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SPSS17AnalysingQuantitativeData

Analysing quantitative data using SPSS 17 forWindows


1) INTRODUCTION
1.1) Aims

Toillustratecomputationalanalysisofdata. Tointroducethebasicsofquantitativedataanalysis.

To provide familiarisation with the SPSS for Windows package so that users can begintoassessitssuitabilityfortheirownanalysis.

1.2) Aboutthese notes

Duringtheclass, workyourwaythroughexercises1to16, excludingExercise3, following the instructions as requested. The symbol usually means you shouldundertakesomeworkawayfromthecomputerorcheckthatyouhave already undertaken some tasks on the computer. The symbol usually means that you should issue a command or series of commands to the computer this usually means pointing and clicking with the mouse's left button.
1 Exercises17and18aredesignedtohelpyoutoanalyseyourowndatainSPSS 2 forWindows.

Duringtheclassifyougetstuckaskforhelp.
Note: thesenotesassumetheuserisfamiliarwithaWindowspackagesuchas
3 WordforWindowsorExcel.

1 2

SPSSisaregisteredtrademarkofSPSSInc. WindowsisaregisteredtrademarkofMicrosoftInc. WordandExcelareregisteredtrademarks ofMicrosoftInc. April2009

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2) BACKGROUND
2.1) SPSSforWindows
SPSS for Windows is a powerful computer package providing statistical analyses and data management. The SPSS suite of programs is the most widely used statisticalanalysispackageintheworld.

2.2) Data types


Before data are analysed in SPSSitisnecessarytounderstandwhattypeofdata youareworkingwith, asthiswillaffecttheanalysisused.

Categorical: categorical data consist of values which cannot be expressed numericallybutcanbegroupedintocategories;forexamplegenderwhichcan begroupedintomaleandfemale. Quantifiable: quantifiable data consist of values that can be expressed numericallyasquantities;forexampleyearofbirth. Discrete, where individual items of numeric data can have one of a finite numberofvalueswithinaspecifiedrange;suchasspinalcolumnpointforthe variable salary scale. The value can usually be counted and it changes in discrete units, in this case whole numbers. In some instances discrete data mayberankdata,forexampletheorderagroupofpeoplefinishedinarace. Continuous, where numeric data are not restricted to specific valuesandare usuallymeasured on a continuousscale;suchasjourneytoworkdistance(in km).
0km Journeytoworkdistancealonghere 120km

Quantifiabledatacanfurtherbesubdividedintotwogroups:

With such data it is possible to tell the interval between the data values for differentcases;forexampletheintervalbetweenajourneytoworkof15miles andanotherof22milesis7miles. NB Observedvaluesofacontinuousvariable always appear discrete due to limitations of the equipment used for measurement(e.g.acarodometer). One potentially confusing aspect of SPSS is that all data are usually coded numerically (e.g. 1 = male). Although it appears less meaningful to code such responses numerically, it is better from a data manipulation point of view since SPSSallowsonlyautomaticrecodingoncodeswhicharenumeric.

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2.3) TheTEACH.SAV data file


This data file consists of data about 347 people recruited to work for a UK local authority over a tenyear period from the mid 1970s to mid 1980s and weas obtainedfrompersonnelrecords. Thedatacollectionformisincludedas Appendix 2. The vast majority of data relates to the time of their appointment and is taken from a range of secondary data sources such as their application form and the requisition orders to various meoutlets for vacancy advertisements. The data referspredominantlytononmanualemployees,althoughthereareafewmanual employees.Thedatahavebeenanonymisedinavarietyofwaysandalllocational datahasbeenamendedtopreserveconfidentiality.Permissionwasobtainedfrom the local authority to use these data in suitably anonymised format for teaching purposes. The data file can best be thought of as a large spreadsheet with each column representing a variable for which data are available and each row representing thatdataforanindividualorcase:
gender 1 2 3 2 1 2 born 67 19 24 marital 1 . 2 educate 5 7 7 profmemb 3 3 3

Thus, for the table above, row 1 represents a person who has gender code 2 (female),wasbornin1967,hasmaritalstatuscode1(single),waseducatedupto code 5 (O level/GCSE grade C or above), and professional membership code 3 (none).Thedatathencontinuetotherightforfurthervariables.Thesymbol"."is theSPSSsymbolformissingdata,thisisdiscussedinmoredetailinHelp17.4.Afull listofvariablesandtheircodesisgiveninAppendix1.

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3) USING SPSS FOR WINDOWS


Exercise1:To loadSPSS

SPSSforWindowsfollowstheconventionsusedinotherWindowsapplications,making use of a variety of menus and dialogue boxes. This means you rarely have to use the keyboardotherthanforenteringdata,or fornamingspecificvariables. Powerupyourmachine(switchiton!)andyournormalscreenwillappear. After clicking the button, SPSS will be located somewhere in the Programsoptionasshownbelow:

Click toopenSPSS.Thiswill takesometimesobepatient! Youwillseethis screen. Whenyoudo,click atthebottomof thedialogueboxtoremoveit. YoushouldnowhaveanUntitledSPSSDataEditor screen.
EndofExercise1

3.1) TheSPSSWindows
WhenyouloadandruntheSPSSpackageitopensupamenubarandtwoviews. Theseare DataView (currentlyvisible)and VariableView This sheet will contain your data, each column representing a variable for which data are available and each row representing the data for an individual or case. At present this sheet should be blank. As this sheet is currently selected,itsname onthetabatthebottomis inbold. Atpresentthissheetisnotvisibleasthevariableviewsheetisnotactive. Consequently,thenameisnotinbold.Donotbothertoclickonthetabandlookatthis sheetyet,wewilldothat later.

