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HEAT TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

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LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Composite slab apparatus – overall heat transfer co-efficient. 2. Stefan Boltzman apparatus. 3. Emissivity apparatus. 4. Heat transfer through lagged pipe 5. Critical heat flux apparatus. 6. Heat transfer in pin-fin 7. Thermal conductivity of given metal rod. 8. Heat transfer in natural convection 9. Parallel and counter flow heat exchanger. 10. Heat transfer through a concentric sphere 11. Parallel and counter flow heat exchanger. 12. Study of heat pipe and its demonstration. 13. Heat transfer in drop and film wise condensation.

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COMPOSITE WALLS APPARATUS
AIM:
The main aim of this experiment is to determine total thermal resistance of composite wall. And to plot temperature gradient along composite wall structure

SPECIFICATIONS:
1. slabs size: a) M.S -25cm*25mm.thick b) Backlite-25cm*10mm.thick c) Brass-25cm*10mm.thick 2. Nichrome heater wound on mica former and insulator with control unit capacity 200 watt maximum 3. Heater control unit: 230v. 0-2Asingle phase dimmer stat ………. (1) 4. Voltmeter: 0-250v 5. Ammeter: 0-1amps 6. Multichannel digital temperature indicator

THEORY:
The apparatus consist of a plates of different materials sandwiched between two aluminum plates. Three types of slabs are provided on the both sides of heater which forms a composit structure. A small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A dimmer stat is provided for varying the input to the heater and measurement of input is carried out by a voltmeter and ammeter. The experiment can be conducted at various values of input slabs, to read the temperature at the surface.

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PROCEDURE:
1. Arrange the plates properly (symmetrically) on both side of heater plate. See that plate is symmetrically arranged on both sides of heater plate (arranged normally). 2. Operate the hand press properly to achieve the steady environmental conditions. 3. Close the box by cover sheet to achieve the environmental conditions. 4. Start the supply of heater. By varying the dimmer stat, adjust the input (range 3070watts) and start water supply. 5. Take the readings of all thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until steady state is reached. 6. Note down the steady state readings in the observation table. Wall thickness 1. M. S =2.5 cm 2. Bakelite = 1.0 cm conductivity 0.46 w/mo K 0.12 w/mo K 110 w/mo K

3. Brass =1.0 cm OBSERVATION Heat supplied (watts) S. NO voltmeter Ammeter T1 T2 T3

Temperature0 C T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

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CALCULATIONS MEAN REDING a. Ta = (T1+T2)/2 b. Tb = (T3+T4)/2 c. Tc = (T5+T6)/2 d. Td = (T7+T8)/2 Rate of heat supplied Q= V*I watts For calculating the thermal conductivity of composite walls, it is assumed that due to large dia of the plates, heat flowing through central portion is unidirectional that is axial flow. Thus for calculations, central half dia. Area where unidirectional flow is assumed is considered. Accordingly thermocouples are fixed at closed to centre of the plates. Now, Heat flux q=Q/a watts/ sq. m Where A=π/4 * d2 (where d= half dia of plates0 A= π/4 *0.1252 =0.0122718 m2 1. Total thermal resistance of composite slab R total =(TA-TD)/q sq. m k/watt 2. Thermal conductivity of composite slab = K composite = q*b/(TA-TD) w/m/K Where b= total thickness of the composite slab = 0.045 m 3. To plot thickness of slab material against temperature gradient
0 0 0 0

C C

C C

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PRECAUTIONS

1. Heat the dimmer start zero before start. 2. Increase voltage slowly. 3. Keep all the assembly undisturbed. 4. Remove the air gap between plates slowly by moving hand press gently. 5. When removing the plates do not disturb the thermocouples. 6. Do not increase above 200 V. 7. Operate selector switch off temperature indicator slowly.

RESULT AND CONCUSSION:

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STEFAN BOLTZMANN APPARATUS
AIM:
To determine the Stefan Boltzmann constant.

APPARATUS:
The dynamic apparatus of a water heated jacket of hemispherical shape. A copper test disc is fitted at the center of jacket. The hot water is obtained from a hot water tank, fitted to the panel, in which water heated by an electric immersion heater. The hot water is taken around the hemisphere temperature rises. The test disc is inserted at the center. Thermocouples are fitted inside the hemisphere to average out hemisphere temperature. Another thermocouple fitted at the center of test disc measures the temperature of test disc. A timer with a small buzzer is provided to note down disc temperature at the time intervals of 5 seconds. THEORY: All the substances emit thermal radiation. When heat radiation is incident over a body, part of radiation is absorbed, transmitted through the reflected by the body. A surface which absorbs all thermal radiation incidents over it, is called black surface. For black surface, transmitivity and reflectivity are zero and absorbivity is unity. Stefen boltz men law states that emissivity of surface is praportionl to fourth poewer of absolute surface temperateure.

PROCEDURE:
1. See that water inlet cock of water jacket is closed and fill up sufficient water in the heater tank. 2. Put on the heater. 3. Blacken test disc with help of lamp black& let it cool. 4. Put the thermometer and chuck water temperature.

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5. Boil the water and switch off the heater. 6. See that drain cock of water jacket is closed and open water inlet cock. 7. See three is sufficient water above the top of hemisphere (A piezometer tube is fitted to indicate water level). 8. Note down the hemisphere temperature (i.e. up to channel 1to4). 9. Note down the test disc temperature (i.e. channel no.5). 10. Start the timer. Buzzer will start the ringing. At the start of timer cycle, insert test disc into the hole at the bottom of hemisphere. 11. Note down the temperature of disc, every time the buzzer rings .Take at least 4to5readings.

