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Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Sizing Power And Distribution Transformers
Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : Electrical File Reference: EEX10402
For additional information on this subject, contact W. A. Roussel on 874-1320
Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
CONTENTS CALCULATING POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER RATIOS TRANSFORMER MODEL Primary and Secondary Windings Primary and Secondary Voltages/Currents TRANSFORMER RATIOS Turns Ratio Voltage Ratio Ratio of Currents Ratio Relationships CALCULATING POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY AND VOLTAGE REGULATION TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY Copper or I2R Losses Iron or Magnetic Core Losses Power Factor and Loading TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REGULATION Impedance Voltages POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER COMPONENTS CORES Laminations Types Of Core Construction CONCENTRIC WINDINGS Rectangular Concentric Round Concentric INSULATION Liquid-Filled Transformers
2 2 3 3 5 5 5 5 6 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 14 15 15 16 17 20 21 22 22 23
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
Dry-Type Transformers ENCLOSURES Dry-Type Transformers Liquid-Filled Transformers Conservator Tank-Type BUSHINGS Bulk-Type Bushings (Less Than 15 kV) Condenser-Type Bushings (Greater Than 15 kV) COOLING SYSTEMS Cooling Circuit Cooling Methods Cooling Classes TAP CHANGERS No-Load Tap Changer (NLTC) Load Tap Changers (LTC) AUXILIARY COMPONENTS Transformer Nameplate Winding Temperature Indicator Liquid Temperature Indicator Liquid Level Indicator Pressure/Vacuum Indicator Pressure Relief Device Sudden Pressure Relay Fill and Drain Valves Control Cabinets POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER CLASSIFICATION: CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONS Dry-Type (Conventional) Dry-Type (Cast Coil) Oil-Filled
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
26 27 27 28 31 33 33 35 38 38 39 43 46 47 50 52 52 56 58 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 66 67 67
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Non-Flammable Insulating Liquid-Filled Gas-Filled APPLICATION CLASSIFICATIONS Saudi Aramco Classifications Generator Power Transformer Substation Power Transformers (Sub-Transmission Circuits) Substation Power Transformers (Primary-Feeder Circuits) Distribution Transformers THREE-PHASE POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS ANSI/NEMA LABELING CONVENTIONS TYPES OF CONNECTIONS Delta Connection Wye Connection TYPICAL CONNECTIONS Delta-Delta (D-D) Wye-Wye (Y-Y) Delta-Wye (D-Y) Wye-Delta (Y-D) TRANSFORMER POLARITY Single-Phase Transformers Three-Phase Transformers CALCULATING BASIC POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER RATINGS SELECTION FACTORS Voltages Loads Ambient Temperature Standard Sizes Cooling Classes Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 67 67 67 68 68 69 69 69 71 71 73 73 73 76 76 77 78 79 79 79 82 84 84 84 85 85 86 86 .
POWER. AND REGULATING TRANSFORMERS) WORK AID 3B: SAES-P-121 (TRANSFORMERS. VOLTAGE REGULATORS) WORK AID 3C: APPLICABLE PROCEDURES 87 88 89 89 89 89 93 93 94 95 95 95 97 100 101 101 101 102 102 115 119 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Temperature Rise SECONDARY UNIT SUBSTATIONS Components Layout and One-Line Diagrams Single-Ended Substations Double-Ended Substations TRANSFORMER LET-THROUGH CURRENT Impedance Transformer Categories PARALLELED TRANSFORMERS Increased Fault Levels Circulating Currents Limiting kVA WORK AID 1: PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER RATIOS WORK AID 2: PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY AND VOLTAGE REGULATION WORK AID 2A: APPLICABLE PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING POWER TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY WORK AID 2B: APPLICABLE PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING POWER TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REGULATION WORK AID 3: RESOURCES USED TO CALCULATE BASIC RATINGS OF POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS WORK AID 3A: ANSI/IEEE STANDARD C57 (DISTRIBUTION. REACTORS.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers GLOSSARY AA ADDITIVE POLARITY 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 (CT) 123 123 123 123 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 125 125 125 (LTC) 125 125 125 AFA ANSI BIL BUSHING COPPER LOSSES CORE CSD CURRENT TRANSFORMER DIELECTRIC STRENGTH DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER INSTALLATION DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMER EDDY CURRENT LOSS EFFICIENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION EXCITATION CURRENT FA HYSTERESIS LOSS I2R LOSSES IEEE IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE INERT GAS INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER IRON LOSSES LOAD LOSSES LOAD TAP CHANGER MRD NO-LOAD LOSSES Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards .
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers NO-LOAD TAP CHANGER (NLTC) 125 125 125 125 125 126 126 126 126 126 126 126 126 126 126 126 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 128 128 128 128 128 OA PAD-MOUNTED TRANSFORMER POLE-MOUNTED TRANSFORMER POWER TRANSFORMER PRIMARY RATED CURRENT PRIMARY RATED VOLTAGE PRIMARY WINDING PRINCIPAL TAP RATED K VA TAP RATED POWER (SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER ) RATED POWER (THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER ) REDUCED K VA TAP REGULATION RELIABILITY (SUBSTATION ) SAES SECONDARY FULL -LOAD VOLTAGE SECONDARY RATED CURRENT SECONDARY RATED VOLTAGE SECONDARY WINDING SHORT CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE SPR STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMER STEP-UP TRANSFORMER SUBSTATION SUBSTATION (INDUSTRIAL ) SUBSTATION (RESIDENTIAL ) SUBTRACTIVE POLARITY TAP TAP CHANGER TEMPERATURE RISE Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards .
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers TURNS RATIO UNDERGROUND -TYPE TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE RATIO VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER 128 128 128 (VT) 128 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards .
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 1. Power Distribution System Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 1 .
the secondary winding. The output voltage depends on the relationship between the number of turns on the primary (Np) to the number of turns on the secondary (Ns). Energy is transferred from the primary winding to the secondary winding by electromagnetic induction. The primary winding receives its energy from the alternating current source. Both windings are wound around the core. Figure 2. The amount of energy transferred depends on the design of the transformer. almost all of the energy received from the supply by the primary winding is transferred to the secondary winding. and the core. Figure 2 shows the three basic parts of a simple transformer: the primary winding. The core is designed to focus the alternating flux so that the flux passes through the secondary winding. In a properly designed transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers CALCULATING POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER RATIOS Transformer Model A transformer operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction between two or more inductively coupled coils. This alternating flux then produces a voltage on the secondary winding. Simple Transformer Model Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 2 . which creates an alternating magnetic flux (φm) in the magnetic core.
is the low-voltage winding of the generator-transformer (T1) the primary winding or the secondary winding? Is the high voltage winding of the utility transformer (T2) the primary winding or the secondary winding? Figure 3. Example A One-Line Diagram Answer: The low voltage winding of T1 is called the generator-transformer’s primary winding and the high voltage winding of T2 is called the source transformer’s primary winding. The power output windings are called the secondary or tertiary windings. either directly or indirectly. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Primary and Secondary Windings Power can flow through any transformer with equal effectiveness from the low-voltage to high-voltage windings or from the high-voltage to low-voltage windings. These voltage or current ratings show the maximum voltages and currents that the electrical equipment can safely withstand (voltage) or carry (current) without overheating or damaging the insulation. labeled on the device itself. Primary and Secondary Voltages/Currents All electrical equipment must have voltage and current ratings. Note: The terms primary winding and high-voltage winding are not equivalent. Example A: Referring to Figure 3. The winding which nominally receives the input power is called the primary winding.
Note: All voltage and current quantities are line quantities. could be either its high or low voltage winding. Ip = 25000/( 3 x 69) = 209.Ep x Ip = Es x Is or kVp x Ip = kVs x Is kVAin = kVAout . this relationship leads to the following equations: • Single-phase transformers: .VAin = VAout . power in (kVAin) equals power out (kVAout).8) = 1045. as explained above. that is. Example B: Answer: What are the current ratings of the primary and secondary windings of threephase transformer T2. Expressed as a formula. The fact that the primary side kVA rating equals the secondary side kVA rating is called the conservation of power relationship.000 kVA 2.9 A Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4 . kVAin = kVAout = 25 MVA = 25. This VA or kVA rating is intended to indicate the maximum load that can be connected to its secondary circuit. Is = 25000/( 3 x 13.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Transformers are rated in voltamperes (VA) or kilovolt-amperes (kVA). which.2 A 3. because it must take from the source the same power that the secondary circuit delivers to the load.Note: All voltage and current quantities are phase quantities. which means that definite voltage and current ratings (limits) have been assigned by the manufacturer. • Three-phase transformers: . The same kVA load rating also applies to the primary circuit. both to the primary and secondary windings of the transformer.VAin = VAout 3 x Ep x Ip = 3 x Es x Is or kVAin = kVAout 3 x kVp x Ip = 3 x kVs x Is . as shown in Figure 3? 1.
Note: Work Aid 1 has been developed to teach the Participant procedures to calculate power and distribution transformer ratios. is defined as the ratio of the primary voltage (Ep) to the secondary voltage (Es). which also equals the turns ratio. Voltage Ratio The voltage ratio of a transformer (Ep/Es). which is identified by the symbol “a”. Ratio of Currents The ratio of the currents (Ip/Is) is equal to the inverse of the turns ratio (1/a). Simple Transformer Circuit Diagram Turns Ratio The turns ratio of a transformer. Figure 4.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Transformer Ratios The simple transformer circuit diagram that is shown in Figure 4 will be used in this Information Sheet to help explain the ratios of a transformer. as well as the relationships between the transformer ratios. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 . is defined as the ratio of the number of turns on the primary winding (Np) to the number of turns on the secondary winding (Ns).
which states that the volts-per-turn ratio on the primary side of the transformer equals the volts-per-turn ratio on the secondary side of the transformer.The turns ratio of a transformer is directly proportional to the voltage ratio of a transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Ratio Relationships Volts-Per-Turn . • volts-per-turn (primary) = volts-per-turn (secondary) Ep/Np = Es/Ns Ampere-Turns . which states that the number of ampere-turns on the primary side of the transformer equals the number of ampere-turns on the secondary side of the transformer. it is easily seen that the primary and secondary current relationships are exactly Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . as shown in the following formula: • • Turns ratio = Np/Ns = voltage ratio = Ep/Es = a where: Np = the number of turns in the high voltage winding Ns = the number of turns in the low voltage winding Ep = the voltage generated within the high voltage winding Es = the voltage generated within the low voltage winding Rewriting the above formula relationships leads to the following formula.Combining the volts-per-turn relationship with the ampere-turns relationship.The turns ratio of a transformer is inversely proportional to the current ratio of a transformer. as shown in the following formula: • • Turns ratio = Np/Ns = the reciprocal of the ratio of the currents = Is/Ip where: Np = the number of turns in the high voltage winding Ns = the number of turns in the low voltage winding Ip = the current flowing in the high voltage winding Is = the current flowing in the low voltage winding Rewriting the above formula relationships leads to the following formula. • ampere-turns (primary) = ampere-turns (secondary) Ip x Np = Is x Ns Combined Relationships .
what is the transformer’s voltage ratio.7 = 1:10 = 1/a Example C: Answer: Answer: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 .67 A 2.7 A Example D: Referring to Example C.24 = 416. Is = 100/.4 = 41. 2400/240 volt. how many turns are on the primary winding of the transformer.67/416. Ip/Is = 41. turns ratio. The following formula summarizes the combined relationships: • Np/Ns = Ep/Es = Is/Ip = a What is the current rating of each winding of a 100 kVA. Ep/Es = Np/Ns = 2400/240 = 600/60 = 10:1 2. 1. and the ratio of currents? 1. and assuming that there are 60 turns on the secondary winding of the transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers the opposite of the primary and secondary voltage relationships. Ip = 100/2. Ep/Es = Np/Ns Np = (Ep/Es) x Ns = (2400/240) x 60 = 600 turns Example E: Answer: Referring to Examples C and D. singlephase distribution transformer? 1.
This loss of energy is a measure of the transformer’s efficiency. but never equal. expressed as a percentage.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers CALCULATING POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY AND VOLTAGE REGULATION Note: Work Aid 2 has been developed to teach the Participant procedures to calculate power and distribution transformer efficiency and voltage regulation. The real output power is simply the power rating of the load. Figure 5. which is often called the full-load test. there is no such thing as a perfect transformer. The short circuit test. which means that not all of the energy is transferred from the primary winding to the secondary winding. the power measured in the primary and secondary windings will be very close. determines the copper losses of the transformer. Unfortunately. whereas the input power is the sum of the output power plus the copper and iron losses of the transformer. In a practical transformer. Transformer Efficiency In a perfect transformer. Figure 5 shows a typical test procedure for determining the losses of a transformer. determines the iron or core losses of the transformer. The open circuit test. There will always be a small power loss. Transformer efficiency is the ratio of real output power (Pout) to real input power (Pin). the power measured on both the primary and secondary windings would be exactly equal. which is often called the no-load test. Loss Measurements for Transformers Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 .
Referring to Figure 5. These copper losses are directly proportional to the magnitude of the load current squared (I2) multiplied by the winding resistance (R). which is the iron losses of the transformer. Because the magnetic core is laminated and oriented perpendicular to the path of magnetic flux. they are often called load losses. the iron losses are measured by opening switch SW (opened secondary) and then applying rated voltage on the primary winding. the readings on wattmeter WM2 are subtracted from the readings on wattmeter WM1. Iron or Magnetic Core Losses Iron or magnetic core losses are another type of losses that occur in a transformer. the eddy currents are confined within small volumes. Eddy Current losses are caused by the currents that circulate through the mass of the magnetic steel of the core. Lamination of the core effectively reduces the eddy current losses compared to the losses in a “solid” core. Although there is no load current flowing.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Copper or I2R Losses Copper losses are caused by the resistance of the primary and secondary windings (conductors) of the transformer. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . there is a small amount of current flowing in the energized primary winding that is caused by the losses in the core of the transformer. which are called eddy current losses and hysterisis losses. This difference is the copper or I2R losses of the transformer. Referring to Figure 5. Hysteresis loss is minimized by the use of silicon steel or amorphous steel as the material for a magnetic core. Because the copper losses are directly proportional to the load current. The iron losses of a transformer consist of two distinguishable losses. Hysterisis losses represent the extra power that is required to overcome the small magnetism that resides after each reversal of the magnetic field (residual magnetism). the copper losses are measured by closing switch SW (short circuited secondary) and slowly increasing the applied primary voltage until rated current is flowing in the windings. These core losses occur regardless whether there is or is not load on the transformer. Wattmeter WM1 is read. Under these “full-load” conditions.
