You are on page 1of 21

Rehov Kahanami n 54, Bnei Br ac 03.616.

6340
164 Vi l l age Pat h, Lak ew ood NJ 08701 732.370.3344 f ax 1.877.Pi r c hei
(732.367.8168)
T H E PI RCH EI SH OSH AN I M ROADMAP T O PRAYER PROJECT
The Roadmap t o Prayer
Lesson 7
Pirchei Shoshanim 2005
This shiur may not be reproduced in any f orm without permission of the copyright hol der
81
Yisht abach & Kaddish
n_ a _ n o : 5 : _ n + _ y : | n o . y : a u _ n o_ a o+ p _ n :+ x _ n | : n _ n : n . | : 5
: na _ n: : n: _ n n n : :
< : o o n n : n n n :a x n : + x n_ x : n : o n n y n : n : : _ n n n a o n :
5 : _ n n o + p n : >
< n5 : a n +n > u :y + _ y n n_ y n . n n |: a _n o u . :+ x | : n :
nn a o n_ a . n : o : _ n + _ n +n _ n : . n : n : o a : na _ n . n : | : n
u n :y n :
The Many Prai ses of Yi sht abach
I n Y i shtabach we recite numerous praises in succession. There are 13
expressions of praise f rom Shi r u`Shevacha until v`M alchus and there are
15 expressions of praise until brochos ve`hoda`os (15). Since Y i shtabach
brings the Pesuk ei D e`Z imra section of prayer to a close, it contains in it
all these ref erences of praise as this is the main theme of Pesuk ei
D e`Z i mra.
According to those who count 15 praises, they correspond to the 15 steps in the
Holy Temple (Bei s H ami k dash) between the Womens courtyard (E zras N ashi m
1
) and
the I sraelite courtyard (E zras Y i srael ). On those 15
steps, the L evi `i m (the tribe of Levi) played their
musical instruments and sang songs of praise
(Shi ra) as a musical accompaniment to the
sacrif icial of f erings (Korbanos).
1
Main ent rance t o t he Ezras Yisrael which was t he area t hat t he sacrif ices were of f ered up t o t he M i zbei `ach
(altar)
Lesson
7
T
T
h
h
e
e
R
R
o
o
a
a
d
d
m
m
a
a
p
p
t
t
o
o
P
P
r
r
a
a
y
y
e
e
r
r
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
82
According to those who maintain that there are 13 praises enumerated, they
correspond to the 13 times the word Baruch (blessed) is mentioned in Baruch She`omar,
the opening bracha of Pesuk ei D e`Z i mra. According to k abali sti c li terature it represents the
13 attri butes of M ercy in the verse H ashem, H ashem Kei l Rachum V e` Chanun
2
.(H ashem,
H ashem, G-d, Compassionate and Gracious).
The Magen Avraham
3
writes in the name of the She`lah H ak adosh
4
that one should
recite all these praises in one breath. However, most Posk i m (Rabbinic Authorities on
Jewish Law) rule that it should be said without interruption but not actually in one
breath.
Prai si ng G-d Excessi vely
The Gemora relates in Berachos
5
:
There was once an individual who began praising G-d with many
expressions of praise. Rebbe Chiya stood by listening intently. He waited
until the individual finished his recital and then reprimanded him for
finishing his recital so soon.
Rebbe Chiya asked him: Have you already finished reciting all of G-ds
praises?
Accordingly, one can ask, why do we recite the 13 or 15 praises in Y i shtabach? I snt it a
violation of the above-mentioned principle? Also, why did Rebbe Chi ya wait to
reprimand this individual only when he stopped reciting praise?
The answer is, one is permitted to sing H ashem`s praise as long as one doesnt stop
short. The inherent problem is that at some point one will have to stop, leaving the
impression that there are no longer any praises to be said about H ashem. Since it is
inevitable that one will stop short of saying all of H ashem`s praises one can only say
2
Shemos/ Exodus 34: 6, 7
3
Simon 53
4
Shel ah H aK odosh - R Yeshayah H orowit z Born: Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1565.Died: Tiberius, Israel,
1630.Notes: Talmudist and Kabbalist. He studied in Prague and served as Rav in Poland, Lithuania, and Germany.
He returned to Prague as Rosh Yeshiva in 1615 and was appointed Rav of Jerusalem in 1622. Author of Shnei
Luchos HaBris/Sheloh, a classical work on Halacha, customs, and Kabbalah, written around the 613
Commandments as they appear in each parsha. The author gives kabbalistic interpretations of the laws as well as its
ethical implications.
5
D af 33b
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
83
those expressions of praise that are used by the Torah, as explained in Berachos
6
regarding the praises used at the beginning of She`moneh E srei . Here too, in the bracha
of Y i shtabach, one is only allowed to recite the many praises because we end of f saying
from now unti l eterni ty which means that in truth, H ashem`s praises are never-ending
7
.
However, the above answer is apparently insuf f icient according to N usach Sefard that
substitutes the words from now unti l eterni ty with the words from thi s worl d to the W orl d
to Come, Y ou are G-d which is a new phrase and is not connected to the praises of
H ashem
8
listed in Y i shtabach.