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MenuBar:Thisprovidesaselectionofoptions(File,Edit,View,Data )whichallowyou,

for example, to open files, edit data, generate graphs, create tables and perform statistical analyses. Selecting from this menu bar will, like in other Windowspackages, providefurtherpulldownmenusanddialogueboxes. Themenubaroptionsareusedasfollows:

File isusedtoaccessanyfileswhetheryouwantto Open anexistingSPSSfileorread data from another application such as Excel or dBase, or start a New file. Itisalso themenuoptionyouchooseto Save files. Edit canbeusedtoalterdataortextintheDataViewortheVariableView. View canbeusedtoalterthewayyourscreenlooks.Pleaseleavethisonthedefault

settings.

Data isusedto definevariablesandmakechangestothedatafileyouareusing. Transform is used to make changes to selected variable(s) in the data file you are using. This can include recode(ing) existing variables and compute(ing) new

variables.

Analyze is used to undertake a variety of analyses such as producing Reports, calculating DescriptiveStatistics suchas Frequencies and Crosstabs (crosstabulations)

and associated summarystatistics,aswellasvariousstatisticalproceduressuchas Regression and Correlation.

Graphs is used to create a variety of graphs and charts such as Bar, Line and Pie

charts.

Utilities is for more general housekeeping such as changing display options and

fonts,displayinginformationonvariables.

Window operatesinthesamewayasotherWindowspackages. Help is a contextsensitive help feature which operates the same way as other

Windowspackages.

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Exercise2:To loada previously createdSPSSforWindows data file

AllversionsofSPSSforWindows will work with data files using a filename of up to eight charactersandthefileextension .SAV,forexample TEACH.SAV. For the most recent versions longer filenames can be used, butitisbettertobesafe! Makesureyouhaveloaded SPSS(seeExercise1).

IntheMenuBarclick File|Open|Data.The OpenFile dialogueboxappears.Notice thatSPSSlooksfordatafilesinthemostrecentlyusedsubdirectory. Forexample, ifyouaregoingtoloadafilewhichisonaUSBportablestoragedeviceyouneed locatethe appropriate drive. Locatethe TEACH.SAV file. Openthe TEACH.SAV bydoubleclickingonit. YouwillnowseethedataappearintheDataViewwindowandthefilenameabovethe menubarchangeto TEACH.SAV.Thismaytakesometimesobepatient!

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Alternatively, you can download the file TEACH.SAV from the web by following the tutorial and datasets link: http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/saunders (for the 5th Edn) and thensaveitonyourUSBportablestoragedevice.
EndofExercise2 Exercise3:To loadanExcel spreadsheet data file Do not undertake this exercise until you need to load your own data from an Excel spreadsheet. Make sure that your Excel spreadsheet file is set out with one column per variable and one row for each individual (survey form). Note: the first row should be the variable names.ThisisillustratedfortheExcelequivalentofanextractfromtheteach.savdatafile below:
A 1 2 3 4 gender 2 1 2 B born 67 19 24 2 C marital 1 D educate 5 7 7 E profmemb 3 3 3

MakesureyouhaveloadedSPSS(seeExercise1). IntheMenuBar,click File|Open|Data.The OpenFile dialogueboxappears. Notice that SPSS looks for data files in the most recentlyused subdirectory. As you are going to load an Excel file from a USB portablemassstoragedeviceyouneedto insertthisfirst. Insertyour USBportablemassstoragedevice andclick6inthe Lookin: box. Clickon theappropriateremovabledisk,forexample: .

Click6intheFilesoftype: boxandusethescrollarrowsontherightofthedialogue boxtofindExcel. Click Excel (*.xls). You will see your Excel files displayed in the Open File dialogue box. Select the filename you want by clicking on it and then click on the Open button. The Opening Excel Data Source dialog box appears. Makesurethereisa totheleftofRead variable names and click OK. You will see the file appear in the Data View and the filename above the menu bar change. Thiswilltakesometimesobepatient!
EndofExercise3

BecauseyouareloadingthefilefromExcelyouwillstillneedtoaddvariablelabelsand valuelabelswithinSPSSandsaveyourdataasanSPSSdatafile(*.sav).
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Exercise4:To check how variableshavebeen coded

Tocheckwhatthecolumnheadingforeachvariableandthecodesreferto: Click sheetatthebottomofthescreen.Youwillnowsee:

Thefirstcolumncontainsthevariable Name,inthecaseofthefirstrowgender.Thisis thecolumnheadingthatappearsinthe . Thesecondcolumnreferstothe Type ofdata.Althoughgenderiscategoricaldata,itis refered to as numeric because numeric code values have been used! The keyto these codevaluesisgiveninthecolumnheaded Values. ThefifthcolumncontainsthevariablesLabel.Atpresentthisis partiallyobscuredbythe subsequentcolumn.Toseethefullvaluelabel: Move your mouse pointer inbetween the Label and the Values column headings untillthis, appears. Click and drag the column width to the right until the variableslabelcanberead.
Note: ifyouwishtoeditavariableslabeljustretypethelabelin

theappropriatecell. Thesixthcolumncontainsthekeytothecodesusedforeachvariable.Theseareknown asthe Value labels. ToseetheValue labelsused: Clickonthecellcontainingthefirstvalueforthevariablegender Clickonthe totherightofthiscell.

