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The relative perm curves are given in the paper by Shaw and Stright. Unfortunatey, the semi-log scale makes it somewhat difficult to obtain the data. Some software is available to do this (e.g. GraphClick for Mac OS X), or students may have simply measured the data points directly. A table of values should look something like this: (Note that Sw is usually be expressed as a fraction) Sw, fraction 0.100 0.216 0.280 0.321 0.375 0.410 0.451 0.494 0.524 0.548 0.565 0.586 0.627 0.64 kro 0.84 0.59 0.48 0.33 0.23 0.16 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.03 no value 0.00 krw 0 0.03 0.08 0.11 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.26 0.30 0.33 0.35 0.38 0.44 kro/krw inf. <-- extrapolated endpoint for krw 25.33 <-- data for sample calculation 7.32 4.41 2.19 1.31 0.73 0.38 0.24 0.17 0.12 0.07 0.00 <-- extrapolated endpoint for kro

See Chart 1 for a graph. Finally, the endpoints, Sw and 1-Sor were obtained by inspecting the graph and 1. extrapolating the krw line to the x axis (defining Swirr) THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT DATA POINT 2. extrapolating the kro line to the x axis (defining 1- Sor) This is quite difficult in this case because the original data was given on a semi-log scale; some latitude should be given to students because the rest of the homework is anchored to this data Sample calculation (not necessary for this part):

1/7

Part 2. Fitting the permeability ratio to an exponential equation A graph of the perm ratio, kro/krw vs. Sw should reveal a linear relationship on a semi-log plot. From this, values of the coefficients a and b may be calculated by selecting reasonable endpoints of the line. The selection of points from the original data is somewhat subjective. See class handout, "PET E 471 Dispacement 1 Handouts.pdf" for details. Points selected to fit to exponential: Sw, fraction 0.216 0.524 kro/krw 25.33 0.24 Coefficients 678.02 15.19

a= b=

Results will vary slightly depending on the two points chosen to evaluate a and b. Sample hand calculation (note slight roundoff error compared with spreadsheet):

Using the newly obtained coefficients a and b, the relative permeability can be evaluated for any value of Sw. For comparison, the results are tablulated below (also see Chart 2) Note that the equation does not do well at the end points of the curve; there the values should be inserted manually in future calculations. PET E 471 Homework #1 Solutions 2/7

Sw 0.1 0.216 0.280 0.321 0.375 0.410 0.451 0.494 0.524 0.548 0.565 0.586 0.627 0.640

kro/krw from graph inf. 25.33 7.32 4.41 2.19 1.31 0.73 0.38 0.24 0.17 0.12 0.07 no value 0.00

kro/krw from eq'n 148.51 <-- this is Swirr, so krw is really zero by definition 25.33 9.59 <-- data for sample calculation 5.19 2.28 1.34 0.72 0.37 0.24 0.16 0.13 0.09 0.05 0.04 <-- this is 1-Sor, so kro is zero by definition

Part 3. Fractional Flow Curve The analytical expressions derived in class notes for fw and dfw/dSw may be used. There are actually two variants of the equations, one which includes the term kro/krw Keep in mind that the equation may not give the proper endpoints, which are: fw = 0 at Swirr fw = 1 at 1-Sor Data

fw =

58 cp 5 cp (polymer) 11.6 678.02 from Part 2 15.19 from Part 2

o w o/w

a b

w #bSw ae o

3/7

Sw 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.64

ko/kw from equation 148.51 69.50 32.53 15.22 7.12 3.33 1.56 0.73 0.34 0.16 0.07 0.04

fw from dfw/dSw from equation equation 0.00 1.02 <-- Swirr 0.14 1.86 0.26 2.94 <-- data for sample calculation 0.43 3.73 0.62 3.58 0.78 2.63 0.88 1.59 0.94 0.85 0.97 0.42 0.99 0.20 0.99 0.10 1.00 <-- 1-Sor

4/7

Part 4. Water Saturations at flood front, breakthrough Saturations Sw' and Swbt may be obtained either from a graphical solution or analyticallly by iteration. See Chart 4 Sw' by Goal Seek: a= b= uo/uw Swirr 678.02 15.19 11.60 0.1 Goal Seek to zero ko/kw from equation 4.75 4.75 fw'-fw/(Sw'fw 0.710 0.710 fw' Swirr)=0 3.129 0.000 3.130 0.000

Change this in Goal Seek Initial Guess Sw' 0.2 0.5 Goal Seek Sw' 0.327 0.327

Sometimes two different guesses are required if the roots are double-valued. Got lucky this time. Summary of Results: Breakthrough Flood Front Saturation, Saturation, Sw' Swbt 0.33 0.42

No sample calculations required, but a graph showing tangent line is necessary. Part 5 Saturation Front Distance Travelled According to the Welge refinement to the Buckley-Leverett method, the waterflood front has a water saturation of Sw', therefore only values above that need to be evaluated. Reservoir Parameters L W H phi Injection Data qi 460 m 100 m 10 m 0.27 187 m3/d

