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Android (operating system)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., whom Google financially backed and later purchased in 2005,[9] Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.[10] The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008.[11] Android is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License.[12] This open source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Java programming language.[13] In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Android's primary app store, was 25 billion.[14][15] These factors have allowed Android to become the world's most widely used smartphone platform[16] and the software of choice for technology companies who require a low-cost, customizable, lightweight operating system for high tech devices without developing one from scratch.[17] As a result, despite being primarily designed for phones and tablets, it has seen additional applications on televisions, games consoles and other electronics. Android's open nature has further encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open source code as a foundation for communitydriven projects, which add new features for advanced users[18] or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems. Android had a worldwide smartphone market share of 75% during the third quarter of 2012,[19] with 500 million devices activated in total and 1.3 million activations per day.[20][21] However, the operating system's success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called "smartphone
en. w i edi . or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n


Android 4.2 "Jelly Bean" on the Nexus 4 Company / developer Google Open Handset Alliance Android Open Source Project C, C++, Java[1] Unix-like, Linux Current Open source[2] September 23, 2008[3]

Programmed in OS family Working state Source model Initial release

Latest stable release 4.2.1 Jelly Bean / November 27, 2012[4][5] Marketing target Smartphones
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Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) - Wi i edi , t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a

wars" between technology companies.
Available language(s) Package manager

Tablet computers Multi-lingual Google Play, APK

1 History 2 Description 2.1 Interface 2.2 Applications 3 Development 3.1 Linux 3.2 Memory management 3.3 Update schedule 3.4 Open source community 4 Security and privacy 5 Licensing 6 Reception 6.1 Market share and rate of adoption 6.2 Usage share of Android versions 6.3 Application piracy 7 Copyrights and patents 8 Beyond smartphones and tablets 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Supported platforms ARM, MIPS, [6] x86[7] Kernel type Default user interface License Monolithic (modified Linux kernel) Graphical (Multi-touch) Apache License 2.0 Linux kernel patches under GNU GPL v2[8] (

Official website

Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger),[22] Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),[23] Nick Sears[24] (once VP at T-Mobile),[25] and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV)[9] to develop, in Rubin's words "...smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences."[9] Despite the obvious past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones.[9] That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company.[26] Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner and White, stayed at the company after the acquisition.[9] Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.[9] At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.[27][28][29]
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tapping. or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device. or a news ticker directly on the homescreen. for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented. often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. simulating control of a steering wheel. adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset. though Android's homescreen interface is heavily customisable.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) . version 1. customise the en.5 Cupcake was followed by 1. demonstrating Android's latest software and hardware features. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications.[31][32] On November 5. for example. HTC collaborated with Google to release the first Nexus smartphone.2 Jelly Bean. a consortium of technology companies including Google. pinching and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects. Android homescreens are typically made up of app icons and widgets. Third party apps available on Google Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme the homescreen. 2008. Google launched its Nexus series of devices . or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 3/ 24 . unveiled itself. Internal hardware such as accelerometers. app icons launch the associated app. The series has since been updated with newer devices. and some wireless carriers. and built by a manufacturer partner.[33] Since 2008.[37] A homescreen may be made up of several pages that the user can swipe back and forth between.6 Donut.6. whereas widgets display live.[38] Most manufacturers.Wi i edi .[10] The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream. such as the Nexus 4 phone and Nexus 10 tablet. Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat. In September 2007. Android was unveiled as its first product. w i edi .[36] Android devices boot to the homescreen. 2007. Description See also: List of features in Android and Android version history Interface Android's user interface is based on direct manipulation. with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. device manufacturers such as HTC and Samsung. Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system.[35] The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface.[30] Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that.a line of smartphones and tablets running the Android operating system. the primary navigation and information point on the device. the user's email inbox. allowing the user to adjust the look and feel of the device to their tastes. like swiping.[35] using touch inputs that loosely correspond to realworld actions.[34] the Nexus One. and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments. a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2. gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions. In 2010. and even mimic the look of other operating systems. it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile.[10] That day. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. released on October 22. the Open Handset Alliance. such as Windows Phone. which is similar to the desktop found on PCs. Google releases the Nexus phones and tablets to act as their flagship Android devices. made by LG and Samsung respectively. auto-updating content such as the weather forecast. The latest release is 4. InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.

