S. Pan.c.xevtraxa

iLr (-evion at the time these metrical compositions were scribblect on the 'tni1rr,l'u'all' of Kd6yapa's citadel. References to Sir,halese poetry, relating to per:iods much auterior: to the earliest r verses at Sigiri-rvirich may be erssigned to th9 eighth-centurlr-11g contained in- the chronicles ancl other Pali n'ritings o{ Cevlon.' The early literature in the Sinhaiese languilge being .now ilretrierzablv lost, the only hope tliat r've have of satisfying oul crrfi65i1y about the nature of Sinlialese versification dtiring the pre-Christiat.r or early Christian centuries rvould be the discoverl,' cif a metrical inscription belonging to these times. And .t believe that, among the Br5l'rmi inscriptions already brought to light there are tirree, found in u'ide-h'.separated localities in thi island, which are couched in verse. Considering the great importance that they would have for a proper stud-v of the literarv history of the island, I propose to give in this article a preliminarv account of thesc documents. I clo not intend to discuss here the various palaeographical, philological and historical. questions rvhich these inscriptions five r:ise to. Such discussions will be undertaken elselvheres and, my purpose here is to sriljmit, {or the judgment o{ scholar's, my proposition that these documents are written in verse. I a.ppend only such notes a.s are considered necessary for the justification of tire texts and trans= ]al-ions gir.'en b1' ms.

TsB earliest examples of Sinhalese I'ersification, hitherto known, are foiind arnong the grafhti oir the galler5' ivall at Sigjri'. The Sigiri stanzas themselves i:ontair-r ample inclirect evider-rce to shor.v that the versifier's
art had liad a long histury

space between the letters on eitrrer side o{ them. engraver inadvertentlythese retters

'rt ;;;";;, tilt tne r"pfii"J-irr.,,' trt", -omitted by writing them in this clumsy way. The text of ""a reciid i, the "*Ion.*r,Maha-rajhaha Gamani-Abavaha

is totall.v- effaced and.fou' arel>artly damaged, v'ithout, however, rnaking them altogetrrer.iilegibre. t't"J"g;.iii,? record "iigir"i has not also been done in, a ver-y crtreful ,i"rrrr".. 'Two letters a.e of a "t"iri" snlaller size than the averegc ancl are compressecl into much a smalr

Iril ya, Milakas -TiSa-vi+


l)evaner-piyafu (ra)ma Inilr



s Katiy

A3v o19 -rvho is familiar with trre huirdreds of Brahmi inscriptictns in r.r',rurd _at once uotice tirit ineie--;s .;;;i;i;-";;"".ta, in the order of w,rds.o.f the sentcrce com_pr-ising ih; ;;;;;;: i,r tnut gtrtion.containing the king's name and tifld, weliave the personal ,.,"*"
ancient Sinlralese

separatect irom -intervening words. The preterite torm kdrite precedes the i'strumental_form Karil:a, whereas in the nu.'rJ o.aer ttre . one shoulcl have followed the oth6r.

ipl?:llt^":.]lttttnrimber nf tne ratter try.a

"".?j}"il,*:llf i'ffi i"$?LT;\,,.1:,i$i[T:1Jt*1,"V,il]:lt?:H:nxt the personal name after them. witness for example the phrase, pi.ta matmrajha (,aniyi T.isaha ;n .n tnsciipiion -"t niti?"i"' Derunaif.j' zry \/oL I,.p. r-14) and Deuiinapis,artattnraja ci,iiai -liny;;'i;;; i),.,.riptii,,i callena vih-dra (-\{tilrer, -q. t. c.. rri". rj. A sombrvhat criffereni rt order oI tne tltles rs tound i. an unpublished inscription from Rissahela in the Ratticaloa District, wlrere we reacr mtrrtava.i'haha Devano-t;i,riii" co**i T:::!:.,brLt the pri'cipte of the titles p..i"Jing ih;-;;.'#;i-;,n;"i. words rowani which' iilliil^]". .,:}C1ln,,.rh" are, against theburi.t,a.-practice,are obviously in Ka!,iya, usual


visited the place in September, 1939. lt consists of one line in the earliest form of the Brahnri script and may palaeographically be assigned to aly time cluring the first three centuries preceding the Christian era. Un-,fortruratelrf th" lrr.re..ration of tlie reci-'rd is not such as one would desire it to be. 'Of th; thirty eig[1 letters whic]r it seerns to have contained,