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The Value Labels dialogue box appears. Itshowsthecurrentvaluelabelsforthis variable.

Note:youcanalsousethisoptionto changeeachvaluelabelforthe codes orenternewvaluelabels. Click in the Value Labels dialogueboxtoreturnto theVariableView. Usetheideasinthisexercisetoexploreatleastfiveothervariablesinthedataset. CheckthecodeswiththosethatappearinAppendix1,can youfindanyerrors?
EndofExercise4 Exercise5: Toundertakeafrequencydistribution

Returnto

Click Analyse | Descriptive Statistics | Frequencies. The Frequencies dialogue box appears. Ifthevariablesarearranged alphabetically, use the downward arrow on the lefthandboxtoscrolldown until Gender appears. Highlight Gender in the left handboxbyclickingonit. Click tomovegenderintothe Variable(s) box.

Note the arrowbutton changes direction and thecursormovestothe Variable(s) box.Thisistoallowyoutoreverseyourdecisionifyouwish. Click .

Youwillseeaseriesoftablesdisplayedinthe SPSSViewer.NotethatSPSStellsyouif therearemissingcases.Inthisinstance,thereisonemissingcase.

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Use6and4to scroll to view the frequencies table. Note that SPSS lets you know if thereareanymissingcasesandcalculatesthevalidpercentappropriately.

Repeat thisprocessusing Analyze|DescriptiveStatistics|Frequencies foratleast five other variables of your choice. You can do this by pointing and clicking on themenucommandswhicharevisibleatthetopofyourscreen. While you are doing this, explore the effect of the buttonsonyouroutput. To remove the variables from the right Variable(s) box within the dialogue box either click click . . or highlight the variable in the right Variable(s) box and

Toquitthisanalysis(forexample, ifyoumakeamistake)click

Youmay(ormaynot!)havenoticedthateachofthetasksyouhaveperformedinSPSS has beenautomaticallyappendedtothe SPSSOutputViewer.Youcanseethisbyscrolling throughyouroutputwindowusingtheupanddownarrowsontherightofthewindow.


YoucanedittheSPSSViewerandsaveit,orpartsofit,toafilewhichcansubsequently beread intoawordprocessor.Alternativelyyoucanprintitout.

5.1:To delete outputinthe SPSS output viewer TodeletesomeoutputintheSPSSOutputViewer:

Click the area you want to delete, a line will appeararoundit.


PressDelete.

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Todeletealltheoutputinthe SPSSOutputViewer: Ensurethatthe SPSSOutputViewer windowismaximised. IntheSPSSOutputViewerclick Edit|SelectAll. Press Delete.

5.2: TosavethecontentsoftheSPSS output viewertoafile

Click File|SaveAs Type in the filename you wish to save it to in the Filename box,makingsure thefiletypeis *.spv. Ensure that the file is beingsavedtothecorrect drive and directory (note: pleasedonotsaveoutput fromthe TEACH.SAV file). Click
EndofExercise 5 Exercise6: Tocalculatethearithmeticmean(average)andthestandarddeviation

Click Analyze|DescriptiveStatistics|Descriptives. Scroll down to and select the Journey variable (its at the end of the variable list), then click4to put it in the Variable(s) box. Click .

Notehowtheresults areaddedtotheend

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ofyouroutputinthe SPSS Viewer. Note: you may need to maximise the window by clicking [ ] to see all the statistics. We can thereforeseethat the mean journey to work is11.45km.
Endof Exercise6

Calculatingameanmakessense,asweareworkingouttheaveragedistance.However wehavetobecareful. We could calculate the mean gender in the same way. SPSS would take the codes for male(1)andfemale(2),addthemallupanddividebythenumberofobservations.Itis therefore important that you decide what statistic makes sense for the type of data (Section2.2). Other statistics for the average aremoreappropriateinthiscasethemode(theone thatoccursmostoften).
Exercise7: Tocalculatethemodeandothermeasuresofcentraltendency Tocalculatethemodeforthevariablegender:

Click Analyze|DescriptiveStatistics|Frequencies. Click toemptytheVariable(s)box.

Select Gender, then click4to put it in the Variable(s) box. Click right on the

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Select Mode in the Central Tendency dialogue box by clickingonit.


A appearsintheboxwhenitis selected(see right).

Click to return to the Frequencies dialoguebox. Thistime,wedonotwant an output table so click the box to the left of to removethetick. Click .

The following will be added to the SPSS Output Viewer (dont forget to maximise the window andscrolldown). We now know that the most commongenderis2 female.

Repeatthisprocessbycalculatingthemostappropriateaverageforthefollowing variables:
educate seg prevemp class salary threeothersofyourchoice

Yourchoicesforthemostappropriateaverageare:

Mean:normallyknownastheaverageofthedatavalues. Median:themidpointonceallthedatavalueshavebeenranked. Mode:thedatavaluethatoccursmostoften.