OBSERVATIONS:

Hemisphere tempe. T1 T2 T3 T4

Time interval t, sec 5 10 15 20

Test disc temp. T50C

CALCULATIONS:
1) Area of test dist A=3.14*10-4sq.m (d=20mm) 2) Weight of test disc=5.2gms=5.2*10-3kg 3) Plot a graph. Rise of test disc with time as base and find out its slope at origin i.e. (dT/dot) at t=0k/see

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4) Hemisphere temp TH= (T1+T2+T3+T4/4+273.15) K 5) Initial test disc temp TD=T5+273.15K

Area of hemisphere is very large as compared to that of test disc, we can put q=σ.ε.A (TH4-TD4) Where q=heat gained by disc/see =m.ρ. (dT/dt) σ=Stefan Boltzmann constant m=mass of test disc=5.2*10-3kg ε=emissivity test disc=1 A=area of disc Ρ=specific heat copper=381j/kg0 c σ= (m.ρ. (dT/dt)/A (TH4-TD4)) Theoretical valve of σ is 5.667*10-8W/m2k4

PRECAUTIONS:
1) Never put on heater before putting water in the tank. 2) Put off the heater before draining the water from heater tank. 3) Drain the water after completion of experiment. 4) Operate all the switches and controls gently.

RESULT & CONCLUSION:

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EMISSIVITY MEASUREN\MENT APPARATUS
AIM:
To determine the emissivity of test plate and black plate.

APPARATUS:
The dynamic apparatus uses compactor method for determining the emissivity of test plate. It consists of two aluminum plates, of equal physical dimensions. Mica heaters are provided inside the plates. The mounted in an enclose to provide undisturbed surroundings One of the plates is blackened outside for use a comparator (because black surface has ε=1).Another plate having natural surface finish. Input to heaters can be controlled by separate dimmer stats. Heater input is measured on common ammeter and voltmeter. One thermocouple is fitted on surface on each plate is measure the surface temperature with digital temperature indicator. By adjusting the input to the heaters, both the plates are brought to same temperature, so that conduction and convection losses from both the plates are equal and difference in input is due to different emissivity’s. Holes are provided at back side bottom and the top enclosure for natural circulation of air over the plates. The plate enclosure is provided with Perspex acrylic sheet at the front THEORY: All bodies emits and absorb the thermal radiation to form surroundings the rate of thermal radiation depends up on temperature of the body. Thermal radiations are electromagnetic waves and they do not require any medium for propagation. When thermal radiation strikes a body part of it is reflected, part of it is absorbed an d part of it is transmitted through the body.

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PROCEDURE:
1. Blacken one of the plates with the help black (normally this is blackened at the works, but if blackening is wiped out, then blackening is necessary. 2. Keep both dimmer knobs at zero position. 3. Insert the supply pin-top in the socket (which is properly earthed) and switch on the main supply. 4. Switch on the mains switch on the panel. 5. Keep the meter selector switch (toggle switch) at the black plate side position. 6. Adjust dimmer of black plate , so that around 110-120 volts are supplied to black plate 7. Now, switch the meter selector switch on other side. 8. Adjust test plate voltage slightly less than that of black plate (say 100-110volts). 9. Check the temperatures (after, say 10minutes) and adjust the dimmers so that temperatures of both the plates are equal and steady. Normally, very minor adjustments are required for this. 10. Note down the readings after the plates temperatures reach steady state.

OBSERVATIONS:

plate Test plate Black plate

Input V I T1=

Surface temperature 0 C

T2=

Enclosure temperature T3=

0

C

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CALCULATIONS:
1. Enclosure temp TE=T30C = (T3+273.15) 0 K 2. Plate surface temp T=T1=T2= TS= (T+273.15)0K 3. Heat input to black plate, Web=V*I watts 4. Heat input to test plate, WT=V*I watts 5. Surface area of plates ,A=2*π/4D2+(π.D.t) =0.0447 sq. m Where’d=dia of plates=0.16m. And, t=thickness of plates=0.009m. 6. For black plate, Wb= WCVb+Wcdb+WRb………………….(1) Where, WCVb=Convection loss Wcdb=Conduction loss WRb=Radiation loss Similarly for test plate, WT=WCVT+WCDT+WRT……………… (2) As the both the plate of same physical dimensions, same material &at same temperature WCVb=WCVT&WCDb=WCDT Subtracting the equation (2) from (1) we get, Webs-WT=WRb-WRT = (σ.A.εb (TS4-TE4))-(σ.A.εT (TS4-TE4)) =σ.A. (TS4-TE4)-(εb-εT) As emissivity of black plate is 1, Wb-WT=σ.A. (TS4-TE4)(1-εT) Where; εT=emissivity of test plate σ=Stefan Boltzmann constant=5.667*10-8w/m2k4
0

C

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PRECAUTIONS:
1. Black plate should be blackened. 2. Never put your hand or papers over the holes provided at the top of enclosure. 3. Keep at least 200mm distance between the back side of unit and the wall. 4. Operate all the switches and knobs gently

RESULT&CONCLUTION:

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LAGGED PIPE APPARATUS AIM: 1. To determine the heat flow rate through the lagged pipe and compare it with the heater input for known valve of thermal conductivity of lagging material. 2. To determine the approximate thermal conductivity of lagging material by assuming the heater input to be the heat flow rate through lagged pipe. 3. To plot the temperature distribution across the lagging material. APPARATUS: 1. Voltmeter. 2. Ammeter. 3. Temperature indicator. 4. Selector switch. 5. Main switch. 6. Heater control. 7. Assembly. SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Pipe-a).GI pipe inside 6cm dia (O.D). b).GI pipe middle 8.5cm (mean dia). c).GI pipe outer 10.7cm (I.D). d).Length of pipes 1 meter. 2. Heater-Nichrome wire heater (cartridge type) placed centrally having suitable capacity.