and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements. such as the ability to call a number back directly from the missed call notification without having to open the dialer app first.[47] including a debugger. In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China. including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++. and tutorials. and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks.[45] As of September 2012.Wi i edi .[40] Notifications are persistent until read or dismissed by the user. sample code. in a way that doesn't immediately interrupt or inconvenience the user.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) .[39] In early versions of Android these notifications could be tapped to open the relevant app. download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers. or by downloading and installing the application's APK file from a thirdparty site. there were more than 675. but recent updates have provided enhanced functionality.[43] Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download.[46] A Samsung Galaxy Note II's homescreen. and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons.[48] Development en. Present along the top of the screen is a status bar.[44] and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases. documentation. where the cost of the application is added to the user's monthly bill.000 apps available for Android. showing information about the device and its connectivity. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin. Other development tools are available. The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools. This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates. software libraries. Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead. and several app shortcuts Play Store on the Galaxy Nexus. showing the status bar.[41] The Play Store application allows users to browse. Applications See also: Android software development and Google Play Android has a growing selection of third party applications.[42] The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the user's device. such as a newly received email or SMS text. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a look and feel of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from the competition. Google App Inventor. Applications are developed in the Java language using the Android software development kit (SDK). a visual environment for novice programmers. a Google search bar. and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion. which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore. w i edi . or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 4/ 24 . a clock and weather widget. a handset emulator based on QEMU.

[57] Greg Kroah-Hartman. starting in Linux 3. but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware. in the Jagged Alliance 2 port for Android. w i edi . but it will probably not be for four to five years". patches and features back into the Linux kernel.[61] further integration being expected for Linux Kernel 3. Android's linux kernel has further architecture changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle. as it is known on the desktop).x (Android 4.[49] The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture. partly because kernel maintainers felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain their own code.4. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik dex-code (Dalvik Executable). and to disk (hibernate.[55] Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process". The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: to memory (the traditional suspend that Android uses). There is support for x86 from the Android x86 project.[59] In August 2011. which is usually translated from Java bytecode.[51] But the support of simple C and SDL applications is possible by injection of a small Java shim and usage of the JNI[52] like e. such as "/system" for the operating system itself and "/data" for user data and app installations.[50] Android does not have a native X Window System by default nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.[62] The flash storage on Android devices is split into several partitions.5 kernel. Android device owners are not given root access to the operating system and sensitive partitions such as /system are read-only.[58] Linux included the autosleep and wakelocks capabilities in the 3.3. Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of the Android Mainlining Project.g.[64] Architecture diagram Memory management en. were rejected by mainline kernel developers. However. which aims to put some Android drivers.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) . with middleware.[60] In December 2011. the current Linux kernel maintainer for the -stable branch.[7] and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android. and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android. said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux.Wi i edi .[53] Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel.6 and Linux Kernel 3. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 5/ 24 .0 onwards). libraries and APIs written in C and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony. which is used frequently by the open source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices (see Android rooting).[54][55][56] Even though Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community. after many previous attempts at merger. notably a power management feature called wakelocks. because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a Linux Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux kernel 2. Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel.[63] In contrast to desktop Linux distributions. root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android.

[66] However. Android is designed to manage memory (RAM) to keep power consumption at a minimum. Nexus One. This process is designed to be invisible to the user. Google partnered with a number of industry players to announce an "Android Update Alliance". as the lack of updates for existing devices fuels the purchase of newer ones. to which each update must be specifically tailored.[72] The Guardian has complained that the complicated method of distribution for updates is only complicated because manufacturers and carriers have designed it that way. namely iOS.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) . pledging to deliver timely updates for every device for 18 months after its release.[67] Update schedule See also: Android version history Google provides major updates.[70] This is caused partly due to the extensive variation in hardware of Android devices. who prioritize their newest devices and often leave older ones behind.[70] From left to right: HTC Dream (G1). confusion over Android memory management has resulted in third-party task killers becoming popular on the Google Play store. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a Since Android devices are usually battery-powered. the system will begin killing apps and processes that have been inactive for a while.2 Jelly Bean. w i edi .and resource-consuming process for device manufacturers." suspended apps consume no resources (e. in contrast to desktop operating systems which generally assume they are connected to unlimited mains electricity. regardless of whether the phone is capable of running the update.[70] Open source community en.[68] The latest major update is Android 4.while the app is still technically "open. these third-party task killers are generally regarded as doing more harm than good. Galaxy Nexus The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticised by consumer groups and the technology media.e.[65] Android manages the apps stored in memory automatically: when memory is low. this alliance has never been mentioned since. battery power or processing power) and sit idly in the background until needed again. to Android every six to nine months. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 6/ 24 . older smartphones are frequently not updated if the manufacturer decides it is not worth their time. since apps don't need to be closed and reopened from scratch each time. incremental in nature. Android updates are typically very slow in reaching devices. Additional delays can be introduced by wireless carriers who.[72] In 2011. such that users do not need to manage memory or the killing of apps themselves.g.[69] Compared to rival mobile operating systems. further customize and brand Android to their needs and conduct extensive testing on their networks before sending the update out to users. which most devices are capable of receiving over the air.[71][72] Some commentators have noted that the industry has a financial incentive not to update their devices. but also ensuring background apps don't waste power needlessly. the system will automatically suspend it in memory . This problem is compounded when manufacturers customize Android with their own interface and apps. This has the dual benefit of increasing the general responsiveness of Android devices.[74] As of 2012.[70] Hence. Nexus S. often taking several months from the official Google release date to actually being distributed to devices. after receiving updates from manufacturers. which must be reapplied to each new release. oldest first). Porting Android to specific hardware is a time.[73] an attitude described as "insulting". When an Android app is no longer in use. as the official Google source code only runs on their flagship Nexus phone. in reverse order since they were last used (i.Wi i edi .

