by geographical region by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). NBC was the first television network to uplink a majority of its affiliate feeds via Ku band in 1983. 2.1.1 Other Microwave Bands Compared with C-band, Ku band is not similarly restricted in power to avoid interference with terrestrial microwave systems, and the power of its uplinks and downlinks can be increased.

2.2 Cable transmission
Cable television is a system providing a distribution of signal via co-axial cables.

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It originally stood for Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where Over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes.
L band S band C band X band
Ku band 1 to 2 GHz 2 to 4 GHz 4 to 8 GHz 8 to 12 GHz 10.95-14.5 GHz 18 to 26.5 GHz 26.5 to 40 GHz 30 to 50 GHz 40 to 60 GHz 50 to 75 GHz 110 to 170 GHz

K band Ka band Q band U band V band D band

Tab 2.1 :Various Bands of frequencies

In the 1990s cable providers began to invest heavily in new digital based distribution systems. Increased competition and programming choices from Direct-broadcast satellite services such as DirecTV, Dish Network, and Prime Star caused cable providers to seek new ways to provide more programming. Customers were increasingly interested in more channels, pay-per-view programming, digital music services, and high speed internet services

Fig 2.2: A cable wire
A-Outer protective layer C- Inner protective layer B- Outer copper wire D- Inner copper wire

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2.3 DTH
D.T.H stands for Direct-To-Home television. It refers to a digital satellite service that provides television services direct to subscribers anywhere in the country. Since it makes use of wireless technology, TV channels/programs are sent to the subscriber's television direct from the satellite, eliminating the need for cables and any cable infrastructure.
In DTH telecast, the signals are transmitted in Ku band (10.7 GHz to 18 GHz) and are received by the subscribers through a small dish antenna (about 45cm in dia.) and a set-top box (or an integrated receiver decoder). The DTH system can also provide many value-added services such as the Internet, e-mail, data casting, e-commerce, and interactive multimedia. In order to receive DTH service, you need the following two basic components: 1. Dish Antenna. 2. Receiver /Set Top Box (STB).

2.3.1 Dish Antenna
It is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna (as small as 45 cm in diameter) designed to receive microwaves from communications satellites, which transmit data transmissions or broadcasts, such as satellite television. When the antenna is properly pointed, the dish "catches" the signal and reflects it to the Low-Noise Block (LNB) converter - included with the purchase of the antenna.

2.3.2 Set Top Box
It is a digital integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) also called a receiver, which separates each channel and decompresses and translates the digital signal for viewing over a television; and a remote control.

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Fig 2.3: Process of DTH method

2.4 Transmitter service:
Transmitter service is a service which is provided by certain broadcasters such that the signal is propagated into the free space and then the signal is received by the user or the customer. The propagation of the signal strength depends on the power to which it is transmitted. For different ranges of power different distances will be covered from the centre of the transmitting section or transmitter. Let us see some of the transmitting services that we see nearby transmitting stations. High Power Transmitter (HPT): Transmitter power 10KW Distance covered by above transmitter is 60km-100km E.g.: Located in Rajahmundry

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Low Power Transmitter (LPT): Transmitted power 100w-500w Local area transmitter covers distance around 21kms E.g.: Located in Kakinada Very Low Power Transmitter (VLPT): Transmitted power ± 10w Distance covered is around 5-10Km E.g.: Located in Peddapuram

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CHAPTER-3 LOW POWER TRANSMITTER
A transmitter station is considered as a low power transmitter if the transmitted power and the area of distance it can cover are as follows:   Transmitted power 100w-500w Local area transmitter covers distance around 21kms

Fig 3.1: Block diagram of LPT

3.1 Receiver Dish Area:
In receiver dish area parabolic dipole antennas (P.D.A) are used. The shape of the dish must be parabola because the parabola has specific focal point. When the information from satellites through space is incident on parabolic dishes and it reflects back from parabolic surfaces to the principle of foci. So that, the received information by the dish at the focus point, is the exact replica of information transmitted by the satellite.

3.2 Parabolic Antenna:
A parabolic antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface with the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves. The most common

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form is shaped like a dish and is popularly called a dish antenna or parabolic dish. The main advantage of a parabolic antenna is that it is highly directive. Main advantages to use the parabolic dish antenna are:   It is a Passive receiver It receives signal from satellite

If the size of the dish increases gain is also increases. So that receiving capability increases. A typical parabolic antenna consists of a parabolic reflector with a small feed antenna at its focus, pointed back toward the reflector. The reflector is a metallic surface formed into a parabola and usually truncated in a circular rim that forms the diameter of the antenna.