'lhe earliest inscription that we have to consider here is indited on a rock boulder at the ancient vihdra at Kossagamakanda near Maradankadavala in the Maminiyi Korald of the Anurddhapura f)istrict. Two other Br6.hmi inscriptions at this site have been noticed by Bell in his Anrnd llet'ort for 1893, pp. 8 and r3, but this particular record has elude<l his-notice. ancl I tiad tlie good fortune of discovering it when I

Lmcriptions' as any other documents, were meant to be unrlerstood rvere. e,xgegteg to read them, and those whocomposedthem :_l:,:,i"1" yllo n'orild not have vi,rl:rted the accepted grammatical orcler of words sentence-on w'hich depends to a greit extent the intelrieibiliiil in a o{ a document-had it not i;een .,"."*.ulu fo, ;ih;; ;;;;;:**'-"''


r. This journal, Vol. XXXIV, pp. 309-346. z. Bu<ldlraghora. in hir; commentarv to the Suttanibiilu (Pa,rannltltajoti.hd, P.T'S' fieitio;, p. :d7) rnentions verses in Sin}ralese containing praises of Budclha, which sing.*'hiie u.orking in the fields. Tlte iil,iauarhsa (chap. 4r, v' 5-5) .;;;;.;".i'i6
-54::-.561) in Sinhalese. 'IlrcintrodLction to tlie old Si:.rhalese paralhrase ,ecorcls the {act


iliog3,allAn a

Ii' lcirca

was an entinent poet, prbs,rmably

;1";;; th;t;poE11 iolinhalese on the historl' of the Iooth Relic rvas composed iri ttr" t"ig" oi Sri \It.qhavarnna (circa 3oz-3io). This oicl Sinhalese poem seerns
collccted much rrf tht' nccessar)' n:atctial.

rrr:itten at the lreginning o{ the


01 tbe DAfiAuafisa' century by the a'oti#r of trr" r'oii p""m himsell'

been.lelt of any letter betroe ma t"t *iiir;"i'.i"'.rrii",'i'r,I"'li]r,ott", rna and'4i do not {orm a suitable.r,r,-ord. The most rvc can conrplete the rrorrr is bv reading /a ".ti.t."l..y -Jno"iiii'*iricu as thc lelter rvhich is assLmed to [.mi..;ng The spaoe availabre betrveen ia and *i iu r"m.;""i tL, o rnto have been written there. z. of this rvord, ba is'ell preserved of the ya, the stroke and a'- of the curved stroke at thi base are ;clearry iiriut". vertical i" trr"."r*" the r:ight |It no'aouut its id,entitv. pnly.falnt traces havd been left ;a "r" ".;;;;;""riiJr" th" iigi:d,i1s milltate against its tuesedo not being read as rzi, r,l'hich qives.s the most satisiactory "oa completion of the rvord to suit thdcontext. 3. }(a has been comnressed betrveen thc level ar. rrhich it shburcr bavt: come. la and, li ancl is written somewhat below rn" .io.. tar of the letter cuts across the vertical
stroke oJ

olthesvitabre read as'rzzl, tire r'erticar strohe ancl the horizontal o"" fir" -pre.cr,r"a, t.r" ui",i"ri p".";"rr"a. (rJ tirc horizontal bar et I h: "t prccruding it +.o- t tl,e rigrrt haii-it jop takcn as na. rts.identific;i tion'as Ii, tberefore. ii fairrv certain. "ing No irace rvhater.er lras

r' o{this*.,d,ntaistheonlvsylrablewrrici'risrvelpreserveil.

to have been utilised by the author of the Pali Dd'!hd.aarn';a. 3. In " A Corpur of Brdhmi Inscriptions in Ce1'lon " for u,hich l have alreadl

1? is damased. the vorvel mdtrd tetter beinE effacect.