and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the "jailbreaking" of mobile devices.[90] have released antivirus software for Android devices.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) . installing the application only if they accept. similar to the Nexus series of phones.[78] Motorola. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 7/ 24 . the Play Store displays all required permissions: a game may need to enable vibration or save data to an SD card.[84] Security and privacy See also: Mobile security Android applications run in a sandbox. Before installing an application. unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed.[18] provide continued support for older devices that no longer receive official updates.[77] and acts as a foundation for numerous others.[84] The unlocking and "hackability" of smartphones and tablets remains a source of tension between the community and industry.Wi i edi .[86] The sandboxing and permissions system lessens the impact of vulnerabilities and bugs in applications.[79] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development.[87] Several security firms. However. Community releases often come pre-rooted and contain modifications unsuitable for non-technical users. as community-developed software has grown more popular.[75] These community-developed releases often bring new features and updates to devices faster than through the official manufacturer/carrier channels.[89] and McAfee. albeit without as extensive testing or quality assurance. This software is ineffective as sandboxing also applies to such applications.[91] Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android en. device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development.[78] However. Historically. with the community arguing that unofficial development is increasingly important given the failure of industry to provide timely updates and/or continued support to their devices. for which carriers would otherwise charge a premium. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this. including HTC. such as the ability to overclock or over/undervolt the device's processor. or bring Android to devices that were officially released running other operating systems. w i edi . such as the HP Touchpad. limiting their ability to scan the deeper system for threats. After reviewing these permissions. for example. but developer confusion and limited documentation has resulted in applications routinely requesting unnecessary permissions. some carriers in the US still require that phones are locked down.[83] providing support and encouraging development. over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders. the user can choose to accept or refuse them. but should not need to read SMS messages or access the phonebook. although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so. modified firmwares such as CyanogenMod sometimes offer features. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use the Android source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system. such as Lookout Mobile Security.[76] CyanogenMod is the most widely used community firmware. As a result of this. an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources.[85] There are third party solutions to protect the privacy of the users by restricting permissions on an application basis. technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices.[78] Moreover. despite manufacturer acceptance. such as tethering. reducing its effectiveness. with some. As a result.[88] AVG Technologies.[80] Samsung[81][82] and Sony Ericsson.

0. can. which works in combination with Google Play but can scan apps installed from third party sources as well. however. The reason.[108] As en. Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points. Facebook Places.[93][94] and have accused the security industry of playing on fears to sell virus protection software to users. Google Latitude. Google chose to temporarily withhold the Android source code to the tablet-only 3.[105] and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets. w i edi . and an alert system which notifies the user when an app tries to send a premium-rate text message. was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom. according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post.[104] In early 2011.Wi i edi . Google engineers have argued that the malware and virus threat on Android is being exaggerated by security companies for commercial reasons. or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) .[106] The source code was once again made available in November 2011 with the release of Android 4.[97] App permissions in the Play Store.[93] Google maintains that dangerous malware is actually extremely rare. then makes the source code available after that device has been released. Linux kernel changes.[99] an academic research-funded project. including Google Play. Google publishes most of the code (including network and telephony stacks)[101] under the Apache License version 2. in some cases. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 8/ 24 . where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user. including a malware scanner built into the system.[100] Licensing The source code for Android is available under free and open source software licenses. under the GNU General Public License version 2. in public.[92] Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive adverts on the device. Typically Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a 'flagship' device (part of the Google Nexus series) featuring the new version of Android.[95] It is intended to flag up suspicious apps and warn users of any potential issues with an application before they download it. with source code released publicly when a new version is released.[94] Google currently uses their Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan the Google Play store apps.[98] Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones. The rest of Android is developed in private by Google. allowing them to run apps like Foursquare. Devices must also meet this definition to be eligible to license Google's closed-source applications. with source code publicly available at all times.2 Jelly Bean was released in 2012 with enhanced security features. to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. and to deliver location-based ads. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a malware.[107] Even though the software is open-source. blocking the message unless the user explicitly authorises it.[96] Android version 4. device manufacturers cannot use Google's Android trademark unless Google certifies that the device complies with their Compatibility Definition Document (CDD). detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.[92] Security threats on Android are reportedly growing exponentially.0 Honeycomb release.0.[102][103] and the rest. The Open Handset Alliance develops the changes to the Linux kernel. encountered as phone users move around.