L=

5/7

Sw 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.33 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.64

ko/kw 148.51 69.50 32.53 15.22 7.12 4.52 3.33 1.56 0.73 0.34 0.16 0.07 0.04

fw 0.072 0.143 0.263 0.432 0.620 0.720 0.777 0.881 0.941 0.971 0.986 0.994 1.000

dfw/dSw 1.021 1.861 2.943 3.727 3.579 3.063 2.633 1.587 0.846 0.422 0.204 0.097 0.053

time, days 50 100 150 200 216.8 Wi= Wi= Wi= Wi= Wi= 9350 18700 28050 37400 40544 m3 m3 m3 m3 m3 Front Front Front Front Front dist, L, dist, L, dist, L, dist, L, dist, L, m m m m m

The time to breakthrough was found to be 216.8 days. This can be determined in at least two ways: 1. Using the spreadsheet, simply insert values of t and find when L=460 by trial and error. 2. Set up a goal seek in Excel. An answer +/- say 5 days is ok. Part 6. Post-Breakthrough Performance Welge gives a method to calculate post-breakthrough performance of a waterflood. After breakthrough, however, it's a game of diminishing returns and in the real world it plays out only as long as the economics are favourable Results are presented graphically in Chart 6 Swirr= 0.1 PV Oil Avg Slope of PV Water Water Recover fw(Sw) Injected, Qi Sat, S ed Qo 3.063 0.326 0.421 0.321 2.633 0.380 0.435 0.335 1.587 0.630 0.475 0.375 0.846 1.182 0.520 0.420 0.422 2.369 0.568 0.468 0.204 4.908 0.617 0.517 0.097 10.336 0.666 0.566 0.053 18.863 0.707 0.607 EXTRA CALCULATIONS NOT REQUIRED PV Water % Oil Prod WOR Rec 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.04 0.13 0.37 0.26 0.68 0.42 0.76 1.81 0.47 1.90 4.06 0.52 4.39 8.50 0.57 9.77 17.25 0.63 18.26 30.09 0.67 6/7

Exit Flowing Exit Water Water Fraction Sat, Sw2 fw2 0.33 0.72 0.35 0.78 0.40 0.88 0.45 0.94 0.50 0.97 0.55 0.99 0.60 0.99 0.65 1.00

Sample calculation: For post-breakthrough calculations, the procedure is: 1. Examine the last part of the handout, "Displacement 3" because you haven't read it yet! 2. Start with the water front saturation obtained in Part 4: Sw'=0.33 At breakthrough, this is the water saturation at the outlet end, Sw2 3. Use the equation for fw (Part 3) to obtain flowing water fraction at outlet: fw2=0.72 A Visual Basic function macro would be handy about now, n'est-ce pas? 4. Use the equation for fw' to obtain slope of the line: fw'=3.063 5. From the Welge soluton, PV water injected is simply the inverse of fw' Check your handouts to be sure.

Qi = 1/ f 2" =

w2

5. Calculate average water saturation in the reservoir by rearranging this equation: For the first calculation, this should match the ! value of Swbt you determined in Part 4.

S w " Sw2 = Qi f o2

6. Then by material balance, the quantity of oil recovered is simply the same as the increase in AVERAGE water saturation so far.

Qo = S " Swirr

7. ASSUME an increase in outlet water saturation, Sw2 and repeat the calculations starting at step 3. ! It is best to use small increments, such as .05 to start See if you can work out the values in the EXTRA CALCULATIONS columns. PET E 471 Homework #1 Solutions 7/7

PET E 471 Fall Term 2006, Homework #1 Part 1. Relative Permeability Data

1.00 0.90 0.80 Relative Permeability, kr 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0.000 krw kro

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

0.600

0.700

Water Saturation, Sw

PET E 471 Fall Term 2006 Homework #1 Part 2. Relative Permeability Ratios

100.00 1st point used Relative Permeability Ratio, kro/krw 10.00 kro/krw from original graph data kro/krw from equation

0.10

0.01 0.000

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

0.600

0.700

Water Saturation, Sw

PET E 471 Fall Term 2006, Homework #1 Part 3. Fractional Flow Curve and Derivative

1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0.00 The equation doesn't work well at the endpoint Swirr, so fw was forced to zero. This is important because it is the anchor point of your tangent fw 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 1.00 dfw/dSw 4.00 3.50 fw from equation dfw/dSw from equation 3.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

Water Saturation, Sw

PET E 471 Fall Term 2006, Homework #1 Part 4. Water Saturation at Flood Front and Breakthrough

1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0.00 Remember to start the tangent line here at Swirr fw Swbt=0.42 at fw=1 fw from equation

Sw'=0.33 at fw=0.71

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

Water Saturation, Sw

PET E 471 Fall Term 2006, Homework #1 Part 5. Waterflood Front Saturation vs. Time

1.00 0.90 0.80 Water Saturation, Sw 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Distance, L [m]

Swirr = 0.1

unrecoverable oil

unrecovered oil

PET E 471 Fall Term 2006, Homework #1 Part 6. Oil Recovered vs. Water Injected

0.7 0.6 0.5 Oil Recovered, PV 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Water Injected, PV Oil recovery at breakthrough = 32.1%

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