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3. Control panel comprising ofa) Single panel dimmer stat (0-230)………….1No. b) Voltmeter (0-250v)……………1No. c) Ammeter (0-2A)………………1No. 4. Multichannel digital temperature indicator range 0-3000c using cr/al Thermocouples---1No. Service required-A.C single phase, 230v electric supply. THEORY: The apparatus consist of a concentric pipes mounted on suitable stand. The hallow space of the inner most pipe consist of the heater. Between first two cylinders the insulating material with which is to be done filled compactly. Between second and third cylinders, another material is used for lagging is filled. The third cylinder is concentric to another outer cylinder. Water flows between these two cylinders. The thermocouples are attached to the surface of the cylinders appropriately to measure the temperature. PROCEDURE: 1. Arrange the pipes in proper fashion with heater assembly. (Arranged normally). 2. Fill the lagging material in pipes uniformly and by gently pushing press the lagging material (filled normally). 3. See that material gets packed uniformly. 4. Cross both ends of pipes and keep the assembly on stands.

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5. Start supply of heater and by varying dimmer stat adjust the input for desired valve (range 60-120watts) by using voltmeter and ammeter. Also start water supply. 6. Take readings of all the 6 thermocouples at an interval of 5 minutes until the steady state is reached. 7. Note down the steady state reading in the observation table. OBSERVATION TABLE: 1. Inside pipe O.D D1=0.06m. 2. Middle pipe mean dia 3. Outer pipe I.D s.no voltmeter V D2=0.085m. D3=0.107m. ammeter I Thermocouple readings T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

CALCULATIONS: T inside=(T1+T2/2)0C Tmiddle=(T3+T4/2)0C Touter=(T5+T6/2)0C Ri=inner pipe radius=0.03m. Ro=outer pipe radius=0.0535m. Rm=mean radius of middle pipe=0.0425m

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L=length of pipe=0.0425m K=thermal conductivity w/m.k q =actual heat input =V*Iwatts

ASSUMPTIONS: The pipe is so long as compared with that heat flow in radial direction only middle half length 1. Now first we find out theoretical heat flow rate through composite cylinder. Q= T inside – T outside/( (1/k1

K1=0.22 w/m 0C and k2=0.13 w/m oC Where, actual heat input, qact =VI 2. Now from known value of heat flow rate, value ofcombined thermal conductivity of lagged material can be calculated.

The space between the pipes of dia 6 cm and dia 8.5cm contain commercial asbestos powder and the space between pipes of dia 8.5 cm and 1.5 cm. contain saw dust. K1 (thermal conductivity of asbestos powder) K2 (thermal conductivity of saw dust. 3. To plot the temperature distribution use formula.

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Where ‘r’ is the selected radius for corresponding temperature T between the two pipes of the same lagging material. Thus plot is made for different values of ‘r’. Note 1. Conductivities of different lagging materials depend upon their density and particle size. In case of saw dust it depends on the type of wood. 2. These obtained values are apprtoximate because heat flow is not truly in radial direction through the pipe. Precautions 1. Keep dimmer stat to ZERO position before start. 2. Increase voltage gradually. 3. Keep the assembly undisturbed while testing. 4. While removing or changing the lagging material do not disturb the thermocouples. 5. Do not increase voltage above 150 volts. 6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.

RESULT & CONCLUSION

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CRITICAL HEAT FLUX APPARATUS
AIM: To determine the critical heat flux at various bulk temperature water can be calculated. APPARATUS: 1. Voltmeter 2. Ammeter 3. Heater switch 4. Lamp switch 5. Main switch 6. Heater control 7. Glass container 8. Heater fitting

SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Glass container dia 250mm, height 100mm 2. Heater for initial heating - nichrome heater 1kw 3. Test heater (r-2) nichrome wire size- 0.18 dia mm 4. Length of test heater= 100mm 5. Dimmer start 6. Voltmeter 0 to 100 volts 7. Ammeter 0 to 10 amps 8. Thermometer 0 to 1000 C

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THEORY: When the heat is added to a liquied from a solid submerged substance which is at a temperature higher the saturatyion temperature of the liquid, it is usual for the part of the liquid to charge phase. This charge of phase is called boiling. Boiling is of various types, the type depending upon the temperature difference between the surface and liquid. The different types are in which a typically experimental boiling curve obtain in asaturated pool of liquid is drawn The heat flux supplied to the surface is ploted again(tw-ts) the difference between the temperature of the surface and the saturation temperation of the liquid. PROCEDURE: 1. Take sufficient amount of distilled water in the container. 2. See that both the haters are completely submerged. 3. Connect the heater coil R-1 (1 Kw nichrome coil) and test heater wire across the studs and make the necessary electrical connections. 4. Switch on the heater R-1 (let varies be at O position) 5. Keep it ON till you get the required bulk temperature of water in the container say 50O C, 60O C, 70O C 6. switch of the heater R-1 7. Very gradually increase the voltage across test heater by slowly changing the variac position and stop a while at each position to observe the boiling phenomenon on wire. 8. Go on increase the voltage till wirw brakes and carefully note the voltage and current at this point. 9. Repeated this experiment by altering the bulk temperature of water.