Fig 3.2 Parabolic dish antenna

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3.2.1 Parking Angle
The angle at which the satellite placed in geostationary satellite is called parking angle.

3.2.2 Look angle
The angle at which the P.D.A is placed on earth with respect to latitudes and longitudes is called look angle. A satellite‟s location can impact the quality of network. Identified by its longitude, a satellite‟s location is also referred to as its orbital slot. The orbital slot of the satellite determines the angle at which a ground antenna needs to be positioned to see the satellite, or “look angle.” Higher look angles provide greater reliability by improving the quality of the communication link. A higher look angle also allows more earth stations to communicate with the satellite. On the other hand, low or shallow look angles may face obstructions from trees, nearby buildings, or other objects and are more subject to interference, particularly in heavy rain.

3.2.2.1 Azimuthal angle
Azimuthal angle determines the look angle in horizontal direction (longitudinal angle). An

azimuth is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane, the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth angle.

Fig 3.3: a) Elevation angle

b) Azimuth angle

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3.2.2.2 Elevation angle
Elevation angle determine the look angle in vertical direction (latitudinal angle). To fix the look angle, azimuth angle and elevation angle should be fixed. Latitudes and longitudes steels about the situation of P.D.A in geometrical plan. So by checking and fixing this look angle towards the geo stationary satellite we can receive the signal transmitted by the satellite using parabolic dish antenna/ receiver.

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CHAPTER-4 INPUT RACK
For case of understanding we can divide the functioning of input rack in to three blocks 1. Receiving section 2. Transmitting section 3. Antenna section

Fig 4.1: Input rack in detail

4.1 Receiving Section

Fig 4.2: Block diagram of receiving section The parabolic dish antenna is metal structure with a shape of half circle, and apart from that at a distance a feed arm is held with support in air to which a low noise amplifier in addition to the low noise block convertor and the internal relay station there is a digital broadcast receiver in for monitoring and later on re-transmission of the signal is done in the transmitting section For transmission, a signal (sound or light) is first converted to an electrical signal using a microphone or a video camera. These signals are then superimposed on to a carrier wave before being sent to the transmitter. Different channels of a radio or television use

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carrier waves of different frequencies. Radio/TV receivers are so designed that they can tune in to a particular frequency of electromagnetic waves at a time they ignore other signals.

4.2 Transmitter Section

Fig 4.3: Block diagram of transmitter section

The images and sounds corresponding to one particular signal can then be selectively processed and reproduced by the receivers. It is important to remember that radio waves are only part of an extensive spectrum of electromagnetic waves. This spectrum includes such familiar radiations as visible light; ultraviolet and infrared radiations, as well as X-rays and gamma rays. As you may be aware they all exhibit phenomenon of reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference and absorption. Since sound or the image signals both travel as an electromagnetic wave, their velocity is the speed of light and they reach any destination on Earth almost instantaneously. The process of mixing electrical signals from a microphone or a TV/video camera with an electromagnetic carrier wave is known as modulation. At present two kinds of signal modulation are commonly used Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM). In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the carrier electromagnetic wave at any instant of time is changed corresponding to the amplitude of the signal electric current and in frequency modulation, the frequency of the carrier wave at a particular instant of time is changed according to the amplitude of the signal wave. Normally amplitude modulation is used for

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carrier frequencies corresponding to the short, medium and long wavelength bands of radio frequencies. The television signal is made up of two parts, both related to each other by the frequency of the carrier signal. The image signal is amplitude modulated and occupies about three fourth of the total bandwidth (which is usually 6 MHz) the audio component of the TV signal is frequency modulated and has a frequency in the range of the upper quarter of the band frequency range. Television and radio receivers are generally designed to process signals in a certain frequency range which are globally allotted for the respective signals. Normal radio receivers therefore cannot process sound signals meant for televisions. But such radio receivers can be designed. A Radio/TV transmitter performs essentially three functions: generation of the carrier currents for the sound and/or light signals, modulation and amplification of the resulting signal (so that it has enough energy to dissipate over a large area). The carrier currents have frequencies accurate to roughly one part in200, 000. The signals are then sent to the transmission antenna, which in turn, sends the signal out into air as electromagnetic waves. The receiver receives the electromagnetic waves through its own antenna, demodulates the received signal (by mixing with an electromagnetic wave corresponding to the carrier wave frequency generated within itself) and then recreates the original sounds and/or images. The broadcasting range of a transmitter depends both on its power (measured in watts) as well as the frequency of the transmitted signals. For example, a typical strong AM radio station which broadcasts signals in the range of 1000 KHz (in medium wave band) has a power of 50, 000 watts and its signals can be received far away. For example, programs broadcast on Delhi-B by a 50, 000 watts transmitter in New Delhi can be heard at night as far as Calcutta (about 1500 km away). The least powerful AM stations operate at 250 watts and usually serve only neighbouring areas. AIR Chandigarh programmes can be received in Delhi but not beyond. The power of FM stations which broadcast signals in the range of 100 MHz, ranges from 100 watts (which can broadcast up to 30 kilometres) to 100,000 watts, (which can broadcast up to about 100 kilometres). The dependence of the range of a radio signal on its frequency is essentially due to absorption of these waves by matter. As the frequency of the carrier wave increases it is absorbed more readily by the structures in its way. Since the television signals are generally transmitted on carrier waves popularly known as VHF (Very High Frequency waves) they can only be transmitted and received more like light i.e. in straight lines. VHF signals, unlike short-wave radio signals transmitted by radio stations, transmitting in short-wave frequency band, cannot be reflected by the upper layers of

