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T H E PI RCH EI SH OSH AN I M ROADMAP T O PRAYER PROJECT
The Roadmap t o Prayer
Lesson 10
Pirchei Shoshanim 2005
This shiur may not be reproduced in any f orm without permission of the copyright hol der
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Chat zi Kaddish at t he conclusion of
Pesukei DeZimra
Kaddi sh is considered an extremely elevated Prayer as discussed in a previous lesson
1
.
I t exalts G-d above all praise and blessing and asks f or G-d to reveal His Divine
Presence to all mankind. I t speaks of praise in a way that Heavenly angels could only
wish they had permission to express themselves. Thus, it should be recited earnestly
and f ervently with the f ull part icipation of the congregation. When Kaddi sh is recited
properly, it is a prayer that has the power to spiritually uplif t; whether it is a Kaddi sh
that we recite af ter completing a segment of prayer or a Kaddi sh recited in honor of a
deceased relative.
Kaddish
Devari m Shebi kdusha Words of Sanct i fi cat i on
When a D avar she`bik dusha (Words of Sanctif ication), are recited, they must be done
in the presence of a M i nyan of 10 adult males. This is derived f rom a verse in Parshas
E mor
2
where it states, V eni k dasht i besoch Bnei Y i srael (And I will be sanctif ied amongst
the Jewish people). The Gemora
3
teaches us that this refers to a group of at least 10
adult Jewish males. This applies to the recitation of Kaddi sh, Kedusha and Borchu.
Whenever these words of sanctification are recited, they must be recited only in the
presence of a M i nyan
4
.
Rav Samson Raphael Hirsch ztl explains that Kaddi sh speaks of a time in the f uture
when all of mankind will see the glory and majesty of G-d and they will recognize the
1
Lesson 6
2
Vayikra 22:32
3
Sanhedrin Daf 2a
4
K rias Hatorah is also only recited with a M inyan as well as many other recitations. However the requirement f or a
M i nyan in that case is for a different reason. See Biur Halacha Simon 128.
Lesson
10
T
T
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Almighty as the One and Only power. This is a sanctif ication that must be done
together with a M i nyan, since a M i nyan represents a microcosm of the Jewish nation.
I n order to speak of such lof ty ideals and concepts which transcend the ability of
individuals, it must be done with a representation of the nation a M i nyan. Af ter the
chazzan recites Chatzi Kaddi sh he proceeds to Borchu which is a call to action to
presently proclaim our belief in this ideal that G-d is the One and Only. The chazzan
says Borchu es H ashem hamevorach (Let us bless G-d Who is blessed), af f irming H ashem
as being intrinsically blessed. Such a proclamation needs to come f orth f rom a group
that can represent the nation as a whole. We proclaim our belief in this today even
while the sovereignty of G-d is not so obvious to all.
Rav Hirsch adds although She`moneh E srei prayers may be recited without a M i nyan
present, it is still better when it is recited together with a M i nyan. This is also why the
words of our prayers are generally in the plural, since the prayer of a M i nyan or
congregation is always more signif icant.
I I n n t t i i m m a a t t i i o o n n n: n:
A congregation or M i nyan is ref erred to as a :ax - tzi bbur. Rav Shimon Schwab
mentions that this hints to 3 elements that compose a tzi bbur.
x- T zaddi k i m, righteous individuals,
a- Bei nuni m, average individuals and
:- Resha`i m those who used to be wicked and have now mended their ways.
The acronym for this group of individuals collectively is (tzi bbur) :ax.
The Paramet ers of a Minyan
Although a M i nyan consists of ten adult Jewish males, sometimes not all 10 need to be
present For example; there are certain cases where part of the M i nyan walked out and
a majority of the M i nyan is still present , we consider it is as good as having a M i nyan
with regard to reciting words of sanctif ication (devari m she`bi k dusha).
L L a a w w s s u : + u : +
The Shulchan A ruch in Si mon 55 se`i f 2 - 3 states that the Mechabers opinion is that:
I f there were 10 men present when they started reciting Kaddi sh or Kedusha, even if
some lef t in the middle, they may f inish reciting it if at least 6 men remain.
I t is nevertheless forbidden for someone to leave in the middle of Kaddish, Kedusha
or Borchu.
I f someone already heard the Kaddei shi m, he may leave if there are 10 men still
present without him. However, in the middle of Kedusha he may not leave even if
he already said Kedusha.
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I f Y i shtabach was recited with a M i nyan and then some left, Chatzi Kaddi sh is not
recited.
I f Kaddi sh was recited after Y i shtabach with a M i nyan present and then some lef t
bef ore Borchu, according to the Mechaber Borchu cannot be recited. According to
the custom of A shk enazi m, some Posk i m (H alachi c authorities) allow Borchu; others
do not.
I f there was a M i nyan present for the reading of the Shema (Kri as She`ma) and its
brochos but not f or She`moneh E srei , Chazoras hashatz (Chazzan`s repetition of
She`moneh E srei ) cannot be recited.
I f a M i nyan was present f or the beginning of Chazoras haShatz but not present f or
Kedusha, it may be recited as long as at least 6 men remain. The rest of the
Chazoras haShatz is also recited.