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Observations 1. Diameter of test heater wire d= 2. length of test heater wire l= 3. surface area A=π d l = Bulk temperature of water 0C 40oC 50oC 60oC 70oC m2 Ammeter reading I amps Voltmeter reading V volts

CALCULATIONS The critical heat flux at various bulk temperature water can be calculated by the following procedure 1. heat input q=vi watts. 2. critical heat flux, hact= q/a watts/m2 Peak heat flux in actuated pool boiling= 3. zuber has given following equation for calculating peak heat flux in saturated pool boiling

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q/a=0.18hfg [(σlv.g(ρl-ρv))]1/4[ρl-ρv/ ρl-ρv]1/2 Where, q/a= heat flux watts/m2 hfg= latent heat of vaporization ρl=density of liquid ρv= density of vapour kg/m3 J/kg σlv= liquid vapour surface tension n/m

PRECAUTIONS: 1. keep the variac to zero voltage position before starting the exoeriment 2. take sufficient amount of distilled water in the container so that both the heaters are completely immersed. 3. Connect the test heater wire across the stud. 4. Do not touch the water or terminal point when the main switch on 5. Operate the variac gently un step and sufficient time in between. 6. After the attachment of critical heat flux decreasr slowly the voltage and bring it to zero position.

RESULT AND CONCLUSION

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PIN FIN APPARATUS
AIM The aim of the experiment is to study the temperature distribution and the effectiveness of the fin THEORY: Fins are uysed to increase the rate of heat transfer from a surface to the surrounding. Fluid where evere it is not possible to increase the valve of the surface heat tyransfer cofficiant rae the temperature difference between the surface and the fluid.fins are fabricated in varity forms. Fins around the air cooled engines are a common example. The aim of the experiment is to study the temperature distribution and the effectiveness of the fin, which place a impartant role in design. APPARATUS 1. Pin fin 2. Rectangular duct 3. Electric heater 4. Thermocouples 5. Orifice SPECIFICATIONS 1. Fin – 12 mm O.D effective length 102 mm with 5 nos. of thermocouple position along the length, made of brass, mild steel and alluminium - one each. Fin is screwed in heater block wich is heated by a band heater.

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2. Duct – 150*100 mm cross section, 1000 mm long connected to suction side of blower. 3. 0.5 HP centrifugal blower with orifice and flow control valve on discharge side. 4. Orifice – dia. 22 mm, coefficient of discharge Cd=0.64 5. Measurements and controlsa. Dimmerstart to control heater input, 0-230V, 2 amps b. Voltmeter 0-250V, fort heater supply voltage. c. Ammeter 0-2 amps, for heater current. d. Multichannel digital temperature indicator. e. Water manometer connected to orifice meter. Procedure a. Natural convention Open the duct cover over the fin. Ensure proper earthing to the unit and switch on the main supply. Adjust dimmer stat so that about 80 volts are supplied to the heater. The fin will start heating. When the temperature remain study, note down the temperature of the fin and duct fluid temperature. Repeat the experiment at different inputs to heater.

b. Forced convention Close the duct cover over the fin. Start the blower. Adjust the dimmer stat so that about 100-110 volts are supplied to the heater. When the temperature becomes stedy, note down all the temperature and the manometer difference. Repeat the experiment at different inputs and at different air flow rates.

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OBSERVATION TABLE S.No Manometer difference H m of water T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Fin temperature Duct fluid tempe

CALCULATIONS: NOMENCLATURE: tm=average fin temperature= (t1+t2+t3+t4+t5)/5 ∆t=tm-tf Tmf=mean film temperature=(tm+tf)/2 Ρa= density of air,kgm/m3 Ρw=density of water, kgm/m3 D=dia of pin fin=12*10-3m D=dia of orifice=22*10-3m Cd=coefficient of discharge of orifice=0.64 µ=dynamic viscosity-s/m2 Cp=specific heat of air,kj/kg0c V=kinematic viscosity.m2/s

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Kair=thermal conductivity of air/m0c Β=volume expansion coefficient=1/(tmf+273) H=manometer difference,m of water V= velocity of air in duct, m/s. Q= vlume flow rate, m3/s. Vtmf= velocity of air at men film temperature All properties are to be evaluated at mean film temperature. Natural convection The fin under consideration is horizontal cylinder losing heat by natural nomvection. For horizontal cylinder, nusselt number, Nu =1.10(Gr*Pr)1/6 ---------for 10-1< Gr*Pr <104 Nu =0.53(Gr*Pr)1/4 ---------for 104< Gr*Pr <109 Nu =0.13(Gr*Pr)1/3 ---------for 109< Gr*Pr <1012 Where Gr = grashof number, =(g*β*D3*∆T)/ν2 Pr= prandtl number. Now = (µ.Cp)/ Kair Determain nusult number, Now , Nu= (h*D)/ Kair

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From h, determain m from equation Using h and m determain temperature distribution in the fin from equation The rate of heat transfer from the fin can be calculated Q=√(h p k a) *(Tl-Tf) tanh ml And effectiveness of the fin can be calculated. = tanh ml/ml Forced convention As the natural convention, for horizontal cylinder losing heat by forced convention Nu =0.615(Re)0.466 ---------for 40< Re<4000 Nu =0.1745(Re)0.618 ---------for 4000<Re<40000 Re=Vtmf*D/ν Vtmf =V*(Tmf+273)/(Tf+273) Velocity of aor is determained from air volume flow. Q= Cd*(π/4)*d2*√(2*g*H(ρw-ρa)) m3/s V= Q/duct cross sectional area =Q/(0.15*0.1) m/s From nusult number find out h and from h find out m Now temperature distribution, heat transfer rate and effectiveness of the fin can be calculated using equations

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PRECAUTIONS
1. 2. 3. 4.

Operate all the switches and controls gently. Do not obstruct the suction of the duct are discharge pipe. Open the duct cover over the fin for natural convention experiment. Fill up water in the manometer and close duct cover for forced convention experiment.