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atmosphere. Television or FM signals therefore cannot be transmitted directly to receivers located at very long distances. But now with the advent of satellites it is possible to beam signals both in VHF and UHF (Ultra High Frequency) range to geostationary satellites, which can then transmit these signals back to another far off location on Earth.

4.3 Propagation Unit
For the propagation, the electrical energy is converted into electro-magnetic wave. This is done by antenna section and the different types of propagation are explained below as 4.3.1. Sky wave or Ionospheric wave propagation [between 2 to 30MHz]: The sky wanes are of practical importance for every long radio communications at medium and high frequencies i.e. medium waves and short waves. In this mode the EM waves transmitted by the transmitting antenna reach the receiving antenna at very long distance away from transmitting antenna after the reflection from the ionized region in the upper part of the atmosphere of the earth. This part is called ionosphere and it is located above earth‟s surface at about 70km to 400km height. The ionosphere acts as the reflecting surface and reflects the EM wave back to the earth if the frequency is between 2 to 30 MHz‟s. As the sky wave propagation is useful for the frequencies between 2MHz to 30MHz only this mode of propagation is also called short wave propagation. As the waves propagate due to the reflection by the ionosphere the mode of propagation is also called Ionospheric propagation using the sky wave propagation is also called Ionospheric propagation. Using the sky wave propagation a long distance point to point communication is possible and hence it is also called point to point propagation or point to point communication. 4.3.2. Space wave propagation [above 30MHz]: When the frequency of the EM wave is between 30MHz to 300MHz the space wave propagation mode is of importance. The EM waves in the space wave propagation mode reach the receiving antenna either directly from the transmitting antenna or after reflection from the atmosphere above the earth‟s surface up to 16km of height called troposphere. Space wave consists of two components i.e. direct wave and indirect wave. The space wave propagation is mainly used in VHF band as both previous modes namely ground wave propagation and sky wave propagation both fail at very high frequencies.

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4.3.3. Tropospheric scatter propagation or forward scatter propagation [above 30MHz i.e. UHF and micro wave range]: The UHF and microwave signals are propagated beyond line of sight propagation through the forward scattering in the tropospheric irregulations. This mode of propagation is of practical significance at UHF and microwave frequency ranges. This mode uses the properties of the troposphere. Hence it is also known as troposphere scatter propagation. This type of scatter propagation also needs to the Ionospheric scatter propagation for frequencies in the lower range. Both Ionospheric scatter and tropospheric scatter produce undesirable noise and fading which can be taken with diversity reception. 4.3.4. Ground wave propagation- plane wave earth reflection: When the transmitting and receiving antennas are elevated the useful propagation can be achieved by means of the space wave propagation. As the two antennas are within the line of sight of each other the propagation of such space wave is also called line of sight propagation. Basically for the line of sight propagation the resultant signal obtained is the combination of the space wave and the surface wave whereas the VHF and UHF transmissions are different. Here the antennas are of two types where the propagation of the signal is done. The word mast means that a supporting structure. 4.3.1.1. Self-supporting mast: It is a general broadcasting purpose antenna here the antenna is held at height so that the transmission of the signals would be without any obstacles. It is generally almost used in all media using sectors. 4.3.1.2. Guided wire mast:
The mast here is suspended from the ground and it is supported by some wires so that it would with stand to the climatic conditions.