Figure 6. This maximum efficiency at half-load is established by adjusting a balance between specific design variables related to the magnetic core and conductors. Transformer Efficiency Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 . Figure 6 is plot of 5 different efficiency curves for 5 different conditions of lagging power factor and it represents the performance of a typical power transformer. Efficiency variations are usually very small between different power transformers. and most power transformers are typically in the 98% efficiency range.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Power Factor and Loading The efficiency of a transformer changes as a function of loading and power factor. Note that the maximum efficiency is achieved at about half-load.
the losses are essentially iron losses. The amount of voltage regulation is a function of winding impedances.6) x 100 ≈ 98. Efficiency rises quickly with a small application of load. Maximum efficiency usually occurs at approximately one-half load.1% The following items should be noted from Figure 6. Maximum efficiency occurs at the same load point regardless of the power factor.2100 watts Answer: 1. which means that the efficiency is zero since power out is zero watts. Transformer Voltage Regulation The change in terminal-to-terminal voltages between no-load condition and underload condition is called voltage regulation.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Example F: Given the following information. the magnitude of load currents. 2. Full-load voltage regulation is usually stated as a percent as follows: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . efficiency decreases slightly with decreasing values of power factor. Pout = 400. what is the efficiency of a 500 kVA transformer at 100% loading. Given Information: • • • Rated power . % efficiency = (Pout/Pin) x 100 = (400/407. • • • • • At no-load.600 watts 4.400 kW @ 80% p. or 500 kVA Copper losses . Pin = Pout + Plosses = 400.f.5500 watts Iron losses .000 + 5500 + 2100 = 407. See the given information. and the power factor associated with the load circuit. For the same value of load current.000 watts (given) 3.
a transformer in ohms. The impedance is then calculated using the following formula: • ZΩ = Vmeasured(primary)/Irated(primary) Ohmic Measurements .The percent impedance (%Z) shown on a transformer nameplate is the impedance voltage drop of the transformer that is based on the self-cooled (OA) rating of the transformer.Figure 7 shows the test connection for measuring the impedance (ZΩ) of Percent Measurements . The manufacturer calculates the percent impedance using the following formula: • %Z = [Vmeasured(primary)/Vrated(primary)] x 100 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 . reactance. Transformer impedance is measured by short circuiting the secondary winding and applying a low voltage to the primary winding until rated current is circulating in the primary winding. inductance. and various other parameters. core losses. Figure 7 is also the same test connection that is used for measuring the percent impedance of a transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers % Full-Load Voltage Regulation = [(Eno-load . The measured impedance includes the effects of the winding resistance. Impedance The impedance of a transformer is a measured parameter that indicates the transformer’s ability to support a given secondary load with a prescribed primary voltage drop.Efull-load)/Eno-load] x 100 Note: The % voltage regulation is approximately equal to the % impedance (%Z).
Test Circuit for Measuring Transformer Impedance (Z) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 7.
1. Figure 8.(480)(.Efull-load)/(480)] Efull-load = 480 . 4. the full-load voltage is measured. 2. the no-load voltage of a transformer is the measured (rated) voltage of the transformer without any load connected to the secondary terminals. its secondary voltage decreases because of the internal impedance (Z) of the transformer.05) = 456 V Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . Full-Load Voltage .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Voltages No-Load Voltage is the transformer’s rated voltage that is stamped on the nameplate by the manufacturer.As a transformer is loaded. 3.Efull-load)/(Eno-load)] x 100 (5/100) = [(480 . Test Circuit for Measuring Voltage Regulation Example G: Answer: Calculate the approximate full-load voltage (Efull-load) for a 480 volt transformer that has a percent impedance equal to 5%. % Voltage Regulation ≈ % Z = 5% % Voltage Regulation = [(Eno-load . As the name implies. Under full-load (rated current flowing) conditions. as illustrated in Figure 8.
To reduce the level of eddy currents. These parts include the insulation enclosure. Figure 9. Eddy Currents in a Solid Core Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 . cooling systems. A solid core would cause a very high circulating current in the core. The core provides a path for the magnetic flux. and auxiliary components. transformer cores are made from placing laminations next to each other. Figures 9 and 10 compare the eddy current effects between a solid piece of iron and a core made from laminations. These circulating currents are called eddy currents. In addition to the windings and core. Each lamination is insulated from the other. tap changers. which would result in very high losses. there are several other parts that make up a typical power transformer. the high voltage winding is wound over the low voltage winding. The core cannot be made from a solid block of iron because a solid core acts as a short circuited turn. bushings. The low voltage winding is usually wound around and next to the core. Cores The core of a transformer is made from a special type of iron.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER COMPONENTS The ordinary power transformer consists of two windings that are wound on a common core and that are insulated from each other. Iron cores are used to reduce the reluctance of the flux path so that very little current is required to induce flux.
020 inches. or hysteresis. If the laminations were not insulated. and prevents increased loss with age and environment.010 and 0. These laminations are then assembled into a core by placing several laminations together. This material is closely controlled during the manufacturing process. The silicon reduces the viscous resistance to magnetization. and would result in very high power losses in the core. Eddy Currents in a Laminated Core Laminations A lamination is a thin sheet of core iron material. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 . It is made of approximately 3 percent silicon and 97 percent iron. The laminated material is cold rolled and annealed to orient the grains or iron crystals to obtain very high permeability and low hysteresis to flux in the direction of rolling. the whole core would act like one large conductor. Transformer designers have determined that the most economical thickness for core laminations is between 0. This chemical insulation prevents the laminations from shorting to each other. The laminations are then treated to develop a chemical coating to insulate the laminations from each other. The lamination material is usually a silicon-iron alloy sheet.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 10.
Each leg of the transformer has a primary and secondary winding placed around it. Figure 11 shows several basic types of core construction or lamination configurations. The three-legged core is the most common type of core that is found in large three-phase power transformers.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers The laminations are then stacked in one of several configurations. Figure 11. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . Figure 12 shows the configuration for both types of cores. The two types of core construction are called core-form type and shell-form type. Typical Transformer Core Designs Types Of Core Construction There are two basic types of core construction.
as shown in Figure 13. Most manufacturers use this type of design.The core-form type of construction has the windings constructed around the laminated core. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 12. Core Types Core-Form Construction Type . In power transformers. the high voltage winding is placed or wound over the low voltage winding.
Figure 14. The windings in this design are placed vertically or stacked over each other. Shell-Form Type Design Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 .Figure 14 shows the configuration of a shell-form type core construction. Core-Form Type Design Shell-Form Construction Type .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 13. The shell type design has the laminated core constructed around the windings.
The ultimate goal in deciding which winding to use is to pick the one with the minimum cost that will meet all of the requirements for capacity. and efficiency.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Concentric Windings There are many types of transformer windings. the high voltage winding is placed or wound over the low voltage winding to obtain good coupling between the windings. The wire must be large enough to carry the current without overheating. Some of the parameters the winding designer considers include: • Adequate effective dielectric strength against • • • operating voltages system faults switching surges lightning surges Adequate coil ventilation (effective cooling) Adequate mechanical strength Minimum cost Concentric windings are the most common type of power transformer windings. Figure 15 shows several of the types of concentric windings found in power transformers. and there also must be space for insulation and cooling paths. size. The transformer designer determines which type of winding to use. In concentric windings. voltage. The windings are made from either copper or aluminum wire. The windings are designed to place the required number of turns into a minimum amount of space. which improves the leakage reactance. The low voltage winding may be in two sections with the high voltage winding sandwiched between the two. service ability. the windings are made from insulated rectangular wire. For a given range of capacity and voltage ratings. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . For large power transformers. each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
which have a rectangular core section with the coils wound in an approximately rectangular form. are the most economical winding construction.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 15. This type of winding is usually limited to distribution transformers that are rated up to 15. because high currents tend to force the windings into a circular form due to the intense magnetic field.000 volts. rectangular concentric windings. This rectangular concentric type of winding is limited to a finite ampere density. Typical Winding Designs for Power Transformers Rectangular Concentric Because very little space is wasted. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 .
Figure 16. The usual configuration is to alternately stack high and low voltage disks. and core-to-ground (case) insulation. Within the transformer assembly are a number of critical areas that must be adequately insulated to assure that the transformer will function properly and also to provide a satisfactory service life. Figure 16 illustrates the main insulation system of a three-phase. high-voltage to lowvoltage. while the disk type is constructed of many individual wound pancakes that are stacked one upon the other. otherwise the transformer will have a very short service life. One is the cylindrical or layer coil and the other is the continuous wound disk-type coil. low-voltage-to-core. There are two common round concentric forms that are generally used.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Round Concentric Round concentric windings are used when the mechanical and magnetic forces due to short circuit currents become too large for a rectangular winding. These critical areas include the turn-to-turn. This insulation must be properly selected and installed. core-form type transformer. Core-Form Type Transformer Insulation System Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22 . Round concentric winding types of design are common in shell-type cores. Insulation Insulation is one of the most important. phase-to-phase. if not the most important. component in a power transformer. The cylindrical layer type is constructed of layers of wire wound in a cylindrical form.
Insulation Arrangement of a Power Transformer Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Liquid-Filled Transformers Figure 17 shows an expanded view of the insulation arrangement of a liquid-filled power transformer. Figure 17.
. or during transformer assembly and inspection with the manhole cover removed. and local overheating under the oil level. tar. that when new.Pressboard Manila Rope. Solid Insulation .. Heat also degrades the other insulating materials in a transformer. metal parts. of being extremely effective in reducing electrical stress and increasing dielectric strength.... the most commonly used type of insulating oil is mineral oil. and eventually oil sludge. cause the oil to break down.. and a high flash point..Kraft paper & Kraftboard Wood & Cotton Fibers.. Cellulose is an organic compound that exists in nature as various types of fibers..... Once sludging has started...Manila Paper Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 . The main source of moisture is moist air that is breathed into the transformer through faulty gaskets. vegetable... It is principally a mixture of hydrocarbons. Faulty gaskets and poor welds permit a unit to breathe air. Oxidation is the most common cause of oil and insulation deterioration. generating carbon dioxide and water. The oxygen in the air reacts with the oil to form acids..... inorganic acid.. sulfur... low viscosity. Other solid contaminates in oil can come from solid insulation. a clay treatment is required to remove the deterioration products. Excessive heat accelerates oxidation and it affects the decomposition of the oil..Most of the solid insulation found in a liquid-filled transformer is made from cellulose... is free of inorganic acids. or airborne contamination that is breathed into the transformer. Additionally. and thus produce combustible gases that are harmful to the operation of the transformer...... moisture is typically the chief cause. has a low pour point... alkali. is free from moisture. It also has the advantage... when used to impregnate paper insulation.. sparking. A good grade of transformer oil has high dielectric strength.. contamination. With regard to contamination.. which in turn contributes to the deterioration of the oil. Enemies of transformer oil include oxidation.. and excessive temperature.. resists sludging....... has good resistance to emulsification. asphalt.............. Mineral oil is used principally because of its extremely low cost compared to any other synthetic insulating liquid.. water.. Although there are synthetic types of oil. and animal oils. which is a product of nature.. Transformer insulating oil is a refined mineral oil that is obtained from the fractional distillation of crude petroleum. Some of the fibers that are used to make good dielectric paper insulation include the following: • • • Wood Fiber.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Insulating Oil is an equally important part of the transformer’s insulation system... minor faults such as corona discharges..
it is impregnated with a resin. in real life. To prevent the paper from absorbing water. The impregnation treatment fills the spaces between the fibers and it deters the absorption of water. when operated 24 hours a day at their rated temperature. or insulating liquid. Rise (0C) 65 80 Hottest-Spot Temperature (0C) 95 110 Figure 18.001 inch). then it will deteriorate rapidly. As a result. Ave. However. dry paper will absorb water very quickly.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Paper has excellent dielectric strength when it is dry. That is. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 . it is impossible to accurately predict the true length of service life. transformers normally exceed their design life expectancy by a large margin because they are very seldom operated 24 hours a day at maximum temperature. In a similar manner. leading to a premature failure of the insulation. Winding Temp.000 hours (approximately 7. and.12 rated temperatures for liquid-filled transformers are listed in Figure 18. the opposite is also true.5 years). Rise (0C) 55 65 Hottest-Spot Temp.12 Liquid-Filled Transformer Temperature Ratings As a rule of thumb. ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. thus reducing the service life of the transformer. However. varnish. Paper insulation is also affected by temperature. engineers design transformers to have a minimum service life of ten years. If the insulation is operated at a temperature higher than its rating. its dielectric strength decreases rapidly. operation of a transformer below its rated temperatures can be expected to increase the service life. just as operating at elevated temperatures will reduce the service life of a transformer. owing to a multitude of variables that occur during normal operation. ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. Typically the dielectric strength of paper is 1000 volts/mil (1 mil = 0. The ANSI/IEEE Transformer Committee takes a more conservative approach to the estimated life of a transformer and places a normal life expectancy of 65. once the paper has absorbed water.
Figure 19 lists the ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. oil). and radiation Incompatible materials Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 . dry-type insulations are much more dependent on the integrity of their bonding resins for dielectric strength. contaminating environments.. a number of factors combine with time and temperature to increase the rate of material degradation. therefore.g. the temperatures of the different parts of the dry-type transformer vary much more widely than those of liquid-filled.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Dry-Type Transformers Dry-type transformers typically operate at higher temperatures than liquid-filled transformers. Furthermore. and.12 Dry-Type Transformer Temperature Ratings The materials that are used in dry-type transformers deteriorate differently than that of the paper insulating materials used in liquid-filled transformers. ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. during normal operation. Rise by Resistance (0C) 60 80 115 130 150 Insulation System Temperature (0C) 130 150 185 200 220 Figure 19. In addition. Ave.12 rated temperatures for dry-type transformers. use insulating materials that are rated for higher temperatures. Winding Temp. As a result. The primary factors include the following: • • • • • Electric stress and associated effects Vibration or varying mechanical stress Repeated expansions and contractions Exposure to moisture. the insulations suffer from greater exposure to temperature and humidity. where all of the insulation is at least as hot as the liquid. Without the benefit of being totally immersed in an insulating liquid (e.
To support rigging of the transformer. unauthorized acts by members of the unsupervised general public. and Sealed Enclosures. and taps to allow inspection. Prevent mechanical damage to the internal parts of the transformer. Often. and other environmental contaminates.This type of enclosure is intended (1) for ground level use in installations subject to deliberate.12. ANSI/IEEE standards address the construction of dry-type transformer enclosures in considerable detail. coils. Dry-Type Transformers Types of enclosures for dry-type transformers include ventilated cases. non-ventilated cases. and lifting. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 . Protect the windings (and insulating fluid) from the deteriorating effects of dirt. there are a variety of designs (types) based on the methods that are used for cooling and protecting the transformer’s internal components. ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. Specifically. cleaning. There are basically two groups of enclosures. Following is a summary outline of the requirements given in ANSI/IEEE C57. one for dry-type transformers and one for liquid-filled transformers. For the ventilated and non-ventilated cases. removable panels provide access to the core. For each group.55-1987 and ANSI/IEEE C57. and gas-filled sealed cases. B. these cases are designed to allow for the complete removal of the case structure to reduce size and weight for rigging into tight locations.52-1981: • Category “A” Indoor or Outdoor Enclosures . and (2) primarily to provide a degree of protection against contact with the enclosed equipment.12.55-1987 groups transformers into 4 categories: Category A. C. and testing. moisture.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Enclosures Enclosures are necessary to contain and protect the critical components of the transformer. rolling. the enclosure serves to: • • • Protect personnel from energized parts.12. These enclosures are typically constructed using a heavy gauge sheet metal in accordance with thickness dimensions given in the ANSI/IEEE standards. as well as to provide protection for personnel from electrical hazards. air. features that are normally included in the enclosure design are provisions for jacking.
and internal operating pressures. The tanks are typically constructed using 3/8-inch to 1/2-inch steel plates with reinforced sidewall bracing as required. oxygen. and moisture. the gas space above the oil is purged and then filled with nitrogen to a pressure of 3 psig @ 250C oil temperature. When present. Initially. inert air systems. unauthorized acts by members of the unsupervised general public. The tank is designed to withstand internal operating pressures without leaking oil or gas from the gas space. These enclosures (tanks) are designed to provide dependable liquid and gas seals and withstand the stresses of processing.The main enemies of transformer oil are heat.This type of enclosure is intended (1) for use in installations not subject to deliberate.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers • Category “B” Indoor or Outdoor Enclosures . Following this.7 kPa absolute pressure. oxygen and moisture are prevented from entering the tank by either welding the tank or carefully sealing it so that it remains tight in operation. the gas pressure is allowed to vary (within limits) as the temperature fluctuates. Category “C” Indoor or Outdoor Enclosures . Sealed Enclosures . installation. these elements cause oxidation and deterioration of the oil. In the sealed tank transformer (Figure 20). shipment. Sufficient gas space is provided above the liquid to allow for its expansion and contraction with temperature. and conservator tank-types.This type of enclosure is intended (1) for use in installations in secured areas generally inaccessible to unauthorized and untrained persons and (2) primarily to provide a degree of protection against contact with the enclosed equipment. and (2) primarily to provide a degree of protection to unauthorized and untrained personnel against incidental contact with the enclosed equipment. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 . Tanks insulated with nitrogen or dry air are designed for pressures or vacuum of + 7 psig (+ 48. Sealed Units (Tanks) .Sealed tanks are hermetically sealed and have welded covers. • • Liquid-Filled Transformers The most common types of enclosures for liquid-filled transformers include sealed units (tanks). which are often called constant oil pressure systems. Tanks insulated with dielectric gases other than nitrogen or dry air are designed and constructed for a pressure of 15 psig (103 kPa gauge) and a vacuum equivalent to at least 2.3 kPa gauge).