5. 6.

Proper earthing to the unit is necessary. While replace the fin, be carefully for fixing thermocouples. Incorrectly fixed thermocouples may show erratic readings.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

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THERMAL CONDOCTIVITY OF METALROD AIM: To find the thermal conductivity of metal rod. THEORY: Thermal conductivity of a material is found to depends on the chemical composition of the substance which it is composed the phase in which it is exits it is crystalline structure if a solid the temperature and pressure to which it is subjected, and weather not it is homogeneous material. Thermal energy can be conducted in solids by free electrons and by lattice vibrations. Large number of free electron moves about in the lattice structure of the materials in good conductures. Energy may also be transfer as vibrationl energy in the lattice structure of the material. APPARATUS: 1. Metal Bar-Copper, 25mm O.D., approx, 430 mm long with insulation shell along the test length and water cooled heat sink at the other end. 2. Test length of bar -240mm 3. Thermo couples-Chromel/aluminum, 10 nos. 4. Band Nichrome heater to heat the bar. 5. Dimmer stat to control the heater input-2A, 230V. 6. Voltmeter and Ammeter to measure heater input.

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7. Multichannel Digital temperature indicator,0.10 C least count, 0-2000C with channel selector switch. 8. Measuring flask to measure water flow. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. Start the electric supply. 2. Start heating the bar by adjusting the heater input to, say, 80 volts or 100 bolts. 3. Start cooling water supply through the heat sink and adjust it to around 350400 cc per minute. 4. Bar temperature will start rising, Go on checking the temperature at time intervals of 5 minutes, 5. When all the temperatures remain steady, note down all the observations and complete the observation table.

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OBSERVATION Water Test bar Temperature 0 c S.No Shell Temp0c Temp
0

Water Flow Rate Lit/Sec

c

T1 T2 T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

T10

T11 T12

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CALCULATIONSHeat is flowing through the bar from heater end to water sink. When steady state is reached, heat passing through the section CC of the bar is heat taken by water. 1)Heat passing through section CC qcc = m .Cp .T watts Where, m= mass flow rate of cooling water,Kg/s, Cp=Specific heat of water = 4180 J/Kg0C T= (Water outlet temp)-(water inlet temp) 0 C Now, qcc = -Kcc. [ ] cc .A

A=Cross sectional area of the bar=0.00049 m2 Kcc=--------------- W/m 0C 2)Heat passing through section BB qbb = qcc + Radial heat loss between CC & BB = qcc + Where, k=Thermal conductivity of insulation = 0.35 L1 = Length of insulation cylinder= 0.060m r0=outer radius=0.105m
/

loge(ro/ri)

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ri=inner radius=0.0125m qbb = -Kbb . [ ] bb .A

Kbb =------------------ W/ m 0C 3)Similarity,heat passing through section AA, qaa = qbb + Radial heatloss between B B& AA. = qbb+ Where, L2= 0.090 m qaa = -Kaa . [ ] AA .A
/

loge(ro/ri)

Kaa =------------------- W / m0C

RESULTS: 1) Temperature of the bar decreases from hot end to cool end, which satisfies the Foururier law of heat conduction. 2) Thermal conductivity of bar at three different sections Kcc= Kbb= Kaa=

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HAET TRANSFER IN FORCED CONVECTION AIM : To calculate heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficient in forced convection. APPARATUS: 1. Test pipe-33 mm I.D. 50 mm long. 2. Band heater for pipe-250W 3. Multichannel digital temperature indicator 0-300 0C using Chromel / Alumel thermocouples. 4. Dimerstat 2 Amps.240 Volts.for heater input control. 5. Voltmeter 0-200 volts 6. Ammeter 0-2Amps 7. Blower to force the air through test pipe 8. Orifice meter with water manometer THEORY: Whenever a fluid is being fored over the heated surface forced convection heat transfer occurs the dynamic apparatus consists of circuilarpipe through cold fluid,i.e. air is being forced. Pipe is heated by a band heater out side the pipe.temperatyre of the pipe is measured with thermocouples attached to the pipe surface. Heater input is measured by a voltmeter and ammeter.

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 1. Put ‘ON’ mains supply. 2. Adjust the heater input with the help of dimmer stat. 3. Start the blower and adjust the air flow with valve. 4. Wait till steady state is reached and note down the reading in the observation table. OBSERVATIONS:

Volt S.No

Amp

Temperatures

0

C

Manometer diference

V

I

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

hw

CALCULATIONS1. Air inlet temp 2. Air outlet temp 3. Density of air, T1= T2=

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ρa = 1.293 x 273 / 273+T1 Kg/m3 4. Diameter of orifice = 22 mm Manometer difference=Water head= hw mtrs Air head, ha =hw(ρw -ρa) where,ρw= Density of water =1000 Kg/m3 Air volume flow rate, Q=Cd x a0 x 2gha m3/sec Where, Cd =0.64 a0=c.s area of orifice. 5.Mass flow rate of air, ma= Q x ρa Kg/sec Velocity of air, V= m/sec

Where ap =Cross sectional area of pipe = 8.33 x 10 -4 m2 6.Heat gained by air, q= ma x Cpa x (T7-T1) Where,Cpa=Specific heat of air,=1 KJ/Kg K 7.Average inside surface temperature,

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Ts=

0

C

8.Bulk mean temp.of air Ts=
0

C

9.Average surface heat transfer coefficient ,Actual Heat loss due to forced convection= q-Heat loss due to radiation Heat loss due to radiation (q1) =0.4 x A x (Ts4-Ta4) x σ (σ=Stefan Boltzmann Constant) Actual Heat Loss = q –q1 h expt = W/m2k

where A=Inside surface area of the pipe= ∏ x di x 1=∏ x 0.033x 0.5=0.0518 m2

10.Reynolds numberReD= ν=Kinematic viscosity at Tm D=0.033m If ReD< 2000,flow is laminar. For laminar flow= =4.36

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If Reynolds number exceeds 2000,flow is turbulent. For Turbulent flow, NuD= Where (0.023)(ReD)0.8(Pr)n n=0.4 when fluid is being heated. n=0.3 when fluid is being cooled

PRECAUTIONS: 1.While putting ‘ON’the supply,keep dimmerstat at zero position and blower switch ‘OFF’. 2.Operate all the switches and controls gently. 3.Donot obstruct the flow of air while experiment is going on.