4% growth per week. w i edi .000 new Android devices were being activated every day. Ouya. allowing companies such as Amazon.g. Baidu.[125] In September 2012."[114] and a member of Microsoft's Windows Mobile team stated "I don't understand the impact that they are going to have. Google said that 550. These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others.Wi i edi .[124] By the third quarter of 2012 Android had a 75% share of the global smartphone market according to the research firm IDC. Google's code is under the Apache license.3 million activations per day.[117] This is primarily blamed on a chicken or the egg situation where consumers are hesitant to buy an Android tablet due to a lack of high quality tablet apps. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a Android is not completely released under a GPL compatible license."[114] Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system[17] and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available. becoming the topselling smartphone platform. such as Nokia and Microsoft. As a result.[126] and more than 100 million devices had been activated[127] with 4. it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.[119] This began to change in 2012 with the release of the successful Nexus 7 and a push by Google for developers to write better tablet apps.[8] and also because Google Play allows proprietary software.[112] but there were additional worries about Android facing strong competition from established players in the smartphone market.[16] By the third quarter of 2011 Gartner estimated that more than half (52.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) .[113] These established players were skeptical: Nokia was quoted as saying "we don't see this as a threat. it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms. Linux-based development platform sparked interest."[115] Reviewers have highlighted the open source nature of the operating system as one of its defining strengths.8% share of worldwide smartphone shipments. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 9/ 24 . but developers are hesitant to spend time and resources developing tablet apps until there's a significant market for them. Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance.5%) of the smartphone market belongs to Android. and others to fork the software and release hardware running their own customised version of Android. 500 million devices had been activated with 1. Barnes & Noble.[125] up from 400. Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant.[123] By the fourth quarter of 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market.[118][119] Other factors included high prices[120] and the dominance of Apple's iPad.[19] In July 2011.[20][21] en. Android tablet adoption has been slow.[17] This openness and flexibility is also present at the level of the end user: Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.[122] Market share and rate of adoption Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of 2009 that Android had a 2. e.000 per day in May.[111] The idea of an open source.[116][17] Despite its success on smartphones. and rival Linux mobile operating systems that were in development.[121] Android tablets are expected to overtake the iPad within a few years.[109][110] Reception Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in 2007.

x 3. the developers of Football Manager stated that the ratio of pirated players vs legitimate players was 9:1 for their game Football Manager Handheld.4% 50.3% 2.[130] Most Android devices to date still run the older OS version 2.1 2. 2012.5 Froyo Eclair Donut Cupcake Application piracy There has been some concern about the ease with which paid Android apps can be pirated.3.7% 0.2 Gingerbread 2. 2011 February 9.6% 0.[128] but this rises to 90% in China. 2012 Jelly Bean Ice Cream Sandwich Honeycomb Honeycomb Gingerbread July 9. Android's market share in the United States was 52%. w i edi . 2012 2.7 November Jelly Bean 13. not every developer agreed that piracy en. 2010.9% 27.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) .2 4. Code name Release date API level 17 16 15 13 12 10 9 8 7 4 3 Distribution (December 3.Wi i edi .x 4. 2011 December 6.8% 5.2% 10. 2009 September 15.3.3% 0.[131] In a May 2012 interview with Eurogamer.1 1. 2012) 0.[132] However. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 10/ 24 .3. 2011 May 10.3– 2.1% Version 4. 2010 October 26.[129] Usage share of Android versions Usage share of the different versions as of December 3.5% 1. due to most lower-end devices still being released with it.2 3.3–2. 2011 July 15.0–2.3 Gingerbread that was released on December 6.0.2% 0.2 2. 2009 April 30.1. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a Android market share varies by location. In July 2012. 2012 December 16. 2010 May 20.6 1. 2009 Usage share of the different versions as of December 3.