I n the previous example, N esi as Kapayi m, the actual Priestly Benedictions
(D ucahni ng) is not done. I nstead, the chazzan recites the prayer E lok ei nu ve`E lok ei
A vosei nu .
The Mechaber rules:
I f Chazoras haShatz started with a M i nyan present and then some lef t, Kaddi sh
T i sk abal is not recited afterwards.
The Rama rules:
Kaddi sh T i sk abal is recited af terwards.
By Mincha
I f just A shrei was recited prior to the T efi lla of M i ncha with a M i nyan and then
some lef t bef ore Chatzi Kaddi sh, the Kaddi sh is not recited.
By Maariv
I f a M i nyan was present f or Borchu and then some lef t, the Chatzi Kaddi sh bef ore
She`moneh E srei is recited.
I f they started She`moneh E srei with a M i nyan and then some left, then Kaddi sh
T i sk abal is not recited.
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L L a a w w s s : : : + : + u u - - A A D D i i s s c c u u s s s s i i o o n n
From our previous examples we can extrapolate that its not always necessary to
actually have ten people responding A men to Kaddi sh. I t would be suf f icient even if
only six of the ten answer A men.
Someone who is asleep can still be counted as part of the M i nyan although he cannot
respond A men. However, this H alacha raises a dif f iculty with the opinion of the Rosh
that requires there to be a minimum of nine people listening and f ollowing along with
the shatz
5
. The sefer (book) Tehilla LeDovid is bothered with this very question. He
says that once the M i nyan begins with nine people listening and responding, even af ter
some people leave, its considered as if we still have the required nine people listening
and responding. We might add that the M i shna Berura
6
states that if there was a M i nyan
at the beginning by Kaddi sh and Borchu, it counts as if there still is a f ull M i nyan present
f or the requirement of being motzee
7
someone with Bi rchos Kri as She`ma.
The question is, how many people do we allow to be sleeping until we f inally
disqualify the M i nyan?
The Magen Avraham
8
quot es f rom the Maharalnach
9
that it is acceptable to have
three or four individuals who are in middle of She`moneh E srei or even sleeping to be
counted in a M i nyan f or the purpose of reciting D evari m She`bi k dusha.
The Magen Avraham himself doesnt agree. He only allows one such individual to
be counted for the M i nyan. He maintains that having someone asleep is no better than
including a minor to the M i nyan, which the Gemora
10
also limits to one minor
11
.
5
Acronym for shali ach tzi bbur - leader of the prayers of the congregation
6
Simon 55 s k 17
7
Fulf ill someones obligation
8
Simon 55: 8
9
MAHARALBACH (Maharalnach) - Rabbi Levi ben Chabib (Chaviv), also known as Maharalbach, was born in Semora,
Spain, ca. 1483. I n 1492 he immigrated to Portugal, where he and his f ather (R. Jacob, author of Ein Yaakov, a work on the
Aggadah in the Talmud) were apparently baptized by f orce. Later he escaped with his f ather and settled in Salonika, where he was
educated and later served in the rabbinate. He moved to I srael and became the chief rabbi of Jerusalem. He vigorously opposed
Mahari Berab's attempt to reestablish the Sanhedrin, arguing, inter alia, that only Jerusalem could serve as the spiritual center of
world Jewry. Berab's attempt f ailed, largely due to Maharalbach's opposit ion. Maharalbach was an important halachic authority. He
died in 1545.
10
Berachos daf 47b
11
Other opinions do not allow even one minor to be included to make a M i nyan since he is not considered old
enough to bring about the necessary Divine Presence when aM inyan gathers.
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As ment ioned before, the verse (pasuk ) of V eni k dashti be`soch bnei Y i srael (and My
Name will be sanctif ied amongst the Bnei Y i srael ) is the source f or reciting D evari m
She`bi k dusha only in the presence of a M i nyan. The Rosh in the seventh perek
12
of
Berachos elaborates on reason for this H alacha. He quotes f rom Rav Hai Gaon who
rules that a minor (Kattan) can be counted as the tenth man f or a M i nyan. The Rosh
explains that this opinion is based on the verse (pasuk ) of V e`ni k dashti . The reason f or a
M i nyan is to create an appropriate setting where the Shechi na (Divine presence) can
dwell. Therefore if we have ten people present, even if one is a minor (Kattan), he can
be counted for the M i nyan since he also has Kedushas Y israel (the sanctity of a Jew),
which brings about hashro`as haShechi na (a proper setting f or the Divine Presence).
Also an E ved (non-Jewish slave
13
) can be included f or this reason because hes a ben
bri s (member of the covenant ) and is obligated in the commandments (mi tzvos). We
dont allow f or more than one of these types to be included since its inappropriate to
have a more noticeable presence of such individuals
14
. The advantage of having nine
people is that nine people give the impression of a M i nyan of ten.
The Shulchan Aruch Harav
15
brings the above and explanation, allowing one E ved
(slave), I sha (woman) or a Kattan (minor) who is at least six years old to be part of
M i nyan. He brings another opinion that doesnt allow it. He concludes that if
there is a M i nyan that relies on including one minor, one does not have to protest this
practice. Still, only the necessary Borchu, Kaddish or Kedusha should be said. However,
the Kedusha of A lei nu is not required and should not be recited in such a M i nyan.