EndofExercise7 Exercise8:To producea bar chart

Click Analyze|DescriptiveStatistics|Frequencies. Deselectallvariablesbyclickingthe Reset button.


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Scrolldownandselectthevariable (socialclass) Class. Click .

Usetheradiobuttontoselect BarCharts|Continue. Atthe Frequencies dialogueboxclick OK. The SPSS Output Viewer will contain yourbarchart. Noticethatmissing data are automatically excluded from the chart. Notice also that you are presented with a different menu bar which allows you to edit the current chart and other options. Totheleftofyourbarchartisaseriesoficons.Theseprovideanindextoyour outputthatisinthe SPSSOutputViewer. Clickthe icon ontheleft toseewhathappens.

Now practice your charting skills by creating another bar chart for the variable (educationalattainment) Educate butwiththeverticalaxisdisplayingpercentages ratherthanfrequencies. Youwillneedto:

Deselect the variable Class and select the variable Educate. Select
Percentages Continue. |

Thiswillgiveyouachartlike theoneontheright.
EndofExercise8

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Exercise9:To createa table(Crosstab)of one variable against another

One of the most useful features of SPSS is its ability to create crosstabulations of one variable againstanother.Inthisexercise,youwillcreatea table of the variable Educate (Educational attainment) bythevariable Gender.Youwillwant yourtabletolooklikethis. Todothis: MinimisetheSPSSOutputViewer. Click Analyze|DescriptiveStatistics |Crosstabs. This gives the Crosstabs dialoguebox. Select the Row(s) variable Educational Attainment and theColumn(s) variableGender using the same principles as whenselectingfrequencies. Once you have selected row and column variables, you willbeabletoclick OK. Your table will appear in the SPSSOutputViewer.

male postgradplus uptodegree uptoHNC/D uptoA'level uptoO'level(GCSEC+) uptoCSE(GCSED) Noquals.

female

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EndofExercise9 Exercise10:To calculateaChicsquare statisticfora table

MinimisetheSPSSOutputViewer. Click Analyze | Descriptive Statistics | Crosstabs. Select the Row(s) variable Educational Attainment and the Column(s) variable Gender using the same principles as whenselectingfrequencies. Click , the Crosstab: Statistics dialogueboxappears. Select Chisquare option. Click Continue | OK. The results will be displayedintheSPSSOutputViewer.

The key elements of your output are in the row titled Pearson ChiSquare and the associatedfootnote. Thechisquarestatistic(thevalueforPearsonChiSquare),is,inthiscase,52.529with6 degreesoffreedom(df).Thisishighlysignificant.000.Thefootnotestatesthatnocells have an expected count of less than 5 and that the minimum expected frequency for each cell in the table is 7.86. This means the assumptions of the Chisquare test are satisfied.

EndofExercise 10 Exercise11:To add rowand column percentstoa table using crosstabs

MinimisetheSPSSOutputViewer. SelecttwovariablesyouwishtousetocreateatableasoutlinedinExercise9.

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Click atthetoprightof thecrosstabsdialoguebox. Click on Row and/or Column and/or Total in the Percentages dialogue box (see right) to obtain thedesired percentages. Click Continue|OK. Use SPSS to create further new tablesfrompairsofvariablesofyour choice. Note: it would be sensible to usevariablesthatcontaincategorical data rather that quantifiable data seeSection2.2.
EndofExercise11 Exercise12:To recodea variable's valuesintoa new variable

Inthisexerciseyouaregoingtocreateanewvariable educnew fromthevariable Educate (Educationalattainment) byrecodingthevaluesasfollows:


Postgraduatestudy(1) Uptodegreelevel(2) UptoHNC/Dordiploma(3) Notstated 1 1 1 Missing UptoAlevel(4) UptoOlevelorequivalent(5) UptoCSEorequivalent(6) 4 4 4

This will split educational attainment into those educated up to A level (code 4) and those educatedaboveAlevel(code1).

MinimisetheSPSSOutputViewer. Click Transform|Recode|IntoDifferentVariables. Thisgivesthe RecodeintoDifferentVariables dialoguebox. Click Educate inthevariablelist on the lefthand side, it willbe highlighted. Click to transfer the variable into the Numeric Variable >OutputVariable box. In the Output Variable area, clickinthe Name: boxandtype the new variable name educnew and a new variable label College Education? in the Label boxbelow.