usrai circle of |a has here been $'ritten as a serni,circle rvith the rine o{ the ttl:tnrcler ^,1 Th" at right angles to Hre vertical stroke. 5. The a--stroke oI Ari is d.istinct enouglr tlrough some*hat blurred. 'The syllable

being;i;;i"g';;";i,; top and rh"-i;;;, paiiroi


has been effaced. ..cir }oito. whiclr is incised by the side of a foot'prin? with the sacred wheel symbol. It is arso not any r'etre exprai'. scanning our document in accbrclance with this metre. I harie restored t\em is mig'n'io 'Ilre fonrteenth . Thuq rvc r. this curves downrvards on its left. ."* about the thirteenth centur)'. I ma'agecl to have a eslampagc of. 6. to deviate from the prose-order.r.i""" I."p"r" an estampage c. Th" eight aft... The lasr lettcr ^. lo"g. letter is completerl' effacetr but of the one -rt.r. about eight miles to the southleast of TissamahS.majorit' .Jr.r vrntlr aAsarar o-f line 4 iustify their being read as yahi. attached to"this syllabre is different from flrat which is normaly used in Bri.. 3. The ahpara is a na. n.o"gllout the clal'during rnost seasons of the of "i year.t. trt&"itlr". tlre ancient text booi on Sinhaiese ""-IJ'in tne at rhe bcgir.""a a.Irs vocabularv is of a learned t-vpe aird"there is ln the order r.bacrlv damagerr.ol.rrg". gives sense which fits rn . . i. the document is different lrom the'ast.na 1-bhuir.hmi inscrirrtions of the period.ir:is t. -The rest of the croc'ment.ring of the concluding parr oJ 1'e"r"i-" documrnt thus arIi. slrort.s. both Sanskrit and Sinhalese. apart.. but the nretre of this stania is not"one fou'd in'the poetical literature.4. ir"i-. in themselves..t epigrapiiist's reading ot tne record .1.rit'r.uord t.r"tio" gi""" "*iv i"'i}.6pr*""ii"g iiidiii"r"fr.. ia". which is *er.I^?1. Exanrining terse.crl ".li bei'g in a "i1i.Lyarn y(muga\-l parnllya\l.l word sid'dhalri "..""""."..ri"rt *itt rnr. 3. it is necessarv to treat the last syllables of the first. andVol' first rII' p.is imperiect and faulty' Th.I. ()l ."f view or in trie"i'aJliat.f words in the se'tence. pr'codcs it is not l'a as rcarl by \riiilcr but. separating the pddas of the stanza.u"Ndga (See'ff Zcv''Y. rrre svrraure mau ti"r"i". The w-ord formecl by these iour ii-roro.Jlr.rest of the document. The inscription."k". (cevroN) it 1vor. i"rpr"irio"'"ili"g i.'. to the right hand extreniity of the base line of rvhich has been attached the middre vertical"stroke .a.contains nine syllabic iirstants (mdtrds) and each-of the other three eleven."t verse. C.r deat 1r. il in the well-known Yagi fiietre. 156)..t."a u"a ""l"ni sinii*r"r. It has therefore been treated u. twilttn and thirteenth centuries and is not vet obsolete- the inscription.r preserv.. whereas the normar e_stroke is a short horizontal one attache'd to the reft of tr.i. as rnay tie Judged fiom the t.hutp at rhe end oi thc tlocument.) or Vaffag6mai:i Abhaya (ai'rca 59-77 B..sazasJolloning bidiya arc.m' (l*) Aparimit€z lokahi parama-dulabes Buclha. is clanragcrl.tftsori is irr" i""t""t.oau. Southern Province.ir'i to r)a in the Pali and the prakrits and this method .ntry t"#Tii-ii. "'lh" boulder {trces the sea ancl strong centiry *i"i strike Jgainst-ii itt.os.ih. C..' ih-.n an rcadirrg of the text. XX*r" NiiijS*rga51 tlrErRrc-{L sTNHALESE rNSCRrprroNS iir for the sake of the rhythm and rtther requirernents of versification.ri. i" r.r...r"oiat symuol. l have srrcceeded in chtairring "ia impror."ifof. ttrough tirev pre.f" ryr'ibility of its being.f. i . Some yrs315 ago. ur!