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Fig 4.4: a) Self-support mast

b) Guided wire mast

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CHAPTER-5 TRANSMITTER RACK

Fig 5.1: Transmitter rack

5.1 Audio- Video switcher: This unit performs the function of selecting one of the four sets audio and video inputs. The video input levels to the unit are 0.5 ± 1.5 Vp-p and +10 dB/m respectively. This unit as an associated power supply to derive +15v, +5v and -15v required for its sub units from 230V AC. One of the programme sources (video or audio) can be selected using PUSH button switches available on the front panel. 5.2 Exciter: The audio and video outputs from audio-video switcher unit are fed to exciter unit. The audio input is fed directly to the aural modulator while the video signal is passed through a low pass filter before being fed to its respective modulator. The audio is frequency modulated using 33.4MHz IF. While video signal is amplitude modulated using 38.9 MHz IF. The modulated signals are combined and then up converted to the desired transmitted channel frequency. The video output power level after vestigial sideband filter and mixer is 10MW synchronous peak while audio is 1mW ALC (automatic level control) input is available on VSBF mixer unit which can be fed from P.A stages to keep the overall transmitter power output constant. The power supply need +16V and +28V for the unit is supplied by P.S.U 5.3 Driver Amplifier: The up- convertor signal from the exciter is fed to an attenuator which is placed at the front panel and adjusting the input levels suitably. The signal is amplified using class A

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driver stages. The overall gain of the amplifier can be adjusted by the front panel attenuator control to be about 33db. The output of the amplifier is fed to the directional coupler where in samples of transmitted and reflected power is obtained and fed to metering unit which defects the signal and feds suitable voltage to a DC meter placed at the front panel. The three position switch on the front panel selects the parameters to be monitored viz. vision, power, aural power and reflected power. Readings are to be read with black picture aural power indication is valid for black picture only. A separate exhaust fan operating at 230V AC is provided for blowing off air in the driver unit to control the temperature raise for operation of driver amplifier. A portion of output power is taken to the back panel of the driver unit for monitoring purposes. The front panel output constant called „Ale‟ can be fed to the exciter ALC in to the driver output constant at the set level. The availability of the input power “28V” to the unit is indicated through a green LED on the front panel „DC Check‟ facility is provided to monitor currents of 4 stages of power amplifiers by patching a „chord‟ meter on combiner /divider unit. 5.4 Divider: The linearity corrector output is to divide into four equal amplitude and phase outputs to fed four PA to get the required output power. To achieve this connection, a four way splitter is used by terminating unused parts. The four ways splitter doesn‟t have any achieved components for isolation resistor. It is a micro strip circuit design based on Wilkinson‟s power divided principles. 5.5 Combiner: The two way power combiner is a sub unit in the 500W transmitter there are such units. A two way combiner is used to combine the outputs of four amplifiers. For the first level combining pairs of amplifiers are combined output or pairs of amplifiers is combined in a second level of combining resulting in 600W peak sync output power. All units are identical electrically and mechanically and are interchangeable. It is based on the Wilkinson‟s power combiner principle. The combiner is realized as a micro strip line on a PCB substrate with an isolation resistor for isolating all the ports.

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5.6 Power Amplifier Unit: The power amplifier unit comprises of two similar 60W power amplifier modules. The R.F power output from the driver unit is divided in to two parts using the divider in the divider/combiner unit and fed to each 5.0W power amplifiers. Each power amplifier is fed with power input which is amplified to 50W (Sync peak) by four class A paralleled power amplifier stages with a gain of approximately 6 & 10dB for channel 9.10 & 11; 12 respectively. - this output is fed to a directional coupler for obtaining samples of forward & reflected power (30 dB coupling) for monitoring purposes for the control unit. The control unit also obtains the temperature of heavy sink assembly through a thermistor. Separate power supply is made available for each power amplifier (28V, 20A). The power supplies are placed at the bottom portion of chassis assembly. A DC voltage proportional to current drawn by each of the transistor in power amplifier is available from bias unit on DC check connector placed over the front panel. This can be monitored on the current meter provided on divider combiner unit through suitable patch cord provided separately. There are two types of transmitters: 1. V.H.F transmitter 2. U.H.F transmitter.

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CHAPTER-6 VHF TRANSMITTER
In this transmitter the frequency ranges from 224 MHz-231MHz. It requires 100W Power. DD is presented by this transmitter in channel No.11

Fig 6.1: Block diagram of exciter unit 6.1 Exciter:
Exciter provides amplitude modulated visual drive of 10MW. Sync peak and a frequency modulated all drive of 1mW required for the power amplifier stages of 100W TV transmitter at the designated channel frequencies. It consists of the following individual units: 1. Video signal 2. Low pass filter 3. Video processor 4. Vision modulator

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5. IF oscillator 6. Control oscillator 7. Aural modulator 8. Audio signal 9. Power combiner 10. Vestigial side band filter 11. Driver 12. +12V regulated power supply

6.1.1 Video Signal:
The video signal is limited to 5MHz by the low pass filter and the group delay by it is corrected. Group delay introduced by it is corrected by the active group delay equalizer.