which was viewed in part as a defensive measure to protect Android. with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market. Google submitted multiple lines of defense. accusing Apple. and Patent troll Both Android and Android phone manufacturers have been the target of numerous patent lawsuits.000 patents. smartbooks[148] and smart TVs (Google TV). various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices. whose products account for 55% of the worldwide revenue for Android devices.Wi i edi .[139] In May 2012 the jury in this case found that Google did not infringe on Oracle's patents.[133] In 2010. especially its initial release. Google demonstrated "Android@Home". in 2011. and several other defenses.[135] Copyrights and patents Further information: Oracle v. that Oracle's patents were invalid. Further. Google released a tool for validating authorised purchases for use within apps. They said that Android is based on Apache Harmony.[142] Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States.[134] In 2012 Google released a feature in Android 4.[136] Oracle originally sought damages up to $6. Google.[143] These include Samsung and HTC. Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language.1 billion. was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs. On August 12. where people cannot purchase apps from Google Play.[142] Both Apple and Microsoft have sued several manufacturers for patent infringement. 2010. new home automaton technology which en. In October 2011 Microsoft said they had signed patent license agreements with ten Android device manufacturers. Smartphone wars.[138] In response.[140][141] In addition to lawsuits against Google directly.[147] Beyond smartphones and tablets While Android is designed primarily for smartphones and tablets. for example.[144] Samsung's patent settlement with Microsoft includes an agreement that Samsung will allocate more resources to developing and marketing phones running Microsoft's Windows Phone operating system. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 11/ 24 . t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a rates were an issue.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) .[146] In December 2011 Google bought over a thousand patents from IBM.[137] but this valuation was rejected by a federal judge who asked Oracle to revise the estimate. and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by Google was not copyrightable. w i edi . and most of the piracy came from China. including laptops and netbooks. the open and customizable nature of the operating system allows it to be used on other electronics. a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries. Google purchased Motorola Mobility for US$12.1 that encrypted paid applications so that they would only work on the device on which they were purchased. not as a finished security solution. counterclaiming that Android did not infringe on Oracle's patents or copyright. with Apple's ongoing legal action against Samsung being a particularly high-profile case. in July 2012 the developers of the game Wind-up Knight said that piracy levels of their game were only 12%. since Motorola Mobility held more than 17. but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack.[145] In 2011-2. Google responded that the tool. and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik. rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.5 billion. Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation. but this feature has been temporarily deactivated due to technical issues. 2008-09-23. Android Open Source . Ouya intends to provide a more traditional videogame controller as well. with low barriers to entry for game developers compared to established consoles.[157][158] portable media players[159] and landlines.[153] headphones. Google.2. http://androidcommunity. The aim. he said. Retrieved 2012-09-21.[155] mirrors.5m for its . 3. https://groups. according to project founder Julie became one of the most successful Kickstarter campaigns.1 in AOSP" ([156] cameras (e. ^ "Android Code Analysis" (http://www. In addition.ohloh.html) .net/p/android/analyses/latest.html. Retrieved 2012-06-01. Android Community. w i edi . ^ "Announcing the Android 1. release 1" (http://android-developers. adding "Google is really uniquely positioned to make consumers' lives a lot better and make the 20 screens you have in your home interoperate. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 12/ 24 .[149] Prototype light bulbs were announced that could be controlled from an Android phone or tablet. was to release a low-cost videogame console based on an open platform. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches.[154] car CD and DVD players. an upcoming games console running Android.html) .android. http://android-developers.2. there are also video gaming tablets with physical keys running on Android: Archos GamePad and the Wikipad. the Android operating system has seen niche applications on smart glasses (Project Glass).0!topic/android-building/sqNo2fxeHY.[151][152] While most Android games are designed for touch screen" pointing to numerous failed home automation services. but Android head Andy Rubin was cautious to note that "turning a lightbulb on and off is nothing new."[150] Ouya. http://source. and a free-to-play pricing model for gamers.2. ^ "Philosophy and Goals" (http://source.g. 5.Wi i edi . ^ "Android 4.1 hits AOSP] crowdfunding US$8. Retrieved 2012-11-27.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) . ^ "[Android 4.1 Jelly Bean heads to AOSP" (http://androidcommunity. power sockets and thermostats.[151] Meanwhile. 4. Retrieved 2012-04-21. Google. http://www.blogspot.html.blogspot. the Nikon Coolpix S800c). while retaining an integrated touchpad for use with touch-based games. 2.[160] The Sony SmartWatch: an example of how Android is used on electronics other than smartphones and tablets See also Android version history Comparison of mobile operating systems Rooting (Android OS) Index of Android OS articles References 1. 2012-11-27. was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a cloud services provider to bring Google products into customers'!topic/androidbuilding/s-qNo2fxeHY) .ohloh.