The Shulchan Aruch Harav
16
pask ens that even if there are up to f our individuals
who are praying (daveni ng) ahead of the rest of the M i nyan, that are unable to respond
to the words of sanctif ication (D evari m she`bi k dusha) that are being recited, the M i nyan
is still f unctional f or the purpose of reciting Kaddish, Kedusha or Borchu.
On the other hand, only one sleeping individual may be counted into the M i nyan. This
is because it doesnt manif est the honor of H ashem (k evod shomayi m) to have so many
sleeping individuals count toward a M i nyan. Other opinions contend that even one
12
Simon 20
13
This Law applied in Biblical and Talmudic times when slaves were purchased f rom other nations or were captured
in the course of a war. The slave would be converted to practice as a Jew with the exception of time-bound mi tzvos
similar to a Jewish woman. This slave would enjoy many benef its a slave as outlined in the Torah and the Talmud.
For more details see Rambam Laws of Avadim (Slaves) Chapter 9:12, 13.
14
Perhaps its because these people do not really have an obligation to daven with a M inyan, giving the impression
that those who are indeed obligated are lax towards their own obligation and dont bother getting together to f orm
a M inyan.
15
Simon 55: 5
16
Simon 55: 7, 8
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sleeping individual is not counted towards the M i nyan at all. Theref ore, one should try
to wake up that individual.
The Biur Halacha
17
adds that if someone is praying (daveni ng) in a synagogue (shul)
where someone whos part of the M i nyan is asleep and cannot be aroused; he may
pray (daven) there without hesitation and recite the She`moneh E srei out loud
18
but only
until af ter Kedusha
19
. This way there is no issue of reciting unnecessary blessings
(brochos) since Chazoras haShatz is not said. Only one She`moneh E srei is recited except
that it starts out loud and with Kedusha.
The Magen Avraham previously quoted the Maharalnach
20
who allows up to f our
such individuals to be counted in the M i nyan, but he personally disagrees with his
opinion.
Upon examining the language of the Mechaber
21
there are several indications that he
also disagrees with the Maharalnach. Firstly, the Mechaber presents the case in a
situation where only one individual is ahead praying (daveni ng) She`moneh E srei .
Secondly, the Mechaber teams up this H alacha with the H alacha of someone whos
sleeping that may be count ed into the M i nyan. Just as the case of someone sleeping, it
works only for one such individual, so too the case of someone whos ahead in
davening, only one individual may be included
22
.
The Magen Avraham makes another point, that although the opinion of the Rosh
is that f or repeating the She`moneh E srei (Chazoras hashatz) we need nine listeners; the
prevalent custom is that six out of ten are suff icient even for the repetition of
She`moneh E srei (chazoras hashatz).
Laws of Responding t o Kaddish
Orach Chaim Simon 56
1. 1) One shoul d concent rat e (1) when respondi ng t o Kaddi sh
17
D h oh she`hu yoshon in seif 3
18
This is a custom that is commonly implemented for tefilas M incha in many yeshivos but for other considerations.
19
I .e. until the end of the brocha of H ok eil hak adosh
20
Simon 15
21
According to the Magein Avraham in 55: 8 and the Beer Hetev
22
See Magen Avraham .k 8
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Rama: 2) One should not i nterrupt between the words Y ehei Shemei Rabba and M evorach
(H agahos A shri i n the name of Ohr Z eruah wri tes that according to the fi rst i nterpretati on one
should not i nterrupt between Y ehei Shemei and Rabba and accordi ng to the Ri , between Rabba and
M evorach)
answeri ng i n a 3) l oud voi ce and maki ng an effort t o l i st en t o Kaddi sh
Rama: (2) 4) One should be standi ng when respondi ng to Kaddish and all devari m she`bi k dusha
(words of sancti fi cati on). Someone comi ng to shul and hears the congregati on responding to Kaddish,
5) responds wi th them even though he di dn`t hear theshali `ach tzibbur sayi ng Y i sgadal . T he leader
of the congregati on (shali`ach tzibbur) hi mself should also respond Y ehei Shemei 6) Rabba. W hen he
starts sayi ng Y i sgadal the T zi bbur should say the pasuk 7) V e`atta Y igdal nah Ko`ach . Z echor
Rachamecha .
When t o Say Veat t a Yigdal Nah
The Magen Avraham
23
says that once the chazzan starts reciting Kaddi sh; one must
stop davening and focus on the words of Kaddi sh. Thus, it is inappropriate even to
recite the verse (pasuk ) of V e`atta Y i gdal N ah after the chazzan has begun. Theref ore, it
must be that the Rama means that we say it right bef ore the chazzan begins reciting
the Kaddi sh.
The Ari Zt l doesnt agree to the recitation of this pasuk at all. Theref ore, since there
is a disagreement regarding this H alacha, in a part of daveni ng where it is prohibited to
interrupt, it is advisable not to say these verses (pesuk i m
24
). But, if it doesnt matter
whether he interrupts, f or example, by Kaddi sh af ter A lei nu, one should be caref ul to
recite these verses (Pesuk i m) immediately bef ore the chazzan starts saying Kaddi sh.
The Maharshal in his Responsa
25
says to recite it between Y i shtabach and Yotzei r Ohr
because he doesnt consider it an interruption (hefsek ) unless it is just idle talk.
