Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013

SELVAM COLLEGE OF TECHNOLGY, NAMAKKAL-3 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SUB: INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS SEM / YEAR: VII / IV UNIVERSITY: ANNA UNIVERITY, CHENNAI YEAR: 2012-2013 Unit-I: 1. Name the FOUR basic robot configurations. a) Cartesian coordinate system b) Cylindrical coordinate system c) Polar or spherical coordinate system d) Revolute coordinate system 2. List out the types of joint Notation. (a) Linear joint, (b) Rotational joint, (c) Twisting joint, (d) Revolving joint. 3. What is meant by a work envelope? The work envelope is described by the surface of the work space. It depends upon the number of types of joints, physical types of joints and links and the range of various joints. 4. Sketch a robot and name its parts. 1. Manipulator (Robot arm) 2. End effector 3. Controller 4. Gripper 5. Actuator 5. What is meant by workspace? The space in which the end point of the robot arm is capable of operating is called as workspace in other words, reach ability of robot arm is known as workspace. 6. What is meant by degeneracy?  Some robots, though, do have a certain joint arrangement in their final orientation joints that can lead to redundancy for certain orientations.  Most industrial robots have 6 or less joints, thus, redundancy is not inherent to their design. 7. List the various types of robot drive system for industrial robots 1. Electric drive: (a) DC motor; (b) Servomotor; (c) Stepper motor 2. Pneumatic drive 3. Hydraulic drive

“Allah is great”

Page 1

(v) Inspection “Allah is great” Page 2 . (b) Process Application (i) Welding (ii) Painting (iii) Assembly . (iii) Hydraulic motor 10. What is meant by robot anatomy?  The robot anatomy is the study of structure of robot that is physical construction of the manipulator's structure. is segmented into arm that ensures mobility and reachability. (or) Sketch a twisting joint. (ii) Swing motor.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 8. What are the three degrees of freedom associated with the arm and body motion? Three degrees of freedom associated with the arm and body motion are:  Right (or) Left movement (X-axis motion)  In and out movement (Y -axis motion)  Vertical movement (Z-axis motion) 12.  A robot's work envelope is the range of movement 13. Sketch and indicate the type of any rotating joints used in robots. Give some application of robots in industries. What are the types of hydraulic actuators used in robotics? (i) Piston cylinder.  The mechanical structure of manipulator that consists of rigid bodies (links) connected by means of joints. (a) Material Handling Application (i) Material transfer application (ii) Machine loading/unloading application. and an end effectors that performs the required task 11. a wrist that confers orientation.  Work envelop is defined as the envelope (or) space within which the robot can manipulate the end of the wrist. Rotational (R): 9. (iv) Machining. Define the term work envelope.

(viii) End effector ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Unit-II: 1. How do you specify a robot? (i) Speed. Write about Hall Effect sensors. What is inverse Kinematics? It is a scheme to determine joint angles of robot by knowing its position in the world coordinate system. Pjoint = (θ1. List any two important advantages and disadvantages of a pneumatic gripper. Disadvantages: 1. a) Template matching b) Structural Technique 2. 5. (iv) Repeatability (v) Accuracy. 2. Electric drive (a)DC Motor (b) Servo motor (c) Stepper motor 4. When a beam of charged particles passes through a magnetic field forces act on the particles and the beam is deflected from the straight line path a current flowing in a conductor is like a beam of moving charges and thus can be defined by magnetic field 3. Its light weight design. Name any four proximity sensors used in robotics Sensor. 3. (vi) Reliability (vii) Manipulator. It is not suitable for heavy loads. Pick up time is very fast. State any two techniques used for object recognition. θ3) 6. 1. It is possible to distribute the pressure uniformly the entire area.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 14. Classify the robots according to the drive system. (ii) Actuator (iii) Payload. which senses the presence or absence of the object without having physical contact between the objects I) Inductive Sensor 2) Capacitive Sensor 3) Ultrasonic Sensor. Control is simple 4. Pneumatic drive 2. 2. Sometime is required to build the pressure. Advantages of pneumatic gripper: 1. 4) Magnetic Sensor “Allah is great” Page 3 . θ2. Hydraulic drive 3.