RESULTS: htheo from Nu =

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HEAT TRNSFER IN NATURAL CONVECTION AIM: To determine the surface heat transfer coefficient for a vertical tube losing heat by natural convection. APPARATUS: 1. Tube 38 mm Dia, 500 mm Length.

2. Duct size:200mm x 200mm x 800 mm length. 3. Multi channel digital temperature indicator 0-3000C using Chromel/Alumel thermocouple. 4. Ammeter 0-2 Amp.and Voltmeter 0-200 volts. 5. Dimerstat 2 Amp,240 volts. THEORY: In contrast to the forced convection, natural convection phenomenon is due to the temperature difference between surface and the fluod and is not created by any external agency.natural convection flow patterns for some commonly observed situations are shown in figure The present experimental set up is designed and fabricated to study the natural convection phenomenon from a vertical cylinder in terms of varivation of local heat transfer cofficiant and its comparision its valve obtained by using an appropriate co relation.

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EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE 1. Put ON the supply and adjust the dimmer tat to obtain the required heat input(Say 40W,60W,70W etc) 2. Wait till the steady state is reached ,which is confirmed from temperature readings(T1 to T7). 3. Measure surface temperature at the various points i.e. T1 toT7. 4. Note the ambient temperature i.e.T8 5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs (Do not exceed 80W).

OBSERVATIONS 1. O.D. of cylinder(d) 2. Length of cylinder(L) 3. Input to heater Sl.No Volt Amp =38mm =500mm =V x I Watts TEMPERATURE, 0 C T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

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CALCULATIONS:
1. h=

------------------------------------------------------(1)

Where, h=Average surface heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 0 C) q=Heat transfer rate (Watts) As=Area of the heat transferring surface=∏.d.1 (m2) Ts=Average surface temperature= Ta=Ambient temperature in the duct=T8 0C q1=Heat loss by radiation = σ . A.ε,(Ts4-Ta4). Where, σ = Stefan Boltzman constant = 5.667 x 10-8 W/m2K4 A=Surface area of pipe= 0.05 m2 ε =Emissivity of pipe material=0.6 Ts & Ta =Surface and ambient temperature in 0K respectively
2.
0

C

= 0.59(Gr,Pr.)0.25 For 104<Gr.Pr<108 -----------------------(2) = 0.13(Gr,Pr.)1/3 For 108<Gr.Pr<1012------------------------(3)

3.

Where k=Thermal conductivity of fluid.
4. Calculate and plot the variation of local heat transfer coefficient along the

length of the tube using; T= T1 to T7 and h=

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5. Compare the experimentally obtained value with the predictions of the

correlation equations (2) & (3).

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Proper earthing is necessary for the equipment. 2. Keep dimmerstat to ZERO volt position before putting on main switch and increase it slowly. 3. Keep at least 200mm .space behind the equipment. 4. Operate the change-over switch of temperature indicator gently from one position to other ,i.e. from 1 to 8 position. 5. Never exceed input above 80 Watts.

RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS: The comparison of average heat transfer coefficient is also made with predicted values are somewhat less than experimental values due to the heat loss by radiation.

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THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INSULATING POWDER

AIM: To determine the thermal conductivity of insulating powders using ‘sphere in sphere’ method. APPARATUS & SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Inner sphere-100mm O.D., halved construction. 2. Outer sphere-200mm O.D., halved construction. 3. Heater-Mica flat heater ,fitted inside inner sphere 4. Controls- a) Main Swith-30A , DPDT Switch b)Dimmerstat-0-230 volts,2A capacity 5. Voltmeter-0-200 volts 6. Ammeter- 0-1 Amp 7. Multichannel digital temperature indicator ,calibrated for Cr/Al thermo couples.

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Theory: Conduction of heat is flow of heatwhich occurs due to exchange of energy from one molecule to anather with out appreciable motion of molecules. In any heating process heat is flowing outwords from heat generation point.in order to reduce losses of heat, various types of insulations are used in practice. Various powders example asbestos poweder, plaster of faris etc. are used for heat insulation in order to determine the appropriate thickness of insulation, knowledge of thermal conductivity of heat insulation material is essential. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:

1. Keep dimmerstat knob at ZERO position and switch ON the equipment. 2. Slowly rotate the dimmerstat knob,so that voltage is applied across the heater .Let the temperature rise . 3. Wait until steady state is reached. 4. Note down all the temperatures and input of heater interms of volts and current. 5. Repeat the procedure for different heat inputs.