However, he notes that by M a`ari v (the evening service), he may not interrupt
between the brocha of Go`al Y i srael and She`moneh E srei
26
. Theref ore, he shouldnt say
these verses (Pesuk i m) because it is an interruption between geulah and She`moneh E srei
(tefi lla).
2. When t he shal i ach t zi bbur says Yi sborach al l t he congregant s respond Amen
and al so when he says ber eech
27
hu (3) 8) and al so when he says vei mru Amen
23
S k 6
24
Magen Avraham S k 7 in the name of the Bach and Shel a hak adosh
25
Simon 64 on bottom of page 46
26
The Mishna Berura in s k 11 pask ens like the Maharshal with regard to interrupting by Maariv.
See Simon 236: 2.
27
Pronounced sof tly as in the word Chaim
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Rama: T he custom is not to respond A men after Y i sborach and not after be`reech hu. H e shouldn`t
i nterrupt between be`reech hu and le`eyla mi k ol bi rchosso .
The First Amen of Kaddish
The Rambam
28
states that after the opening words of Kaddi sh Y i sgadal ve`Y i sk adash
Shemei Rabba (May His great Name grow exalted and sanctif ied), the congregation
responds A men. The Beis Yosef also mentions this, and it is the prevalent custom
amongst all Jews f rom varying backgrounds. I t is therefore quite remarkable that the
Mechaber doesnt mention it here in the Shulchan Aruch
29
.
The Different Responses t o Kaddish
There are varying customs (mi nhagi m) customs in the way people respond to Kaddi sh.
The Mechaber says that when the chazzan says be`reech hu the response is A men. The
Rama says that the custom (amongst A shk enazi m) is not to say A men. They also
disagree whether to answer A men when the chazzan starts with Y i sborach just after Y ehei
Shemei Rabba. The Rama
30
rules that the Chazzan should say be`reech hu le`eyla mik ol
bi rchoso . without interruption. I t is unclear if the Rama holds that we should
respond with anything when the Chazzan says Shemei de`Kudsha, which precedes the
words be`reech hu le`eyla mi k ol bi rchoso ..
The Taz
31
mentions that it has become the custom to prod the chazzan to continue
be`reech hu with le`eyla mi k ol bi rchoso by responding be`reech hu le`eyla (He should be
blessed above). However, he very much dislikes this because it sounds as if he means
to say that H ashem is only blessed above (in Heaven) but not down here on Earth.
The Magen Avraham
32
ment ions that this is the reason why the tzi bbur says be`reech
hu l e`eyl a. But it is a mistake f or the Chazzan to pause bet ween le`eyla and mi k ol
birchoso.
Apparently, the Magen Avraham argues on the Taz that it is appropriate f or the
T zi bbur to respond be`reech hu le`eyla, just the chazzan shouldnt. However, this cant be,
28
The Order of the Tef ilos, K addish.
29
Mishna Berura s k 12
30
Also mentioned in the Darchei Moshe in the Name of the Ohr Z arua
31
S k 3, Mishna Berura s k 13
32
S k 8
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since there is no reason to dif f erentiate between the chazzan and the tzi bbur. I n f act,
the Machatzis Hashekel explains that the Magen Avraham agrees with the Taz. He
theref ore explains that the tzi bbur responds be`reech hu le`eyla out loud to prod the
chazzan along, and then they continue to say the rest quietly without pausing between
le`eyla and mi k ol bi rchoso.
The Shaarei Teshuva
33
writes that the Ari Zt l holds that if the congregants who
say the twenty-eight words by Y ehei Shemei Rabba f inish until da`ami ron be`olma bef ore
the Shali `ach T zi bbur reaches be`reech hu, they should respond A men to be`reech hu.
From this we see that the Chazzan should say Shemei de`Kudsha together with be`reech
hu. This is also the opinion of the Gra
34
.
I t is common nowadays to just respond be`reech hu alone af ter the chazzan says the
same.
Someone Who Didnt Hear t he Chazzan
35
I f someone enters a shul while the Congregation (tzi bbur) has already responded to
A mei Y ehei Shemei Rabba and are up to the word mevorach .he may still respond along
with them. However, he may only start f rom the words Y ehei Shemei Rabba but not
A men. This is due to the f act that the A men i s in response to the f irst part of Kaddi sh,
which he did not hear. However, Y ehei Shemei Rabba, which is a prayer (tefi l l a) by itself ,
may be said as long as the congregation (tzi bbur) is still in the middle of their response.
I f one hears the congregation (tzi bbur) responding to Kedusha even if he did not hear
the Chazzan, he may respond as well.
I f one arrived when the congregation (tzi bbur) just began their response of A men Y ehei
Shemei Rabba, he may even respond A men si nce he is saying it along with everyone else,
if he is able to collect his thoughts f ast enough to concentrate that the A men i s in
response to the beginning of the Kaddi sh. This law (H alacha) is brought in Simon
124:11.