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Click

NoticethatthenewvariablelabelappearsintheNumericVariable >OutputVariable box. Click and the Recode into Different Variables dialogueboxopens. To recode the values 1, 2 and3into1: Click the Range radio button in the Old Value dialogue box andtype 1 inthefirst box and 3 in the secondbox. Clickthe Value radiobuttoninthe NewValue dialogueboxandtype 1 intheboxto theright. Click Add. Notethattherecodehasbeenaddedintothe Old >New dialoguebox: Revisethisproceduretorecodethevalues4,5and6to4. Revisethisproceduretorecodethevalue7toamissingvalue,usingtheValue and the SystemMissing radiobuttons. Checkthe Old > New dialogueboxlookslikethis: Click Continue|OK. Thenewvariablewillbecreatedandyouwillbereturnedtothe DataView. NowusetheproceduresoutlinedinExercise5toproduceafrequencydistribution foryournewvariable.
EndofExercise12 WARNING: it is possible to recode a variable into the same variable, however doing this will DELETEtheoriginalvaluesforthevariable.Ifyoudecidetodothis,makeasecuritycopy(save ontoadifferentdisc)ofyourdatafirst. Exercise13: Tocomputeanewvariablefromexistingvariable(s)

In this exercise, you are going to create a new variable age from the variable born by subtractingthevariablebornfromtheyear,inthisinstance95.Remember, yearofbirth wasonlycodedastheyearsinthe lastcenturyandsowedonotincludethe19.
Age =95 born

EnsuretheSPSSOutputViewerisminimised.
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Click Transform|Compute. This gives the Compute Variable dialoguebox. Type age inthe Target Variable: box. Click and labelthevariable Ageinyears. Click Continue. Point and click the number 9 followedby 5 on the number pad inthedialoguebox. Point and click the arithmetic operator in the dialogue box. Clickthevariableborn (Year of birth) in the list of variable names on the list and click . Check that this expression has appeared in the Numeric Expression box. Ifyoumakeacompletemessofit,click Reset atthebottomandstartagain. Click OK.
This is only a very simple compute and it is possible to do far more complex calculations. In somecasesitisbettertowritethemdownpriortotypingthemin! EndofExercise13

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Exercise14:To undertakean analysison partofthe data set

Inthisexerciseyouaregoingtoselectasubsetofyourdata:allfemaleemployees. Ifnecessary,minimisetheSPSSOutputViewer. Click Data|SelectCases. Click on the If condition is satisfied radiobutton. Click button, the following dialogue boxappears: Click Gender variablelist. in the

Click to transfer the variable into the box on the right. Click ontheoperator inthedialoguebox. Click on the number 2 on the number pad in the dialoguebox. Checkthattheexpression gender=2 hasappearedin thebox. Click .

Check that the Unselected Cases Are: Filtered is selected. Filtered means that you will not be deleting the rest of your data, in this case all the males!

Click OK. Undertakeananalysisofyourchoice, usingjustthedataforfemales.


EndofExercise14 Exercise15:To returntothe full data setafter usinga selection(select cases)

MakesuretheSPSSOutputViewerisminimised. Click Data|SelectCases.


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Clickonthe Allcases radiobutton. Click OK.


EndofExercise15

Exercise16:To exitSPSS

Click File|Exit. SPSSwillaskyouifyouwanttosavethecontentsofyour OutputViewerandData Editor.


EndofExercise16

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4) ANALYSINGYOUROWNDATAIN SPSS FOR WINDOWS


Exercise17:To checkthatyour datahave been entered correctly

MakesurethatyouhaveloadedSPSS(Exercise1). Loadyourdatafile(Exercise2,orExercise3foranExcelfile). Construct a frequency distribution (frequencies) for each variable and check it in the output window (Exercise 5). Provided you have labelled all valid value labels, anyvalueswithoutlabelswillbeerrors!NB:ifyouhaveloadedanExcelfilethere willbenovaluelabels. Construct tables (crosstabs) to discover if data have been entered for questions where the respondent shouldhavenotresponded(Exercise9);perhapsduetoa skipgeneratedbyafilterquestion.
Compute new variables to make sure there are no foolish responses (Exercise 13)

suchasemployeesagedover65. Foreacherrornotedowntheidnumberwhichcorrespondstothesurveyformby using:


SelectCases (Exercise14)toonlyselectthosecaseswhichcontainthe error.

Crosstabs (Exercise 9) to construct a table of the variable identifier by the

variablewhichcontainstheerror. CorrectyourdataasdescribedinHelp17.1to17.4.

Help17.1:toreplaceadatavalue

MakesurethatyouhaveloadedSPSSandthatthedatafilehasalreadybeenopened. Clickthecellthatcontainsthedatavalue. Enterthenewvalue(thiswillreplacetheoldvalue). Press Return.Thenewvalueappearsinthecell.

Help17.2:To deleteall data valuesfora variable(or case) Note: beforedeletinganentirevariable(orcase),itisworthsavingthedatafile(Exercise

10)incaseyoumakeamistake. Highlightallthevaluesforthatvariable(orrow)but not thevariablename.

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Press Delete.Eachvaluewillbereplacedby"."signifyinga"missingvalue".

Note: if you make a mistake, you can rectify it immediatelyafterwardsbyclicking Edit| Undo.

Help17.3:To deletea variable(or case)

Clickthevariablename(orcasenumber)tohighlighttheentirecolumn(orcase).

Press Delete.Thevariable(orcase)willbedeleted.

Note: if you make a mistake, you can rectify it immediatelyafterwardsbyclicking Edit| Undo.

Help17.4: Toentermissingvalues

Missingvaluesinacellaresignifiedbya"."asillustratedinHelp17.2.Toenteramissing valueinablankcelldo not type"." Clickoncellinwhichtoenterthatthedataismissing. Press Tab tomoveonecelltotheright. Typeinthenextvalue. Press Tab tomoveonecelltotherightandsoon.
Toenteramissingvalueinacellwhichalreadyhasavalueit:

Clickoncellwhichcurrentlycontainsthedata. Press Delete. Press Tab tomoveonecelltotheright.