6.1.2 Low Pass Filter:
The LPF is used to limit the Video frequency to 5MHz only and it attenuates the Video signal more than 20dB above 5.5MHz. The group delay introduced by steep falling characteristic at 5.5MHz is corrected using 5-6 active group delay equalizer. LPF unit consists of single PCB consisting of a video amplifier section and clamp pulse generator section.

6.1.3 Video Amplifier:
It amplifies the video signal to level sufficient to modulate the vision carrier in the vision modulator unit. The video input to this unit is at level of 1Vp-p clamp pulse.

6.1.4 Generator Section:
The Sync component of the input video signal is separated and differentiated to produce a trigger pulse which operates as multi vibrator.

6.1.5 Vision Modulator:
It consists of an IF amplifier, a modulator and band pass amplifier sections.

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6.1.6 IF Amplifier:
This section amplifies the input form.The IF oscillator is to provide sufficient excitation to the modulator. It operates as an amplitude limiter and thus maintain a constant output even with changes in the IF oscillator output.

6.1.7 Modulator:
The video signal is applied in parallel to the modulator while the IF is fed in push pull amplifier.

6.1.8 Band Pass Amplifier:
The modulated signal is amplified to a level of 10MW (approx.). A double tuned circuit with a response flat within ±0.5dB in 7MHz band forms the collector load

6.1.9 IF Oscillator:
This unit generates the visual IF frequency at 38.9 MHz four outputs is available from this unit. It gives four equal outputs of +14dBm each. The first one goes to the visual modulator unit second one is used for monitoring, third one is taken to the local oscillator and the fourth one to the aural modulator unit.

6.1.10 Control Oscillator:
The basic function of this oscillator is to supply three equal outputs of +8dBm each at a frequency of (FV+FVIF).

6.1.11 Aural Modulator:
The aural modulator unit consists mainly of the following sections in a simple PCB.

6.1.12 Audio Amplifier:
The balanced audio signal at a level of +10dBm from the studio is converted into unbalanced signal by the audio transformer the output of the audio transformer is taken through a rotary fader to the input of the audio amplifier. The rotary fader is mounted on the front panel. The audio level can be varied by adjusting the fader.

6.1.13 Voltage Controlled Oscillator:
The VCO is a Varactor tuned oscillator, the frequency of which can be varied manually by the coil. Transistor forms the oscillator. The output of the oscillator is taken through a buffer amplifier by

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two stages. The output of one of the amplifiers is fed to the mixer, is brought out to the socket. The output of the VCO is frequency modulated by the audio signal from the audio amplifiers by injecting the audio signal at the cathode of the Varactor diodes through an RF choke. The DC bias current for the diodes is provided through the resistor. The output level of the VCO is about 0dBm.

6.1.14 Mixer:
The visual IF signal from the IF oscillator (38.9MHz) and the aural IF signal from the VCO (33.4MHz) are injected in the base of the mixer transistor. Coil and capacitor are tuned to 33.4MHz to provide isolation between visual IF port and VCO input port. The mixer output is 5.5MHz. This signal is amplified by a common emitter amplifier, the output of which is transformed into a square pulse. By the square pulse, pulse shaping network formed by diodes. This square signal is further frequency divided by a chain of dividers to give an output square pulse at 537 Hz which is fed to the APC. This division is carried out to minimize the phase error caused by the frequency modulation of audio signal in the VCO.

6.1.15 Automatic Phase Control:
The APC is a sample and hold circuit using a CMOS analog gate for sampling. The square wave signal from divider chain of mixer is transformed into a triangular wave by means of transistors and the output is taken through a source follower. The output from the source follower is capacitive coupled to the analog gate is derived from which is taken through an emitter follower and rectified and applied to the analog gate. When the phase gate locked loop is unlocked the resulting AC signal from the analog gate is amplified and rectified and the output of the rectifier operates a transistor switch.

6.1.16 Power Combiner Unit:
Combiner unit is essentially a wide band amplifier of 32-42 MHz linearly combining the vision IF and sound IF signals, maintaining sufficient isolation between vision and sound signals. It consists of two pads of 16dB in the vision and sound inputs followed by a 6dB hybrid resistance combiner. The combiner signal is fed to the base of the transistor which is biased for linear operation and for wideband operation. The amplifier offers a gain of 22dB such that the input and output levels are the same. The nominal output is +10dBm for vision and 0dBm for sound.