The Levushei Serad discusses this law (H alacha) i n that chapter (Simon). He explains,
that this is only when one knows to which blessing (brocha) he is answering A men. He
compares it to the situation in the synagogue (shul) in Alexandria, Egypt, where there
was someone standing up f ront waving a f lag to indicate when the chazzan f inished a
blessing (Brocha). The tzi bbur (congregation) knew which blessing (brocha) it was by
33
S k 6
34
Mishna Berura s k 14
35
Based on the Mishna Berura s k 9
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f ollowing along. However, when coming into shul while people are responding A men
Y ehei Shemei Rabba, although one can f igure out what was said because they are saying
Y ehei Shemei Rabba, nevertheless, it may still be an A men Y esoma (an orphaned A men)
since at the time he answers A men with the rest of the T zi bbur congregants T zi bbur he
does not yet know f or what it is being said. Nevertheless, perhaps it is good enough
as long as the majority is still busy responding A men.
3. Those who answer up unt i l ul eol mei ol maya al one are mi st aken as i t i s
for bi dden t o i nt errupt bet ween 9) ol mayo and Yi sborach.
The Proper Way t o respond Yehei Shmei Rabba
There are diff erent customs regarding how f ar to respond when responding A mei n
yehei shmei rabba.
The Mechaber says that he should connect the word Y i sborach with the
words le`olam u`le`olmei olmaya.
The Mishna Berura explains that the Mechaber says this because he holds
that one should say all twent y-eight words until ve`i mru A men at the end of
Y i sborach, which is what, is implied by his commentary, Beis Yosef.
The Magen Avraham says to say it until and including the word Y i sborach
(i.e. He should respond A mei Yehei until and including the word Y i sborach).
The Gra argues that one should only respond until olmaya and not including
Y i sborach, since that start a new stanza of praise. The Mishna Berura
36
comments that according to the Gra it would be considered appropriate to
respond A men Y ehei Shemei Rabba with Y i sborach if he takes a breath between
olmai a and Y i sborach
37
.
Since there are many mi nhagi m regarding this, one should be caref ul not to say
Y i sborach if he hears Kaddi sh while hes holding at a place in daveni ng where he may
not interrupt.
4. When t he chazzan says Yi sgadal he bows, al so by yehei shemei rabba and
al so by bereech hu and by Amen.
36
S k 15
37
Apparently, if one does this, one should say Y isborach until da`amiron be`olma, and not just the word Y isborach
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Places t o Bow When Saying Kaddish
The Mechaber mentions f our places to bow during Kaddi sh. The Beis Yosef brings
a more precise list f rom the Kol bo. There are five places he mentions to bow. They
are:
Y i sgadal ve`yi sk adash
Y ehei Shemei Rabba
Y i sborach
Be`reech hu
A men (after da`amiron be`olma)
The Beis Yosef clarif ies that the language used by the Rabbinical Authorities (posk i m)
f or bowing, Ko`re`a, literally means kneeling or bending the knees. However, here it
only means to bow.
5. Aft er fi ni shi ng reci t i ng Kaddi sh, he t akes t hree st eps backwards and aft er
t hat says Osseh shal om
One More Place t o Bow
While taking three steps back f rom Shemon`eh E srei , the Tur mentions that its
permitted to bow when saying Osseh Shalom . The Beis Yosef quotes that the
Terumas Hadeshen
38
proves that one should f irst take three steps backwards and
only then start saying Osseh shalom.
The Bach brings f rom the Gemora in Shabbos
39
:
Resh L ak i sh says whoever answers A men wi th all his might be`chol
k ocho - will merit entrance through the gates of Gan Eden. As the
pasuk in Y eshaya
40
states Pi schu she`ori m ve`yavo goye tzaddik shomer
emuni m (Open the gates so the righteous nation, keeper of the f aith,
may ent er). Dont read it emunim, rather Amen. A men is an
38
Simon 13 Terumas HaDeshen R Yisrael Ben Petachiah I sserlein Born: Regensburg, Germany, 1390. Died: Weiner-
Neustadt, Austria, 1460. Notes: Also known as the MaHarai. Student of the Maharil. Forced to flee to Italy and then Austria, he
became Rav and Av Bet Din of Neustadt after 1445. Author of Terumas HaDeshen/The Fat Offering, halachic responsa and
rulings based on the works of French and German scholars as well as some Spanish scholars (Rif and Rambam mostly). This
sefer includes 354 responsa which is the gematria of deshe. His rulings tended to be stringent.
39
Daf 119b
40
26: 2
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acronym for (A) Kei l
41
Melech Ne`eman (Amen). Hashem is a
trustworthy King. T osefos
42
says that he should have this in mind
when saying A men.
Si mi l ari t y t o Shemoneh Esrei
The Biur HaGra notes that the Halacha mentioned here about taking three steps
back af ter saying Kaddi sh is like the Halacha of the three steps after She`moneh E srei
mentioned in Simon 123. Apparently those Laws (halachos) apply to Kaddi sh as well.
Wal k i ng i n Front of Someone Sayi ng Kaddi sh
The Shaari Teshuva
43
rules that just like one may not walk in f ront of someone
praying (daveni ng) She`moneh E srei , so too, one may not walk in f ront of someone saying
Kaddi sh. The Kaf H achai m
44
and Bi rchei Y osef
45
also rule like that. This applies until the
end of the main portion of Kaddi sh that ends at da`amiron be`olma. Rav Chaim
Kanievsky
46
shi li ta adds that according to this reasoning, one may also not sit in the
vicinity of someone saying Kaddi sh just like by She`moneh E srei . He notes that the
Mishna Berura never mentions this H alacha of not walking in f ront of someone
saying Kaddi sh. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach
47
ztl rules that one shouldnt walk
in f ront of someone saying Kaddi sh.