^r. can be *etre which rve have aheady . .5 . 5l' .owrng the wo'd a stanza i'the 2alahhu in r.lrt" t^o"wnicn Miilier aJcribes the record is alio too late for it' The script is of the same type as that of the Maharatmal€ Rock Inscrip- therefore intelligible. too.'Jtv.o. The e-stroke iio" oi'lt"frdddthika ltatr'airaga @irca 67-79 A.".v tn.le sronertsert."*rr ry ot iu. making it an extremeiy riiffrcult task to p. if it was used.... ilear enough.That .trd of this syllable. miciya-ditika bidiya [yaha]_(maga)_[par:a](ya)[na]_bhutez (llr. In the midst of a very picturesque group of rock boulders bordering the sea.Aba5'a.. knor'n tt-. In its subject matter asr.. The upper ha."s..Lti..i. t'he ricc'rd ca'ti nl of thegusts "ot' ttt" p. is i1""rfy f. second and fourth pddas as long.u". LIk savas have left hardrv any"trace . f.3. "ii jhe upper hal{. ll"^*::::1|?'^r. is rike that of rz noticed in the preceding note" . .. (No.rtiiy-".r-" p" Of the letter rvhich follows. I..-coast at this plac-e ale theruins of an ancient monastery I which pJpular tradition ideritifies rvith the uihdra founded-by Kivan iirru 11 ihe spot where was cast ashore the princess Devi of .) wro'gly--ascribed-by Wickremasingire to lt"i.o the cenfulV.'. is ju Sanskritl p.ii..e.f_Brd-hrni 1i. too. is often-necessary.-same nati athAna savaflu+ta-pate Budha nama gate anutare sathe maha-sara4e iio]ska-cafkalo sayabhu me-galahi vihare Naka_uvara[je na]ma Buclha sarana on'proso<ly.6o Now.ir't.. It is as follows :- r.has the conr'"ent of MilakaTiSa been iaused to be established" Translation By Kati.r.'a. consiclering in" plrirr-. sign.Sinhalese poetical works of the tenth. in the Kossae".o*J". Examining our document on this assumption.lf of thjs letter. which is ver)' common in.ri'"i"piiliit.'firi'"iri"""ti.it prerared.:_":rlct sometnlng rinusua.pea-gods. wilh-the herp of whicr.'.tti . The Iast thrce rrrrsaras or lrne 4 are."lii**Iy.o-6arEeood eDc[8]@tl todco Maha-rajhaha Gama4iAbayaha Devana-piva6a (Ra)ma[li] ba(ri)ya Milaka-Ti6avihare kafrilte Kativa inscript"ions in ce1 lon belonein. 4.*l. I norv give the document" Oe)deoo qacDg) io@e$- @qozDeco@ (d)gidffil A(8)co 6e.n.ro."d"irrii""rrti.brtu.[l."."qr"r. is clamaged. also'gir-es trr. however. to the gods. we find thal it is quite possible to read it as a {-a121 composed This metre is built up of four y'ddas of rvhich the first. Sanrltis Laktnra. the charming rvife of the great King Gamani.h.d"i-agi i".1. of cours€.ning. Kilali)'"* destined to be his queen and the mother of the Sinhalese national hero-: after she was sent adrift in a boat by her father as an offering to-the-enraged .rli* "r"_ rii" t*i.The upper_part of this letter.cription.iE ff.r" ttre comp't"t" .read by Miiller as iliva!c. a coniiderahle height from itr" gro"". by positign.. and at. Trre rraces ro.""nnj .t .{.vt'd at. it i.assable r. t o." u" read as mru' but it has been read as above. it t-""rir*a uy Therea.ii.C') '.. Sicidha. togetber u'ith the stroke for the meciial vorvet attached to it.r. JOURNAL.iiilril'. "ri. is allowed by text books it is well-known that in a metrical composition.-eri as i' the language.rdma in the Mlgam Pattu.ii.uii"ir"i'its enough is preserved to take It as a ird o' n a. thc-svtlable Drz is appropriot"l" ft".].?"t!?f !')ol)i7al. Palaeogt:rptlit"i\'. 'I'lre uirtimtt z.in read aswe find that thc por_ ron ro. l'his. '. z. The c-md. has been noticed"bv Miiller in his . 'etre II The next inscription we have to consider is at Kirinda.