6.1.17 Driver Unit:
The up converted signal from the exciter is fed to a co-axial attenuator which is placed at the front panel for adjusting the input level suitably. The signal is amplified using class a driver stages. The amplifier consists of a driver amplifier and driver amplifier preceded by a step attenuator. The

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overall gain of the amplifier can be adjusted by the front panel attenuator controlled to be about 33dB, such that 25W/30W will available for channel 9 and 10 transmitter and 10W/15W (sync) will be available channel for 11 and 12 transmitters at the output of driver unit. The output of the amplifier is fed to a directional coupler where in samples of transmitted and reflected power is obtained and fed to metering unit which detects the signal and feeds suitable 18 voltages to a DC meter placed at front panel. The three position switch on the front panel selects the parameters to be monitored, e.g. vision power, aural power, and reflected power. Readings are to be read with black picture signal. Aural indication is valid for black picture only a separate exhaust fan operating at 230V AC is provide for blowing of air in the driver unit to control the temperature rise for operation of the driver amplifier. A portion of output power is taken to the back panel of the driver unit for monitoring purpose. The front panel output called “ALC” can be fed to exciter “ALC IN” to keep the driver output to constant at the level. The availability of the input power „28W‟ to the unit is indicated through a green LED on the front panel.

6.1.18 +12V Regulated Power Supply:
The rectifier part of this power supply consists of a step-down transformer, a bridge rectifier and an electrolytic capacitor for smoothing. The output of the rectifier is regulated using an integrated circuit regulated ICI. A sample of the output voltage of the regulator obtained from the potential divider formed by resistor and potentiometer PS compared with the built-in-stable 1.6V references in ICI. The difference between the reference's and sensed voltage produces a voltage at pin 2 of ICI which controls the series pass transistor. Thus, the output voltage is maintained constant at 12V, 1V (both) as said by the sensing potential meter.

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CHAPTER-7 UHF TRANSMITTER
In this transmitter the frequency range is from 564-574MHz. it requires 500W power. DD news is broadcasted in channel 33. This transmitter is manufactured by Bharat Electronics (BEL).

Fig 7.1: Block diagram of UHF transmitter

7.1.1 Linearity corrector:
Linearity corrector operates in the UHF TV band of 470-600MHz and its function is to correct the non-linearity that occurs in power amplifiers operated in this band. Non linearity in TV amplifiers is measured in terms of 3-tone IMD and differential gain. The linearity corrector is a predistorter circuit that is placed ahead of the power amplifier and pre- corrects the above mentioned distortion so as to reduce them at the power amplifier output.

7.1.2 Base Band Corrector Unit: The unit accepts the video signals and introduces the required pre-connection in differential phase, differential gain and luminance and non-linearity in order to compensate for the non-linearity encountered in the power amplifier without introducing any frequency response fall and group delay 7.1.3 Exciter:
The audio and video outputs from audio-video switcher unit are fed to exciter unit. The audio input is fed directly to the aural modulator while the video is passed through a low pass filter before being fed to its respective modulator. The audio is frequency modulated using 33.4MHz IF. While video signal is amplitude modulated using 38.9MHz IF. The modulated signals are

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combined and then up converted to the desired transmitted channel frequency. The video output power level after vestigial sideband filter and mixer is 10MW synchronous peak while audio is 1mW. ALC (automatic level control) input is available on VSBF mixer unit which can be fed from P.A. stages to keep the overall transmitter power output constant. The power supply need +16V and +28V. For the unit is supplied by P.S.U. In addition one +12V supply kept constant „ON‟. Feeds power to oven controlled oscillator in VSBF and mixer unit, in order to maintain high frequency stability.

7.1.4 Up- convertor:
The up-convertor unit combines modulated vision IF an aural IF signals and translates to respective channels frequency suitable for transmission. The unit has in-built power supply. The status and fault information are displayed on front panel of the unit.

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7.2 CONSOLIDATED CCIR SYSTEM STANDARDS
The main characteristics of the CCIR System-B for mono-chrome Television adapted in India are given below:

Video Characteristics:
Number of lines per picture Interface ratio Field frequency Picture frequency Line frequency tolerance Aspect ratio Scanning frequency for lines Scanning frequency for fields Video bandwidth Approximate gamma of picture signal : : : : : : : : : : 625 2:1 50 fields/sec 25 pictures/sec 1562 lines/sec±0.1% 4:3 left to right top to bottom 5MHz 0.5