θ3) (ii) Direct kinematics: It is a scheme to determine the position of the robot in the world coordinate system by knowing the joint angles and the link parameters of the robot. (ii) Reliability is diminished with successive operations 9. What is a RCC device? For what purpose is it used in a robot? RCC device means Remote. List the types of drives used in robots. Force sensors: Force sensors are used primarily for measuring the reaction forces developed at the interface between mechanical assemblies 11.  Electric drives  Hydraulic drives  Pneumatic drives 12. y. What are the limitations of adhesive grippers? (i) Adhesive substances losses his tackiness on repeated usage.compliance device that enhances the flexibility and reliability of a robot “Allah is great” Page 4 . PJOINT = (θ1. (i) Reverse kinematics: It is a scheme to determine joint angles of a robot by knowing its Position in the world coordinate system. θ2. Distinguish between direct and inverse kinematics. z ) 10. Differentiate between touch and force sensors.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 7. Sketch the screw-actuated mechanical gripper. Center Compliance devices. Touch sensor: It senses the presence or absence of the object by having physical contact between the objects. (ii) The compensator is a . PWORLD = ( x. 8. Uses: (i) RCC device are commonly used in automated assembly applications to provide Compliance for misalignment during assembly.

14.  A servomotor is used within position control (or) speed control feedback control system. What is the properties 0f stepper motor?  Stator wiring (number of coils and wire loads). Gripper 2. Pneumatic grippers. Not suited for clean air environments 16. Magnetic gripper.  Operating voltage and current. 2.  Maximum rotation speed (steps per second). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- “Allah is great” Page 5 .  Mechanical grippers are used to transfer parts from one location to another or to assemble parts. Self lubrication 3. Write the basic principle of servo motor. 4. Hydraulic grippers.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 13. Noisy 5. It can also provide precise control at low speeds. End of arm tooling 18.  Number of steps in a complete rotation. Welding equipment 4. 6. Robust 2. What is a mechanical gripper?  A mechanical gripper is an end effector that uses mechanical finger actuated by mechanism to grasp an object. 1. Not energy efficient 4. 3. High efficiency and high power to size ratio. High maintenance 3. What are the types of grippers?' 1. 5. Advantage: 1. Give some examples of robot end effector. Expensive 2. Disadvantage: 1. Tools 3. Vacuum gripper. State the advantage and limitation of hydraulic drive. 17. 15. Mechanical finger grippers.  Amount of force generated (torque). 4. Collect gripper. Hydraulic robots are more capable of withstanding shock loads. 5.  An electrostatic motor is based on the attraction and repulsion of electrical charge.

When the button is pressed. What are the limitations of hydraulic drive systems? 1) Expensive 2) High maintenance 3) Not energy efficient 4) Noisy 5) Not suited for clean-air environments. 5. List the two basic types of robot programming method. Touch sensors send a signal when physical contact is made. Touch sensors in sensors. When the button is released. Define a tactile sensor and list the types. 7. Textual robot languages c. “Allah is great” Page 6 . State the working principle of a touch sensor. an electrical circuit is closed inside the sensors. a. Digital (Touch) Sensor 2. 4. Mention use of machine vision system. machining to maintain relationship between tool and work. machining for applications like welding.  It is hardware device used to capture and store the digital image. the circuit is broken and no electricity flows. 6.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 Unit-III: 1. (ii) Machine vision systems are used for printed circuit board. (iii) This is for the recognition of object from its image. This lets electricity flow. 1. Tactile sensor is device that indicates the contact between themselves and some other solid objects. Mechanical Programming 3. (i) This can be used to replace. What is the purpose of thresholding in analysis? Thresholding is a binary conversion technique in which each pixel is converted into a binary value either black or white. Analogue (Force) Sensor 2. which senses the presence or absence of the object by having physical contact between the objects. (iv) Achieve 100% accuracy. What is the function of a frame grabber?  A frame grabber is an electronic device that captures individual. digital still frames from an analog video signal or a digital video stream. Lead through methods b.

Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 8.Classify the position sensors. What is meant by template matching? Templates of the parts to be recognized are stored in the vision system memory. What is triangulation?  Triangulation is a process by which the location of radio transmitter can be determined by measuring either the radial distance. a sensor manufacturer twists wire into a tight coil and runs a current through it. The images recorded by the vision camera are compared with the templates stored in memory to determine if a matching part is present. 13. Brief on the working of inductive type proximity sensor.  Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)  Encoders. 10.  Triangulation is sometimes used in cellular communication to pin point the geographic position of a user.  Inductive proximity sensors operate under the electrical principle of inductance. Enumerate the difference between open loop and closed loop control system Open loop control system  It is being relatively simple  Low cost  Good reliability  The disadvantage is that they are often inaccurate since there are no correction for error Closed loop control system  More complex  More cost  Greater chance of breakdowns as a consequence of the greater number of components  Relatively accurate in matching the actual to the required values 9. dials and buttons to regulate the robot's physical movement's and program capabilities 11.  To amplify a devices inductance effect.  Resolver 12. which by definition has a magnetic component induces an electromotive force (emf) is a target object. What is a teach pendant? The teach pendant is usually a small handheld control box with combinations of toggle switches. or the direction of the received signal from two (or) three different points. “Allah is great” Page 7 .  Potentiometer.  Resistive position sensors. Main types of position sensors are:  Incremental  Absolute Some other devices which are used as position sensors.  Inductance is the phenomenon where fluctuating current.

What are Actuators?  Actuators are the devices used for converting hydraulic energy (or) electrical energy into mechanical energy.An object is described with respect to a frame located in the object. and this frame is relocated with a transformation. What are the various techniques in image processing and analysis?  Image data reduction  Segmentation  Feature extraction  Object recognition ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Unit-IV: 1.  This mechanical energy is used to get the work done. “Allah is great” Page 8 . Accuracy 5. Ease of operation 3. Precision 6. Cost 2. What are the applications of Machine Vision System?  Inspection  Identification  Visual serving and navigation 18. List the different types of tactile sensor. or oscillating motion.  Digital (Touch) Sensor  Analogue (Force) Sensor 17. which are recorded with a transformation equation 3.  Most smoothing methods are based on low pass filter 15. actuators perform a function just opposite to that of the pumps. 2. What is smoothing in vision system?  Smoothing in vision system is often used to reduce noise within an image (or) to produce a less pixelated image. dials and buttons to regulate the robot's physical movements and program capabilities.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 14.  The pressurized hydraulic fluid delivered by the hydraulic pump is supplied to the actuators.  In other words. Calibration 16. Reliability' 7. What are the desirable features of sensor? 1. What is meant by a teach pendent? The teach pendent is usually a small hand held control box with combination of toggle switches. Speed of response 8.  The transformation is the result of a sequence of rotations and translations. The hydraulic actuators produce linear. which converts the energy of the fluid into mechanical energy. rotary. Operating range 4. What is transformation?  Transformations of frames introduced to make modeling the relocation of objects easier.

Define the term 'feature extraction ‘ Transforming the input data into the set of feature is called feature extraction. It is normally powered with batteries. 5. Explain any two commands associated with programming of an end effector. 6. What is the command used to execute the speed of the robot in VAL programming?  Speed command is used to define the velocity with which the robot's arm is moved. 90>) Solution: “Allah is great” Page 9 . OPEN I 4. a) Template matching b) Structural Technique 7. 6> < 30. Write the meaning of the following command: DMOVE (1. 8.  SPEED 90: Indicates that the robot should operate at 90% of normal speed during program execution. 5. CLOSE. What is A GV? Automated guided vehicle (AGV) is an independently operated self-propelled vehicle guided along defined pathways in the floor. Explain the reasons for defining points in a program. CLOSE I: These instruction cause the pneumatic control valves to receive a signal to close the gripper. What the benefits of this off line programming?  Reduced down time for programming.45. diameter.  Programming tools make programming easier. A feature area. 3.  Discrete image transforms in image data compression  Hierarchical and progressive compression techniques  Comparison of compression methods 11. 12.  Assists cell design and allows process optimization. 1. List out different types of image compression technique. CLOSE I OPEN I: These instructions cause the pneumatic control valves to receive a signal to open the gripper immediately. 10. OPEN 2. State any two techniques used for object recognition. perimeter. is a single parameter that permits ease of comparison and identification. It is mainly used for handling material from one place to other place.  To define a working position for the end-effector  To avoid obstacles 9.  SPEED 50 Ips: Which indicates the speed of the end effector during program execution would be 50 in/sec.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 4.  Enables concurrent engineering and reduces product lead time. 10) DMOVE (< 4. .

