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Ross River Virus

• • • • • • • • Small, encapsulated, spherical single-strand RNA alphavirus OZ, PNG, island in South Pacific Peak in summer, autumn Genus: Alphavirus; family: Togaviridae 2 glycoproteins (E1, E2) Arbovirus, mosquito vector Mosquito: Aedes vigilax, Aedes camptorhyncus, Culex annulirostris Symptoms • • • Not fatal IP: 3-11d Flu-like symptoms: Fever, chills, headache, aches and pains in muscles and joints • • • Swollen and stiff joints Rash on body, arms or legs (710d) Lethargy, tired, weak

May relapse

Differential Diagnosis • • • • • • • BFV Parvovirus B19 (erythema infectiosium) Rheumatoid arthritis SLE Still’s disease Reiter’s syndrome Henoch Schonlein purpura

Prevention • • • • • • Avoid being bitten by mosquito Stay inside house esp. in late afternoon and dusk Wear loose, light colour clothing Use insect-repellent Fit fly screens to windows, doors, chimneys Use knockdown insecticide in bedroom ½ an hour before sleep Remove open containers of water Cover open water tanks

Prognosis • • Resolution of major symptoms 3-6m Some: persistence of nonrheumatic symptoms, prolonged illness (co-morbid cond)

• •

Diagnosis • • Clinical symptoms Travel Hx, residence

spherical. but usually lasts for shorter duration Diagnosis • Blood test Treatment • • • No specific treatment Manage symptoms Treatment for joint. wallabies) • • • . muscle pain Rest Gentle exercise (keep joint moving) Prevent overtiredness Barmah Forest Virus • • • • • • Ss +ve RNA Arbovirus Alphavirus Small. rest • Anti-rheumatic treatments • Similar symptoms to RRV. kangaroos. enveloped Only in OZ Natural virus reservoir: Marsupials (possums.• Laboratory investigation: Ab against virus – blood taken early in illness and 2w later Symptoms • • • • • • • • Non-fatal IP: 3-11d Fever (days-weeks) Headache Malaise (days to weeks) Rash Joint pain (up to 6m) Muscle tenderness Management • • No specific treatment Manage symptoms: Supportive therapy.

light coloured clothing Avoid being outside during early evenings.Prevention • • • • • • • Avoid being bitten by mosquito Use insect repellents Wear protective. Aedes albopictus • • Family: Flaviviridae. summer Screen living. sleeping areas Remove open containers of water Mosquito eradication programs Dengue Fever • Mosquitp vector: Aedes aegypti. Dengue-4 • Lifelong immunity to homologous serotype. Dengue3. shortterm immunity to other 3 Affect WW Tropical and subtropical disease • • Symptoms • • • 80% asymptomatic IP: 3-14d Phase: Febrile→Critical→Recovery • • • • • • Fever (>40 °C) – 2-7d Hedache Muscle and joint pains Skin rash (similar to measles) Petechiae Bleeding from mucous membranes of mouth and nose . Genus: Flavivirus 4 serology: Dengue-1. Dengue-2.

aegypti habitats Empty water containers/add insecticides Wear loose. intravenous fluid Paracetamol for fever . generalised pain.Diagnosis • • • • Travel Hx Clinical symptoms Physical exam Finding of fever plus 2 of following: (nausea & vomiting. light coloured clothing Use mosquito net Apply insect repellents Treatment • No vaccine Non-severe dengue • • Outpatient damage Strict instructions regarding warning signs Severe dengue • • • • Close follow-up Hosp admission Supprotive: Oral. low WBC count. +ve tourniquet test. any warning sign for those who live in endemic area) • Microbiological lab testing: PCR • • NSAIDs for bleeding Blood transfusion. packed RBC/whole blood (if severe) Prevention • • • • • • • No vaccine Avoid being bitten by mosquito Eliminate A.