20. Retrieved 2012-02-15. MIT.html) .gsmarena. Computerworld. "In what could be a key move in its nascent wireless strategy.] For userspace (that is.0% Market Share in Third ^ "T-Mobile G1 Spec" ( ^ a b Shah.tomsguide. Canalys. ^ "Google Play Matches Apple's iOS With 700.. Open Handset ^ a b "Custom ROMs For Android Explained .html) (Press release).html. 5 things we love about Android" ( Jon (2012-11-05). "Google's Android 4.openhandsetalliance. Android is about freedom and 2.blogspot. ^ a b c "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices" (http://www. Open Handset Alliance. Using LGPL libraries would often force them to do so. The purpose of Android is promote openness in the mobile world.Here Is Why You Want Them" (http://www. etc. 19.html. Ben (August 17.computerworld.cnet. ^ Shankland. 2011).) over other licenses such as .com/android_overview. Agam (December 1. Infosite and comparisons. Open Handset non-kernel) 2005). ^ "MIPS gets sweet with Honeycomb" (http://www." 10.gsmarena. Inc. "The preferred license for the Android Open Source Project is the Apache Software License. Retrieved January 31. ^ a b "Licenses" (http://source. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 13/ 24 .com/2010/05/01/custom-roms-for-android-explained-and-why-you-wantthem/. Retrieved 2012-11-03.jsp?containerId=prUS23771812.. http://www. http://www. Retrieved 2012-11-09. Google (GOOG) has quietly acquired startup Android. International Data 2012-08-20. Android Open Source Project.0_ported_to_x86_processors) .com/newsroom/ we do in fact prefer Retrieved .html. "Google Buys Android for Its Mobile Arsenal" ( . November 5. we don't believe it is our place to force them to do so. ^ a b "Android Marks Fourth Anniversary Since Launch with 75. http://arstechnica.3 million added every single day.html.blogspot. Ars Technica. Archived from the original (http://www. 16. http://www.html) .com/press_110507. 15. Retrieved 2012-09-15. "Google's Android parts ways with Java industry group" (http://news. Bloomberg. Eetimes.htm) on February 24.openhandsetalliance.0.eetimes. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 2007. Idc. 2011.webcitation. Stephen (November 12.androidpolice.jsp?containerId=prUS23771812) .. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a 20121127/.com/newsroom/google%E2%80%99s-android-becomes-world%E2%80%99s-leading-smartphone-platform) .php) ." en. "On its 5th birthday. Retrieved 2012-02-20. [.com/getdoc. Retrieved 2012-02-17.idc. and over 1. ^ a b c d e f Elgin.html) . ." 9.0 ported to x86 processors" (http://www.. Bloomberg Businessweek.html) (in englisch).html. http://www. while we encourage everyone to make devices that are open and modifiable.. http://news.Wi i edi . According to IDC . 8.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) .com/getdoc.. 7.prUS23771812" ( GSM Arena.idc. .businessweek. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 18. http://www. So.. 2007).000 Apps" (http://www. 6.] Why Apache Software License? [. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 13. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 2011. http://officialandroid. w i edi . ^ a b "Google's Android becomes the world's leading smart phone platform" (http://www.computerworld.0 (and similar licenses like BSD. Retrieved 2012-02-20. ^ "Android Overview" (http://www. http://www.php. but we don't believe it's possible to predict or dictate all the uses to which people will want to put our software. ^ "Google Play hits 25 billion downloads" ( http://www.html) . ^ a b "500 million devices activated globally. ^ a b c d Brodkin.androidpolice. CNET News.