The sealed unit (tank) enclosure has the advantage of requiring only a minimum of attention. The pressurevacuum bleeder valve is adjusted at the factory to bleed pressure or vacuum if either exceeds a predetermined limit (typically 6. Adjusting screws located on the bleeder valve allow resetting these limits in the field.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Transformers of this sealed unit type design are provided with a pressure-vacuum bleeder valve assembly to correct any major pressure abnormalities. The assembly is composed of three parts: a relief valve. Sealed Unit (Tank) Enclosure Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 29 . and a gas sampling valve.5 psig). This type of sealed unit transformer is particularly useful in remote locations where periodic inspections are limited. a pressure-vacuum gauge. Figure 20. because the only concern is to ensure that no leaks occur that will allow the transformer to breath.
When the pressure in the gas space falls below a predetermined value (0.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Inert Air Type System . The inert air type system (Figure 21) overcomes these limitations by maintaining a cushion of low pressure dry nitrogen in the gas space above the transformer oil at all times. Note: Initial filling of the gas space is typically 3 psig @ 250C oil temperature. or cylinder.5 psig) admits added nitrogen to maintain the pressure at 0.The limitations of the sealed tank design are that it may leak and draw air and moisture into the transformer. of compressed (2000 psi) dry nitrogen is connected through a multi-stage regulator to the gas space of the transformer. For a typical inert air type system.5 psig minimum regardless of temperature. Figure 21. and that it has no way to remove any moisture given up by the insulation. Inert Air Type System Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30 .5 psig) the final stage of the regulator (also set at 0. a “bottle”.
It should be noted that in accordance with the operating logic for this system. The cell interior containing air is vented to the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure is maintained at the oil surface through the flexible wall of the air cell. the excess pressure is vented from the transformer. A secondary or backup relief valve. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 . incorporated in the system. As the oil volume in the reservoir changes. thus oil life is extended with a reduced need for ongoing maintenance. as opposed to having a gas space in the tank. or the pressure builds up faster than it can be relieved by the relief valve due to a fault in the transformer. and the expense of replacing nitrogen bottles at regular intervals. the pressure on the oil surface does not change with oil volume. A primary relief valve that is installed on the system is normally set to vent at 6. and -1. A compound pressure gauge is connected to the system and used to indicate the pressure in the transformer gas space. the pressure alarm switch will not operate unless the relief valve fails to perform its function. The gauge typically has a range of -10 to +10 psig and is normally equipped with two alarm microswitches. the cell expands or contract to make up the remaining space. In a like manner. is a design that provides for the transformer to be filled with oil to the very top of the tank. An air cell is placed inside the reservoir to prevent the oil from coming in contact with the air. A transformer designed with an inert air system requires very little maintenance. which is commonly called a constant oil pressure system. It is of course important that the tank be tightly sealed to keep the use of nitrogen at the lowest possible level. Conservator Tank-Type The conservator tank-type enclosure system (Figure 22).Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers When high ambient temperatures and electrical load cause the internal pressure to increase to an undesirable high value. This valve recloses as soon as the pressure falls slightly below 6.5 psig on the vacuum side.5 psig (approximately 0. which is in contrast to the pressure changes that result in most gas sealed systems. the vacuum alarm switch will never operate except in the case when the nitrogen cylinder is allowed to become empty. there is little chance for oxygen or moisture to come in contact with the oil. Oil expansion or contraction takes place in a reservoir mounted above the transformer tank. is set to prevent the transformer from exceeding 8 psig.75 psig) to prevent unnecessary loss of gas. similar to a regular expansion tank transformer. Normally these switches are set to operate at 8.5 psig. One alarm switch is set to operate at abnormally high pressure and the other set to operate should a vacuum occur. Thus. The disadvantages of this type system are the initial added cost of the equipment needed to control and regulate the nitrogen.5 psig on the pressure side. Since the gas space is always under a positive pressure of nitrogen.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 22. Conservator Tank-Type System Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 .
The porcelain bulk-type bushing (Figure 23a) consists of a conductor surrounded by a rigid insulator that is used to isolate the conductor electrically. Bushings Leads from the windings are brought outside of the transformer enclosure or tank for making the necessary electrical connections. as the operating voltage increases. Bubbles of gas leaving transformer oil can be a serious hazard to the electrical integrity of a transformer. The typical construction for this type bushing uses a wet processed porcelain insulator. The benefit of maintaining atmospheric pressure on the oil at all times prevents supersaturation of the oil with gas. If oil supersaturated with nitrogen is cooled or the pressure reduced on the oil. the insulation of the electrical system must be maintained. As long as the diaphragm remains tight. or other airborne contaminants. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 . the gas begins to leave the oil. but to anchor it mechanically. However. bushings are designed and manufactured in accordance with the electrical and mechanical characteristics that are specified in ANSI Standard C76. the method that is used can be as simple as passing insulated cables through an insulating collar. A metal flange is attached to the insulator by rolling a sleeved portion of the flange into a groove on the porcelain. it allows the pressure on the oil to remain constant while protecting it from air and moisture. Two primary advantages of the conservator tank-type enclosure (constant oil pressure system) are the following: • • The air cell in the reservoir tank provides an effective barrier to prevent atmospheric contamination of the oil by oxygen. The two types of bushing construction that are used by most manufacturers are bulk-type bushings and condenser-type bushings.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers A variation in design for many conservator tank-type transformers is the use of a rubber diaphragm in place of the expandable air cell. the rubber diaphragm is attached to the reservoir tank wall and the expansion and contraction of the oil raises and lowers the diaphragm. In bringing the leads through the tank wall or cover. the method of bushing construction becomes necessarily more complex. Bulk-Type Bushings (Less Than 15 kV) There are two basic types of bulk-type bushings: porcelain and resin. For very low voltages. In most cases. For this type design. moisture.1. as may be encountered in transformers with positive pressure on the oil.
but is available for use up to 25 kV. Multiple conductor cast-resin bushings are also used for special high current applications. A conducting rod or lead is inserted in the porcelain and the assembly is sealed with gaskets. multiple bar conductors are cast into a single block that provides a single unit for three-phase connections. (2) a cast in metal ring for welding on applications. Figure 23. This type of bushing is generally used at 15 kV or below. which gives the advantage of reducing the number of tank openings required for the bushing installation.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers A silicone gasket that is placed between the sleeve and the porcelain before rolling eliminates mechanical stress on the porcelain and it provides a gas tight seal. Bulk-Type Bushings Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 . or (3) a cast in metal flange for bolting applications. in its simplest form. The cast-resin bulk-type bushing (Figure 23b). consists of a conducting stud cast into a resin body. The resin body may have (1) a cast flange or resin for bolting in place. For some applications.
but still allow movement of the stud due to dimensional changes that occur with temperature. The most commonly used type is the oil-impregnated condenser bushing (Figure 24). This creepage distance is typically longer than the standard bushing for any voltage class. Several types of condenser-type bushings are used in constructing transformers. this flange is fitted with a voltage tap receptacle. At carefully determined spacings from the stud. the bushing is constructed by wrapping insulation around a conducting stud. A special spring arrangement is used at the top to clamp and to seal the entire assembly against the bottom support. properly dimensioned metal foil layers are placed and wound into the insulation layers. Specifically. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 . or protrusions. A sight glass or oil level gauge placed at the top indicates the oil level in the bushing. The porcelain housing is flushed and filled with oil under vacuum. A mounting flange is located at the middle of the bushing with gaskets placed between it and the upper and lower porcelains. For higher voltage ratings. The condenser portion of the bushing is then impregnated with transformer oil. The addition of skirts to the outside surface increases the surface “creep” distance between the high voltage terminal and ground. Using this method to assemble the insulation for the bushing provides the desired result of evenly dielectrically stressing the insulation. Gaskets at the top and bottom of the bushing seal the oil chamber. This type of bushing is constructed by winding Kraft paper over a central tube or stud with metal foil wound into the paper at specified diameters to form a condenser. The carefully placed layers of insulation and metal foil create the effect of a string of capacitors connected in series.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Condenser-Type Bushings (Greater Than 15 kV) Condenser-type bushings are generally used on transformers that are rated above 15 kV. This type bushing uses the condenser principle for its construction. Saudi Aramco standards require a creepage distance of 40 millimeters per system lineto-line kilovolts. are designed into the outside surface of the porcelain casing. An expansion bowl is provided at the top of the bushing to allow the oil to expand. Fluted grooves. which are normally called “skirts”. moisture is removed from the wrapped insulation. across which voltage divides evenly. which reduces the possibility of flashover due to rain and dirt. Using vacuum and heat. The impregnated condenser winding is completely encased in a chamber consisting of upper and lower porcelain. This longer creepage distance will most likely result in the bushing having a higher insulation class than that which is normally applied.
Condenser-Type Bushing (Oil Impregnated) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 24.
Typical 60 kV Condenser-Type Bushing Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 . Figure 25.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 25 is another example of a condenser-type bushing that is used on large medium and high voltage transformers rated above 25 kV.
This circuit relationship is shown in Figure 26.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Cooling Systems Energy losses in a transformer appear as heat in the core and coils. Cooling Circuit The cooling of a transformer is required to conserve the life of the insulation. The life of the insulation is a function of temperature and time. The heat generated in the core and coils must be transferred through the insulation to the surrounding air or cooling fluid and then through the enclosure to the outside environment. This heat must be dissipated without allowing the windings to reach a temperature that will cause deterioration of the insulation. This path is similar to an electrical circuit with resistances in series. Transformer Cooling Circuit Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 . Figure 26. each step impedes the flow of heat.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 . The important principle is that the cooling medium efficiently transfer the heat from the core and coils to the outside air. When designing a cooling system. Cooling Methods The methods used by manufacturers to cool transformers vary depending on transformer type. and application. The cooling medium for dry-type transformers is air and in some cases gas. the more heat that can be transferred from the core and coils. air. the insulating dielectric fluid is used to transfer the heat. the designer must look at a number of parameters that affect this heat transfer. This heat transfer allows the core and coils to be cooler. Fans may be attached to the radiators to cool the fluid. External devices such as fins and radiators may be added to speed up the transfer of heat to the environment.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers The more efficient (lower resistance) each step. size. The pumps and fans may be controlled with a feedback circuit consisting of thermal sensitive elements in the oil. but also be thin enough to allow for the fast transfer of heat. The cooling medium (air or oil) must move past the heat source so that the heat may be quickly removed from the source. In liquid-filled transformers. The enclosure must be mechanically strong. which will increase the flow of fluid through the radiators. Pumps may be added to the external circuit to enhance flow in a liquid-filled transformer. but also thin enough to rapidly transfer heat through it. and windings. Figure 27 shows the flow of oil in a self-cooled (Class OA) transformer and Figure 28 shows the various cooling methods for 5 types of cooling classes. Following are some of the more important parameters: • • • • • • • The insulation must be able to provide good dielectric and mechanical strength.
Self-Cooled (OA) Transformer Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 27.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 28. Various Transformer Cooling Methods Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 .
The fans move the air past the windings. typically those with removable radiators. polyester). For some designs. in turn. heat transfer efficiency is improved by adding cooling fins to the outside surface of the enclosure. For some non-ventilated designs. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 . welded into the tank wall.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Cooling for Dry-Type Transformers . thus accelerating the rate of heat transfer. The motor is then mounted on a steel wireform bracket. For other designs. For medium-sized transformers. the rate of heat dissipation can be improved by adding cooling tubes (radiators) to the tank (Figure 28c). the fans are mounted on the side of the radiators (Figure 28d) to force a high volume of air through ducts formed by the rows of tubes. The oil next to the windings heats up. or units with shipping or installation limitations. The action that occurs inside the cooling tubes is referred to as thermosiphon flow. and thus rises to the top of the tank where it moves into the upper cooling header and tubes. fans can be used in conjunction with the radiators to provide forced air cooling. the non-ventilated and gas-filled sealed designs depend on natural conduction. Cooling for Liquid-Filled Transformers . detachable radiators are used. When additional cooling is needed to allow a transformer to operate at its nameplate rating and temperature rise. In the tubes. the oil cools and sinks to the bottom. the fans are controlled by thermal sensors located in the hottest spots of the core and coil assembly. the fans are mounted on top of the radiators to blow air downward over the tubes for maximum air flow over the areas of highest temperature. For some designs.In liquid-filled transformers. The typical fan assembly consists of a fractional horsepower motor (either three-phase or single-phase) that uses a non-metallic fan blade (e. heat from the core and coils is transferred through the fluid. especially when the surface area is increased by making the tank taller than actually needed for enclosure of the transformer. Beyond this. Ventilated dry-type transformers add panels with grilles to provide an additional degree of cooling through the natural circulation of air. which also serves as a guard for the fan blade. forced-air cooling can be added to ventilated designs with the addition of one or more banks of fans. Flanged valves welded to the transformer tank are used to connect this type of detachable radiator during installation. These radiators are typically flattened external vertical tubes welded into horizontal headers that are. convection.g.. ready to begin the cycle again. where it returns to the tank through the bottom header. For largersized transformers. The increased rate of cooling results from the increased surface area that is exposed to the air.For dry-type transformers. For small-sized transformers the tank surface is usually adequate to dissipate the heat. and radiation to transfer heat to the enclosure and then to the outside air.
12. Operation of the pump is typically controlled by one or more of the thermal sensors that are located in the transformer. In accordance with ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. ANSI/IEEE has identified and published cooling classes for liquid-immersed and dry-type transformers (Figure 29). but it is only practical for transformers that have a suitable source of cooling water available for use. Ultimately. Another method that is used to cool large transformers is the use of an oil-to-water heat exchanger. forced-oil cooled system. the oil is collected at the bottom of the radiators and it is forced by the pumps at an accelerated rate past the core and coils.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers When the normal rate of movement of the oil by the thermosiphon action is insufficient for the cooling required. Per ANSI/IEEE C57. Cooling Classes To provide a degree of standardization for transformer cooling systems. oil pumps (Figure 28e) can be used in conjunction with the radiators and fans to provide a self-cooled/forced-air. This exchanger type of cooling system is both efficient and compact. the use of additional cooling methods provides the transformer with an increased kVA capability. the oil is pumped from the transformer through the shell of the heat exchanger. An oil flow indicator is provided to visually confirm that the pump is operating.12. additional cooling is added that uses the available methods of radiators. The designer first determines if self-cooling will be sufficient to allow the transformer to operate at its rating without overheating.00-1987. respectively. For this design. dry-type transformers have rated temperature rises of 600C to 1500C with hottest-spot insulation system temperatures of 1300C through 2200C.01-1989. fans and/or pumps. while cooling water is circulated through the cooling tubes at the center of the unit. For this exchanger system. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 . A double wall construction between the water and oil chambers prevents the possibility of contaminating the oil. When self-cooling is insufficient. the rated temperature rise for liquid filled transformers is 550C and 650C with hottest-spot temperature rise of 650C and 800C. the designer applies the principle that the minimum amount of cooling required by a transformer is the amount that is needed to allow its operation at rated conditions and at rated temperature rise. Heat from the oil is transferred through the cooling tubes and carried away by the discharged water. which increases the thermal capability of the transformer. The pump is typically close coupled with its motor and it is enclosed in a single housing that utilizes the transformer oil for its lubrication. In selecting the type of cooling to be used for a transformer.