The answer then must be that in Y i shtabach after f inishing Pesuk ei D e`Z imra which is a
collection of chapters and verses of songs of praise
9
, we close this segment of prayer
with a bracha that is bef itting to the content of Pesuk ei D e`Z imra. Unlike the individual
mentioned by the Gemora who began a recital of H ashem`s praises, this bracha is not
meant to be a recital of H ashem`s praises; rather it is recited as an appreciation f or
allowing us to praise H ashem with songs of praise i.e. the songs of Pesuk ei D e`Z i mra .
Rabbi Dr. Elie Munk writes the f ollowing in his book The W orld of Prayer
10
:
The call issued at Baruch Sheomar to praise G-d does not end with the finale of
Yishtabach. To the contrary, it continues with a call to sing praise from now until
eternity. The 15 praises mentioned in Yishtabach correspond to King Davids 15
Songs of Ascent which represent the amount of praise humanly possible to praise
Hashem.
To the Talmud and the early commentators the number 15 represents Creation as
in the verse With Kah - n (numerical value of this Name of Hashem is 15, yud =
10 and hey = 5) Hashem created the worlds. The praises of David which were
sung in Pesukei DeZimra were the Hallelukahs which is the combination of the
words Hallelu (Praise) and Kah (Hashems Name used in Creation
11
). Thus, the
idea of praise to G-d for the Creation of this World and the World to Come is
symbolized in the Songs of Pesukei DeZimra.
6
D af 33b
7
Si ddur H atehi l l ah V e`hati feres
8
Accor ding to this there are only 13 praises as the 2 prai ses brochos ve`hoda`os are not counted with the rest
si nce it starts a new phrase
9
Taken f rom Tanach
10
Page 86
11
I .e. t he Name of G-d which represents t he concept s of t he essence of t he World t o Come (the let ter yud)
and this Wor ld (the letter hey))
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
84
I I n nt t i i m ma at t i i o on n n: n:
The name Shlomo nn:o is encoded in the words that f ollow Y i shtabach - Shi mcha lo`ad
malk ei nu hak ei l (Shl omo nn:o - i n H ebrew). The commentary T ik k un T efi l a
12
is not sure
whether this is the name of the composer or if it ref ers to K ing Solomon - Shlomo
H amelech f or whose honor it was composed. There is an opinion - the Kol bo - that it
was Shl omo H amel ech himself who composed this as indicated by the letters of his
name in the opening words of Y i shtabach followed by the word H amelech (the king).
L L a aw w s s u :+ u :+
I f one recited A sher Y atzar right bef ore Y ishtabach af ter completing the Pesuk ei
D e`Z i mra one should repeat the chapter of A shrei bef ore proceeding to recite
Y i shtabach.
I f the chazzan only received his T alli s and T efi lli n during Pesuk ei D e`Z i mra, he
should put it on at this point with the appropriate blessings
13
.
Other individuals who received their T alli s and T efi lli n during Pesuk ei D e`Z i mra
shoul d wait to put it on af ter Y i shtabach.
Af ter reciting Y i shtabach, the chazzan recites Kaddi sh
12
Commentary in Si ddur Otzar H atefi l os.
13
This is because the Chazzan cannot interrupt between the blessing of Y i sht abach and Kaddi sh
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
85
Kaddish
a: nno o+pn :+xn ...
May Hi s gr eat Name gr ow exal t ed and
sanct i f i ed
Yi sg a d a l v e ' y i sk a d a sh sh e m e i r a b b a
: _ +_ x n o_ + _ p n n n o a_ : . n : y a + : a n ny : 5 , | : n_ n n5 : _ n 5 _ n a
5 n a _ n a : 5 + a n : : o , : x _ y_ a _ n a a : p , : n n .
n n n o a_ : |_ : a n u_ : y : n : y : _ n : y .
|_ : a n n_ a _ n o : o n u _ n: n o_ : n : + _ n n n : _ y n : : _ n n n n o
o + p + : a | n , : y : n : 5 ) oya " n : y : : y : : 5 n ( n 5 : a n : o
n n a o n n n_ n : , : n_ _ + n : y a , : n n .
The Laws of Kaddish
I n Orach Chaim Si mon 55 the Shulchan Aruch teaches the f ollowing Laws
(H alachos):
1. (1) We r ec i t e Kaddi sh (i .e. af t er t he c hazzan r ec i t es Yi sht abac h).
How ever , i f t en adul t J ew i sh, f r ee
14
, mal es
15
, t hat have si gns of
mat ur i t y of at l east t w o pubi c hai r s
16
, ar e not pr esent ; t he Kaddi sh i s
not r ec i t ed. The same appl i es f or t he r ec i t at i on of Kedusha or
Bor c hu t hat may not be r ec i t ed w i t h l ess t han t en men.
2. I f Kaddi sh or Kedusha w as st ar t ed w i t h t en men pr esent and t hen
some peopl e l ef t , i t may be c ompl et ed as l ong as t her e i s st i l l a
maj or i t y of t en men pr esent .