and it is-not impossible that otlrcr mett'es of tlre qili tlpr.62 JoURNAL." r. (FIe) is of all objects.therefo-re. The script also is identicai in b&h ancl this record. Both this ancf the Kirinda inscription c. (I{e) is tlie one ouho'h^.S.4parim.'es one the impression tirat tl"re reiord is {r:rgmentarl. B. i.v arthdndnt Pqroma-duvlabho.rt<t-t'Luta bhule:.rl.against the.vho risocl them.drlho [t a]-bhute trvo hah'cs of the stanza.s -iwenty setr/erl morile in eacL ha. Skt.-ril of Rohana-one document being set up at the royal seatancrthe other at tlte ttiltd-rk vr'here the conversioi took-place. though we are not certain whether it is graphically shown as such. as the Kirincla inscriptjon.r" The third inscription lvhiclr I take to be in r. n. has been available to me ancl the text given is based on it. but contin'es to the second. (he) became fo. Bding meant for the celebration of a.of A1'rton.o and sarnbodhi-parhyorrlo . ui niranil vr v "i -l i natij alhica1 pal rama-duiar be gl Sava-f. the vicerov2 namecl Nakar went for refuge.crse is from Tissanrahdrama. the Saudris I. Like the I(irinda inscription. Ltot cxphined in this'iext l-. tlris has pp-. n. attajned omniscience. It is the general cipinion arnong scholars that metres of the Ary-ir type werc adopted into Sanskrit {rom the vernaculars and it is quile possible that tire niceties u.jbudd. (ceVr. The svllable re in the fourth . do not seenr to lrave bcen strictlV -observed in this stanza. sarttaifiatd.no loka-cahhhu.gdlhci ancl other ear"iv Pali terts. but i* the Upagiti metre. l'hc sentencc hegun in the secorrd hallof the hrst stanza is not completctl in that. the Teacher who has no superior.ttt pliipta'&nuttetas sdstd.. {1ving. -. ancl P.orpayayand.ddl11 2.s la.ox) 1vor.ith regard to caesura observed by Sanskrit poets u'ere not strictlv follovred in ct. varving from eight to eightec'..riation of the Aryi. In Sanskrit it *-oulcl read:-. the (ireat Refuge (and) the Eye of the world. upa. as trvo inscriptions on tw.rports io be the"reading and the translation of the document. The first half of the verse contains twenty seven svtrlabic instants and the second half thirtv.86-87. Llua-yttje--Skt.r've ma-\' no_te that.+ Bu. interchanggd' nintn sal antbh :2.. Translation I In the boundless uni'erse there is'one e<1ual to llucldha.n as gr (gill) in Sinhalese . given iry writers on Sanskrit prusodr'. yds'as) I:ar gbnerallv tn.A'pa.the estampage shows it to be complete and vreil preserved. At the convent III journal. A fairl-v good estampage of it. this record has much in icimmon witii the . u'ere similarlv trea. XX{Vi.\T qesdo@d oece$6 Aaco@O :n6 g&ca: erdogcj@A eo@O eoo€erer@r' q€t'@6 9oeodoed o@<o96 @OceDAas) QA zs:9 eEcoe Eood zD]@ ztes:- eOdlod cooro OEcoQOrs: 8€o: Jo:ar1(9cr:) |.er. Bttddho narna sayarnbltt1. in different trpes of nretres.iti s"adi G# sar.rules r.mnr.(maga) . I have not been able to inspeci'the stone itself or to have an estampage prepared of it.h. The two together might. Transiated into Pali prose'preserving the orcler of s'ords in the sinh:rlese.' a va.