Exercise18:To analyse data

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Notetheresearchquestionsyouwishtoanswer. Choose the most appropriate statistical and charting techniques and SPSS procedures. Use the SPSS procedures to analyse the data (see Help 18.1 to 18.3 for additional procedures).

Help18.1:To testfora significant relationship between two variables(correlation)

MakesureyouhaveloadedSPSSandthatthedatafilehasalreadybeenopened. Click Analyze|Correlate|Bivariate. Click on the first variable for you wish to obtain a correlation coefficient with anothervariable. Click to transfer the variable into the Variables box. Repeatthisprocedureforthe other variable(s) you wish to correlate with the first variable. Choose the most appropriate CorrelationCoefficient foryour dataandmakesurethereisa inthebox. Choosethemostappropriate TestofSignificance andclickontheradiobutton.
Note: use a Twotailed test when the direction of the relationship, positive or negative, cannotspecifiedinadvance.Usea Onetailed testwhenitcanbespecifiedinadvance.

Makesurethereisa inthebox Flagsignificantcorrelations.Thiswillensurethe significancelevelisdisplayed. Click OK. TheresultsofthecorrelationwillappearintheOutputWindow.

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In this output window, thevariables Salary and Born from the TEACH.SAV data set havebeencorrelated. SPSS has produced a correlation matrix. Obviously there is a perfect correlation (1.0000) between the variable initial annual Salary anditself. Asthevariableiscorrelatedwithitselfitisimpossibletocalculatethesignificance(p=. ).Thereisnocorrelation(0.011)betweenthevariable Salary andthevariable Born and thislackofcorrelationissignificantatthe0.841(p = 0.841)level.

Help18.2:Totestforasignificantcausalrelationshipbetweenonedependentandone ormoreindependentvariables(linearregression)

MakesureyouhaveloadedSPSSandthatthedatafilehasalreadybeenopened. Checkthatyourdataareappropriateforregressionanalysis. Click Analyze|Regression|Linear. Click on the dependent variable which you wish to predict using another variable or variables. Click to transfer the variableinto the
Dependent

box. Repeatthisproceduretotransfertheindependentvariable(s)youwishtouse topredictthedependentvariableintothe Independent(s) box. Click OK.

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Warning: interpreting the regression output is comparativelycomplicated. You need to understand the regression coefficient (r2) and the regressionequation(y=a+bx).The

SPSS manual (Norusis, 1992) explains these in some detail. A simpler explanation of regression withone independent variable is provided in Section 2, Unit 18 of Saunders andCooper(1993).

Help18.3:To useotherstatisticaltests

Giventheintroductorynatureofthishandout,andtheneedforareasonablestatistical knowledgeto makeinformeddecisionsabouttheuseofstatisticaltests,theprocedures forotherstatisticaltestsarenotdiscussed.

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5) FURTHER READING
ThemostusefulbookonSPSSinmyopinionis:
q

Norusis,M.J.(2007). SPSS15GuidetoDataAnalysis.London:Prentice Hall.

Unlike many computer manuals this is both readable and easy to use! It also contains adviceregardingwhentousedifferentstatisticaltests.However,atthetimeofwriting, theupdateofthebookforversion10hasyettobewritten. Two goodbooks onSPSSforbeginners, whichalsoclearlyexplainthestatisticsare:
q q

Field,A.(2009). DiscoveringStatisticsUsingSPSS (3rd Edn).London:Sage. Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide toDataAnalysisUsing SPSSforWindows(Version15).Buckingham:OUP.

These books offer a clear, nontechnical approach to using SPSS. They assume little familiarity with the data analysis software and cover both inputting data and how to generateandinterpretawiderangeoftables,diagramsand statistics. A reasonably straightforward book on collecting your data and preparing it for quantitativeanalysisis:
q

Saunders, M.N.K., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students (5th Edn). London:FinancialTimes PrenticeHall,Chapters10and11.

If you need a statistics book that assumes virtually no statistical knowledge focussing upon which test or graph, when to use it and why. It is written for people who are fearfulandanxiousaboutstatisticsanddonotthinktheycanunderstandnumbers then youmayfindthefollowinghelpful:
q

BermanBrown,R.andSaunders,M.(2008). Dealingwith Statistics:Whatyouneedto know. Maidenhead: McGrawHillOpenUniversityPress.

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6) APPENDIX 1: LISTOF VARIABLES


ANDTHEIR CODESFOR DATA SET

1) LocalGovernment 2) OutsideLocalGovernment 3) Student 4) Unemployed 5) Selfemployed 6) YouthTrainingScheme 7) Retired


PREVEAST

TEACH.SAV
Variable names are in capitals with the variablelabelonthesameline.Codesand valuelabelsappearonsubsequentlines.
GENDER

GenderofEmployee 1) Male 2) Female


BORN

TownofpreviousemploymentEastings
PREVNOR

YearofBirth
19 year MARITAL

TownofpreviousemploymentNorthings
APPLEAST

HomeTownwhenappliedEastings
APPLNOR

MaritalStatus 1) Single 2) Married 3) Widowed 4) Divorced


EDUCATE

HomeTownwhenAppliedNorthings
OCCUPAT

Occupation(OPCS1980Classification) 1.00 2.10 2.20 2.50 3.10 3.20 5.20 6.10 Solicitor Auditor Accountant Valuer PersonnelOfficer WorkStudyOfficer AdvertisingExecutive EHOfficer