Rama: H owever, l eavi ng i s consi dered an avei ra (si n). Of such peopl e the T orah wri tes and those
who forsak e H ashem .Yeshaya 1:28. But i f ten mal es wi l l sti l l be present, he may l eave
(M ordechai last perek of M egi llah).
14
I .e. not an E h`ved Kena`ani (non-Jewish Slave) who is obligated in all mi tzvos that women are obli gated in.
15
Excluding women, or Androginus etc.
16
At the age of Bar Mi tzvah we can assume that a boy is fully mature even if no hairs are f ound, because we
assume t hat he grew t hem but t hey f ell out . This can be assumed when it s relevant t o Rabbinic obligat ions.
As f or Biblical obligations we must be strict and only rely on a child that actually has two hairs. Magen
Avraham s k 7, Shul chan Aruch Harav seif 6.
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
86
B Ba ac ck k g gr r o ou un nd d n : pn n : pn
The Hist ory of
Kaddish
The Aruch HaShulchan
explains the origins of Kaddi sh.
We f ind that the Gemora in Berachos
17
mentions the praise of Y ehei shemei rabba .
He explains that the A nshei Knesses H agedolah The Men of the Great Assembly
instituted it at the time of the destruction of the Bei s H ami k dash. Since at that time the
Jewish Nation was led into exile and dispersed amongst the nations, the Kavod
Shamayi m - the glory of G-d was greatly diminished. Theref ore, Kaddi sh was instituted
to praise H ashem and exalt His great Name. I t is a prayer (tefi lla) to reinstate the glory
of G-ds dominion over this world and f or this truth to become recognized by one
and all.
Kaddi sh is such a great prayer, that it elicits a tremendous response (so to speak) f rom
H ashem when we recite it. The Gemora in Berachos
18
states:
When the Jewish people enter the synagogues (shuls) and Houses of Study
(Batei Medrash) and say the praise of Amen Yehei shemei rabba Hashem
nods His head (so to speak) and says Praised is a King whose nation
praises him so. What does the father have from exiling his nation? Woe is
to the children whose father has chased them from his table.
Although generally our Tefi llos are in Hebrew (L ashon Kodesh), the recitation of Kaddi sh
was instituted in A ramai c.
In Aramaic
The Kolbo
19
gives a mystical explanation why Kaddi sh is in Aramaic. He writes that it
was composed in Aramaic so that the angels (M alachim) shouldnt understand what
17
D af 3a
18
I bid.
19
K olbo R Aharon Ben Y aakov H aK ohen of Lunel -Born: Narbonne, France, 1280. Died: Majorca, Spain, 1330.
Notes: Halachic codifier. Exiled from France to Spain in 1307. Author of Orchot Chaim/Paths of Life, a
compilation of the opinions of earlier authorities on the laws of prayer, Shabbat, marriage, divorce, and kashrut
Kaddi sh i s r eci ted onl y i n the
pr esence of a minyan; (a
quorum) of ten adul t mal es.
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
87
we are saying. Since in Kaddi sh we exalt H ashem and pray to Him in such a beautiful
manner longing f or the day that H ashem`s glory will be restored, a time when the
nation of H ashem will rise higher than Angels (M alachi m); theref ore we dont want to
express this openly in a language that M alachi m understand.
The Aruch HaShulchan writes that Kaddi sh usually was said after the dissertation of
the Rabbi (drasha) which was attended by many unlearned individuals (amei ha`aretz)
who only spoke Aramaic the common language of the Jewi sh people at that time.
Kaddi sh was theref ore composed in Aramaic so that everyone could understand it.
Based on this, and other esoteric reasons, we continue to recite it the same as always,
even though Aramaic is not the common language of the Jewish people.
The necessit y of having a Minyan
The Mishna in M egi llah
20
enumerates matters of holiness (D evari m she`bi k dusha) that
require a mi nyan of ten adult males in order to allow their recitation. A f ew examples
mentioned by the Mechaber are Kaddish, Kedusha and Borchu. The Mishna
Berura
21
mentions that the repetition of the She`moneh E srei by the chazzan
22
also
requires ten people listening because Kedusha is inserted into it. The Mishna Berura
23
adds to the list, N esi as k apayi m
24
, (the Priestly Blessing) Kri as haT orah (Torah reading)
and the H aftora f rom the N avi (Prophets).
The Gemora in M egi llah
25
states:
etc.,following and order similar to the Tur. Author of Kol Bo/Everything in it, an abridged version of the Orchos
Chaim (some say it was written before and dispute his authorship).
20
D af 23b
21
k 5
22
This repetition is called Chazoras H ashat z
23
k 6
24
Bi rchas Kohani m, the Pri estly blessings
25
D af 23b
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
88
How do we know that these require a minyan? Says Rebbe Chiya
the son of Abba in the name of Rebbe Yochanan, the pasuk
26
says
Venikdashti besoch Bnei Yisrael, and I will become sanctified in
the midst of the sons of I srael; any words of Kedusha
(sanctification) require that they be said with no less than ten
men present.