dials and buttons to regulate the robot's physical movements and program capabilities. in the world coordinate system. 90>)  The motion commands an incremental move of axes 4. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Unit-V: 1. 13.  In parenthesis the joint and the distance of incremental move are specified. What is teach pendant? The teach pendant is usually a small handheld control box with combinations of toggle switches. 10) Ist IInd  Ist position indicates the joint number.45° and 90° respectively. Show the relation usd in forward & reverse transformation of 2degrees of freedom manipulator 16. . 5.move. . 2.45.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013  DMOVE is the motion command for an Incremental (or) Delta. Example 1: DMOVE (1. 6 and by 30°. Define degrees of freedom It is defined as one of the variables required to define the motion of a body in space. dials and buttons to regulate the robot's physical movements and program capabilities.  IInd position indicates the distance of the incremental moves. Example 2: DMOVE (< 4. 15. “Allah is great” Page 10 . What is continuous path programming? It is the types of programming were the motion cycle involves smooth complex Curvilinear movements of robot arm. What is teach pendant? The teach pendant is usually a small handheld control box with combination of toggle switches. 6> < 30. Each joint in a robotic system gives the robot one degrees of freedom. 14.  Joint 1 moves by 10 inch. 5. What is reverse kinematics? It is a scheme to determine joint angles of robot by knowing its position.

Give two applications of robot in machining. 6.  Grinding. . What are the general characteristics that make potential robot application technically practical and economically feasible? Hazardous or uncomfortable working conditions Repetitive operations Difficult handling jobs Multicast operation 8.  Planning and engineering the installation. What are the different methods of economic analysis? 1) Payback method 2) Equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) method 3) Return on investment (ROI) method 7. How do you calculate the robot economics by return of investment method? 5.List any two important considerations for robot safety.  Drilling.  Selection of the application.  Installation. The stripe pattern is easily analyzed by a computer to obtain range information. 10.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 3. 9.  Location and installation requirement.  Selection of the robot.  Plant survey to identify potential applications.  Detailed economic analysis and capital authorization. What is the purpose of structured lighting? The intersection of the sheet with objects in the work space yields a light stripe which is viewed through 'a television camera displaced a distance from the light source.  Environmental condition.  Human errors. “Allah is great” Page 11 . What are the steps to be followed by the company in order to implement robot programs in its operations?  Initial familiarization with the technology. What is meant by image analysis? Image analysis ids the collection of processes in which a captured image that is prepared by image processing is analyzed in order to extract information about the image and to identify objects or facts about the object or its environment.  Mode of operation 4.

1.  Payout and investment's expected life. What are the three levels of safely sensor systems in robotics defined by National Bureau of Standards? The National Bureau of standards defines three levels of safely sensor system in robotics.Perimeter penetration detection Level 2 .00. 1. 1. List the typical MOTION command. Level 1 . 1.  Risk is not making investment. DEPART 4.  Cost and risk incase of failure. 45. 00. 13.000. To find: Pay back period Solution: Investment cost Rs.000 Given: Net annual cash flow = Rs. Light load vehicles 6. To wing vehicles 2.  Opportunity cost that is the return from alternative investment.  Tapping  Deburring 11.000 12. List out types of A GV vehicles. What are types of robots commonly used for machine loading and unloading operation? 1. Servo control robot (point to point) 2. DMOVE 16. APPRO 3.Intruder detection inside the work cell Level 3 Intruder detection in the immediate vicinity of the robot. Investment cost Rs. Unit load vehicles 3.000. MOVE 2. Pallet truck vehicles 4. Assembly line vehicles 17. Fork truck vehicles 5. Non-servo robot (pick and place robot) “Allah is great” Page 12 . 45. Calculate the payback period for a robot project with the following data: Net annual cash flow Rs.Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013  Reaming. 15. Which data are required to perform economic analysis of a robot project?  Expected rate of return.

Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013 18. M. Namakkal “Allah is great” Page 13 . Redundancy 2. Asst. 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering Selvam College of technology.Sirajudeen. Professor.Tech. Write two aspects of the safety issue in robotics. Back up system ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prepared by. I.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.