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7.3 THE FCC CHANNELS FREQUENCY IN SYSTEM (VHF BANDS)
Channel number frequency range (MHz) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 54-60 60-66 66-72 76-82 82-88 174-180 180-186 186-192 192-198 198-204 204-210 210-216 picture carrier (MHz) 55.25 61.25 67.25 77.25 83.25 175.25 181.25 187.25 193.25 195.25 205.25 211.25 sound carrier (MHz) 59.75 65.75 71.75 81.75 87.75 179.75 185.75 191.75 197.75 203.75 209.75 215.75

Tab 7.1: FCC channels frequency in system

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CHAPTER-8 TELEVISION, THE MAGIC LANTERN
The radio signals received by the TV antenna are normally weak; therefore they have to be first amplified using a RF (radio frequency) amplifier. After amplification the signals are demodulated, this is done through a tuner. A tuner can produce electric currents (electromagnetic waves) having same frequencies as the carrier waves used to broadcast various channels. Therefore when we select a particular band on the TV set, an electric signal having a particular frequency is mixed with the amplified signal received through the antenna to produce a demodulated signal. From the tuner, the television signal goes through complicated electronic circuits in the set. These circuits further process the signal to separate the audio and video portions of it. The audio signals are changed into sound waves by the speaker; the video signals go to the picture tube where they recreate the picture. The picture tube transforms the video signal into patterns of light that duplicate the scene in front of the camera at the time of the broadcast or when the programme was recorded. One end of the picture tube is rectangular and nearly flat which makes up the screen of the TV set. At the other end the picture tube tapers off to a narrow neck. The neck of the picture tube holds three electron guns. One each for 1. Red, 2. Blue, and 3. Green signals. The tube of a black and white TV set has only one gun. Each electron gun in a colour picture tube shoots a separate beam of electrons at the screen. The screen of most colour tubes is coated with more than 300,000 tiny phosphor dots made-up of coating of phosphorescent materials which emit light when exposed to some radiation such as light or electrons. They continue to emit light for some time even after the source of radiation is turned off. This explains why the TV screen glows after a torch light is switched off. The dots on a colour TV picture tube are grouped in triangular arrangements of three dots each one red, one blue, and one green. These dots glow with their respective colours when struck by an electron beam. A metal plate perforated with thousands of tiny holes lies about 13 millimetres behind the screen of a colour picture tube. This plate, called the shadow

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mask, keeps the beams from hitting any other colour dots but their own. When the television set shows a colour program, the neuron signals produced by light emitted from the three coloured dots blend together in the viewer‟s brain to produce the perception of all the colours of the original scene. In case of a black and white program the dots appear to produce different amounts of white light. The picture on the TV screen is produced by the process of scanning the electron beam horizontally on the screen at a very fast rate. The beam is guided by the magnetic field produced by the signal electric current fed into coils which are located around the neck of the picture tube. The electron beam scans the screen much as a person reads from left to right, top to bottom. The scanning pattern for the normal TV sets used in India is made up of 625 lines. In a high definition TV it is made up of 1125 lines. As electrons constantly strike the screen, it acquires static electric charge, which can induce electric charge on our hairs on our hands/arms and make hair stick to the screen. A magnet distorts the path of the electron beams used to create the picture and hence the picture formed on the screen gets distorted when a magnet is brought close to it. Transmitting or receiving video signals without modulation/demodulation is indeed possible for short distances it is used in a close circuit television setup. A video tape recorder records and replays the video signal and the audio signals on a magnetic tape very much like an audio tape recorder records audio signal on audio cassettes. A normal TV receiver can receive transmitted TV on fourteen different channels. The frequency of these ranges from54, 000,000 Hz or54 MHz to216, 000,000 Hz, and 216 MHz. The bandwidth of each of these channels is6 MHz. Signals transmitted on such frequencies are known as VHF range, or very high frequency signals. TV signals can also be broadcast on frequencies between 470 MHz and 890 MHz known as the UHF range. Doordarshan in India broadcasts TV programs on the national channel (DD1) in VHF range. Both VHF and UHF signals act much like light, not bending much around the curvature of Earth and pass through the atmosphere. They are also blocked by structures and hills. An airplane coming in the way of the signal and the receiver therefore disturbs TV reception. Television broadcasting antennas are usually placed on tall towers standing on high ground, so that the radio signal which carries the television programme may travel as far as possible. But still the maximum range of a TV broadcast signal is in between 100 to250 km. Television signals are therefore sometimes broadcast via satellites to reach an audience

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farther off. The signals sent to the satellite are in the UHF range and are sent back towards the ground by the satellites. These signals are received by cable operators using large dish antenna. Often there is a limitation posed by the design of older television sets, which allots 6 MHz bandwidth to each channel. In order to overcome this limitation cable operators/recent television sets use single sideband (S Band) technology to modulate/demodulate the signals. Using this technology a larger number of TV signals can be distributed through a cable network. Such signals have bandwidth less than 6 MHz‟s.