The Gemora teaches this f rom a series of Gezerah Shavos
27
that f inally end up with the
teaching that besoch Bnei Yisrael means in the presence of ten men. This relates to
the case of the ten Spies (M eragli m) who are ref erred to by the Torah as an Evil
Group (Eidah Harah). This ref ers to ten of the twelve spies that consisted of one
leader f rom each of the 12 Tribes (Shevet). The two that are excluded are Y ehoshua and
Kal ev, who tried to prevent the Spies (M eragli m) f rom giving their unf avorable report
about the Land of I srael, and were not considered partners to the Evil .
Kaddish: The Prayer
The prayer of Kaddi sh is a very special prayer expressing praise to G-d f or G-d to
speedily reveal His glorious kingship and sovereignty over all of Creation. The
highlight of Kaddi sh is the stanza A men Yehei shemei rabba mevorach l e`ol am ul e`ol mei ol maya
Conf irmed; may His great Name be blessed f orever and ever.
The Gemora in Berachos
28
states that when Jews go to shul and recite the praise of
A men Y ehei shemei rabba mevorach le`olam ule`olmei olmaya, G-d responds to their praise
f irst with a sense of pleasure L uck y i s the k ing that i s so praised i n H i s abode and then in
a sense of sorrow W oe is i t for chil dren who are chased away from their father`s tabl e. W oe i s i t
for thefather whose chi ldren arechased away.
A men Y ehei shemei rabba is a beautif ul praise to H ashem which expresses our burning
desire that H ashem`s true glory be restored and recognized to all of mankind. I t elicits
a f eeling of longing by H ashem (so to speak) to have the Jewish people return to their
26
V ayi k ra/ Leviticus 22:32
27
This is one of the 13 methods used in interpret ing the Oral law which are based upon the scriptur es. I f a
word which is similar appears in t wo ot her unrelat ed verses in t he Torah, t his word indicat es t hat t hey have
a connecti on between one and the other. Words that are meant to be used f or the pur pose of a G ezerah
Shaveh were part of the Oral Traditi on.
28
D af 3a
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
89
land and to rebuild the Bei s H amik dash. I n other words, when we say this great praise
and prayer, we recognize our sins and feel remorse over them, which in turn causes
G-d to reassess the sorrow state of Jews in exile.
The remainder of the Kaddi sh prayer is a prayer f or G-ds Name to become glorif ied
in this world which he designed and planned f or a specif ic purpose. I ts a prayer that
His reign should come speedily in our lif etime. I t also expresses how G-ds lof tiness
and His exaltedness are beyond all imaginable praise.
The Torah teaches us that G-ds Name is not considered complete in this world at
present. As long as the nation of A malek exists, G-d says His Name is incomplete and
His throne is incomplete. This means that G-ds glory cannot be manif est in its f ull
splendor as long as the forces of Evil still exist. As long as the nation of Amalek has
not yet been eradicated the f orces of Evil still prevail. A malek is considered the
archenemy of the N ation of Y i srael and f or that reason they are also considered the
archenemy of G-d as well. A malek , a descendant of Esau (E i sav) is bent on destroying
the Jewish N ation role as ambassadors of G-d and His Torah. They are diametrically
opposed to anything sacred or holy. They represent the primary f orce of Evil that
exists in this world. They were the f irst nation that dared attack the Jewish Nation
af ter G-d having perf ormed all kinds of miracles openly and undeniably f or their
sake. A malek `s malicious attacks against the Nation of Y i srael go beyond reason or
justif ication. They literally traveled hundreds of miles t o f ight the Jewish N ation who
were heading towards the Land of Canaan and not at all in their direction. Rather,
their hatred f ueled their actions. This hatred is harbored against us as descendant s of
Jacob, their f oref ather Esaus (E i sav), twin brother. They are a people that the Torah
describes as a nation who cannot be rehabilitated as they scof f at anything genuine or
serious. They are what modern day society labels as hate-mongers. Since A malek is
our sworn enemy G-d proclaimed that we must endeavor to eradicate A malek
completely, f or as long as they remain, G-ds Name is (so to speak) diminished and
incomplete
29
.
In Pract i ce: The Commandment t o Eradi cat e Amal ek
Nowadays, the primary Torah mi tzvah to eradicate A malek is to remind ourselves at
least once a year of A malek `s baseless hatred towards G-d and us, and to despise and
hate them f or it to a point that we are ready to eliminate them. The Rambam notes
that this mi tzvah does not apply in practice since we cannot positively identif y A malek
as a nation since the time of Sancherev who conquered the nations of the world and
29
Shemos 17: 8-16
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
90
sent ref ugees to other countries assimilating people from one nation into people of
another. No longer were the nations native to their own country. As a result,
someone identif ying himself as an A malek i was not necessarily a direct descendent of
A malek . Theref ore, in practice, one may not exercise any hostility towards them.