ANSI/IEEE C57 Cooling Class Codes With reference to Figure 29. the cooling classes most commonly used for liquid or oil-filled transformers are OA and OA/FA. self-cooled Liquid-immersed. water-cooled/self-cooled Liquid-immersed.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Transformer Type Liquid Liquid Liquid Class Code Method of Cooling OA OA/FA OA/FA/FA Liquid-immersed. forced-liquid-cooled with water coolers Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry AA AFA AA/FA ANV GA Ventilated self-cooled Ventilated forced-air-cooled Ventilated self-cooled/forced-air-cooled Nonventilated self-cooled Sealed self-cooled Figure 29. self-cooled/forced-air cooled/forced-air-cooled Liquid-immersed. water-cooled Liquid-mmersed. self-cooled/forced-air cooled/forced-liquid-cooled/forced-air-forced-liquidcooled Liquid OA/FA/FO A Liquid Liquid Liquid OW OW/A FOW Liquid-immersed. self-cooled/forced-air cooled Liquid-immersed. The most common classes usually applied to dry-type Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 .
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers transformers are AA and AA/FA. For example. and cooling class. the nameplate kVA and cooling class for a liquid immersed transformer might be listed as follows: • 2500/3125 kVA OA/FA 550C Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 . Note: The transformer nameplate lists the kVA rating(s). temperature rise.
In small liquid-filled transformers. When the fans. and likewise. For larger liquid-filled transformers. Changing of the turns ratio is exactly what a tap changer does. by a relatively small amount. which requires removal of the tank cover and manual changing of the jumpers. the tap connection board is usually located just below the surface of the oil. both terms are commonly used. the ratio of the turns between the winding must be changed. the voltage ratio of a transformer. They are also called DETC or de-energized tap changers. The first rating means that the transformer has a rating of 2500 kVA when the fans are turned off and there is no forced cooling. are turned on and operating. For all of these types of tap changers. This voltage ratio change is done to compensate for the voltage drop in the supply source or to accommodate a change in the load. This type of tap changer is known as a load tap changer or an LTC. In both cases. Tap Changers Often it is desirable to change.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers The first number listed for the kVA rating (2500) corresponds to the first cooling class (OA). the manually connected jumpers are replaced with a rotating switch that is manually operated from outside of the tank (Figure 30). A second type of tap changer is one that allows the taps to be changed while the transformer is still energized and under load. the second kVA rating (3125) corresponds to the second cooling class (FA). Dry-type transformers will normally have this jumper board located inside of the winding enclosure or in an adjacent compartment. Typically this type is applied to voltage regulator applications where the maintenance of voltage is of paramount importance. Most transformers have a device or method to change the voltage rating of one or both of the transformer windings. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 . This rating is known as the self-cooled rating (OA). which are mounted on the cooling radiators. the transformer must be de-energized before the connections or taps can be changed. the temperature rise is restricted to 550C. These types of tap changers are know as NLTC or no-load tap changers. To change the voltage relationship. it adds or subtracts turns in a winding. The simplest type of tap changer is one that brings taps from one or both windings to a terminal board where jumpers can be manually reconnected. the transformer has the higher (second) rating of 3125 kVA. This rating is called the forced-aircooled rating (FA).
and two below. The five positions thus provide a range of +5% and -5% from rated voltage. with the middle position being the rated voltage position. The nameplate voltage associated with each tap selection represents the voltage which is needed at the high voltage terminals to produce rated voltage at the low voltage winding terminals. since it has no capability of interrupting load current. Each tap selection represents a terminal-to-terminal voltage which is normally different by an amount equal to 2. and where the transformer can be disconnected from the line. The standard arrangement includes five tap positions. as its name implies. The NLTC must never be operated while the transformer is energized. It is typically used for applications that require only infrequent tap changes or adjustments. An NLTC adds or subtracts turns in the high voltage winding of the transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 30. There are two tap positions above the rated voltage position. whenever that tap is selected. NLTC Set at Position #5 No-Load Tap Changer (NLTC) The no-load tap changer (NLTC). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 . requires that the transformer be deenergized (no-load) before changing the taps. and with a condition of no-load current.5% of the rated voltage.
terminal 4 is connected to terminal 5. Tap Position 3: Np/Ns = 68800/7560 = 9. respectively.000 V and 5 (65. unless otherwise marked on the nameplate.800 V) is the nominal tap. For a delta-wye transformer. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 . the turns ratio can be determined from the voltage ratio given on the nameplate. which means that the entire winding is in use. as the tap position is changed and turns are by-passed or added in. Position 3 (68.339/1 4.862/1 6. Example H: Answer: What is the turns ratio of the transformer described in Figure 31 for each of the different tap positions? 1.5% and -5% taps. Tap Position 5: Np/Ns = 65200/7560 = 8. In tap position 5. all taps for a transformer.100/1 5. are considered to be full-rated kVA taps. Again. respectively. in tap position 5.400 V) are the +2.624/1 In accordance with ANSI standards. the line-to-line voltage rating of the delta winding is divided by the line-to-neutral voltage rating of the wye winding. The last column of item 12 indicates which terminals of the winding (item 11) are connected in each of the different tap positions. and positions 4 (67. Tap Position 2: Np/Ns = 70600/7560 = 9. terminal 2 is connected to terminal 7. Np/Ns = Ep/Es 2. Tap Position 4: Np/Ns = 67000/7560 = 8.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 31 (item 12) shows the voltage ratings for the 5 different positions of the NLTC.200 V) are the -2. with reference to the nameplate shown in Figure 31. Thus. it should be noted that the turns ratio of a transformer is also equal to the voltage ratio.577/1 3.600 V) and 1 (72. For example. positions 2 (70. Tap Position 1: Np/Ns = 72400/7560 = 9.5% and +5% taps. which means that the windings between the 2 terminals have been effectively removed (shorted) from the transformer.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 31. Typical Transformer Nameplate Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49 .
Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
What is the kVA rating of the transformer described in Figure 31 for each of the different tap positions? 1. kVA = 3 x kV x I 3 x 72.4 x 12.0 ≈ 1504.8 kVA 3 x 70.6 x 12.3 ≈ 1504.1 kVA 3 x 68.8 x 12.6 ≈ 1501.5 kVA 3 x 67.0 x 12.9 ≈ 1497.0 kVA 3 x 65.2 x 13.3 ≈ 1502.0 kVA
2. Tap Position 1: kVA = 3. Tap Position 2: kVA = 4. Tap Position 3: kVA = 5. Tap Position 4: kVA = 6. Tap Position 5: kVA =
The location and placement of taps within a winding are constructed with care to avoid potential physical and electrical problems. Normally, taps are not placed in the end of a winding because this would make the winding physically and electrically unsymmetrical, causing increases in the stray losses and the mechanical forces. Taps placed in the end of a winding would also be directly exposed to impulse voltages coming from the line. As a result, taps are normally placed in the center of a divided winding. This centered tap placement provides a more symmetrical construction for the winding, which is better able to balance out mechanical forces, while at the same time providing the taps with added protection against impulse voltages. With reference to Figure 31 (item 11), it is noted that for this example that the taps have been placed at the center of the winding. Load Tap Changers (LTC) One problem with the no-load tap changer (NLTC) is that the transformer must be deenergized to change the taps, which means that the power must be turned off, and subsequently disconnecting service and shutting down the operation of equipment. In many cases the user does not want, or cannot permit the power to be shut down. Typical examples are large users of power that have transformers that feed industrial plants, or large distribution systems that provide power to critical services (i.e., hospitals, schools, etc.). For cases where power must be maintained while adjustments are made to the voltage level, a load tap changer (LTC) must be used. The most important advantage of a load tap changer (LTC) is that it allows changing of a transformer’s turns ratio (adjusting voltage level) without shutting off the power. Another difference of the LTC, when compared to the NLTC, is that it is located in the low voltage winding of the transformer and it accomplishes voltage adjustments by changing the number of turns in the low voltage winding.
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Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
Normally, load tap changers have 16 steps or taps above and 16 steps below the normal rated voltage level, resulting in a total of 33 tap positions. The preferred step change for each tap is 0.625% of normal rated voltage, which provides an adjustable voltage range of 10% above and 10% below the normal rated voltage (16 x 0.625% = 10%). In accordance with ANSI/IEEE C57.12.10-1988, liquid-filled transformers supplied with a load tap changer are required to have a tap position indicator similar to the design shown in Figure 32. The indicator must be fitted with hands to indicate the maximum and minimum positions used, and it must be located so that it can be read while operating the tap changer by hand. The face of the indicator must be marked to show the normal rated voltage (N neutral) position, the 16 steps of the raise range marked with an “R” and the 16 steps of the lower range marked with an “L”.
Figure 32. Position Indicator for LTC
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Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
Auxiliary Components Transformer Nameplate In accordance with ANSI standards, a nameplate must be provided with each transformer. For both liquid-filled and dry-type transformers, the nameplate is required to be made of a corrosion-resistant, durable metal and it must provide (list) the ratings and other essential operating data for the transformer. ANSI/IEEE C57.12.00-1987 specifies that the data that must be included on the nameplate for liquid-filled transformers, and ANSI/IEEE C57.12.01-1989 specifies the information that must be included on the nameplate for dry-type transformers. With only a very few exceptions, the information required is the same for both types of transformers. As an example of the information provided on a typical nameplate, Figure 33 provides an itemized description of the nameplate that is illustrated in Figure 31.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Item No. Item Item Description Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53 .
3 Frequency Method used to dissipate the heat generated during operation. 7 Instruction Book Full wave BIL (basic insulation level) in kilovolts of the line and neutral terminals. 6 Temperature Rise Instruction book that applies to the specific transformer. 10 Impedance Chart showing the voltage. 4 Cooling Class The kVA capacity the transformer can transmit without exceeding the stated temperature rise. Frequency at which the transformer is designed to operate. current. 9 Impulse Levels Winding connection diagram to show the relative location of bushings and internal terminals. 8 Gallons of Fluid Percent impedance measured by test. 5 kVA Average winding rise above ambient temperature at rated kVA. 2 Voltage Rated terminal-to-terminal voltage for the primary and secondary windings. Liquid volume of oil in the transformer. 54 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 1 Serial Number Identifies the specific transformer. and connection of each tap changer position. 11 Winding Connection Diagram Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards Contains valuable information about the operation and maintenance of the transformer.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 33. Transformer Nameplate Data Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55 .
Alarm and/or control switches may be included in the dial assembly to sound alarms or to switch-on bands of cooling fans. For liquid-filled transformers.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Winding Temperature Indicator Heat is a natural enemy to winding insulation. the temperature is measured by placing a thermal sensor (i. Current. a thermal sensor is appropriately insulated and is directly placed at the estimated hottest-spot location in the low voltage windings. the dial typically has a second resettable (red) pointer that is used to indicate the maximum temperature attained since the last time it was reset. The sensor is connected to a dial type indicator that is mounted to the outside of the enclosure where it is readily visible to maintenance personnel. Typically. The method varies depending on whether the transformer is a dry-type or liquid-filled transformer.e.. Per ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. The thermal sensor is connected to a dial indicator that is located on the tank wall at eye level for convenient reading. thermometer bulb. to give a dial indicator reading that is equal to the winding hottest-spot temperature. For dry-type transformers. sounds an alarm or turns on additional cooling equipment.12. For this reason. depending on the temperature rating of the transformer. Winding temperature indicators for dry-type transformers may have scales that extend to 2700C. as needed. For dry-type transformers. In this manner. designers determine and specify the maximum temperature that windings may operate at and still achieve normal expected service life. the rated maximum hottest-spot winding temperatures are 950C and 1100C. For liquid-filled transformers. a different method is used to monitor the winding hottest-spot temperature. proportional to the transformer load current. The increment of temperature provided by the heater adds to the temperature sensed by the thermal element from the hot oil. the maximum hottest spot temperatures range from 1300C to 2200C. is supplied to the heating coil through a current transformer (CT). The winding temperature indicator is a device that monitors a winding’s hottest-spot temperature and. As a result. bimetallic element) in a metal thermometer well. together with a heating coil. The meter thermometer well is located in the hottest oil near the top of the transformer. The temperature scale that is marked on the dial is well above the hottest-spot temperature rating that could possibly occur. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56 . the device is able to indicate the winding hottest-spot temperature for any constant load. which is typically one of the bushing CTs. the thermometer well is required to be placed in the tank at least one inch below the liquid level at minimum operating temperature (-200C). In addition to the (black) temperature indicating pointer. it is not practical to pass a sensor through the tank wall and to attach it to the windings.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers The temperature scale that is marked on the indicator is above the transformer’s hottest-spot temperature rating based on the transformer’s application and rating. although some indicators have higher scales. As necessary. Switch #2 might be set at 750C to turn on a second bank of fans or a first oil pump. A typical indicator might have as many as three or four adjustable control switches that come preset from the factory. it might be set at 1250C and it is used to open a selected circuit breaker to shed some of the transformer’s load. control switches may be field set by removing the indicator’s glass cover and then change the adjusting screws (Figure 34). Similar to the indicators used for dry-type transformers. indicators for liquid-filled transformers have resettable maximum indicator pointers and they are also fitted with control and alarm switches. If a fourth switch were available. Typical indicators for liquid-filled transformers have scales that extend to 1200C and 1600C. Figure 34. Access to the control switch terminals is normally made through a disconnect plug in the bottom of the indicator case. Winding Temperature Indicator Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57 . Normal factory settings for the switches might include the setting of switch #1 to close at 700C for turning on a first bank of cooling fans. Switch #3 might be used to trigger an alarm and is set to close at 1170C.
. The liquid temperature indicator is connected and used to control the cooling fans only when there is no winding temperature indicator installed on the transformer. and an orange-red. for any reason. The alarm switch is usually set to close at approximately 900C. To determine the nominal expected temperatures that might be read from the indicator. with a temperature range of 00C to 1200C. the indicator is required to have a dark-face dial with light markings. a light colored indicating hand. The stem fits closely into a thin walled well that screws into the side of the tank.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Liquid Temperature Indicator The liquid temperature indicator (Figure 35) is a device that measures the transformer’s top liquid temperature. consider that liquid filled transformers are rated to have either a 550C or a 650C average winding temperature rise above ambient. The standards additionally require that the dial indicator have a diameter of 4-1/2” + 1”. -200C). In accordance with ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. Liquid temperature indicators typically come with two built-in control micro-switches set to operate at different temperature levels. when measured by resistance. However. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58 . The lower temperature switch is set to control the fan circuit and to turn on the cooling fans when the transformer’s temperature comes within range of the switch setting (approximately 600C).g. the fans do not limit the temperature to the proper range. and angled down at 300 when mounted higher.12. and with no need to lower the liquid level. it should be noted that the function of controlling the cooling fans is normally handled by the winding temperature indicator.12 requires that the indicator face be mounted vertically when located at heights of 96 inches and below. the thermometer well is required to be placed in the tank at least 1-inch below the liquid level at minimum operating temperature (e. The higher temperature switch is designed to operate an alarm and give warning if. and have the words “Liquid Temperature” on the dial face or on an adjacent nameplate. resettable maximum indicating hand. Use of the metal thermometer allows the thermal unit to be removed for inspection or calibration without loss of liquid. It is typically constructed of a stem type bimetallic element that is housed in a weatherproof casing. Per standards. Using a rated 650C rise transformer in a 300C ambient temperature means that the transformer winding should not exceed 950C when operated at nameplate-rated kVA.
In reality. the liquid temperature indicator never quite reaches this temperature because it is located at a point below the surface where the liquid is slightly cooler.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Because all of the heat generated by the windings is transferred to the liquid. As a result. Figure 35. but with a time lag. Note: Liquid temperature indicator protection is usually set at the factory. when the transformer is operated within its rating. Liquid Temperature Indicator Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59 . the liquid temperature should never exceed 950C. for transformers operated at rated kVA. the liquid will gradually approach the temperature of the windings.