-cah.od] (co) le6lqom 0a cr1cFl epiti*ll -lte vl"ti v same -v wl . in the sixth a. is not in the Uclgiti. B*ddha is verily tire Self-existent one. have been considered as one unit of metrical coiposition. A. but it is doubtful whether these rule-q were obseived by vernacular poets composing verses in this metre.ge being mentiolred Kirinda _inscripti.ron this rock. l'he first stanza. ot It Ttr. NZiga. The fi{th foot o{ the hrst half of the stanza is an anrphibrach. I have shown it'scannecl accorcling to the Udgiti metre.va. iiit. mav be ascribed to the same period. commorr in those languages.vs down rrries only as regarcls the number of svllabic instants in ea-ch prida.ook on Sinhalese prosodv. NJ. which is. It mav be noiecl thai for this. Parker also given rvhat-he p.m|ositions of a popnlar charitcter.r'ictorv of the Bud<lhist thurch .te -lohatnhi. Vtfi. clifferent pillars.va type occurring in the I'hera. as in the Kir:inda inscription. opponents.a.the in both documerts.if Sanskrit_and Prakrit prosody. but rvhich rnight har. however.e. J.." In this connection..ted bv thc.rrr".ur lSt. mahi"-sara4o"iohr.-.eaningof'go_ocl'attachedtoitinSinhaleseliterature. The Kirinda incr risdmahd'inr:r tnscriptions mav both be considereci to belong to a somewhat sirnilar tvpe of metrical composition. Parker's reAding gir.42.. in later Sinhalese poetry'. In the transliteration of this verse which follows.i poro*rodztilablto.ha-sanro natthi atiltd.ord yalta tSlit. .pdtla has also to be taken as long. for the pillar has no* fallen clolvn ' and lies buried. it is necessarv to treat the last syllables of the first and fourth />ddas as long due to position.utal -pate anul tare sathei mit'ioirii nc 6til -.ahun.lf.rimi. Iir iis lgbject matter and phraseoiogy. for 19o6.na. sabhsiifiutailt .'!i-r9a51 rrErRrcALSrNHALESDiNscRrprroNS 6"i it can be scannecl to be in_general agreement with the scherne {or the Udgiti. lhe Udgiti is the Aryd metre v'ith thc 2.-prepared the direc'ncler tion.morlte the sanre event-thc conversion to Buddhism of a.ite !ohc Burtdlta-santo rtdst. which h. mahd-sa.nger metr. preceded by a-stanzz in a l.the most cliffrcult of attainment.co]ilI]arc the expressions in Pali such as nibbdna-pardya1. tlre verse rvould run :.vit.-Tht: v.. but similat irregularities are founcl in rnetres oi the Ar.se r. Rules regarding caesura ..[para] Gate nriciva-ditika bidiya ("1ia) ."f. broken down faise beliefs. b*t.yal persona. . for the Arla metre. i-q inscribed on a large octagonal pillar'ear the dispensary at ttrat place and appears to be the same as that noticed by paiker in Vot. (attached to the path of Beatitude).Yaha^-ntaqo--P.rrr.nd the seventh feet of tlle iialf-verse.rdja 3. *4. p.. this record consists of a stanza in the Ydgi metre.ame r.e existed in the language at an earlier date. there is a class of compo^sition called Srihiili consisting of lines. it is '"yilun6l Me-galahi vihare Naka- uvara[je na]ma Budha [yaha] . For the cless of metres knou. theiefore." it.p'u!to anuttaro satthd.