Kaddish: Different t ypes
B Ba ac ck k g gr r o ou un nd d n : pn n : pn
There are a number of diff erent f orms f or Kaddi sh. They are called by the following
names:
Chatzi Kaddish - Half Kaddi sh
Kaddi sh Shalei m or Kaddi sh T i sk abal - Kaddish that is recited af ter the
completion (Shali m) of an A mi dah She`moneh E srei prayer with an additional
phrase of a prayer f or acceptance (T i sk abal may it be accepted)
Kaddish D e`Rabbanan- recited when f inishing learning the Oral Torah, i.e.
Mishna Gemora. I n the Siddur its said over f inishing Korbanos and A i n
Ke`E lok ei nu which is an acknowledgement of the learning of the Sages in
teaching us the Oral Torah.
Kaddish Y asom - Mourners Kaddi sh
Kaddi sh with `alma de`H u assi d le`i schadatah - is recited at a graveside
immediately af ter the burial. that the same Kaddi sh is recited at a Si yum
(celebration f or the study and completion of a Volume of Torah study)
I Chat zi Kaddi sh
This literally means a half Kaddi sh. I n truth, it is complete; only without additions. I t
is recited by the chazzan -
a. af ter Pesuk ei D e`Z i mra and by
b. the af ternoon prayer of M i ncha right bef ore the A mi dah She`moneh E srei ,
c. bef ore the A mi dah of M ussaf,
d. bef ore the A mi dah She`moneh E srei of the evening prayer of M a`ari v.
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
91
II Kaddi sh Shal ei m or Kaddi sh Ti sk abal
This Kaddi sh adds three verses to the end of Kaddi sh. They are:
a. T i sk abal tzelos`hone .(May the prayers be readily accepted )
b. Y ehei shaloma rabba .(May there be an abundance of peace) and
c. Osseh shalom bi m`eromav (He Who makes peace in His lofty places)
This Kaddi sh is always recited at some point af ter She`moneh E srei as indicated by the
words T i sk abal tzelos`hone .(May the prayers be well received ).
III Kaddi sh DeRabbanan
This Kaddi sh is recited after a group of 10 men f inish studying a portion of M i shna or
Talmud. I t consists of the f ull version of Kaddi sh with one additional phrase added
blessing the Teachers of Torah and their students. I t is generally said after the M i shna
of E izehu M ek oman and the Berai ssa of Rebbe Y i shmael. The custom to recite it after a
f ormal study session (shi ur) only af ter reciting the statement of Rav Chanaya ben
A k ashya which is read af ter completing each chapter of E thi cs of theF athers.
IV Kaddi sh Yasom
The mourners Kaddi sh is said after reciting A lei nu and the D ai ly Song of Prai se (Shir shel
Y om). I t is recited in honor of a parent during the year of mourning and every year
thereafter on the anniversary of their death. I t is also an opportunity f or others who
wish to recite a Kaddi sh f or the benef it of those f or other relatives or f or those who do
not have any relatives to say Kaddi sh on their behalf .
Although usually Kaddi sh may be recited only by an adult, Kaddi sh Y asom is recited by
the children of the deceased regardless of age. The word Y asom in Hebrew means
Orphan. The Kaddi sh as it was originally setup was called Kaddish Y asom in order to
specif ically designate this Kaddi sh f or the Orphan to say.
V Kaddi sh at t he Gr avesi de or Compl et i on of a sec t i on of Lear ni ng
(Si yum).
This Kaddi sh is a special version that is only recited at two occasions; a f uneral or a
Si yum. I t is unique because the portion of this Kaddi sh has a piece added which is not
in any other Kaddi sh.
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
92
Af ter the f irst stanza of Kaddi sh we say a prayer that G-ds Name should be exalted in
a worl d that wi l l be renewed, and whereH e wi l l resuscitate the dead, and rai se them up to eternal l i fe,
and rebui l d the ci ty of Jerusal em, and compl ete H i s T emple wi thin i t, and uproot ali en worship from
the earth, and return the servi ce of H eaven to i ts pl ace, and where the H ol y One Bl essed i s he wi l l
rei gn i n H i s Soverei gnty and splendor.
This is obviously appropriate for the Graveside Kaddi sh.
The same Kaddi sh is also recited at the completion of a tractate of learning (Si yum).
The reason f or this may be because the Gemora states that in order to merit the
resurrection of the dead (T echi yas H amei si m) in the time of M essi ah, one must have
some association with the M i tzvah of Torah study.
The Gemora in Berachos asks:
W hat meri t wi ll women havei n the W orld to Come
30
?
The Gemora answers:
W omen have great meri t si nce they wai t for thei r husbands to come home from
thei r Torah study-halls and for tak i ng thei r young chi ldren to study T orah.
5 p:o nyo , u pco
| n n n , np n : a : ; : o y : 5o : : _ : x p n , | : _ u n: : _ u 5 , y : , : o _ n u o :
May Your dead live, My corpses shall rise; awaken and sing, you who dwell in t he
dust , f or a dew of light s is your dew, and [t o t he] eart h You shall cast t he
slackers. (Y eshayah/ I saiah 26:19)
May Your dead l i ve Above (v. 14) Yeshayahu pr ayed that the wi cked should not li ve, and
her e he pr ayed that the r i ghteous should li ve. I beseech You that those who wer e slai n for
Your sake come to li fe. May a r oyal edi ct emanate fr om You sayi ng, My cor pses shall r i se.