12. The construction is a two part assembly. The maximum or “HI” level mark indicates the correct level for the liquid when it is operating at its maximum rated temperature (850C). Figure 36. In accordance with ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. by a permanent marking on the tank or an indication on the nameplate. the distance from the liquid level to the highest point of the hand-hole or manhole flange surface. The minimum or “LO” level mark indicates the correct level for the liquid at its minimum rated operating temperature (-200C). Liquid Level Indicator Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60 . it specifically states that “the 250C liquid level is 13. or outer assembly. the change will take place in the height or level of the liquid.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Liquid Level Indicator The liquid level indicator is a self contained float type device that indicates the level of the liquid inside of the transformer. It is also required to show. containing the calibrated dial and indicating needle. The indicating needle is directly connected to a second magnet that is positively displaced by the rotation of the magnet and the float arm assembly that is inside the tank. the dial is marked to show the 250C liquid level. Because the surface area for the liquid remains the same. its volume decreases. As the liquid warms during transformer operation. as the liquid cools. and its level goes down. The other part is the bezel (Figure 36). For the nameplate shown in Figure 31. In a similar manner. its volume will expand (the volume of oil expands approximately 5% when heated from 250C to 850C).5 inches below top of highest manhole flange.55 inches for each 100C.” The 250C mark also indicates the normal level for the liquid when it is at a temperature of 250C. One part is a sealed body that is attached to the tank wall with an actuating magnet shaft and float arm located inside the transformer. Oil level changes .
the pressure will vary depending on barometric pressure and the temperature inside the transformer.5 psig on the vacuum side. On oil-filled transformers. A positive pressure (minimum 0.5 psig) should always be maintained to prevent the breathing in of moist air through potential leaks in the seals. and -1. the pressure might turn negative. after the initial filling. moisture. Pressure/Vacuum Indicator Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61 . and other harmful contaminates. the pressure/vacuum indicator is normally furnished in combination with a pressure regulator that will automatically bleed off excess pressure. Figure 37.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Pressure/Vacuum Indicator The pressure/vacuum indicator (Figure 37) indicates whether the gas space in a transformer tank is under positive or negative pressure.5 psig on the pressure side.12. have a dark-face with light colored markings and pointer. The gas space above the liquid is then normally filled with nitrogen to a pressure of 3 psig at a 250C liquid temperature. and have a scale with a range of + 10 psig. In accordance with ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. or add make-up gas. the pressure/vacuum indicator is required to be a dial type gauge with a diameter of 3-1/2” + 1/4”. Most liquid-filled transformers are sealed to prevent the entrance of oxygen. If the transformer is de-energized or operated under light load in low ambient temperatures. This gauge type of indicator will very often have two alarm microswitches set to operate at approximately 8. However.
the diaphragm will reset and reseal the transformer. transformers rated above 2500 kVA are furnished with a pressure relief device (Figure 38). the pressure relief device is sometimes supplied with alarm contacts for use in triggering remote indicators to alert maintenance personnel that the pressure device has operated. mounted on the transformer cover. The purpose of the vent hood is to allow any toxic and/or combustible gases. The device consists of a self-resetting. Should disassembly of the relief device be necessary. and if this tension is not carefully released. On the other hand. Although the relief device resets and reseals automatically after each operation. The pressure releasing springs are under tension. Should the tank pressure increase above 10 psig. sometime referred to as a mechanical relief device (MRD). the typical relief device will withstand full vacuum and need not be removed from the transformer tank during any vacuum treatment. released by the relief device. spring-loaded diaphragm and mechanical operation indicator (semaphore). The mechanical operation indicator is a lightweight plastic semaphore that rests on the diaphragm. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 62 . caution must be taken to guard against injury to personnel.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Pressure Relief Device Typically. the relief device must be replaced with a blind flange. personnel should not enter a vault or any confined area in which a transformer relief device has been know to operate or in which a transformer has failed until the area has been thoroughly ventilated. Gases released from a transformer can be toxic and life threatening. a vent hood is bolted over the pressure relief device with an exhaust pipe connecting it to an outside area. the force from the springs could cause the cover to blow off. When a transformer is to be pressure tested for leaks at a pressure greater than 8 psig. the semaphore remains in the tripped (visible) position until manually reset. the gas pressure will lift the diaphragm and vent the excess pressure. Immediately after the pressure returns to normal. it lifts the semaphore into view and indicates that the relief device has operated. When pressure increases and the diaphragm rises. As a precaution. Similar to the other indicators and devices attached to a transformer. to be carried outside of a vault or building. For some transformer installations.
The relay is typically enclosed in a sealed case and is mounted on top of the transformer with its pressure sensing element in direct contact with the gas cushion of the transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 38.008 seconds). Pressure Relief Device or Mechanical Relief Device Sudden Pressure Relay The sudden pressure relay (SPR). The SPR operates on the difference between the pressure in the gas space of the transformer and the pressure that is inside the relay. and a pressure equalizing orifice. as shown in Figure 39. 30 to 40 psi per second.5 psi per second. The SPR is constructed to be very sensitive to rapid pressure change and it will normally operate within 3 to 4 cycles (0. the rate of rise of gas pressure in a transformer is proportional to the arc power. the SPR will operate in as little as 1/2-cycle (0. An SPR normally consists of three main parts: a pressure sensing bellows. a microswitch.049 to 0. the bellows expands. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 63 . is a device designed to respond to a sudden increase in gas pressure in a power transformer. Under fault conditions. which in turn signals a circuit breaker to trip and clear the fault. and inversely proportional to the volume of the gas space.066 seconds) in response to a pressure rise of 5. When an arcing internal fault in the transformer produces an abnormal rise in gas pressure. causing the microswitch to operate. At high rates of rise. which is typically caused by internal arcing.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers For normal pressure changes resulting from changing ambient temperatures or load conditions. In accordance with ANSI/IEEE C57. Sudden Pressure Relay (SPR) Fill and Drain Valves A liquid-filled transformer typically has two valves for handling the fluid. which prevents any operation of the relay due to slow pressure changes. the lower combination drain and filter valve must be located on the side of the tank and it must provide for drainage of the liquid to within 1-inch of the bottom of the tank. and it is typically called the drain valve. and it is referred to as the upper fill (and filter) valve. The other valve is positioned at the bottom of the tank for draining (and filtering) the fluid. and the lockout then trips all breakers. slightly below the normal oil level. Figure 39. Note: An SPR requires no settings and upon operation it will trip a lockout relay. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 64 . The sampling device must be supplied with a 5/16”-32 male thread for the user’s connection and it must have a thread protecting screw-on cap. The drain valve must have a built-in 3/8-inch sampling device located in its side between the main valve seat and the pipe plug.12. One valve is located at the top of the tank. the equalizing orifice allows the pressure within the relay to equalize with the pressure in the transformer.
or more control cabinets. Depending on the design and requirements of the transformer. transformers must have a 1-inch fill (filter) valve located below the 250C liquid level. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 65 . controls for load tap changing equipment. Transformers rated through 2500 kVA must have a 1-inch upper fill (filter) plug or cap located above the maximum liquid level. there may be none. Control Cabinets Many transformers have a weatherproof control cabinet to provide for termination and remote wiring of the various devices mounted on. wiring to and from indicator microswitches. Above 2500 kVA. one. wiring for pressure relief and sudden pressure relays. and main and auxiliary power sources for operation of cooling equipment. The devices that are terminated in or wired through the control cabinet include internal current transformers. the transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers The size of the drain valve must be 1-inch for transformers through 2500 kVA and 2 inches for larger kVA ratings. or in. automatic and manual controls for cooling fans and pumps.
Dry-type transformers are applied at load centers and other locations where economics are an issue.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers POWER AND DISTRIBUTION CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION TRANSFORMER CLASSIFICATION: Most transformers used in an industrial plant are of three-phase construction. The installation location must be dry and well ventilated so that cooling air may move or be forced across the windings and core. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 66 . type of application. Power transformers are used in electrical distribution systems to transfer large amounts of power. The type of transformer to use depends on the size required. There are many types of power transformers. Construction Classifications The four construction classifications of transformers are the following: • • • • Dry-type (conventional and cast coil) Oil-filled Non-flammable insulating liquid-filled Gas-filled Dry-Type (Conventional) Dry-type (conventional or standard) transformers are used for indoor applications at low and medium voltage levels. and installation requirements. they are free of explosive hazards. Transformers are classified by the type of construction and by application. Power transformers are different from other types of transformers. single-phase transformers. electronic circuit transformers or instrument transformers. The key to dependable and economic power distribution is the selection of the proper transformer type for each application. and requires less space than three. they are air-cooled and air-insulated for use in buildings and industrial locations near the intended load. because they are less expensive than fluid-immersed units. Class H insulation must be specified for drytype transformers. and they contain few or no organic materials. A three-phase transformer costs less. has higher efficiency. for example.
which is a nonflammable and nonexplosive gas. Application Classifications While there are specific ANSI/IEEE definitions for power and distribution transformers. and.e. Gas-filled transformers are more expensive than most other types of transformers. or corrosive environment. Gas-Filled Gas-filled transformers are used where liquid-filled transformers cannot be used because of the potential for explosion (i. the differences are hard to apply. The cast coil transformer has the following advantages over the conventional or standard dry type transformer: • • • • • Unaffected by humidity Easier to replace the windings Less likely to trap dirt and sand Less noisy Better insulation system Oil-Filled Oil-filled transformers have the lowest cost of any other type of transformer. The epoxy resin provides enhanced protection of the windings from atmospheric contaminants.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Dry-Type (Cast Coil) In a cast coil transformer. Silicone-filled transformers can be used indoors and are best suited for indoor applications where there is a very dirty. it cannot be used indoors except in specially designed transformer vaults. the windings are completely covered by an epoxy resin. For most indoor applications the cast coil transformer is preferred over the standard dry-type transformer.. The mineral oil used in oil-filled transformers is flammable. The gas used as the insulating medium is fluorocarbon. therefore. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 67 . hazardous areas). dusty. Non-Flammable Insulating Liquid-Filled Non-flammable insulating liquid-filled transformers use silicone as an insulating fluid. Oil-filled transformers are suitable for use in dirty and dusty areas and adverse weather conditions. Gas-filled transformers can be used indoors or outdoors. but their use is primarily for outdoor applications.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 68 . Transformers that supply residential area distribution systems at 2. Overhead transformers are limited to 500 kVA and below and they are mounted on poles above the ground.Saudi Aramco standards specify that power transformers are classified by application as follows: • • Transformers in plant areas that supply motor control centers or switchgear are designated as power transformers.4 kV.Saudi Aramco standards specify that transformers that supply residential areas directly at 480 volts or less are designated as distribution transformers.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Saudi Aramco Classifications Power .16 kV. Overhead or pad mounted transformer types will normally fall in this distribution transformer category. or 13. Generator Power Transformer Generator power transformers are classified by application as follows: • • • • There are no voltage regulating windings on generator power transformers because regulation is usually accomplished by the generator field circuit. There is uniform load because the load is maintained at maximum most of the time. The maintenance requirements are less stringent because skilled personnel are usually available at all times. Pad mounted transformers are rated 500 kVA and below and are used in residential areas where underground service distribution is installed. 4. Distribution .8 kV are power transformers. There is little need for efficiency and quiet operation because power is cheap and other equipment is much noisier.
Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
Substation Power Transformers (Sub-Transmission Circuits) Substation transformers (sub-transmission circuits) are classified by application as follows: • • • • Taps and regulating schemes are almost always required. Loads vary over a wide range both daily and seasonally. Losses are expensive so that high efficiency is desirable. Less maintenance and supervision is available, so the transformers must be better designed for unsupervised operation.
Substation Power Transformers (Primary-Feeder Circuits) Substation transformers (primary-feeder circuits) are classified by application as follows: • • • • • Load varies over wider limits so that transformer impedance should be low. Losses are very expensive, and very high efficiencies are required. Sometimes located in remote areas without constant supervision. Load tap changers and regulation are necessary to accommodate wide load variations. Quiet operation is very desirable because the units may be in residential areas.
Distribution Transformers Distribution transformers are classified by application as follows: • • • The load varies widely and the unit is often overloaded. Very little supervision is possible. The transformer must operate reliably with a minimum of maintenance. The cost of supplying losses is the highest. A low exciting current is important.
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Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
Voltage regulation is very important. Taps in the primary are usually used to set the primary system voltage. Separate voltage regulation equipment is usually provided to allow wide ranges of operational load. It is usually impossible to avoid excessive voltages in distribution circuits, therefore the transformer must be designed to withstand wide voltage swings. The units are sometimes subject to mechanical abuse. Because many transformers are required for each system, they must be constructed with the cost of installation and replacement in mind.
• • •
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Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
THREE-PHASE POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS ANSI/NEMA Labeling Conventions ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.12.70 is the standard for transformer terminal markings (labeling) and connections. The highest voltage winding is designated H. The other windings (i.e., low voltage) are designated X, Y, Z in order of decreasing voltage. If two or more of the windings have the same voltage but different load-current ratings, the winding with the larger load-current rating is assigned the prior letter designation. If windings of the same voltage have the same loadcurrent rating, the letter assignment is arbitrary. External terminals are distinguished by marking each terminal with a capital letter followed by a subscript number (Figure 40a). The terminals are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. with the lowest number and highest number being the full winding and intermediate numbers being the fractions of windings or winding taps. If the terminals of a low voltage winding are split in two portions, with each having two terminals, they are labeled (marked) X1, X2, X3, X4, as illustrated in Figure 40b.
Figure 40. ANSI/NEMA Labeling (Terminal Marking) Convention
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
etc. X2. from right to left. (Figure 41). Figure 41. or X1. the high voltage lead H1 is brought out on the right side. Labeling Convention (Top View) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 72 . from left to right. If a neutral point is brought out of the transformer. X3 if the neutral is unavailable (Figure 41). is brought out on the left side. The remaining low side leads are brought out and numbered in sequence. etc. The remaining high side leads are brought out and numbered in sequence.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 41 also shows the standard labeling (terminal marking) of a three-phase transformer. it is labeled X0 or Ho. When facing the high voltage side of a three-phase transformer. X3. H2.. X2. the low side lead X1 or X0 if the neutral point is available. When facing the low voltage side of a three-phase transformer. H3..
Wye Connection Figure 44 shows a wye-connected winding on a three-phase transformer. The two most common three-phase transformer connections are called delta (∆) and wye (Y). single-phase transformers or with multiple windings installed on a common magnetic core of a single. three-phase transformer. Figure 43 shows the phasor voltage and current relationships for the same delta-connected transformer that is shown in Figure 42.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Types of Connections A three-phase transformer connection can be made with three. Delta Connection Figure 42 shows a delta-connected winding on a three-phase transformer. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 73 . at a point external to the transformer. This neutral point. in most applications. The winding’s terminals are connected end-to-end so that each winding will “see” full line-to-line voltage. One end of each of the windings is connected to a common point that is called the neutral point. is connected to ground. Figure 45 shows the phasor voltage and current relationships for the same wye-connected transformer that is shown in Figure 44.
Delta-Connected Transformer Figure 43.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 42. Delta Connection Phasor Relationships Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 74 .
Wye-Connected Transformer Figure 45.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 44. Wye Connection Phasor Relationships Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 75 .
Note: The angular displacements described in the following four figures are NEMA standards for three-phase transformers. The dash lines in the figures show the angular displacement between the high and low voltage windings. the angular displacement of the banks must be the same. frequency ratings must be identical. Delta-Delta ( . four conditions must be met: voltage ratings must be identical.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Typical Connections To parallel three-phase distribution banks successfully. In addition.) Connection Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 76 .) The delta-delta connection (Figure 46) is often used to supply large three-phase motor loads. Figure 46. Delta-Delta ( . tap settings must be identical. The angular displacement is the angle between a line drawn from neutral to H1 and a line drawn from the neutral to X1 measured in a clockwise direction from H1 to X1. and the percent impedance of the transformers must be nearly equal. The angular displacements shown in the next four figures (Figures 46 through 49) must be the same.
Wye-Wye (Y-Y) Connection Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 77 . The wye-wye connection also permits balancing single-phase loads among the three phases. Figure 47.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Wye-Wye (Y-Y) The wye-wye connection (Figure 47) is typically used to supply 208 volts and 120 volts or 480 volts and 277 volts on systems where both the line-to-line and line-to-neutral values can be taken from all three phases.