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OBSERVATIONS; Sr No T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 Volts Amps V I Temperature 0C Heater Input

CALCULATIONS:

1. Heater input = q= V x I Watts 2. Average inner sphere surface temperature Ti=(T1+T2+T3+T4) / 4 3. Average outer sphere temperature To= (T5+T6+T7+T8+T9+T10) / 6 4. Inner sphere radius =50mm=0.05mm 5. Outer sphere radius=100mm=0.1mm 6. Thermal conductivity K = q (ri-ro) / 4π. ri.ro(Ti-To)
0 0

C
0

C

W/m.K at Ti+To /2

C

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PRECAUTIONS;

1. Operate the all switches and controls gently. 2. Earthing is essential for the unit. RESULT: W/m.K Thermal conductivity of the insulating powder is ---------------

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PARALLEL AND COUNTERFLOW HEAT EXCHANGER Aim To study the experiment on concentric tube hat exchanger APPARATUS 1. Concentric tubes 2. Electric geyser 3. Annulus THEORY: Heat exchangers are the devices in which the heat s trasfered from one fluid to another. Exchange of heat is required at many industrial operations as wekk as chemical process. Common example of of heat exchanger are radiator of car, condenser of a refregiration unit or colling coil in air conditioner. Heat exchangers are basically 3 types 1. Transfer type 2. Storage type. 3. Direct contact type. In transfer type both fluids pass through the exchanger and heat gets transfer through the separating walls between the fluids. In the storage type 1st the hot fluid pass through a medium having high heat capacity and then cold fluid is pass through the medium to collect the heat. Thus hot and cold fluid are alternately passed through the medium.

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In the direct contact type the fluid are not separated but they mix with each other and heat passes directly from one fluid to another. SPECIFICATIONS 1. Haet exchanger a. inlet tube -dia 12.7 mm inner dia, outer dia 11.7 m. copper tube c. Outertube 25 mm dia N B . GI pipe d. Length of the heat exchanger is 1 m 2. Electric heater – 3 KW capacity to supply hot water. 3. Valves for flow and direction control – 5nos 4. Thermo meter to messure temperatures – 10 to 110 o C – 4 nos 5. Measuring flask and stop clock for flow measurement. PROCEDURE 1. Start the water supply. Adjust the water supply on hot and cold sides. Firstly, keep the valves V2 and V3 clossed and V1- V4 opened so that arrangement is parallel flow. 2. Put few drops of oil in thermometer pockets. Put the thermometer in the thermometer pockets. 3. Switch on the geyser. Temperature of water will start rising. After temperatures become study, note down the readings and fill up the observation table. 4. Repeat the experiment by changing the flow. 5. Now open the valves V2and V3 and then close the valves V1 and V4 the arrangement is now counter flow. 6. Wait until the study state is reached and note down the redings.

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OBSERVATION TABLE Hot water Type of flow In o C Parallel flow Counter flow Out o C Temperature Time for 1 lit water Xh SEC Cold water Temperature In o C Out o C Time for 1 lit water Xc SEC

CALCULATIONS 1. Hot water in let temp thi= Hot water out let temp 2. Hot water flow rate tho = mh oC oC

Let time required for 1 lit of water be Xh sec Mass of one lit water =1 kg Mh= 1/Xh kg/s 3. Heat given by the water(in side heat transfer rate) .qh = mh*Cp*(thi-tho) watts 4. Similarly for cold water Heat collect by cold water( out side heat transfer rate) .qc=mc*cp*(tco-tci) 5. Logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) LMTD= ∆Tm= (Ti-To)/ln(Ti/To) Where for parallel flow

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Ti=thi-tci,

Ti-thi-tci,

To=tho-tco, To=tho-tci 6. Overall heat transfer coefficient U a. Inside overall heat transfer coefficient Ui Inside dia of tube =0.011m Inside surface area of tube, =Ai=π di l =π*0.011*1=0.03454m2 Now, qh=Ui*Ai*∆Tm Ui= qh/(Ai*∆Tm) w/ m2o C b. Out side overall heat transfer coefficient Uo Out side dia of the tube = 0.012 m Out side surface area of tube, =Ao=π do l =π*0.012*1=0.0376m2 Now, qh=Uo*Ao*∆Tm Uo= qo/(Ao*∆Tm) w/ m2o C

7. Effectiveness of the heat exchanger= rate of heat transfer in heat exchanger/max possible heat transfer rate. €=(mh*cp*(thi-tho)/(m* cp*(thi-tci))

PRECAUTIONS 1. Never switch on the geyser unless there is water supply through it. 2. If the red indicator on geyser goes of f during operation, increase the water supply, because it indicates that water temperature exceeds the set limit. 3. Ensure study water flow rate and temperatures in before noting down the readings, as fluactuaing water supply can give erratic results.

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RESULT

Heat transfer rate inside(W) Outside(W) Parallel flow Counter flow

LMTD
O

C

Ui w/m2o C Uo w/m2o C

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HEAT PIPE APPARATUS
AIM The main aim of the experiment is to find the thermal conductivity of heat pipe SPECIFICATIONS 1. Heat pipe- stain less steel pipe, 25 mm outer dia, 400mm long at both ends, evacuated& filled partially with distilled water- one no 2. Copper and stainless steel pipes of same size as that of pipe- one each. 3. Equal capacity heaters at bottom end of each pipe. 4. Water filled heat sinks at bottom end of each pipe. 5. Measurements and controls a. Dimmer stat to control heat input to all the heaters 4amps. Capacity-1 nos b. A voltmeters and ammeters to measure input to heaters-one each c. Multichannel digital temperature indicator to measure temperature along the pipes. Five thermocouples are provided on each pipe. d. Thermometers to note down water temperature in heat sinks- 3nos. THEORY: Heat pipe is an interesting device, which is used to transfer heat from one location to another. It works with the help of evaporation and condensation of liquid, which is filled inside heat pipe as working medium. Heat pipe basically consist of a stain less stell pipe, sealed at both the ends. It is evacuated & filled partially with distalled water. Stain less stell mesh is provided at inside periphery of the pipe. When heat is applied at the lower end of the pipe ,