The cor pses of My people who made themsel ves cor pses for My sake, they shal l be r ai sed up.
Thi s i s the opposi te of what i s wr i tten above (v. 14): Slacker s shall not r i se. These, however ,
shall r i se.
Awaken and si ng All thi s the Holy One, blessed be He, shall say to them. Awaken and
si ng, i s an i mper ati ve for m.
30
The Pnei Y ehoshua explains that the Gemora is asking this question because women are not obligated in
many positive commands, thus what will suf f icientl y purif y their beings to receive reward in the worl d to
come si nce there are numerous mi tzvos f rom which they are exempt?
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
93
For a dew of l i ght s i s Your dew For i t i s fi tti ng for You to do so, that the dew of Your
Tor ah and Your commandments shall be to them dew of li ght.
And [ t o t he] ear t h You shal l cast t he sl acker s And to the ear th and to the dust You
shall cast the land of (si c) the slacker s who slackened their hands fr om Your Tor ah.
You shal l cast t he sl acker s Since he stated (v. 18) Neither do the inhabitants of the wor ld
fall, he r epeats, You cast them down, for our mer i ts do not suffi ce to cast them down.
( Rashi )
The Gemora in Kesubos
31
learns f r om her e that one must be connect ed in some
manner wit h Torah st udy in order to merit T echi yas H amei si m (r esurrect ion of t he
dead)
From this we clearly see how great the M i tzvah of Torah study is, that it is the key to
the resurrection of the dead (Techi yas H amei si m).
Kaddish: Keeping it s Sanct it y
Although Kaddi sh is a tremendous praise to H ashem, it is necessary to limit the amount
of times that we recite this praise. This praise is considered very precious and wields
great power, similar to that of the scepter of the K ing. The Rabbinical Authorities
(Posk i m) mention that just as we are caref ul not to recite unnecessary blessings, so too
we must be caref ul with Kaddi sh not to recite it unnecessarily.
There are a total of seven times that Kaddi sh should be recited throughout the course
of the day. This corresponds to the pasuk in Tehi lli m
32
Seven ti mes a day, I praise Y ou.
The seven Kaddei shi m are recited, once:
1. Af ter Pesuk ei D e`Z i mra (i.e. the Kaddi sh af ter Y i shtabach)
2. Af ter She`moneh E srei
3. Af ter k edushas U `vo L e`tzi on
4. Af ter A lei nu
33
31
D af 111b
32
119:164
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
94
5. Af ter A shrei at M i ncha
6. Af ter She`moneh E srei at M i ncha
7. Bef ore She`moneh E srei of M a`ari v
The Kaddi sh af t er Pesuk ei DeZi mr a and bef or e Bor c hu
Let us explore why Kaddi sh is inserted particularly at this junct ure.
One Possible reason is because af ter saying Pesuk ei D e`Z i mra, which is f illed with
praise to G-d, we close this segment of prayer (daveni ng) with Kaddi sh, as a divider f rom
blessings of the She`ma (Bi rchos Kri as She`ma). I n f act the Shulchan Aruch Harav
34
gives this reason f or all seven Kaddei shi m. Accordingly, the Kaddi sh af ter Pesuk ei
D e`Z i mra would be said af ter Y i shtabach, even if there were a delay in between Y i shtabach
and Y otzei r Ohr. However, this line of reasoning apparent ly is contrary to the Rama
in Si mon 54 se`i f 3
35
where he writes that Kaddi sh needs to connect and relate back to
the previous verses (pesuk i m) since Kaddi sh is recited only af ter reciting some praise, or
some verses (Pesuk i m) of some other learning.
The sefer Divrei Shira
36
asks a number of questions along this line. He asks:
Why wouldnt we say Kaddi sh af ter Pesuk ei D e`Z i mra i f one came late to
shul and recited Pesuk ei D e`Z imra after She`moneh E srei ? How would that be
dif ferent than what the Rama suggests that by saying a f ew verses
33
The Shulchan Aruch H arav removes i tem # 4 and insert s at t he end a Kaddi sh af ter She`moneh E srei of
M a`ari v
34
Simon 55: 1- Shulchan Aruch H aRav R Shneur Z alman of Li adi H aGaon Rabbeinu Z alman/ Graz Born:
Liazna, Russia, 1745.Died: Kursk, Russia, 1813. Notes: Founder of Chabad, also known as the Alter Rebbe of
Lubavitch and as the Baal HaTanya. Author among other works of Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a major code of law
following the framework of the Shulchan Aruch and incorporating later authorities, of Tanya, a major treatise of
Kabbalah and Chassidic philosophy, and of Torah Or, a collection of Chassidic discourses on the weekly Parshas and
Festivals, published by his grandson, the Tzemach Tzedek.
35
See the previous shiur
36
Simon 7, Rav Eli yahu Levin shl i t a, Lakewood N .J. - 5748
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
95
(Pesuk i m), one may say Kaddi sh, in a case when there was a delay between
Y i shtabach and Y otzei r Ohr?