Figure 48.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Delta-Wye ( -Y) The delta-wye connection (Figure 48) is typically used to supply 208 volts and 120 volts or 480 volts and 277 volts on systems where both the line-to-line and line-to-neutral values can be taken from all three phases. The delta-wye connection also permits balancing single-phase loads among the three phases. Delta-Wye ( -Y) Connection Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 78 . The delta-wye connection is the most common transformer connection that is used in Saudi Aramco power distribution systems.
Figure 50 shows the correct terminal markings for a two-winding.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Wye-Delta (Y. arrives at a negative peak at the same instant as the positive peak for the H1 terminal.) Connection Transformer Polarity Single-Phase Transformers The relationships between the instantaneous voltage polarities of two transformer windings that envelop the same segment of magnetic core are defined as either additive or subtractive polarity. the wye-delta (Figure 49) connection is used to supply large three-phase motor loads. single-phase transformer. which is physically nearest the H1 terminal.) Similar to the delta-delta connection. The windings have subtractive polarity if the H1 terminal and its adjacent low-voltage terminal reach a positive peak at the same instant of time. Transformer windings are additive polarity if the potential at the low-voltage winding terminal. Wye-Delta (Y. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 79 . Figure 49. Whichever low voltage winding terminal arrives at a positive peak simultaneously with H1 is labeled the X1 terminal.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 50. A temporary test jumper is installed between the H1 terminal and the closest low voltage terminal. the implication is that the low voltage winding potential is adding voltage to the source voltage and the windings are additive polarity. Test Circuit to Determine Transformer Polarity Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 80 . If the voltage measured between terminal H2 and the other low voltage terminal is greater than the ac source voltage. Single-Phase Transformer Polarity Figure 51 is a schematic representation of a test circuit that is used to determine the polarity of transformer windings. Figure 51. the windings are subtractive polarity. If the low voltage winding potential subtracts from the source voltage.
Figure 52. But polarity also implies differences in the physical arrangement of windings within the transformer. and efficiency. transformers which have different winding polarities should not have their windings connected in parallel unless a modification in winding interconnections is incorporated to account for the voltage phase relationships. Physical Arrangements of Windings for Polarity Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 81 . the top-to-bottom progression of the low-voltage winding is different than in the subtractive windings. Figure 52 is a simplified diagram of the core and coil arrangement of a two-winding transformer. Although the summation of magnetic flux within the magnetic core is the same. its impedance. which affects the transformers ability to withstand the forces of a through fault. It implies that with additive windings (Figure 52a). almost all large transformers have subtractive polarity windings (Figure 52b). Because of these considerations.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers In general. linkages of flux between adjacent turns is different.
The vector diagram is stamped on the nameplate of the transformer or it can be found on drawings that are supplied with the transformer. To determine if a three-phase transformer has subtractive or additive polarity. the voltage vector diagram that is associated with the particular transformer must be correctly interpreted. the X0-X1 voltage vector is displaced by 1800 when compared to the H1-H3 voltage vector. The same holds true for the third voltage vector. Figure 53e shows a delta-wye transformer connection with subtractive polarity. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 82 . the transformer is subtractive polarity. compare the phase-to-neutral vectors. This connection (Figure 53f) is additive polarity. but it is displaced by 1800. In Figure 53a. but there is a 1800 displacement with the H1-H3 voltage vector. Figure 53d shows the vectors that are displaced by 1800. the X1-X3 voltage vector is in parallel and in phase with the H1-H3 voltage vector. and therefore this connection is subtractive polarity. There is no phase shift or angular displacement. The same holds true for the X1-X2 and the H1-H2 voltage vectors. Figures 53c and 53d show the same relationships for a wye-wye connected transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Three-Phase Transformers Earlier we discussed polarity for single-phase transformers. The same holds true for the other voltage vectors. In this case (Figure 53b). In Figure 53c. Note: The X0 voltage vector is sometimes labeled N. Polarity on three-phase transformers is not as simple because of phase rotation. as well as the X2-X3 and the H2-H3 voltage vectors. lead markings. With a wye-wye connection. This connection (Figure 53d) is additive polarity. and there is no displacement when compared to the H1-H3 voltage vector. With a delta-delta or a wye-wye connection. The X1-X0 voltage vector is parallel. In Figure 53b. If the phase shift is 00. Remember. and the types of internal connections. the transformer is additive polarity. the connection is additive polarity. The X3-X2 voltage vector is parallel with the H2-H3 voltage vector. If the phase shift is 1800. a delta-wye transformer causes a 30 degree phase shift between the primary and secondary windings. the X3-X1 voltage vector is parallel. Therefore it is subtractive polarity. the corresponding line voltages may have either a 00 or 1800 displacement. In Figure 53f. Large power transformers are subtractive polarity by standard. the X1-X0 voltage vector is in phase and it is parallel with the H1-H0 voltage vector.
Voltage Polarity Diagrams for Three-Phase Transformers Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 83 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 53.
they are not permitted to be extended without approval of CSD.ANSI Standard C84. Selection Factors The following factors should be considered for calculating the basic power and distribution transformer ratings: • • • • • • Voltage Loads Ambient Temperature Standard Sizes Cooling Classes Temperature Rise Voltages There are three classes of voltage: low.5 kV) in this class exist on Saudi Aramco installations. and high voltage. SAES-P-100 specifies only two (208Y/120 and 480Y/277 V).g. The 208Y/120 V system is typically used in commercial or very light industrial applications. and 69 kV).8. Four-Wire .9. etc. 240. and 34. Low Voltage. 13. 480.1-1989 lists four voltages in this class (120/240. nominal system is primarily used for residential areas and light industrial loads. large office complexes.). Three-Wire. Voltages in this class are used in Saudi Aramco to distribute large blocks of power and as a utilization voltage for large motors (isolated neutral). and 480Y/277). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 84 .1-1989 lists three voltages in this class (208Y/120. 240/120.. SAES-P-100 specifies only 120/240 or 480 V.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers CALCULATING BASIC POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER RATINGS Note: Work Aid 3 has been developed to teach the Participant procedures to calculate basic power and distribution transformer ratings. commissaries. three-wire.ANSI Standard C84.ANSI C84. single-phase.ANSI Standard C84. although three other voltages (2. High Voltage. Three-Wire .1-1989 lists 9 nominal voltages in this class. As mentioned previously. whereas the 480Y/277 V is used in most industrial applications and very large commercial applications (e.16. and 600 V). nominal system is primarily used for supplying motor loads. The 480 volt. Three-Wire .1-1989 lists nine voltages in the class. 6. The 120/240 V. SAES-P-100 specifies only three (4.4. Low Voltage. Medium Voltage. medium. SAES-P100 specifies only 115 and 230 kV nominal system voltages within this class to transmit large blocks of power over long distances. three-wire.
92 provide methods for determining the life expectancy of power transformers when they are operated at loads above their listed ratings. a 10% load growth factor should be added to the calculated load (normal maximum operating load plus projected future load). The standard specifies derating factors as follows: • • • Liquid-filled transformers . If the transformer is operated at rated load and at temperatures greater than an average ambient temperature of 300C.SAES-P-121 specifies that the minimum self-cooled kVA rating of each OA/FA transformer shall be equal to the maximum normal operating load plus projected future load.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Loads Normal Load. ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. Projected future load should not be confused with the 10% load growth factor that was discussed in the immediate previous paragraph. respectively. there will be some sacrifice of life expectancy. ANSI/IEEE Standard C57 requires that the transformer be derated 1.6% Dry-type 2200C transformers .Transformers may be operated under emergency conditions at ratings above normal load ratings. and the temperature not to exceed 400C at any time. some decrease in life expectancy will occur. To avoid this decrease in life. However.4% Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 85 .SAES-P-121 specifies that for self-cooled transformers (OA or AA) only.91 and C57. Projected Future Load is a known load that will be added in the future. Emergency Load.15% Dry-type 1500C transformers .57% and 0.34% for each 10C that the average ambient temperature exceeds 300C for 1500C and 2200C dry-type transformers. Ambient Temperature The temperature rise ratings of transformers are all based on an ambient temperature of 300C averaged over a 24-hour period. Future Growth Load .5% for each 10C that the average ambient temperature exceeds 300C for liquid-filled power transformers and 0. SAES-P-121 requires that power transformer ratings be based on an average ambient temperatures of 400C.
the next standard (ANSI C57) size transformer is selected for a particular application. self-cooled/forced-air-cooled Liquid-immersed. Figure 54 lists the cooling classes for liquid-filled transformers and Figure 55 lists the cooling classes for dry-type transformers. Work Aid 3A contains the complete lists of standard size liquid-filled and dry-type single-phase and three-phase transformers. self-cooled/forced-air-forced-liquid-cooled OA/FA/FOA Figure 54.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Standard Sizes After an initial calculation to determine the kVA load requirements. CLASS CODE OA OA/FA OA/FA/FA METHOD OF COOLING Liquid-immersed. self-cooled/forced-air-cooled/forced-aircooled Liquid-immersed. Cooling Classes for Liquid-Filled Transformers Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 86 . Cooling Classes SAES-P-121 requires that forced-air cooling fans and controls be specified on all transformers that are rated 2500 kVA and larger. self-cooled Liquid-immersed.
self-cooled/forced-air-cooled Non-ventilated. self-cooled Ventilated. at rated secondary voltage and rated frequency. The kVA ratings of outdoor transformers account for the warming effects of full sunlight during daytime hours. Prescribed conditions are an ambient temperature not to exceed 300C averaged over a 24 hour period and not to exceed 400C at any time. The specified temperature rise is the average rise of temperature in the windings. forced-air-cooled Ventilated. Some transformers have a dual temperature rise rating of 550/650C. without exceeding the specified temperature rise under prescribed conditions. which is either 550C or 650C and is stated on the nameplate. Cooling Classes for Dry-Type Transformers Work Aid 3A contains the complete lists of standard forced-air (FA) ratings for both liquidfilled and dry-type transformers. with a corresponding dual kVA rating specified on the nameplate. The corresponding hottest spot winding temperatures are 650C and 800C and are not stated on the nameplate. self-cooled Sealed. For liquid-filled power transformers. Temperature Rise The rated kVA of a transformer is the kVA output that can be delivered for a specified time. self-cooled Figure 55. Sixty-five degrees average rise is the “preferred” rating specified for modern transformer designs. The rated secondary voltage and frequency are as stated on the transformer nameplate. the specified time is continuous operation.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers CLASS CODE AA AFA AA/FA ANV GA METHOD OF COOLING Ventilated. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 87 .
4 kV thru 34. or cast coil Primary Voltages: 2. Reduced exposure to low voltage faults. dry-type. 240. SAES-P-121 specifies that all Saudi Aramco liquid-filled transformers shall be 650C rise transformers and that all dry-type transformers shall be Class 1500C or 2200C transformers. This concept has obvious advantages such as: • • • • • • • Reduced power losses.5 kV Secondary Voltages: 208. and enclosed secondary low voltage outgoing sections encompassing the following electrical ratings: • • • Transformer kVA: 112. Secondary Unit Substations A secondary unit substation. Improved voltage regulation. the secondary distribution cables or busways are kept to minimum lengths. Improved service continuity.5 thru 2500 kVA (self-cooled rating). Class 2000C with a 1300C average rise. Increased flexibility. 480.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers For dry type transformers there are 5 classes of insulation: Class 1300C with a 600C average rise. Minimum installed cost. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 88 . and Class 2200C with a 1500C average rise. sometimes called a power center. Class 1850C with a 1150C rise. enclosed high voltage incoming line sections. or 600 Volt (maximum) As a result of locating power transformers and their close-coupled secondary switchboards as close as possible to the areas of load concentration. Class 1500C with an 800C average rise. The kVA ratings for drytype transformers have the same ambient temperature basis as for liquid-filled transformers. liquid-filled. is a close-coupled assembly consisting of three-phase power transformers. Efficient space utilization.
that is. or in the case of prepackaged assemblies. and the secondary distribution section (main and feeder low voltage power circuit breakers). Layout drawings of unit substations physically describe the location or assembly of the unit substation equipment in a room or in prefabricated packaged assemblies. This selective system has two stepdown transformers. the secondary selective system. overcomes the major disadvantage of the radial system in that it provides duplicate paths of supply to the secondary bus of each load center. the system is operated with the tie connection open. Layout and One-Line Diagrams The one-line diagram of a secondary unit substation is very useful in showing. power fuses. they provide the manufacturer with an assembly diagram that is in accordance with the “customer’s” requirements. This type of radial substation arrangement is called a single-ended substation because there is only one incoming line section at the one end (west) of the unit (prepackaged) assembly. This type of arrangement. Normally. medium voltage circuit breakers. The secondary bus associated with each transformer is connected through a tie breaker. the overall layout of the substation. for example. Single-Ended Substations Figure 56 shows the one-line diagram and physical layout of a secondary unit substation that uses a radial system arrangement.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Components The major components of a unit substation are: primary switchgear. Double-Ended Substations Figure 57 shows the one-line diagram and physical layout of a secondary unit substation that uses a secondary selective system arrangement. Layout drawings require that the installation crews install the electrical equipment exactly in accordance with the design. each with its own incoming primary feeder. the transformer (liquid-filled or drytype). by means of standard graphical symbols and nomenclature. Figure 56b illustrates the layout diagram of a single-ended unit substation and Figure 57b illustrates the layout diagram of a double-ended unit substation. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 89 . Figure 56a illustrates a one-line diagram of a single-ended unit substation and Figure 57a illustrates a one-line diagram of a double-ended unit substation. or interrupters. as two separate radial systems operating independently of each other.
SAES-P-121 specifies that the forced-cooled (FA) site rating of each transformer that serves a double-ended unit substation shall be capable of feeding the entire load of both buses with the normally-open (N.) tie breaker closed.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers With the loss of one of the primary feeders and/or transformers. The service to one-half of the load is momentarily interrupted during this transition period. the main secondary breaker for that circuit can be opened and the tie breaker closed. allowing the one remaining primary feeder and transformer to energize all of the secondary bus. This procedure avoids the momentary interruption during the transition period that is normally associated with a Kirk Key type operating system.O. Saudi Aramco operating procedures also permit closing of the tie-breaker before opening one of the two main breakers. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 90 .
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 56. Single-Ended Unit Substation Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 91 .