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water inside it evaporates and water passes at upper end of the pipe. The heat is taken by the medium surrounding upper portion of the heat pipe. The vapour condenses giving it latent heat of evaporation to the surrounding medium. The condensed vapor returns to bottom through a mesh packing, thus because of circulation of vapour, heat pips operates at to isothermal operation and conducts much heat then conventionl conductors. PROCEDURE Fill up sufficient water in heat sinks. Insures proper earthing to the unit put the thermometers in the grommets provided at the top of heat sinks keep dimmer stat zero position and start electric supply to unit. Slowly increase the dimmer so that power is supply to heaters. As same dimmer stat supplies power to all heaters and all heaters are all same capacity, power in put to all the heater remains same. This makes the comparison simpler. Go on noting down the temperature of water in heat sinks every 5 mints (stir the water before noting down the temperature. After around 30 mints note down the longitudinal temperature of the pipes, from the temperatures indicator. Repeat the procedure at different heat inputs, but each time it is necessary to replace the water. Replace the water when pipes become cool lower them 45 o C , otherwise removing water at high temperature of pipe may burn the seals at the bottom of heat sinks. If experiments in conducted for more time, it is merely to raise the water temperature &ultimately evaporation of water. Hence it is not recommended to conduct the experiment for more times than 30 mints

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PRECAUTIONS 1. Proper earthing is necessary 2. Stir the water before noting the water temperature in heat sink 3. Do not remove water from heat sinks till the pipe become cool 4. Operate only one meter selector switch at a time in upward position. Other to switches must be in down ward position OBSERVATIONS 1. Heat sink water temperatures Time, mints S.S.pipes heat sink 5 min 10mn Copper pipe heat sink Heat pipe heat sink

2. longitudinal temperature distribution S.S .pipe T1T2T3T4T5T6T7T8T9T10Copper pipe T11T12T13T14T15Heat pipe

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GRAPHS 1. plot the graph of heat sink water temperature rise upto 30 min. 2. plot longitudinal temperature distribution for pipes. RESULT AND CONCLUSION

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CONDENSATION IN DROP AND FILM FORM
AIM: To study the condensation in the drop form and films. APPARATUS: 1. steam generators 2. rot meter 3. condensers 4. temperature indicator 5. selector switch 6. heater control 7. main switch SPECIFICATIONS: 1. condensers-made of copper 19mm outer dia, 150mm long, one with natural surface and one it chrome plated surface 2. Rotameter-25-250lph for water flow measurement. 3. Steam generator with 1.5kw electric and low water level protector. 4. Multichannel digital temperature indicator0-3000cusing chromel-alumel thermocouples. 5. Pressure gauge to measure pressure. 6. Necessary valves for water and steam control. THEORY: Condensation of vapor is needed in many of the processes, like steam condensers, refrigeration etc. when vapor comes in contact with the surface having

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temperature lower than saturation temperature, condensation occurs. When the condensate formed wets the surface, a film is formed over the surface and the condensation is film wise condensation. When condensate does not wet the surface, drops are formed over the surface and condensation is drop wise condensation. The apparatus consists of two condensers, which are fitted inside a glass cylinder, which is clamped between two flanges. Steam from steam generator enters the cylinder through a separator. Water is circulated through the condensers. One of the condenser is with natural surface finish to promote film wise condensation and the other is chrome plated to create drop wise condensation. Water flow is measure by rotameter. Various temperatures are measured by digital temperature indicator. Steam pressure is measured by a pressure gauge. Thus heat transfer coefficients in drop wise and film wise condensation can be calculated. PROCEDURE: Fill up water in the steam generator and close the water filling valve. Start water supply through the condensers. close the steam control valve, switch on the supply and start the heater. After some time, steam will be generated. close water flow through one of the condensers. Open steam control valve and allow steam to enter the cylinder and pressure gauge show some reading. Open drain valve and ensure that air in the cylinder is expelled out. Close the drain valve and observe the condensers. Depending on the condensers in the operation, drowse or film wise condensation will be observed. Wait for some time for steady state, and note down all the readings. Repeat the procedure for the other condenser.

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OBSERVATIONS: S.No Steam pressure, kg/cm2 Water flow rate LPH Steam temperature-T10C Drop condes.surface temperature-T20C Film condens.surface temperature-T30C Water inlet temperature-T40C Water outlet temperature form drop wise condersor-T50C Water outlet temperature form film wise condensorT50C 1 2

CALCULATION: (Film wise condensation) Water flow=Lph= Water inlet temp.T4= Water outlet temp. = w kg/see
0

c c

0

(T5 for drop wise condensation T6 for film wise condensation) Heat transfer rate at condenser wall Q=W.CP.(T5-T4)watts. Where cp=specific heat of water=4.2*103j/kgk

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Surface area of the condenser A=9.24*10-3m3 Heat transfer coefficient, H1=q/A (TS-TW) W/m20c Where TS=temperature of steam= (T1) And TW=condenser wall temperature (T2 orT3) Theoretically, for film wise condensation Hl= ((λ.ρ2.g.k3)/ (TS-TW).µ.L) 0.25 Where λ= total heat of steam at TS,j/kg ρ=density of water, kg/m3 g=gravitational acceleration/see2 k=thermal conductivity of water w/m0c µ=viscosity o water-s/m2 L=length of condenser=0.15m Above valves at mean temperature, Tm= (TS+TW)/20c

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PRECAUTIONS: 1. Operate all the switches and controls gently. 2. Never allow the steam to enter the cylinder unless the water is flowing through condenses. 3. Always ensure that the equipment is earthed properly before switching on the supply. RESULT & CONCLUSION:

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