According to the opinion of the Rambam
37
, Kaddi sh af ter learning some
verses (Pesuk i m) of T orah can be recited only if all t en people learned
Torah. I f so, how could it be that af ter praying (daveni ng) She`moneh E srei
individually, ten people can get together to say Kaddi sh and Borchu?
According to the custom (mi nhag) of some people
38
to say verses
(Pesuk i m) bef ore Borchu by M a`ari v in order to say Kaddi sh. What obligates
them to say Kaddi sh if theres nothing obligating them to say the verses
(Pesuk i m)?
Theref ore, he suggests that the obligation to say Kaddi sh is primarily part of the
arrangement (Seder) of Prayer. As the Rambam writes; every She`moneh E srei prayer
requires a Kaddi sh bef ore and af ter. Kaddi sh is also required af ter reciting ordinary
prayers and supplications
39
. Except, since theres a rule that Kaddi sh is never said
unless some verses (Pesuk i m) of praise or some learning precedes it, it can only be
recited in such cases. This is only when the verses (Pesuk i m) are recited as part of the
arrangement of prayer (tefi lla). However just reciting verses (Pesuk i m) alone when said
outside of the order (seder) of prayer (daveni ng) is not reason enough to necessitate a
Kaddi sh.
The 4 Worlds of Prayer
Rav Shimshon Pinkus ztl explains that at each of the points in Prayer where there is
a transition from one of the 4 Worlds
40
to the other, there is a Kaddi sh.
He explains that Kaddi sh has the unique ability to spiritually elevate each segment of
Prayer. Therefore one recites Kaddi sh f or the honor of a deceased relative to elevate
his eternal soul f rom one level to the next, so too we recite Kaddi sh at each point of
37
Seder Tef ilos K ol H ashanah end of H ilchos Tefilla
38
Sephardi m and N usach Sefard
39
Seder T efi l os Kol H ashanah end of N usach Bi rchos H a`tefi l l os V e`si duron
40
of A tzi l us, Briyah, Y etzi rah and A ssi ya
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
96
transition. This means that Kaddi sh relates both to the section of Prayer that was just
completed as well as to the section that is now beginning. By reciting this prayer of
sanctif ication, it enables us to rise spiritually f rom one level to the next.
One glaring exception is that we do not recite Kaddi sh af ter the Bi rchos Kri as She`ma as
we start She`moneh E srei .
To answer this question we must f irst explain what t he natures of these transitions
are. As we explained in our opening lesson. the diff erent segments of Prayer
correspond to the 4 spiritual worlds. This means, that just as a person who climbs the
stairs of a building must pass f rom the f irst level to the second and third level in
succession, so too, we must pass through each spiritual level until we get to the
highest point which is She`moneh E srei . Each level represents a certain aspect of
spirituality which is dif f erent and higher than the one beneath it. The highest level is
the Level of A tzi lus, corresponding to She`moneh E srei .
The Level of At zi l us - Shemoneh Esr ei
) ( a _ _n o u : o n u n :_ y u nn_ a n o_ : n n + 5 : _ :o | : n : : o_ a x _ n
n : a a n 5 :_ u _ n o n : _ a n : c_ _
4 1
:
1 1 . And the Lord brought upon them the generals of the ki ng of Assyri a, and
they sei zed Menashe wi th hooks and bound him wi th copper chai ns and
brought hi m to Babylon.
) a ( : o n n : n : : x n 5 _n o u : _ : o : n + n y_ : 5 _ n: _ p na _ :
1 2 . And when he was distressed, he entreated the Lord hi s G-d, and he
humbled hi mself greatly before the G-d of hi s fathers.
) x ( 5 n o_ : n y_ + _ n5 : _ n : u _ : o: n a o _ n : n n y _ n o _ : : n y _ : : : _ o n _ _n o u
u n: _ n n :
1 3 . And he prayed to Him, and He accepted hi s prayer, and He heard hi s
supplicati on and He restored hi m to Jerusalem to hi s ki ngdom, and Menashe
knew that t he Lord was G-d.
When the wicked Jewish K ing M enashe was taken captive, he was placed by his
captors into a copper pot and they started a f ire beneath it. As the pot got hotter and
hotter, M enashe was f rant ically praying to all kinds of idols that he was f amiliar with.
Finally af ter exhausting himself crying out f or their help, he suddenly remembered
that as a young child, his f ather taught him a pasuk (verse) in the Torah. Batzar lecha
41
II Chronicles 33
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
97
um`tze`ucho k ol hadevarim ha`ei leh be`achri s H ayami m veshavta ad H ashem E lok echa veshamata
bek ol o
42
.
) : ( | : : _ x_ a + _ y n a _ o u n _ n n : _ n a n : n u : a + _ n :5 | x n _n o u : _ p n y _ n o |
:p a :
3 0 . When you are di stressed, and all these thi ngs happen upon you i n the
end of days, then you wi ll return to the Lord your G-d and obey Hi m.