Double-Ended Unit Substation Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 92 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 57.
the higher the level of available fault current.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Transformer Let-Through Current The selection of kVA and impedance ratings of unit substation transformers is very critical to the levels of available fault current on the secondary main bus side of the substation. assuming that there are no other fault current sources on the secondary side. is presented for informational purposes only.0 kA Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 93 .05 = 60. Impedance The impedance (%Z) of the transformer. both topics are thoroughly covered in the advanced course on transformers.3 kA 3. ILT @ 5. Note: This section. Course EEX 202. the lower the level of available fault current.07 = 43. The lower the impedance of the transformer.0575] = 3007/0.75% = 2500/[( 3 x .1 kA 4. ILT = IFLA-sec/Z = kVA/[( 3 x kVsec) x Z] • where Z is expressed as a decimal Answer: 2. is called the transformer let-through current. as well as the next section on Paralleled Transformers. See Example J. This available fault current on the secondary side of the transformer. The higher the impedance of the transformer. is the main factor in limiting the magnitude of the fault current available on the low voltage section of the system.75%? 1.0575 = 52.75%? What is ILT if the impedance of the transformer is specified at 7% versus 5. which is based on the self-cooled (OA) rating of the transformer. Procedures to calculate the transformer let-through current and the paralleled transformer parameters are beyond the time constraint scope of this Module. what is the transformer let-through current (ILT) at the secondary bus? What is ILT if the impedance of the transformer is specified at 5% versus 5. ILT @ 7% = 3007/0. especially at points close to the substation secondary bus. Example J: Referring to Figure 56. however.48) x . ILT @ 5% = 3007/0.
and IV transformers.12.75%. For Category I distribution transformers. For Category II transformers the short circuit current is calculated based on the transformer impedance (ZT) only. Higher-resistance windings would increase the heat losses in the transformer.01 lists the same categories of dry-type transformers as liquidfilled transformers. with a typical value being 5.00 recognizes four categories for the rating of transformers. Transformer Categories ANSI/IEEE Standard C57. III. rather than increasing the winding resistance. the duration of the short circuit is limited to 2 seconds. For Category III and IV transformers the short circuit current is calculated based on the transformer impedance (ZT) plus the system impedance (ZS). Transformer Categories (Liquid-Filled) ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.000 above 10.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Because of the importance of the transformer impedance in limiting the available fault current.12. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 94 . Single-Phase kVA Ratings I II III IV 5 to 500 501 to 1667 1668 to 10. which is not desirable. unit substation transformers are designed on purpose to have impedances values of at least 5. except that Category IV does not exist for dry-type transformers.0%. as listed in Figure 58.000 above 30. the duration of the short circuit is determined by the following formula: • • t = 1250/ISC2 where ISC = (IFLA-sec)/ZT and ZT is expressed as a decimal For Category II.000 Three-Phase kVA Ratings 15 to 500 501 to 5000 5000 to 30. This higher impedance value is obtained by increasing the leakage reactance of the transformer windings.000 Category Figure 58.
therefore necessitates higher interrupting capacity and more expensive secondary switchgear (bus. operating procedures do permit. Example K: Answer: Referring to Figure 57.O. etc. The transformers are connected in parallel by connecting the similarly marked terminals together. and.). terminal X1 of T1 to terminal X1 of T2. what is the total transformer let-through current at the secondary bus? 1. breakers. However. momentarily paralleling of transformers.055) = 2 (32803) = 65.6 kA Circulating Currents Figure 59 shows two transformers connected in parallel. For example.48 x 0. IT = ILT(T1) + ILT(T2) = 2ILT(T1) = 2 [1500/( 3 x . the short circuit duty at the secondary bus would be double the normal short circuit duty.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Paralleled Transformers Saudi Aramco operating procedures do not normally permit paralleling of transformer secondaries. terminal X2 of T1 to X2 of T2. etc. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 95 . This section of the Information Sheet will briefly explain the following factors that should be considered when paralleling transformers: • • • Increased Fault Levels Circulating Currents Limiting kVA Increased Fault Levels The paralleling of the secondaries of transformers increases the short circuit current available. Should a feeder fault occur at the instant the transfer (closing the normally-open (N. for secondary selective systems.) tie breaker) occurs.
All connections between the transformers are in phase and have the same polarity.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 59. Paralleled Transformers The ideal conditions for connecting transformers in parallel are the following: • • • • • Both transformers must have the same turns ratio and voltage ratings. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 96 . Both transformers must have the same phase shift and polarity. Both transformers must have equal percent impedance. Both transformers must have equal ratios of resistance to reactance.
Two dissimilar transformers may be operated in parallel. circulating currents will flow between and through the secondary windings of both transformers. and what is the limiting kVA of the two transformers that are being operated in parallel? Example L: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 97 . This total load limit is called the limiting kVA or the maximum kVA load of two transformers that are being operated in parallel.g. then T1 will have a lower secondary voltage than T2. Paralleling two transformers with different phase shifts (e. Let’s consider each of these ideal conditions to determine what occurs if they do not exist. a circulating current flows even if there is no load on the transformers. This is the same principle as the principle of current dividing between two paralleled impedances. This circulating current flows because the voltage is different on the secondary side of the transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers If the above listed ideal conditions do not exist. they must have the same polarity and phase shift. one transformer can easily overload. Referring to Figure 59.g. The magnitude of the circulating current that flows depends on which of the above ideal conditions do not exist. If transformer T1 has a higher turns ratio than transformer T2.. these ideal paralleling conditions do not exist.. but their values need to be as close to each other as possible. what is the circulating current magnitude that flows between the paralleled transformers. Limiting kVA In daily practical situations. To parallel two transformers. they will not equally share the load. but not necessarily equally. The total load should be limited to a value such that rated current is not exceeded in either transformer. Current will divide between the two transformers. If the turns ratios are not equal. If transformer T1 has a higher impedance than transformer T2. Phase shift and polarity was explained in an earlier (previous) section of this Module. but the following two conditions must be met: • • The circulating current should not exceed ten percent of the full load rated current of either transformer. ∆-∆ to ∆-Y) or different polarities (e. See Example L. subtractive to additive) will cause large secondary circulating currents to flow. If the transformers do not have equal impedances. then more current will flow through T2 than T1. Voltages and impedances do not have to be identically equal. If unequal impedances exist.
9) + (8 x 13. If more than 18.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Answer: 1. Z1 and Z2 are the percent impedances for transformers T1 and T2.10 x I2)<(0. kVAlimit = Zmin x [(kVA1/Z1) + (kVA2/Z2)] x 0.kV2)/[(Z1kV1)/(100I1) + (Z2kV2)/(100I2)] • where: • • • kV1 and kV2 are the kV secondary voltages for transformers T1 and T2 at no-load. Icirc = (14.0 .9) = 49.4 A 3.5 A and therefore it is acceptable. I1 and I2 are the full load current for transformers T1 and T2.4) = 41.10 x I1)<(0.9) = 415. I1 = kVA1/( 3 x kV1) = 12000/( 3 x 14.0) = 494. 6. 2.9)/[(9 x 14.5 A 5.9 = 8 x [(12000/9) + (1000/8)] x 0.9 A I2 = kVA2/( 3 x kV2) = 10000/( 3 x 13.15 A 4.13.10 x 494. Icirc <(0.4)] = 19. Conclusion: The circulating current is less than 41. Conclusion: Total power supplied to the secondary bus cannot exceed 18.9 = 18600 kVA = 18.10 x 415. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 98 .6 MVA.5 A Icirc <(0.6 MVA 7.0)/(100 x 494. transformer T2 will overload resulting in possible damage. The circulating current must be less than 10% of the smaller of I1 or I2.9)/(100 x 415. Icirc = (kV1 .6 MVA of load is connected.
• • Much higher fault (short circuit) current magnitudes are available at the secondary bus. If paralleling two transformers with load tap changers. Small changes in impedance may have a large affect on load sharing.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers In closing out this discussion on paralleling of transformers. If paralleling transformers that have a high secondary current. the following listed additional precautions must be considered before paralleling transformers. the automatic sensing relay which controls the tap position of the transformers must be set up in a master/slave configuration. • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 99 . The master/slave configuration system should allow one transformer’s sensing relay to control the tap changer on both transformers. consider the impedance of the cables or bus that is used to parallel the secondary windings. Both load tap changers must “stay in step” (stay on the same taps).
• Np/Ns = Ep/Es = a (transformer turns ratio) Step 2. • volts-per-turn (primary) = volts-per-turn (secondary) Ep/Np = Es/Ns • • Ep = (Np/Ns) x Es Np = (Ep/Es) x Ns Es = (Ns/Np) x Ep Ns = (Es/Ep) x Np Step 3. • • • VAin = VAout Ep x Ip = Es x Is (for single-phase transformers) 3 x Ep x Ip = or • • • kVAin = kVAout kVp x Ip = kVs x Is (for single-phase transformers) 3 x kV x I = p p 3 x kV x I (for three-phase transformers) s s 3 x Es x Is (for three-phase transformers) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 100 . Determine the voltampere relationships. Determine the ampere-turns relationships. • ampere-turns (primary) = ampere-turns (secondary) Ip x Np = Is X Ns • • Ip = (Ns/Np) x Is Np = (Is/Ip) x Np Is = (Np/Ns) x Ip Ns = (Ip/Is) x Np Step 4.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers WORK AID 1: PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER RATIOS POWER AND Step 1. Determine the turns ratio. Determine the volts-per-turn ratios.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers WORK AID 2: PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING POWER DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY VOLTAGE REGULATION Applicable Efficiency Procedures for Calculating Power AND AND Work Aid 2A: Transformer Note: Efficiency is calculated by dividing the output real power by the input real power.f. the higher the voltage drop. • • % Voltage Regulation = [(Eno-load .) in watts Calculate the required input power. The efficiency will vary depending on the amount of load because the copper losses of a transformer vary with load. Calculate the percent voltage regulation. • % efficiency = (Pout/Pin) x 100 Applicable Procedures Voltage Regulation for Calculating Power Transformer Work Aid 2B: Note: As a transformer becomes loaded. This decrease in voltage is caused by the voltage drop across the internal impedance of the transformer. and total iron losses.Efull-load)/(Eno-load)] x 100 where Eno-load = the transformer’s rated secondary voltage Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 101 . Calculate the output power of the transformer at the given power factor. Step 2. Step 2. the voltage at the secondary terminals of the transformer decreases. total copper losses. • Pin = Pout + copper losses + iron losses Step 4. Pout = kVA x 1000 x power factor (p. Step 1. Determine the transformer kVA. Step 1. The higher the transformer impedance. Determine the voltage (Efull-load) of the transformer at the secondary terminals under full-load conditions. Calculate the percent efficiency. • Step 3.
d.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers WORK AID 3: Work Aid 3A: RESOURCES USED TO CALCULATE BASIC POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS ANSI/IEEE Standard Regulating Transformers) C57 (Distribution.. lists the following preferred continuous kVA ratings for liquidimmersed power and distribution transformers (Figure 62). b. 2. Single-Phase Transformers kVA kVA kVA Three-Phase Transformers kVA kVA kVA Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 102 . C57.00-1987. RATINGS Power. Load current should be approximately sinusoidal and a harmonic content should not exceed 0.12. OF and 1. Voltage should be approximately sinusoidal. C57. Temperature should not exceed an average ambient temperature of 300C.05 per unit. 60 Hz). Frequency should be at least 95% of the rated value (e.g. c. Altitude should not exceed 3300 ft (1000 meters). Table 2. e.12.00-1987 specifies the following service conditions for liquid-immersed distribution and power transformers: a.
5 150 225 300 500 750 1000 1500 2000 2500 3750 5000 7500 10.333 15 30 45 75 112.500 50.000 25.000 100. Standard Transformer kVA Ratings (Liquid-Filled) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 103 .000 12.5 50 75 100 167 250 333 500 833 1250 1667 2500 3333 5000 6667 8333 10.000 60.000 15.000 12.000 37.000 Figure 62.000 20.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 3 5 10 15 25 37.000 30.500 16.667 20.000 75.000 25.000 33.
8 2.4 4.5 1.16 4.0 kV rms 0.9 69 115 230 Power and Distribution Distribution Power Distribution Power Distribution Power Distribution Power Power Power Power 30 36 10 45 60 60 75 95 110 150 200 350 450 825 54 69 69 88 110 130 175 230 400 520 950 1.5/19.9 34.6 1.0 3. Table 4.00-1987. lists the following basic dielectric insulation levels (BIL) for liquid-immersed transformers (Figure 63).Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 3.0 3. Nominal System Voltage kV rms Transformer Category BIL Full Wave kV crest Chopped Wave Low Frequency Test Label Minimum Voltage kV Crest Minimum Time to Flashover sec 1.0 3.12.5 1.48 and below 2.16 13.4 2.8 13.0 3. C57.0 15 15 19 19 34 34 50 70 140 185 360 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 104 .0 3.5/19.5 1.8 34.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 63. Transformer BIL Ratings Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 105 .
00-1987. Phase Relation of Terminal Designations Category Single-Phase kVA Ratings Three-Phase kVA Ratings 15 to 500 501 to 5000 5000 to 30.000 above 30.000 above 10. C57. Transformer Categories (Liquid-Filled) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 106 .000 Figure 65.12.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 4. specifies that the angular placement for three-phase transformers shall be in accordance with Figure 64. Figure 64.000 I II III IV 5 to 500 501 to 1667 1668 to 10.
OA -. shall have additive polarity.12. Table 1. Transformer Loading on Basis of Temperature for Liquid-Filled Transformers Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 107 . Note: Figure 66 is valid for temperatures that range from 00C to 500C.12. lists the following derating factors for 550C or 650C rise transformers that are being operated at ambient temperatures above or below 300C (Figure 66).0 0.0 1.75 0. C57. 8. % of Rating Decrease Load for each C Type of Cooling Self-cooled Water-cooled Forced-air-cooled Forced-oil-cooled -.00-1987 specifies that the average winding temperature rise above ambient temperature shall not exceed 650C when measured by resistance and that the winding hottest-spot temperature rise shall not exceed 800C. FOW and OA/FOA/FOA Higher Temperature 1.0 1.5 1.92-1981.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 6. OA/FA/FA -.75 0 Figure 66. C57. C57.FOA. and that have high voltage ratings 8660 volts and below. 7.00-1987 specifies that power transformers that are rated 200 kVA and below.OA/FA.OW -. Note: Transformer ratings are based on a 24-hour average ambient of 300C.5 1.0 0 Increase Load for each C Lower Temperature 1. All other single-phase transformers shall have subtractive polarity.
lists the following OA/FA ratings for power transformers that are rated 750 .12. C57.10. Table 12.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 9.12. lists the following OA/FA/FA ratings for power transformers that are rated 18 MVA and larger (Figure 68).500 kVA) 10. OA First-Stage Second-Stage Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 108 .10.12. OA/FA Ratings (750 . Table 13.500 kVA (Figure 67). Three-Phase (kVA) Single-Phase (kVA) OA 833 1 250 1 667 2 500 3 333 5 000 6 667 8 333 FA 958 1 437 1 917 3 125 4 167 6 250 8 333 10 417 Without Load Tap Changing OA 750 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 750 5 000 7 500 10 000 FA 862 1 150 1 725 2 300 3 125 4 687 6 250 9 375 12 500 Three-Phase (kVA) With Load Tap Changing OA 3 750 5 000 7 500 10 000 FA 4 687 6 250 9 375 12 500 Figure 67.12. C57.
C57. Table 2.12. lists the following continuous kVA ratings for dry-type power and distribution transformers (Figure 69). 12.5 MVA) 11.01-1981. C57.12.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 18 000 21 000 24 000 27 000 40 000 45 000 24 000 28 000 32 000 36 000 53 333 60 000 30 000 35 000 40 000 45 000 66 667 75 000 Figure 68. OA/FA/FA Ratings (Greater Than 12. See paragraph 1 of this Work Aid.01-1989 specifies the same usual service conditions for dry-type transformers as for liquid-filled transformers. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 109 .
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Single-Phase Transformers kVA 1 3 5 10 15 25 37.000 25. Average Winding Temperature Rise by Resistance (0C) Insulation System Temperature (0C) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 110 .5 150 225 kVA 300 500 750 1000 1500 2000 2500 kVA 3750 5000 7500 10. C57.01.5 50 75 100 kVA 167 250 333 500 833 1250 1667 2500 3333 kVA 5000 6667 8333 10.12.667 20.000 33.000 15.000 Figure 69.500 16. lists the following limits of temperature and temperature rise ratings for dry-type transformers (Figure 70). Table 4A.333 Three-Phase Transformers kVA 15 30 45 75 112.000 12. Standard Transformer kVA Ratings (Dry-Type) 13.000 12.000 20.
Limits of Temperature and Temperature Rise Ratings for Dry-Type Transformers Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 111 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 60 80 115 130 150 130 150 185 200 220 Figure 70.
12. Figure 65.8 34. 15.12.01-1989 lists the same categories of dry-type transformers as liquid-filled transformers.0 Figure 71. Table 6.5 20 30 60 150 10 12 19 50 20 30 60 150 20 30 60 150 1. except that Category IV does not exist for dry-type transformers. Nominal System Voltage BIL Low Frequency Voltage Insulation Level Full Wave 1.48 and below 2.4 4. C57.16 13. lists the AA/FA ratings for dry-type transformers (Figure 72). BIL Ratings for Dry-Type Transformers 16.0 1.0 1.2 x 50 s Crest Impulse Levels Chopped Wave Minimum Time To Flashover kV kV rms 0.25 10 kV crest 4 kV crest 10 kV crest 10 s 1. See paragraph 5. Table 3B.12. C57.01-1981.51-1981.5 2. of this Work Aid.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 14. C57. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 112 . list the following BIL ratings for dry-type transformers (Figure 71).
