# CONTENTS

Introduction Basic Concepts of Digital to analog modulation PSK QAM

Representation of signal modulated by a digital modulation.Introduction What is Signal Constellation diagram ? . Baud rate . . Bit rate . . They also help you visually understand how a particular modulation mechanism works.

Example data from computer to another across a public access phone line.Digital toofAnalog Modulation Is the process changing one of the characteristics of an analog signal based on information in a digital signal(0s and 1s). Amplitude . frequency and phase. .

Types of digital/analog modulation .

Phase Shift keying(PSK) Phase of the carrier is varied to represent binary 1 or 0. . Phase to 180 degrees to send binary 1. Phase of 0 degrees to represent binary 0.

Conceptual view of PSK .

PSK Constellation .

4PSK.Conceptual view .

4-PSK Constellation diagram .

.8 PSK When we have eight possible phases . 8-PSK is three times faster than 2-PSK Three bit represents by each phase is called a tribit.we can send three bits at a time.

8-PSK Constellation diagram .

This factors limits its potential bit rate. Combine ASK and PSK.Quadrature Amplitude Modulation PSK is limited by the ability of the equipment . Then we have maximum contrast between each bit .

QAM 8-QAM .QAM Constellations 4.

Time domain for an 8QAM .

QAM Constellation .16.

Bit and Baud comparison .

Why are constellation maps or diagrams useful? They help you design a transmission system that is less prone to errors and can possibly recover from transmission problems without relying on higher level protocols. . The analysis of a transmission system's constellation map allows the development of error detection and error correction schemes that can detect transmission problems.

Thanks Indian Elango .