M enashe f elt that if he was beyond the point of ret urn and that H ashem cannot honor
his repentance, then all powers are the same, and Heaven f orbid, G-d is no better
that any other idol. I f G-d cannot accept his penitence, then G-d is limited in His
power.
Upon hearing this, a great commotion began in heaven. The ministering angels began
closing all heavenly accesses to block out M enashe`s prayers. They argued that a man
that put idols into the Holy of Holies does not deserve to be f orgiven. At that point,
G-d Himself said that He must accept his repentance for if not, people would give up
on repenting and bettering their ways. Theref ore, H ashem (so to speak) dug out a
special path f or M enashes T eshuva (repentance) to be accept ed.
This essentially means that even when a person is so f ar gone in his denial of G-d,
H ashem himself will honor his ef forts to repent even if it is out of despair as in
M enashe`s case where he f irst prayed to all sorts of idols.
When a person in lif e f eels that his situation is desperate and unbearable, be it from a
physical or a spiritual standpoint, there is always hope. Albeit that there is no
convent ional way out, but G-d Who is All-powerf ul can always create a way out.
This is the level of the World of A tzi lus which is symbolized in our prayer of
She`moneh E srei when we stand with G-d and are with Him without any intermediary.
At this level, nothing is out of reach.
When we enter into this World of A tzi lus just af t er reciting Kri as She`ma and
proclaiming H ashem as the One and Only, we are already prepared to enter to the
next level without f urther adieu, without another Kaddish! The bracha that precedes
Kri as She`ma is H abocher be`ammo Y israel be`ahavah (Who chooses His nation Y i srael with
love). This statement of H ashem`s unconditional love f or the Jewish nation is our
never-ending opport unity to connect back with Him at any physical and spiritual level
we may f ind ourselves.
42
D evarim 4:30
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - L E S S O N 7
98
The Gemora in Sotah
43
states:
Upon what merit does the world stand? On the merit of the Kedusha recited
by Uvah letziyone and by the Yehei shemei rabba recited after studying
Talmudic homiletic literature Aggadata.
Theref ore, Kaddi sh deserves our f ullest attention, as it is such a signif icant prayer.
W hoever r eci t es Kaddi sh wi t h al l hi s mi ght deser ves t o have t he H eavenl y-
decr ee to l i mi t hi s l i fespan to seventy year s, annul l ed and l engthened.
43
D af 49a
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H E M E N T O F T H E S O U L Q U E S T I O N S
99
Quest ions:
1. How many forms of praise to H ashem do we use in the bracha of Y i shtabach?
2. What name is encoded in the beginning of Y i shtabach? What does this ref er
to?
3. What f eelings does A mei n yehei shemei rabba mevorach evoke by H ashem and by
us?
4. Explain what the literal translation of Chatzi Kaddi sh and explain what its
true meaning is.
5. Which Kaddi sh is the most dif f erent than the rest?
6. When did the Kaddi sh prayer originate? How is this indicated in its opening
words?
7. Why is Kaddi sh in the A ramai c language? (A ruch H ashulchan)
8. What is the reason that Kaddi sh requires a M i nyan of at least 10 men?
9. How many times a day should Kaddi sh be recited and where is this hinted?
10. What are the strategic points f or Kaddi sh throughout the morning T efi lla?
(as explained by Rav Shimshon Pinkus ztl )
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H E M E N T O F T H E S O U L - A N S W E R S
100
Answers:
1. Either 13 or 15 f orms of praise are used in Y i shtabach.
2. The name Shlomo. I t was either composed by someone with the name
Shl omo or by someone in honor of Shl omo H amelech. Perhaps, Y i shtabach was
composed by Shlomo H amelech himself .
3. A men Y ehei shemei rabba is such a beautif ul praise to H ashem. I t expresss our
burning desire that H ashem`s true glory be restored and recognized to all of
mankind. I t elicits a f eeling of longing by H ashem (so to speak) to have the
Jewish people return to their land and to rebuild the Bei s H ami k dash.
4. Chatzi Kaddish`s literal meaning is half a Kaddi sh. I n truth it is a f ull Kaddi sh
except that it has no additional phrases added to it as does Kaddish T i sk abal
or Kaddish Y asom.
5. The Kaddi sh recited at a Graveside af ter the burial or at a Si yum.
6. I t originated af ter the destruction of the f irst Bei s H amik dash as indicated by
the prayer Y i sgadal ve`yi sk adash shemei rabba (May His great Name grow
exalted and sanctif ied).
7. Since it was usually said af ter the Rabbis discourse in the presence of
unlearned people who only spoke A ramai c.
8. Since all matters of sancti fi cati on need a presence of ten adult males as it
states in the pasuk (verse) V e`ni k dashti besoch B`nei Y i srael and I will become
sanctif ied in the midst of the sons of I srael. This ref ers to 10 males as derived by
the Gemora.
9. 7 times a day as stated by D ovid H amelech in T ehi lli m
44
Seven ti mes a day, I
praise Y ou.
10. Kaddi sh is recited at the points of prayer that correspond to the f our Worlds
of A tzi lus, Bri yah, Y etzi rah and A ssi yah.
44
119:164