41
The letter K is used instead of the letter A to avoid uttering Hashems Name in vain
42
Shabbos 119b ah Omar RebbeChanina
43
56: 1 R Chaim Mordechai Margoliot Born: 1700s. Died: Poland, 1818. Notes: Author of Shaarei Teshuvaa commentary
on the Shulchan Aruch. Shaarei Teshuvah (Gates of Repentance/ Responsa), provides a digest of responsa as a supplement to
the Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim, including the responsa composed after the publication of the Shulchan Aruch.
44
K af HaChaim R Yaakov Chaim Sof er - Born: Baghdad, 1870, Died: Jerusalem, Israel, 1939 Notes: Initially of Bagdad, he
moved to Israel by the turn of the century to study in the Beth El Yeshiva for Kabbalah studies. Author of Kaf HaChaim, a
multi-volume commentary on Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim and parts of Yoreh Deah.
45
Chida R Chaim Yosef David Azulai - Born: Jerusalem, Israel, 1724. Died: Livorno, Italy, 1806. Notes: Torah
commentator, Kabbalist, emissary for religious institutions in Israel. Some refer to him as the Sephardic equivalent to
the Vilna Gaon. Direct descendent of R Avraham ben Mordechai Azulai. Author of Birchas Yosef, Glosses on the
Shulchan Aruch. Author of Devash LFee, Zavrei Shalal, Nahal Kedumim and other homiletical interpretations of
Tanach. Author of Yosef Ometz, a collection of responsa. Author of Shem HaGedolim, a biography of over a
thousand scholars and two thousand books. He is considered the father of modern Hebrew bibliography.
46
R Chaim K anievsky - Leading Torah Sage, author of many Sef orim including Shoneh H alacha which is a
comprehensive guide to Jewish Law in the area of Orach Chaim. Son of the Steipler Gaon and resident of Bnei
Brac. Reviews and makes a Siyum yearly on Shas. His advice and guidance is sought by people f rom around the
world f rom all walks of lif e.
47
Sefer Halachos Shlomo 6:14 by She`moneh E srei
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Rulings of t he Yalkut Yosef
48
regarding Kaddish
St andi ng Up for Kaddi sh
The Law (H alacha) f ollows the opinion of the Ari
49
ztl that one need
not stand up f or Kaddi sh. However if one is standing at the start of
Kaddi sh he should remain standing at least until af ter he says A men Y ehei
Shemei Rabba. This is the custom of Sephardim and Edut Hamizrach
and is the same with regards to Borchu. However when praying
(daveni ng) in an A shk enazic congregation (M i nyan), where the custom is
to stand f or Borchu and Kaddi sh, one should f ollow the custom (mi nhag)
to stand.
Taki ng Thr ee St eps Back
One must take three steps backwards at the end of each Kaddi sh that
ends with Osseh shal om. This is done before one recites the words Osseh
shalom. Then, af ter completing Osseh shal om, one takes three steps
f orward. This is done the same way as when reciting Osseh shal om at
the end of She`moneE srei .
Int errupt i ng Amei n Yehei Shemei Rabba
According to the custom (mi nhag) to say the twenty-eight words f rom
A men Y ehei Shemei rabba until da`amiron be`olma, one shouldnt interrupt
it by answering to the chazzan`s be`reech hu since the response is not
legally (H alachi cally) required, as it is only a custom. However, when
hearing the chazzan saying da`ami ron be`olma ve`i mru A men, one is
required to respond A men accordi ng to the Law (H alacha). Therefore,
he should answer A men even when he is in the middle of the twenty-
eight words, since to recite those twenty-eight words is only a
custom. Additionally, one must respond to the f inal A men of Kaddi sh
since the closing is always considered to be most signif icant as the
dictum goes, everything f ollows the conclusion (H ak ole holei ch achar
hachi ttum). I t is therefore considered as if he said the entire Kaddi sh
himself , which means it is as valuable as saying A men Y ehei Shemei
Rabba as well, which is reason to allow him to respond to this A men
even in the middle of the twenty-eight words.
48
Hilchos K addish and Kedusha 11-13
49
Ari Ztl - R Yitzchak Ben Shlomo Luria Ashkenazi Born: Jerusalem, Israel, 1534. Died: Safed, Israel, 1572. Notes:
Also known and Ari HaKodesh/Holy Lion. Great Talmudist and Kabbalist. Disciple of R Betzalel Ashkenazi. One of
the fathers of the Kabbalistic movement. Renown for his saintly character and ascetic way of life.
P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
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A Thought on Osseh Shal om Bi meromav
The Tur explains that Osseh shal om bi`meromav (He Who makes peace in Heaven),
ref ers to the angels (malachi m) Gavriel (the one whos put in charge of water) and
M ichoel (the one put in charge of f ire). Although they are two extreme opposites, they
still can co-exist. So too we ask H ashem to bring peace amongst our ranks. The
Prisha
50
quotes a Y erushalmi
51
(Jerusalem Talmud) that there is a certain malach (angel)
that is half f ire and half snow (water). This perhaps connotes another dimension of
peace (shalom). Not only does one co-exist with the other, but also they join together
with their unique qualities to complement each other. Just as there is a need to have
both f ire and water, whether used separately or together, they are both indispensable.