the rnterpretation may be. The other syllables rnarked as long are graphically shown as such in the irrscription itsclf.nt. ttf.t*..ttltv" sAl *.i""Olf.the last syllable Pose o. Uuard.'i "i] *il *i.'ahga'aila(rlment 'r and uadttna.va has bt.n.i ".rr". (for Skr.rdh.bc finar.. 7..:..-rs trvo syllcbic irrstants.6OOd)Od a. . forrnrl itt:. . ls.. found at the place. as the occasion demanded. . saga-uaQama ne nd.ai Sinhalese and rnodern e.llable to "be'scannecl ..i rnputtirn"a ro.e.a rnica-diri.os. "i1ft" s? haye Vn g*ahl*il re' uiy.froSativc s(.r\ "".'ioii")i. of course.nt. Compare also pali gedhaw. :i. . jouics lr. drc seat of the vicer.j.Iit.aAyc. r he n('gative I'arlicle rrr is again usc(l in tlle inl(.tne root corresponding to skt. I belie'e. TEXT (1) ' 8e{) co @(5)A€i od Oocp z::r9 eooOAg @a: mrO @OQ8eo S(Z)zn qOo:a: (oit o8@. for the first three feet are treated as a pada errabling the last sr. seconcl and fourth pddas ol the first stailza and of' the second piid.inr jt. . engraved on the bare rock b}' the side of a pool formed bv ahill-stream passing through two large rocks.*ryn tr.rittr a 1'he i--ndrrd . more particularly of the varictv knoun as peithva.ni. 'lthe inscription lr.r llF rirong arrriraliol (). the vorvel mdtrds of certain ak. rariyat urahmi inscriptions. it rvould not affect the proposition that tlie record is in verse. The negative particle ne is here use<l in an -'--' /ze ndna.1 ar.'ai"itrrl .lse beliefs r. "-ota 3."ntry.ja.:h.rnrl [.ant.]lrru.nsists of an inco#iete ii. cr. Rajahiya gdnrc:-\l.r.hich w'as copied for the lirst time in ro39 is _not in a ver\r gnod state of preservat'ion.nd.erse are treated as forrning a separate pdda. I{ada:Skt. Oaq6 Ernu.istiarr Brulrmr characters rvhich. the beginning of the lines on the stone being indicated by numerals in parenthesis in the text given in Sinhalese characters.i lll ! I I r)nAi1.s ii"".dministereci rne"). rvent to Buddha foi refuge..ys o{ Rohana.?. reasonable solenrnity of the to accelrt that the clocuments were couched in verse..nent starts is... indeed ? canrrot the people bc turned .s.rO zs'$ COdgeoce6 Siddham vcISe.. n. The mahgala... the Viceroy. tn.i-airl I ri J. for every ]ettei in it.. worcl siddh. A number o{ unfamiliar rror<1s occur in this inscription:rn<l my interpretation yJ. sr. It might also be possible to iivide irr".rta.f wfiich can therefore be taken iorlg by position.cl i . 1r.-" it'mlr"ht atro it is.sense. with which the docur. oI saga l.:(3)q8 o8o gq cod€5 coc$ zt:.ltayi ni n"]dy" "s.ln ilris ythraso ura!a.l1j. as a tat-p.tvii of this syllable is indicated in the sarne manner in /c of the lirst line o{ the Kirinda inscription rr llrc s)'llal)les prcceding.rr.po. It may be noted that the first three feet rrf each half r. as is very co'rmon in the ciissir:ar'sinhalese idiom-. Skt. asai tl 'or'i ". auurrvo. ]iica-diti I'irrrka a1i mathirna buda sarala gate Naga-uva-laje nama ka.--rt i.. corresponding to it lrr' ltas lpcn treal. and rrtlta (or Ski.'r.}'a is the rclativc pronoun . save perhaps on".!1tll!_a..o cocDqccor 6 @eocer d86[ct]coroO I u'. . ftrtr. rne'r-erbai'no. r SJ.lulhima. So ']tatu.-'.aras being not. and skt. \\lratevcr. rnodern Sinhalese Aala.f breakir:q-down fa. of fti in rajahi^va..-krilahi :-*{Juar6ja is equated rvith Skt.tu acitl to r-lris lisr :r r"ck-inscl-iption irr prc-('hr. tl1i"-.(b].. ind with the pur- . XXtVt.urrint l.hdg5ma.5: I rnterrogative.n't.t 1.sa ttj*.ut"r* rcrot corresponding to Skt. 8.. not a part of the verse. r.. . grdh."irr. is no doubt S-.r''il).r:Skt..ta :--saga<sadanza is intcrprcte d. h.a ttt >Er..nr lt-ahive:.-. ruith.|tt. The first verse in ths lipagiti rnetre is shown scannecl in the trarrsliteration.'d a< a rltarJ. Fo.i. lravc thc pronoun of the third person.'d""metre.. R. '."l" i.it rcsult_by the assimilar jon of rlrr. in tie time a.i"". So/ia:P..'but the rearling is certai*.da Lo possibic ro rcatl rrre rvord as ttright art b' this ternr. the orrrdent nanre Niga. ir.aiqa) und osrj ne \\oro ts uscrl ln alt :rblativc sensc. Gedhatna is takln to be the ^verbai'noun iro. . ' mi. Tlre length of the e-md.. ntnl. r.f That rvhich is greed is indeed (the source of) fear.i". tt ii. The s]'Ilables "= at the encl of the first. n" possibility of reading it'in such a manner as to'vary ihe quantitir.'q (ompolrn.itra..JOURNAL. Qa--rea51 Success }IETRICAL SINHALESE INSCRIPTIONS 65 Translation' ! I give belorv the text of the document with the pddas of the two starLzas.ror.ulcl likr.ag_a-as. s.r-".i ir.J*-ai-n"..A.. uva-rija-kilahi as r..it ""iJ"i. ttpa_rdjya.rway+ from attachment a.l "a.rneo. Is not the increasing cif tire vicerovaltv'o iri the r:oyal vjllageT. It realils as ihe first fialf of a stanza in the 'easonablv Arl. b 7i -P. b1' attachment: a false belief.-4uala."* rna)' nor. ' that 1 .."i.f trr. the proiotypc \c ^-Yo-{r-riltauta o{ thcmediaei.nse.1.. the second h:lve consequenti5r been scanned as long."1 ds.ver\/ definite.l oI s(r(n Ip.. No otirer antiquities of :Lny description are..nd desires ? 5o6 (thinking). . (CEYLON) 1r. f. separated... equivalent ^ 4... rhe stream has been ''dammeJ here recently and is used {or irrigation purposes.cn taken to b(.o.y.