Percent of Rated kVA/0C Maximum Rated Hottest-Spot Type of Unit Ventilated Self-Cooled Temperature 0C 150 185 220 Hottest-Spot Temperature 30 C Ambient 140 175 210 0 Increase for Average Ambient Less than 300C or Decrease for Average Ambient Greater Than 30 C (0. C57.57) (0.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Self-Cooled (AA) Ratings (kVA) 750 1000 1500 2000 2500 3750 5000 7500 Forced-Air-Cooled (AA/FA) Ratings (kVA) 1000 1333 2000 2667 3333 5000 6667 10000 Figure 72.35) 0 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 113 . Table 1.96-1989. lists the following derating factors for dry-type transformers that are being operated at temperatures above or below 300C (Figure 73). AA/FA Ratings for Dry-Type Transformers 17. Note: Figure 73 is valid for temperatures ranging from 00C to 500C.43) (0.
40) Figure 73.49) (0.65) (0. Transformer Loading on Basis of Temperature for Dry-Type Transformers Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 114 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Sealed Self-Cooled 150 185 220 140 175 210 (0.
Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
Work Aid 3B:
SAES-P-121 (Transformers, Reactors, Voltage Regulators)
1. Section 4.6 specifies that transformers shall be provided with a HV tap changer for either de-energized operation or load tap operation. 2. Section 4.7 specifies that all step-down transformers that are rated 10 MVA OA and above, for residential or mixed commercial loads, shall have a HV load tap changer with automatic voltage control. 3. Section 4.10 specifies that all load tap changers shall be equipped for remote operation. 4. Section 5.1 specifies that transformers shall be supplied with ANSI standard preferred kVA ratings at usual service conditions, unless specified otherwise on AMSS Data Schedule-1. 5. Section 5.2 specifies that the minimum OA self-cooled kVA rating of each OA/FA transformer shall be equal to the maximum operating load plus projected future load. 6. Section 5.3 specifies that for transformers that are self-cooled only, a 10 percent load growth factor shall be added to the calculated load (maximum operating load plus projected future load). 7. Section 5.4 specifies that the forced-cooled FA site rating of each transformer serving a double-ended substation shall be capable of feeding the entire load of both buses with the bus tie breaker closed. 8. Section 5.5 specifies that forced-air cooling fans and controls shall be provided on all transformers that are rated 2500 kVA or larger. On transformers smaller than 2500 kVA, forced-air cooling shall not be provided. 9. Section 5.6 specifies that two stages of forced cooling shall be allowed for transformers with OA ratings of 90 MVA or larger. The forced cooling may be forced-air (FA) and/or forced-oil-air (FOA). 10. Section 5.9 specifies that Table 1 (Figure 74) lists the maximum allowable percentage deratings for various site installations and transformer types and sizes.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
OIL-IMMERSED TRANSFORMER (650C RISE)
DRY-TYPE LT 225 kVA GE 225 kVA
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers
LOCATION AND AMBIENT TEMP. LT 255 kVA GE 225 kVA 1500C 2200C 150 0C 2200C
OUTDOOR SOLAR EXPOSED 45 oC AVG, 55 oC MAX 22.5% 15% 12% 8% 9% 6%
OUTDOOR NOT-EXPOSED 40 oC AVG, 50 oC MAX 15% 15% 6% 4% 6% 4%
INDOOR WELL-VENTILATED 40 oC AVG, 50 oC MAX
NOT ALLOWED INDOORS
NOT ALLOWED INDOORS NOT ALLOWED INDOORS NOT ALLOWED INDOORS
INDOOR-UNMANNED AIR-CONDITIONED 35 oC AVG, 40 oC MAX
NOT ALLOWED INDOORS
INDOOR-UNMANNED AIR-CONDITIONED 30 oC AVG, 40 oC MAX Note: kVA Rating Symbols:
NOT ALLOWED INDOORS LT = Less than; GE = Greater than or equal to. 0% 0% 0% 0%
Figure 74. Transformer kVA Derating Factors
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 117
Section 5.12 specifies that when transformers are operated in parallel. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 118 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers 11. the total circulating current shall not exceed 10 percent of the rated current of the lowest kVA rated transformer.
wye-connected secondaries. Select a liquid-filled or a dry-type power or distribution transformer based on given information. assume 3φ.000 V 230.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Work Aid 3C: Applicable Procedures Step 1. 3-wire. of Phases 1φ 3φ 3φ 3φ 3φ 3φ 3φ 3φ 3φ No. For three-phase transformers.000 V 115. 4-wire. Voltage 120/240 V 480 V 208Y/120 V 480Y/277 V 2400 V* 4160 V 6900 V* 13.800 V 34. 3φ 3φ No. delta-connected primaries and 3φ. Select the primary and secondary voltage ratings from Figure 75 and the given information. • • Power or Distribution Liquid-Filled or Dry-Type - Step 2.000 V *Note: Requires CSD approval to extend.500 V* 69. of Wires 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 • • Primary Secondary 119 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards .
Figure 63. or from Figure 71. for liquid-filled transformers.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Figure 75. for dry-type transformers. • • BIL (primary winding) BIL (secondary winding) - Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 120 . SAES-P-100 Standard Saudi Aramco Voltages Step 3. Select the BIL for the transformer from Work Aid 3A.
for liquid-filled transformers. or from Figure 72.f. a. Figure 74) • Step 5.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers Step 4. Note: Include any projected (known) future loads. Select the next standard size kVA-rated transformer from Work Aid 3A. Calculate the adjusted site kVA after derating for temperature. Figure 74) kVA (adjusted) = kVA (site)/0. Calculate the required site kVA.f.94 for dry-type transformers with 1500C insulation (Work Aid 3B. Calculate the load kW for each load or combination of loads at rated utilization voltage. Calculate the load kVAR for each load or combination of loads at rated utilization voltage.f. • • b. Figure 67.96 for dry-type transformers with 2200C insulation (Work Aid 3B. Figure 74) kVA (adjusted) = kVA (site)/0.f. • kVA rating - Step 6. See paragraph 6 of Work Aid 3B. or kWload = kVAload x p. • • kVA (adjusted) = kVA (site)/0. Figure 62. Calculate site kVA. Note: For self-cooled transformers (OA or AA only) add 10% for growth. Determine the cooling class kVA ratings from Work Aid 3A.) or kVARload = kWload x tan (cos-1 p. for dry-type transformers. for dry-type transformers. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 121 . Note: Include any projected (known) future loads.85 for liquid-filled transformers (Work Aid 3B. • kVA(site) = (kW2total + kVAR2total)1/2 d.) c. Note: Use a design ambient temperature of 400C. • • kVARload = 3 x kV x I x sin (cos-1 p. or from Figure 69. for liquidfilled transformers. kWload = 3 x kV x I x p.
The forced-cooled kVA ratings of each transformer serving a doubleended substation shall be capable of feeding the entire load of both buses with the bus tie breaker closed. Step 7. Forced-air cooling shall be provided on all transformers that are rated 2500 kVA and larger. b. See paragraph 8 of Work Aid 3B. See paragraph 7 of Work Aid 3B.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers • Cooling class kVA ratings - Notes: a. Summary of Selection Procedures: • • • • • • • • • • Power or Distribution Transformer Liquid-Filled or Dry-Type Transformer Primary Voltage Secondary Voltage BIL Ratings Load kW and kVAR Calculations Site kVA Adjusted Site kVA Transformer kVA Ratings (Standard Sizes) Transformer Cooling Class kVA Ratings Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 122 .
A distribution transformer usually has a kVA rating less than 500 kVA. Consulting Services Division (Saudi Aramco) transformer An instrument transformer that is intended to have its primary winding connected in shunt with a power supply circuit. forced-air-cooled rating of a dry-type transformer. Typically the conductor is insulated from the enclosure by a porcelain or epoxy cylinder. The insulation quality of a material or oil that is measured in kilovolts (kV). Usually made from silicon steel. A permeable metal frame around which transformer windings are wound. self-cooled rating of a dry-type transformer. A small transformer that is used to supply low voltage residential loads.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers GLOSSARY AA additive polarity Ventilated. Pole-mount and pad-mount transformers fall into this category. Ventilated. Installations that contain transformers 500 kVA and less are designated distribution transformer installations. yet to be isolated from the enclosure. Copper losses are also called I2R losses. American National Standards Institute Basic Impulse Level A device that permits a conductor to pass through an enclosure. the voltage of which is to be measured or controlled. The polarity designation of a transformer that has the primary and secondary terminals of corresponding polarity directly opposite of each other. Transformer power losses that are caused by the resistance of the windings. AFA ANSI BIL bushing copper losses core CSD current (CT) dielectric strength distribution transformer distribution transformer installation Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 123 .
e. A gas that does not chemically react with other substances. nitrogen. The process by which an electromotive force is produced in a conductor when there is relative motion between the conductor and a magnetic field. I R losses are also called copper losses. Forced-air-cooled rating of a liquid-filled transformer. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The voltage at rated frequency that is applied to the line terminals of one of the windings of a two winding transformer to cause the rated current to flow through these terminals when the terminals of the other winding are short circuited. Hysteresis loss is the amount of energy required to overcome residual magnetism of the transformer core. One component of transformer iron losses. The efficiency of a transformer is the ratio of real power output to real power input. The applied voltage is measured while the windings are at the same specified winding temperature. One component of transformer iron losses.. Excitation current is the current that flows in any winding used to excite the transformer when all other windings are opened circuited. and it is usually expressed in percent of the rated current of the winding in which it is measured. Transformer power losses that are caused by resistance of 2 the windings. For Saudi Aramco purposes.g.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers dry-type transformer A transformer in which the windings are immersed in air or some other dry gas. a dry-type transformer in which neither of the windings is cast in resin is called a conventional dry-type transformer. eddy current loss efficiency electromagnetic induction excitation current FA hysteresis loss I2R losses IEEE impedance voltage inert gas Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 124 . Eddy current loss is the loss caused by the currents that are induced in the iron core of a transformer. and it is usually expressed in percent.
Sometimes called an overhead transformer. with enclosed compartments for high voltage and low voltage cables entering from below. An outdoor distribution-type transformer that is used as part of an underground distribution system.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers instrument transformer A transformer that is intended to reproduce in its secondary circuit. changer A tap changer designed so that the transformer’s turns ratio can be changed without interrupting the power source. Mechanical Relief Device No-load losses are the losses in a transformer that is excited at rated voltage and frequency but which is not supplying load. The combination of eddy current and hysteresis losses. OA pad-mounted transformer Self-cooled rating of a liquid-filled transformer. A distribution-type transformer that is suitable for mounting on a pole or platform on overhead installations up to 69 kV. The load or copper losses of a transformer are those losses incidental to the carrying of load. with ratings of 1 kVA to 167 kVA single-phase and 15 kVA to 500 kVA three-phase. control of protective devices. A power transformer usually has a kVA rating greater than 500 kVA. pole-mounted transformer power transformer Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 125 . and that is mounted on a foundation pad. Note: No-load losses include core loss. in a definite and known proportion suitable for utilization in measurement. dielectric loss. and the loss in the windings due to exciting current. the voltage or current of its primary circuit with its phase relationships substantially preserved. A large transformer that is used to deliver large amounts of power to industrial loads or to transmission and distribution systems. iron losses load losses load tap (LTC) MRD no-load losses no-load tap changer A tap changer that can only be operated when the (NLTC) transformer is completely de-energized from the power source.
Note: Primary rated voltage is not necessarily equal to nominal system voltage. A tap through which the transformer can deliver its rated kVA output without exceeding the specified temperature rise. Note: This definition of primary rated current ignores magnetizing current. primary winding principal tap rated kVA tap rated power (single. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard 126 regulation reliability (substation) SAES Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . although the complete elimination of failures is impossible to achieve. The tap to which operating and performance characteristics of a transformer are referred. The reliability of a substation is defined as its ability to serve the intended function without failure. Both windings of a two-winding transformer have the same rated power. The full-load regulation of a transformer is the arithmetic difference between the secondary no-load and full-load voltages of a winding.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers primary rated current The primary rated current should be equal to the secondary current divided by the turns ratio. Sometimes called the fully-rated tap.Rated power of a three-phase winding is equal to the phase transformer) product of rated voltage. with rated voltage applied to the primary winding at rated frequency and with the winding at specified temperature. primary voltage rated The primary rated voltage designated to be applied to the input terminals should be equal to the secondary rated voltage times the turns ratio. rated current. The primary winding is usually the high voltage winding on a power transformer. The primary winding is the winding on the energy input side of the transformer. which by definition is the rated power of the transformer.Rated power is equal to the product of rated voltage and phase transformer) rated current of the same winding of a transformer. divided by the secondary no-load voltage. and the 3 . reduced kVA tap A tap through which the transformer can deliver only an output less than rated kVA without exceeding the specified temperature rise. rated power (three.
and auxiliary equipment. secondary current secondary voltage secondary winding short impedance circuit The short circuit equivalent star-connection impedance of a two winding transformer. relaying. metering. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 127 . A transformer in which the energy transfer is from a low voltage circuit to a high voltage circuit. at rated frequency and current. at principal tap. The secondary winding is the winding on the energy output side of the transformer. The secondary winding is usually the low voltage winding on a power transformer. Substations serving a hospital load or any other critical load facility and substations supplying industrial facilities are considered industrial substations. circuit breakers and load feeder cables together with all controls. at principal tap. measured between the terminals of a winding when the other winding is short circuited. the secondary or low voltage bus. expressed in ohms per phase. rated The secondary rated current shall be equal to the full load rms current deliverable at the output terminals of the transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers secondary voltage full-load The secondary full-load voltage should be equal to the fullload rms voltage available at the output terminals of the transformer. SPR step-down transformer step-up transformer substation substation (industrial) A substation is defined as an industrial substation if its main function is to deliver power to one or more major industrial plants. without exceeding the specified temperature rise. the transformer(s). The impedance is based on rated frequency and the specified winding temperature. An industrial substation facility includes the transformer switching devices. and the required power factor. rated The secondary rated voltage should be the equivalent noload voltage corresponding to the full-load condition. Installations that contain power transformers (501 kVA and above) are designated substations. Sudden Pressure Relay A transformer in which the energy transfer is from a high voltage circuit to a low voltage circuit.
The voltage ratio of a transformer is the ratio of the rated voltage of the high voltage winding to the rated voltage of the low voltage winding. the voltage of which is to be measured or controlled.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers substation (residential) subtractive polarity A substation is defined as a residential substation if its main function is to deliver power to residential areas. where the load tap changer (LTC) is designed to operate. the turns ratio is based on the principal tap. underground-type transformer voltage ratio voltage (VT) transformer An instrument transformer that is intended to have its primary winding connected in shunt with a power supply circuit. Tap changer operating can be arranged for either de-energized operation. Note: In the case of a transformer having taps for changing its voltage ratio. tap tap changer temperature rise turns ratio The turns ratio of a transformer is the ratio of the effective number of turns in the high voltage winding to that in the low voltage winding. A tap is a connection brought out of a winding at some point between its extremities to permit changing the voltage or current ratio of a transformer or impedance of a reactor. and is equal to the turns ratio. A tap changer is a switching device that is used to change the voltage ratio of a transformer by means of taps brought out from between the extremities of the windings. A distribution-type transformer that is designed for location in an underground enclosure. where the transformer must be disconnected from its supply before the tap switch or link can be moved. or loaded operation. in conjunction with a transition impedance. while the transformer is carrying load. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 128 . The increase in operating temperature that is above an ambient temperature of a winding or insulating fluid. The polarity designation of a transformer that has primary and secondary terminals of corresponding polarity diagonally opposite of each other.
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