EducationalAttainment 1) PostgraduateStudy 2) UptoDegreeLevel 3) UptoHNC/DorDiploma 4) UptoAlevel 5) UptoOlevel 6) UptoCSE 7) Noeducationalqualificationsstated


PROFMEMB

4.20 ComputerProgrammer

6.20 BuildingInspector 8.00 AdminExecutive 9.50 LegalExecutive 9.80 Curator(Museum) 13.10 Warden(OAP) 13.20 PlayGroupLeader 13.30 WelfareOccupationsn.e.c. 18.20 Vet
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ProfessionalBodyMembership 1) MemberofProfessionalBody 2) Notamemberofa ProfessionalBody


PREVEMP

NatureofPreviousEmployment

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22.20 Projectionist 25.00 MunicipalEngineer 31.10 Architect/TownPlanner 31.20 QuantitySurveyor 31.30 BuildingSurveyor
33.10 Architect/TownPlannerTechnician 33.20 Building/EngineeringTechnician

62.30 ArtGallaryAttendant 63.30 SupervisorBar 63.40 SupervisorCatering 65.20 Barperson 66.10 CounterHand 71.10 SupervisorCaretakers 71.40 SupervisorCarParks 72.10 Caretaker 72.20 Cleaner 75.20 CarParkAttendant 75.60 ServiceWorkern.e.c. 76.30 ForemanGardeners 78.10 HorticultureWorkers 78.20 Gardener 83.00 DogWarden 100.30PrintMachineOperator 105.10 Carpenter 109.30BlackSmith 111.00 ManagementTrainee 114.50 ForemanFitters 118.10 Fitter 125.00 Plumber 133.40 PainterandDecorator 139.10 ForemanBricklayers 139.11 ForemanSewageWorkers
139.12 ForemanConstructionWorkers

33.40 WorksManager 35.10 MaintenanceSupervisor 35.20 ClerkofWorks 36.20 TransportManager 36.30 StoresController 37.20 OfficeManager
39.50 Entertainments/SportsManager

44.10 CaravanSiteManager 44.40 Managersn.e.c. 45.20 SupervisorStoresClerks


45.30 SupervisorDrawingAssistants

45.40 SupervisorClerks 45.50 SupervisorCashiers 46.10 ClerkStores 46.20 TracerAssistant 46.30 ClerkNonretail 47.00 CashierRetail
48.20 SupervisorMachineOperators

49.10 Receptionist 49.20 Typist 50.00 PunchCardOperator 51.10 TelephoneReceptionist 51.20 SwitchBoardOperator 56.00 MealsonWheelsOperator 60.40 EstateRanger 60.60 SupervisorSecurity 62.10 ParkKeeper
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139.80HighwaysInspector 140.10 Bricklayer 140.50BuildingWorker 142.10 SeagePlantAttendant 152.20 RefugeVehicleDriver 152.30 RoadSweeperDriver 156.10 ForemanStorekeeper 156.40ForemanRefuseCollection
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157.10 StoreKeeper 157.40 RefuseCollector 159.80ForemanLabourers 160.80 Labourern.e.c.


EMPSTAT

EMPLEAST

TownofEmploymentEastings
EMPLNOR

TownofEmployment(Northings)
HOMEEAST

EmploymentStatusonapplication 1) Manager 2) Foreman/Supervisor 3) Apprentice/Trainee 4) Employeen.e.c.


SEG

Home Town at start of Employment (Eastings)


HOMENOR

Home Town at start of Employment (Northings)


NOTIFY

1) NotificationOutlet1 2) Internal
Government and Managers Industry in

SocioeconomicGroup
1.2

3) Wordof Mouth 4) LetterofEnquiry 5) CirculartoadjacentLocalAuthorities 6) JobCentre 7) PER(ProfessionalExecutiveRegister) 8) EmploymentAgency(PrivateSector) 9) CareersOffice(local)


DAILYLOCALNEWSPAPERS

4.0 5.1
5.2

ProfessionalEmployees AncillaryWorkers
Foremen/Supervisors(nonmanual)

6.0 7.0
8.0

JuniorNonmanual PersonalServices
Foremen/Supervisors(manual)

9.0 10.0 11.0 15.0


CLASS

SkilledManual SemiskilledManual UnskilledManual AgriculturalWorkers

10) EveningPost
WEEKLYLOCALNEWSPAPERS

11) TwoCountyCourier 12) Local TownChronicle 13) CountyMessenger 14) CountyExpress 15) LocalTownNews 16) EastCountyGazette
FREEWEEKLYLOCALNEWSPAPERS

SocialClass 1) Professional 2) IntermediateNonmanual 3) JuniorNonmanual 4) SkilledManual 5) SemiskilledManual 6) UnskilledManual


SALARY

17) LocalTownNewsinFocus 18) NewsinFocus 19) LocalTownTimes 20) LocalTownTimesandGazette