The Boston Globe.moconews. 24. ^ Kirsner. "Can iPhone become your phone? .Wi i edi .com/article_email/SB118602176520985718lMyQjAxMDE3ODA2MjAwMjIxWj. Techcrunch. Retrieved June ." (https://plus. ^ a b "500 million devices activated globally. Archived from the original (http://www. 32.directtraffic. Linksys introduces versatile line for cordless service" (http://record-bergen. http://www. official Android Engineering teams. "I. "Google Pushes Tailored Phones To Win Lucrative Ad Market" (http://online.directtraffic.archive.archive. Ashlee (27 July 2011). March 20. September 2003. "Google is working on a mobile OS.aspx?id=66338&lang=1033) . roducing_the_google_phone/) . 2007). "Google's Strong Mobile-Related Patent Portfolio" ( InformationWeek.directtraffic. http://newsroom. Robot: The Man Behind the Google Phone" ( _phone_plan_18094880.t-mobile. 26.engadget. https://plus.moconews. 21.jhtml? articleID=201807587&cid=nl_IWK_daily. ^ "T-Mobile Unveils the T-Mobile G1 .com/magazine/the-edison-of-silicon-valley-07272011. Amol. http://techcrunch. Retrieved 2012-02-15. mocoNews. "Google's Secret Patent Portfolio Predicts gPhone" (http://www. 2007). (August 2. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 14/ 24 . Retrieved 3 November 2012. Scott (September 2. http://www. 25. John (November 4.nytimes. 22. Martha (December 21. http://record-bergen.3 million added every single day. Retrieved 2012-02-17. ^ "T-Mobile Brings Unlimited Multiplayer Gaming to US Market with First Launch of (http://newsroom. Bloomberg Businessweek. 27. Retrieved 2012-02-15. directtraffic. Fred (April 2011). 30. Google News. on July 3.businessweek. w i edi . Retrieved oducing_the_google_phone/. on January 4.nytimes.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) . "And don't hold your breath.html. ^ http://web. t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a James Quintana (September 20.html) . "How the Android Ecosystem Threatens the iPhone" (http://www.html.wsj. The Record (Bergen County): p. ^ "Google admits to mobile phone plan" (http://web. ^ a b "There Are Now Nokia N-Gage Game Deck" (Press release). 23. ^ Claburn. 2007). anyone?" and it's due out shortly" (http://www. ^ Vance. Kevin ^ Markoff. Archived from the original (http://www. en. http://www. Wired. 2007).com/magazine/2011/04/mf_android/all/1. The Wall Street Journal. http://www. 33. Bloomberg. and over First Phone Powered by Android" (http://web. The New York Times.engadget. http://www.jhtml?articleID=201807587&cid=nl_IWK_daily) . ^ Vogelstein. ^ Pearce.wired. phone_plan_18094880. "Steve Perlman's Wireless Fix" ( .com/2007/11/04/technology/04google. Thomas (September 2007). 2012.3 Million Android Device Activations Per Day" ( 29. but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won't be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz. 2010.html) . 2006).net/entry/419-googles-strong-mobile-related-patent-portfolio) . http://www. 28. Retrieved 2012-02-17. Retrieved 201202-17. http://online.html) .com/vid/ T-Mobile. Ryan (August . "Introducing the Google Phone" (http://web. ^ McKay. http://web. Retrieved 2012-02-17.html?_r=2&hp=&pagewanted=all) . 2007).com/vid/iphone-phone-linksys-versatile-cordless-62885923) Retrieved ^ Retrieved 2012-02-21.

"Phonemakers make Android China-friendly. Wired "Independent App Stores Take On Google's Android Market" (http://www. http://developer. 2011-12-22.html) . Retrieved 2012-02-15. ^ "Real Racing 2 Speeds Into The Android Market – Leaves Part 1 In The Dust" ( or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n .html. Eric (13 April 2011).com/5804091/launcher-7-brings-windows-phones-simple-attractiveinterface-to-android. ^ "UI Overview | Android Developers" (http://developer. (http://web.html) .blogspot. London: Android Open Source Project. ^ "Launcher 7 Brings Windows Phone's . . 21 July (Video). http://developer." (http://www. . AT&T's first device to run Android was the Motorola Backflip.html. http://developer. Retrieved 2012-02-17.aspx? id=66338&lang=1033) on July 12. September Retrieved 2012-09-15. ^ i edi .com/gadgetlab/2010/06/independent-app-stores-take-on-googles-android-market/.html. Retrieved Priya (June 11. http://source. Liau. Retrieved 9 January 2012.archive. September 6. 2010). http://www. Phandroid. 38. Retrieved 2012-02-17. Source. 40. http://www. http://developer. "Google forced to delay British launch of Nexus phone" (http://www. http://android-developers.000 apps and games" ( http://lifehacker. https://support. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 42. "What Android Is" (http://www. 35. Retrieved 2010).zdnet.html. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 47. ^ Androidology – Part 1 of 3 – Architecture Overview (http://www. Retrieved Attractive Interface to Android" (http://lifehacker. 37. ^ . ^ "Google Play hits 25 Billion downloads. Developer.wired. 46. ^ "Android Compatibility" ( "Android Developers Blog: New Carrier Billing Options on Android Market" ( Developer. Archived from the original (http://www. ^ Richard Wray (March 14. ^ Yun Qing. 50. Android Developers. 15/ 24 . YouTube. 15 October ^ "Returning Apps" ( ^ "Android Compatibility" ( hl=en&answer=134336&topic=1046718&ctx=topic) . Retrieved 49. Android .com/www/ . Retrieved 15 May ZD t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a 34. 2010). Retrieved .guardian.blogspot. ^ "Widgets | Android Developers" (http://developer. Retrieved 2012-02-20. ^ a b "Touch Devices | Android Open Source" (http://source. ^ Tim Bray (November 24. 44.18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) . 2011.archive. Retrieved 2012-02-20. ^ "Tools Overview" (http://developer.html) . ongoing by Tim Bray.html) .com. 45. http://web. ^ "Notifications | Android Developers" ( . 36.html) .android. w i edi .