' C. the recr:rd might ver1..la-i. This of this grammalical forrn in tire early tslirhmi inscriptions is not the &i. L[an'iharate:-In this rvord. All this cannot be accidental but would bc quite appropriate We notice ir-r this docunient a definite atternpt at pLa. resem- in versification.. Perhaps the o dbcument originally consistecl of a complete stanza of rvhich the second half has been effaced in course of time.!aha-P. The w'ord selected to express the iclea of 'death' consists of the lirst two syllables of the king's name. We clo not know lvhetlrer there is any suggestion in this.n.tt1'.c. The word 'itaka is followed by kataya and agalaSc is counterpoised by gataie. builclirrg work lie hacl undertiken. We knorv lrorn inscriptional evidence that some of the sculptures at Safrchi were turned out by ivorycarvers.thc. The area in q. Si. silii-ittk:thu.y on sound.s. as lvell as in agalale anrJ' gataie."6 i n0. If actt:P. xf{vl.e. rve have the nominative plural termination-.+ bling the ornamentation called l>rdsa in Sanskrit poetics. well have been in verse. What is rneant by 'stone bricks' are probablr. of Ceyion. n. lZ'- 6SJ . It is not impossible that lapidaries sometimes functioned as stone masons. or in its iminediate vicinity. went to (their) death. :. in m1. It appears that some of the lalridaries sent to this area by King Mahacrlli Mahi-Tissa lost their lives whiie engaqed in their work and that this inscription was engraved on the rock. afiord us evidence to prrve that theperiod during which the Sinhalese languaee has had a literar5. A lapidarymight be better able to put his hancl tostone-carving than an ivory-carver.se brick-shapeci blcrcksof lime-stone used in early ddgdbaslike the Rnvanr'5li andKantaka Cetit a.vor. as a memorial to these servants of the king wiro died ttn duty. Paii-dsa. maccu r.t-s. probablyat the very place where they breathed their last. (covrox) .hich this inscription is four-id abounds in linl*-stone and it is possible that the king sent his artisans to secure these for some I t { ! fr \t "-'. corresponding to Veclic -iisati znd. 4. F TEXT etl8ldcDcn &ggOeo ee$eordoca eoOco qcootto]6 Otirlotll<ll]tn I rvricitOi'i-' l inisa milri ti.culture of its own goes back to at least two thousand years.. These records. Beingan epitaph. }lahiruli l{ahitissa (circa If3.r'p.. opinion.66 JOURNAL.6i $($)l S:i-Itij ri uirlyii is*ti'llt1 Translation The lapidaries of King llacucli' lvho carne (here) for stone brickss.

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