We use f ire f or heating and water f or drinking. We use f ire and water together for
cooking. Similarly there should be peace (shalom) amongst us as well. We need to
utilize our unique qualities and combine forces together to create new possibilities
and reach greater heights in our A vodas (service) H ashem. When diversity is harnessed
by a unif ied f ocus on A vodas H ashem, it will lead us to the road of true perf ection.
We conclude the She`moneh E srei with the same ending of Osseh shalom .We then add
a T efi lla (prayer) that Hashem should speedily rebuild the Bei s H ami k dash speedily in
our days, A men. This will help us achieve our ultimate goal of shlei mus (perf ection).
50
S k 15, a commentary on the bottom of the page of the Tur
51
Rosh Hashana 2: 4
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10 people were present
for and then up to 4 people
left
Chazoras haShatz
Reci teChat zi Kaddi sh, U `vah
le`tzi yoneand then Kaddi sh
T i sk abal
Chazoras haShatz
N o Kri as H atorah
Nesias kapayim
Fi ni sh N esi as k apayi m
Krias Hatorah
Fi ni sh Kri as H atorah
Borchu by Maariv
Reci teChat zi Kaddi sh before
She`moneh E srei
Quiet Shemoneh Esrei
by Maariv
Reci teKaddi sh T i sk abal after
She`mone E srei
Quiet Shemoneh Esrei
by Maariv on Motzei
Shabbos
Reci teChat zi Kaddi sh and
Kaddi sh T i sk abal after V e`atta
Kadosh
10 people were present
for and then up to 4
people left
Yishtabach N o Chatzi Kaddi sh
Ashrei by Mincha N o Chatzi Kaddi sh
Chatzi Kaddish before
Borchu (Shacharis or
Maariv)
Some hold can say Borchu
Kaddish and Borchu
Consi dered li k eM i nyan
present to be motzee someone
wi th Bi rchos Kri as She`ma
By quiet Shemoneh
Esrei
N o Chazoras hashatz
Chazoras haShatz
(10 werepresent at
begi nni ng of Chazoras
hashatz)
Fi ni sh Chazoras hashatz
but
no N esi as k apayi m
Chazzan should only reci tes
pesuk i m of Bi rchos
Kohani m
Laws o f Devar im Shebikdusha t hat Req uir e a Minyan o f 10 men
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52 See Beer Hetev .k 9. Aruch H ashulchan 55:13 dif f erentiates
between sleeping where no more than 1 is allowed and having
started She`moneh E srei where up to 4 are allowed.
53 Recite she`mone esrey out loud (= H och in Yiddish) with Kedusha until
H ok ei l H ak adosh so there are no wasted brochos since there is no
Chazoras hashatz
and then
I f 10 people were
present by
1 person fell asleep, or,
1 person start ed She`mone
E srei and cannot answer with
everyone
2 - 4 peoplewereasleep
52
2 - 4 peoplestarted
She`moneh E srei and cannot
answer with everyone
E ven i f only 1 person fell asleep
(a stri cter opi ni on)
Yishtabach
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Say Chatzi Kaddi sh
Maharalnach:
Say Chatzi Kaddi sh
Magen Avraham:
D o not say Chatzi Kaddi sh
Ashrei by
Mincha
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Say Chatzi Kaddi sh
Maharalnach:
Say Chatzi Kaddi sh
Magen Avraham:
D o not say Chatzi Kaddi sh
Chatzi Kaddish
before Borchu
(Shacharis or
Maariv)
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Say Borchu
Maharalnach:
Say Borchu
Magen Avraham:
D o not say Borchu
Kaddish and
Borchu
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Can bemotzee someone wi th
Bi rchos Kri as She`ma
Maharalnach:
Can bemotzee someone wi th
Bi rchos Kri as She`ma
Magen Avraham:
Cannot bemotzee someone
wi th Bi rchos Kri as She`ma
By quiet
Shemoneh Esrei
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Say Chazoras hashatz
Maharalnach:
Say Chazoras hashatz
Magen Avraham:
D o not say Chazoras
hashatz
Chazoras
haShatz
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Fi ni sh Chazoras hashatz
Maharalnach:
Fi ni sh Chazoras hashatz
Mechaber accordi ng to
Magen Avraham:
D o not Fi ni sh Chazoras
hashatz
Shulchan Aruch Harav:
Cannot count for M i nyan
when asleep accordi ng to someopi ni ons
(T az)
Mishna Beruraand
Biur Halacha add:
T ry to wak eup, or just say H och
Kedusha
53
Laws o f Devar im Shebikdusha t hat Req uir e a Minyan o f 10 men
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and then I f 10 people were present
by
1 person fell asleep, or,
1 person started She`moneE srei and
cannot answer wi th everyone
2 - 4 peoplewere asleep
54
2 - 4 peoplestarted She`moneE srei and cannot answer wi th everyone
E ven if only 1 person fell asleep
(a stricter opinion)
Chazoras hashatz
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Say Kaddi sh
Maharalnach:
Say Kaddi sh
Magen Avraham:
D o not say K addi sh
Shulchan Aruch Harav:
Cannot count for M inyan
when asleep accordingto some
opinions (T az)
Chazoras hashatz
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Say Kri as H atorah
Maharalnach:
Say Kri as H atorah
Magen Avraham:
D o not say Kri as H atorah
Same as above
Nesias kapayim
