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Find out moreWeek: 1

(based on Lectures 1 and 2)

Problem Sheet 1

Topics:

Polynomials, Quadratic Eqns., and Nature of roots of QEqns.

1. Given polynomials p(x) = 3x − 4 and q(x) = 2x2 − 5x + 8, verify the following: (i) (v) (p + q)(x) = 2x2 − 2x + 4 (pq)(x) = (qp)(x) = 6x3 − 23x2 + 44x − 32. (ii) (7p − 6q)(x) = −12x2 + 51x − 76 (iii) (p ◦ q)(x) = 6x2 − 15x + 20 (iv) (q ◦ p)(x) = 18x2 − 63x + 60

2. Sketch the graph of each of the following functions. In each case, show clearly the intersection(s), if any, with x− and y− axes. (i) (iv) (x) y = x2 + 5x + 1 y = −2x2 + x − 1 y = ax2 + bx (a > 0). (ii) (v) y = x2 + 4x + 1 y = 4x2 + 4x + 1 (iii) y = −3x2 + x − 1 (vi) y = 4x2 − 4x + 1 y = 5x2 − 8x + 5

(vii) y = 2x − 1 − x2

(viii) y = −x2 − 2x + 3 (ix)

3. Determine the values of x for which the following inequalities hold. (i) x2 > 7x − 12 (ii) x2 + 5 < 2x b2 + a2 x2 > 2abx ; a = 0. (a = 0). (iii) 3x2 + 5x < 2 (iv) 6x2 − 5x − 4 < 0 (v)

**4. Given a quadratic polynomial p(x) = ax2 + bx + c ; (i) Show that p(x) can be written in the form b a x+ 2a
**

2

−

1 2 b − 4ac . 4a

(ii) Use 4(i) to determine the zeros of the polynomial q(x) = x2 − 7x + 12. (iii) Write a general formula for the roots of quadratic equation p(x) = 0. 5. For what values of m, will the polynomial m2 x2 + 2(m + 1)x + 4 have exactly one zero? 6. When does the equation 3x2 − 2x + c = 0 have (i) two distinct roots; (ii) a repeated root? When does the function f (x) = 3x2 − 2x + c (c constant), take its least value? 7. Use the discriminant (∆) to show that the quadratic equation px2 + (p + q)x + q = 0, has distinct roots unless p = q. p, q ∈ R

obtain quadratic equation whose roots are: (i) (iv) 1 1 and α β 1 1 and 2 αβ α2 β (ii) (v) 1 α2 and 1 β2 and β + α−1 . where a. is 2x2 + 4x − 22 + c(x + 5) > 0? 15. ﬁnd the value of α2 + β 2 + γ 2 . and (x − a) divides f (x). Given α and β are roots of the equation 2x2 + x − 6 = 0. β α 13. Write x2 + 2xy + 4y 2 − 12x − 24y + 36 = 0 as a quadratic equation in x. 12. and γ are roots of the cubic equation x3 + 3x2 − 7x + 1 = 0. Also show that the roots of f (x) = 0 are real if a ≥ 2. show that p cannot take any values between −1 and 3. If α. for which the straight line x + y + d = 0 meet the curve y = x2 + 4x + d in two distinct points. Given α and β are roots of the equation 2x2 − 4x + 1 = 0. Find the values of x for which the following functions have negative values: (i) f1 (x) = 2x2 + x − 15 (x ∈ R) x−1 (x ∈ R − {2. 16. then show that α = − the values c or − a c . (x − 1)2 is a factor of f (x) = x4 − ax2 + (2a − 4)x + (3 − a). Note: If f (x) has a factor (x − a). p ∈ N. (iii) 2α + β and α + 2β α + β −1 11. 3}) (ii) f2 (x) = (x − 2)(x − 3) 10. Find the value(s) of d. obtain the quadratic equation whose roots are αβ −1 and βα−1 .UPCSE Core Mathematics Problem Solving Classes Week 1 2 8. β. . β are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. ﬁnd a and p. Given that f (x) = 2x4 − ax3 + 19x2 − 20x + 12 = (x − p)2 q(x). and takes one of 2a b 14. the values of the symmetric functions: (i) α2 + β 2 (ii) α β + β α (iii) α4 + β 4 (iv) αβ 2 + α2 β (v) α2 β 2 + . 17. for real root x. for what values of c. and show that if x ∈ R. If α. Given that x ∈ R. a b 2c = − . and show that f (x) is never negative for any x ∈ R. By writing x2 + px − 2p2 − 3x + 3p + 9 = 0 as a quadratic equation in x. 19. then 0 ≤ y ≤ 4. ﬁnd (without solving the equation). If ax2 + bx + c = 0 has a repeated root α. without solving the equation. then f (x) has a factor (x − a)2 . 20. 18. Verify that for a ∈ R. Determine the range of values of the following quadratic functions (for x ∈ R): (i) f1 (x) = 4x2 + 9x (ii) f2 (x) = x2 − 8x + 15 (iii) f3 (x) = (x − 2)2 + 1 9.

(i) Show that if 23. Show that f (x) = 4x − 13 (x − 1)(x − 3) . Further. and solve the equation. 2 (i) (iv) x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 x2 − 8x + 8 = 0 (ii) (v) x2 − 12x + 4 = 0 x2 − 6x + 9 =0 2 (iii) x2 − 6x + 17 =0 2 11 12 14 15 20 24 25 acx2 + (2ac − b2 )x + ac = 0. the rational function [−1. Let the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 be α and β. 1]. −1 1. show that b3 + 8c2 = 4abc. (iii) 337 16 . | y |≥ 1. (x ∈ R − {1. 3}) has no value between 1 and 4. show that 6x3 + 11x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 satisﬁes (2). . then λµb2 = (λ + µ)2 ac. λ α = . 16 5 (i) −3 < x < (ii) 2 < x < 3 or x < 1. 4. The quadratic equations kx2 + 2x + 1 = 0 and x2 + 2x + k = 0 have a common root for k = 1. x2 − 2ax + 1 takes only values in the interval ax2 − 2x + a (2) (1) Answers (to selected problems) 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 (i) (ii) x < 3 or x > 4 (ii) No x exist. Find the constant k. β µ (ii) Use the result obtained in 22(i) to deduce the condition for (1) to have equal roots. 3 3 3 −81 (i) y≥ (ii) y ≥ −1 (iii) y ≥ 1. 3. 3 1 1 1 (i) c< (ii) c= (iii) x= . 8 23. 25 −25 (i) (ii) 4 12 3 37 (iv) (v) 2 24 8 < c < 24 25 d< . where β = 0. γ.UPCSE Core Mathematics Problem Solving Classes Week 1 3 21. − 3. Show that when a2 > 1. 22. 25. Find the possible values of the expression when a2 < 1. 24. If the roots of x3 + ax2 + bx + c = 0 are such that the reciprocal of one root α is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the other two β.

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