NATIONALDAILYNEWSPAPERS

InitialAnnualSalary(SpinalColumnPoint)

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21) DailyMail 22) DailyTelegraph 23) TheTimes 24) TheGuardian


NATIONALSUNDAYNEWSPAPERS

50) MunicipalJournal* 51) Public Service Government* 52) MunicipalEngineer* 53) BathsServiceCircular 54) CatererandHotelSupervisor 55) AccountancyAge 56) Management(WorkStudy)Services 57) QuantitySurveyorsWeekly 58) Surveyor 59) ArchitectsJournal 60) ThePlanner 61) Building 62) Planning 63) LawSocietyGazette 64) MeatTradesJournal 65) Protection 66) Institute of Personnel Managers Digest 67) NewCivelEngineer 68) VeterinaryRecord 69) CurrentVacancies 70) TheStage 71) RegionalArtsMagazine 72) HealthandSafetyatWork
NOTIFY2

and

Local

25) SundayTimes
JOURNALS SERVICE) AND MAGAZINES (*PUBLIC

26) CommercialMotor 27) HorticultureandAmenitiesWeekly 28) Army Appointments Magazine 29) ChurchTimes 30) ParksandRecreation 31) GolfIllustrated 32) Groundsman 33) Healthand SocialServices Journal 34) LadyMagazine 35) PublicFinanceandAccounting* 36) Institute of Management Science Journal 37) UKPressGazette 38) BuildingTradesJournal 39) GardenersChronicle 40) SolicitorsJournal 41) NursingTimes 42) NurisingMirror 43) PolicyHolderInsuranceJournal 44) Opportunities* 45) EstatesGazette 46) ClerkofWorksWeekly 47) Computing 48) Association of Recreation Managers Appointments 49) LocalGovernmentChronicle*
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Service

NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
NOTIFY3

NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
NOTIFY4

NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
NOTIFY5

NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
NOTIFY6

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NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
NOTIFY7

10) Death 11) Illness 12) Marriage 13) FamilyCommitments 14) FirstJobCommitments 15) Leaving theCountry 16) TravelCosts 17) FixedTermContract 18) Other
FULLPART

NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
NOTIFY8

NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
NOTIFY9

NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
NOTIFY10

NotificationOutletasforNOTIFY1
YEAREMP

YearofEmployment
19 Year ofEmployment ASSISTAC

FullorParttimeEmployment 1) Part Time 2) Part Time(secondjob) 3) Fulltime


HEARDN1

AssistancebyAccommodationProvision 1) PermanentAccommodationProvided 2) TemporaryAccommodationProvided 3) Noassistancegiven


ASSISTMO

NOTIFY1ishowfirstheardofvacancy 1) Yes 2) No
Thefollowingadditionalvariableshavebeen createdusingSPSS INTERNAL

AssistancewithMovingExpenses 1) FinancialAssistanceGiven 2) NoAssistanceGiven


TERMYEAR

Notifiedinternally 1) used 2) notused


CIRCULAR

YearofTerminationofEmployment
19 Yearof Termination TERMWHY

1) ReasonforTermination 2) NewJob 3) Spouse'sNewJob 4) GoingtoCollege 5) HavingaBaby 6) EarlyRetirement 7) Retirement 8) Redundancy 9) Dismissed


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Notified by circulating other Local Authorities 1) used 2) notused


JOBCENTR

NotifiedatJobCentre 1) used 2) notused


LOCAL

NotifiedinLocalPress
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1) used 2) notused
REGIONAL

1) used 2) notused
DISTMIG

NotifiedinRegionalMedia 1) used 2) notused


NATIONAL

DistanceMigrated(km) straightlinedistancemigrated
JTOWORK

Journeytowork(km) newjob straightlinedistanceofjourney

NotifiedinNationalMedia

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page:

Fulltime/parttime Reasonfortermination(9) Yearoftermination Assistance(8) YearofEmployment Notificationoutlet(s)(7) Hometown new(4) NewEmployment location(4) SpinalColumnpoint(6) Occupation(5) Hometown applied(4) PreviousEmployment location(4) PreviousEmployment nature(3) Professional membership(2) Education(1) Maritalstatus YoB April2009 Prof.MarkN.K.Saunders Gender ID
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Nameoforganisation:

DATACOLLECTIONSHEETFORPERSONNELRECORDS

Nameoforganisation:

7) NOTESON DATACOLLECTION
1) Recordedashighestqualificationachieved. 2) Recordedonayes/nobasis. 3) Codedatcollection(1:LocalGovernment,3:OutsideLocalGovernment,4:Student, 5: Unemployed, 6: SelfeEmployed; additional codes added as necessary during collection). 4) Recorded as place name, subsequently coded as a grid reference (Eastings and Northings). 5) Recorded as actual job; subsequently coded into occupation, employment status, socioeconomic group and social class using existing UK government classification (see pages 3334 of ResearchMethodsforBusinessStudents, 3rd Edn for details of UKgovernmentclassifications). 6) Recordedasspinalcolumnpointtoovercometheimpactofinflationonsalaries. 7) Alloutletsrecorded,whereoutletactuallyheardaboutjobknown, indicatedby*. 8) Provisionofaccommodationand/ormovingexpensesrecorded. 9) Recordedasactualreason,subsequentlycoded.

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