t he f r ee encycl pedi d n kp a o a 07.muktware. "Linux developer explains Android kernel code removal" (http://www. 60. "Android malware gives itself root access | News" (http://www. ^ Jools Whitehorn . ^ "Simple DirectMedia Layer for Android" (http://www.libsdl. Retrieved 2012-02-20. Retrieved 2012-02-15. h-online. 2010). Retrieved 2012-02-20. . Retrieved 2012-02-15. 2010). . Retrieved 2012-02-20. "Android/Linux kernel fight continues" (http://blogs. Addictivetips. 2010). along with some C support code that communicates with Java. https://www. or g/ w i Andr oi _( oper at i g_syst em ) k ip a k i/ d n 16/ 24 . 2012). "Linus Torvalds on "Android drivers to be included in Linux 3. October 3. 2010). 58. 2011). http://www.Wi i edi 2009). (2011-05-19). 61.php?ubb=showflat&Number=273148&page=1) on the Bear's Pit http://blogs. ^ Swapnil Bhartiya (January 2.ars) . we use a small Java shim that uses JNI to talk to the SDL library. Retrieved 2012-02-21. but that causes a much larger engineering effort. ^ Brian Proffitt (August http://www. http://www.Android applications are Java-based. Retrieved and is a pain that just should not be necessary. ." 56.please test (http://www.honline. .com/open/news/item/ . http://www.techradar.html. 65. Haroon Q. Retrieved . http://www.linux. "Linux 3. "Android and the Linux kernel community" (http://www. ^ Steven J.ja-galaxy-forum. "Autosleep and wakelocks" (https://lwn. "Android Partitions Explained: 55. sdl.zdnet. the Linux fork" ( .android) . Ars .com/news/embedded-mobile/mobilelinux/344486-garretta-linuxcon-talk-emphasizes-lessons-learned-from-androidkernel-saga. ^" ( .net/Articles/479841/. "Garrett's LinuxCon Talk Emphasizes Lessons Learned from Android/Kernel Saga" ( ^ Steven J. ^ Chris von Eitzen (December 23. 2011). ^ Brian Proffitt (April http://www. ^ a b Greg Kroah-Hartman (February 2.3 Will Let You Boot Into Android: Greg-KH" (http://www.zdnet. Some companies are trying to strip the Android-specific interfaces from their codebase and push that upstream. Vaughan-Nichols (September 7. Retrieved 2012-09-15.addictivetips.html) . ^ Paul. w i edi . 63. 51.This means that your application C code must be placed inside an android Java kernel" (http://www. data. optionally with parts written in C.kroah. ^ "The truth about Android task killers and why you don't need them" (http://www.h-online.apk package" 53. recovery. Retrieved .computerworld. http://www. www. ^ Jonathan. LWN. 2011 54. ^ David Meyer (February ZDNet.zdnet. 57. Retrieved . Vaughan-Nichols (August 18.This eventually produces a standard Android .phonedog. muktware. 2012-0812.html) .18/ 12/ 12 Andr oi ( oper at i g syst em ) . ^ JA2 Stracciatella Feedback » Jagged Alliance 2 Android Stracciatella Port RC2 Release . 2010) Retrieved 2012-02-20.zdnet.As SDL apps are C-based. "Dream(sheep++): A developer's introduction to Google Android" (http://arstechnica. Ryan (February 23. .com/2011/06/26/theen. 64. cache & misc" ( "How the port works.html. "Google shows no sign of working to get their code upstream anymore. system. TechRadar. "DiBona: Google will hire two Android coders to work with kernel.

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