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Fi ni sh N esi as k apayi m
Maharalnach:
Fi ni sh N esi as k apayi m
Magen Avraham:
D o not finish N esi as k apayi m
Same as above and even
according to more lenient
opinions better not to
Krias Hatorah
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Finish Kri as H atorah
Maharalnach:
Finish Kri as H atorah
Magen Avraham:
D o not finish Krias H atorah
Same as above and even
according to more lenient
opinions better not to
Borchu by Maariv
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Reci teChatzi Kaddish before
She`moneE srei
Maharalnach:
Reci teChatzi Kaddi sh beforeShe`moneE srei
Magen Avraham:
D o not reciteChatzi Kaddish before
She`moneE srei when morethan oneperson is not participating
Shulchan Aruch Harav:
Cannot count for M inyan
when asleep accordingto some
opinions (T az)
Quiet Shemone Esrei
by Maariv
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Reci teKaddish T isk abal after
She`moneE srei
Maharalnach:
Reci teKaddi sh T i sk abal after She`moneE srei
Magen Avraham:
D o not reci teKaddi sh T i sk abal after She`moneE srei
Same as above
Quiet Shemone Esrei
by Maariv on Motzei
Shabbos
Maharalnach,
Magen Avraham:
Reci teChatzi Kaddi sh and Kaddi sh
T isk abal after U `vah le`tziyone
Maharalnach:
Reci teChatzi Kaddish and Kaddish T isk abal after U `vah le`tziyone
Magen Avraham:
D o not reciteChatzi Kaddish and Kaddish T isk abal after U `vah
le`tziyone
Same as above
54 See Beer Hetev .k 9. Aruch Hashulchan 55:13 dif f erentiates between sleeping where no more than 1 is allowed and having started She`moneh E srei
where up to 4 are allowed.
Laws o f Devar im Shebikdusha t hat Req uir e a Minyan o f 10 men
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L - Q U E S T I O N S
156
Quest ions:
1. What is the prerequisite f or a D avar she`bi k dusha to be permitted to be
recited?
2. Where is this principle derived f rom?
3. What does the word T zi bbur :axhint at?
4. I n general, when would a D avar she`bi k dusha be recited even without a M i nyan
present?
5. How many people f rom the core M i nyan may be sleeping according to the
Magen Avraham and to which H alacha does he compare this?
6. According to the Shulchan Aruch Harav what limitation does he give
when relying on a six year old to be count ed into a M i nyan?
7. What does the Biur Halacha suggest doing if someone that is needed f or
the M i nyan f ell asleep and cannot be aroused in time for chazoras hashatz?
8. What is the pref erred amount of people necessary to listen to chazoras hashatz
according to the Magen Avraham and what is the prevalent custom?
9. I s it appropriate to recite the verse (pasuk ) of V e`atta Y i gdal N ah after the
chazzan has begun reciting Kaddi sh? Why?
10. I f someone enters a shul while the tzi bbur has already responded to A mei n
yehei sheme rabba and are up to the word mevorach, what should his response
be?
11. What should someone omit f rom the response of A mei n yehei sheme rabba
mevorach when reciting it while one is holding at a place in daveni ng where he
may not make other interruptions?
12. What intent should one concentrate on when saying the word A men?
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Answers:
1. One is required to have a M i nyan of 10 adult Jewish males.
2. I t is derived f rom the verse in Parshas E mor
55
where it states, V eni k dashti
besoch Bnei Y i srael And I will be sanctif ied amongst the Jewish people.
3. I t hint s to 3 elements that compose a tzi bbur.
x- T zaddi k i m, righteous individuals,
a- Bei nuni m, average individuals and
:- Resha`i m those who used to be wicked and have now mended their ways.
4. I f a cert ain section of Prayer (Tefi lla) started with 10, it is considered as if the
M i nyan is still present as long as there are at least 6 people lef t.
5. The Magen Avraham allows only one such individual. He says it is no
dif f erent than including a Kattan (minor) where only the maximum of 1 is
allowed.
6. I f it is necessary to rely on a Kattan, one should only recite necessary
Kaddei shi m omitting the one af ter A lei nu.
7. The Biur Halacha suggests that the Shali `ach T zi bbur begin reciting She`moneh
E srei immediately out loud with Kedusha. Af ter the f inal bracha of H aKei l
H ak adosh, he continues reciting She`moneh E srei quietly on his own.
8. I t is preferable to have the Shali `ach T zi bbur with 9 listeners. I n practice, 6 are
enough f or reciting the complete chazoras hashatz.
9. Since one should rather f ocus on the Kaddi sh itself .
10. A men.
11. The f inal word, Y i sborach.
12. (A)Kei l
56
Melech Ne`eman (Amein). Hashem is atrustworthy King.
55
Vayikra 22:32
56
The letter K is used instead of the letter A to avoid uttering Hashems Name in vain