8.1 Antenna Section
An antenna is a piece of a conducting material which facilitates the resonance between the receiver and transmitted electromagnetic waves. It can be in the form of a length of a wire, a number of metallic rods, a coil or a dish. The dimensions and the design of an appropriate antenna for a receiver located at a particular location depends both on the strength of the signal in that area as well as on the electronic design of the receiver instrument. While in the neighbourhood of a radio or TV transmitter a piece of wire may be often sufficient to produce good reception, in far off places one need an antenna designed for better reception of the signal. To be highly efficient, an antenna must have dimensions that are comparable with the wavelength of the radiation of interest the wavelength of a 66-72 MHz‟s wave (the frequency of channel 4 on which DD1 is transmitted) is about 4 meters, A conductor having this length is often sufficient to receive strong TV signals. The folded rod in the middle of a common television antenna is also about this length the other rods essentially serve as reflectors to boost up the signal. Radio signals are usually strong. We therefore can pick up signals from a local radio station even without an antenna. Sometimes a long metallic rod which has length equal to a near fraction of the wavelength (one tenth or a quarter of the wavelength of the transmitted radiation) or a coil of wire wound on a ferrite core can be sufficient provided the receiver has been adequately designed to receive and process weak signals. A radio frequency signal is often much stronger in a certain direction (the direction in which the transmitter is located) than others. Also some antennas are directional they are more effective in a particular geometry e.g. when the rods of a TV antenna are aligned perpendicular to the direction in which transmitter is located the antenna is more effective. Similarly a radio antenna of an AM radio receiver (made up of a wire coil wound on a ferrite rod) if aligned toward the transmitter yields a higher output signal. The changing intensity of the volume of a radio program broadcast on a medium wave band is due to such directional

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characteristic of its antenna. The antenna of a FM radio set is often in the form of a stretchable metallic rod, which normally points towards the sky, but one does sometimes experience changes in the sound intensity in an FM set. This is due to the fact that the wavelength of the electromagnetic waves used to carry FM signals is in the range of a few meters the dimensions of our usual rooms. These waves are reflected from the walls of the room and can be absorbed by objects coming in between. Hence sometimes signals become very weak or very strong when the receiver is placed pointing to a certain direction or someone comes in between. The metro channel of Doordarshan is transmitted on a frequency band ranging from 174- 180 MHz; hence an antenna having a dipole about 1.3 meter length is sufficient provided the signal does not get attenuated by the time it reaches the location. You may recall, we have said earlier that as the frequency of the signal increases, it is more susceptible to be absorbed by objects in the way. The metro channel therefore can be easily received only in the cities where it is broadcast, or through the satellite. The signals transmitted from a satellite are also in high frequency range. Ordinary rod antennas cannot pick up such signals, one needs specially designed dish antennas linked to appropriate tuners to pick up and process signals from them. The energy in an electromagnetic wave is easily dissipated by inducing electric current (motion of electrons) in a closed loop of metallic conductors. A receiver enclosed in a cage like structure made up of a metal (popularly known as the Faraday‟s cage) is therefore unable to receive electromagnetic signals, because there is no electromagnetic energy left. One can therefore understand why our transistor radio cannot receive radio programs inside a train or a bus. Such a cage also acts a no entry zone for electromagnetic waves. This also explains the use of shielded wires used for transmission of TV programs by cable networks. A metallic shield around the metallic wire carrying the signal prevents outside interferences as well as attenuation of the signal by leaking of waves to neighbouring locations. But then cable operators often have to compromise with low cost joins between two cables, which are often sufficient for neighbouring TV sets to pick up which explains the reception of cable programs even when you may not have a cable connection. TV signals are easily reflected by huge buildings in the neighbourhood of a transmitter; the reflected signal has a slightly different phase than the original signal and gives rise to „ghost´ images.

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CHAPTER-9 CONCLUSION
We would like to conclude that this training is a very great and enriching the experience to learn about the low power TV transmitter. The transmitter service involves great equipment that deals with monitoring section exciting system and we learn about the above equipment of the Doordarshan relay centre and its working. We also learned about the procedure of transmission, reception. And strengthening of the signal and retransmitting the signal into space for the broadcast around the range of propagation.

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REFERENCES
 http://www.google.com/dhoordharshan/  http://www.ddindia.gov.in  Antenna Wave And Propagation – K.D. Prasad  Analog Communication – Sanjay Sharma

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