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T H E PI RCH EI SH OSH AN I M ROADMAP T O PRAYER PROJECT

The Roadmap t o Prayer


Lesson 11
Pirchei Shoshanim 2005
This shiur may not be reproduced in any f orm without permission of the copyright hol der
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The 15 Prai ses of Yi sht abach
Rav Schwab ztl writes that according to the Magen Avraham one should not
interrupt when reciting the f if teen praises of Y i shtabach. Although one does not have
to recite them all in one breath, still it should be said consecutively. The custom of
Chazzani m is to begin reciting the words Brochos vehodaos out loud, which is in the
middle of the f if teen praises. Notwithstanding, custom (mi nhag) prevails
Perhaps the custom began f rom the opinion that counts 13 praises in Y i shtabach, and
does not count the words Brochos vehodaos. Hence, Brochos vehodaos may be recited
separately f rom the rest of the 13 praises. This continues to be the present-day
custom as well.
Af ter Y i shtabach, the Chazzan recites Chatzi Kaddish and then proceeds to Borchu. The
congregation responds Baruch H ashem hamevorach leol am vaed. The Chazzan himself
recites the same together with everyone else in the congregation.
The Laws of Borchu
The Mechaber
1
writes:
The Shal i ach Tzi bbur says Bor chu es Hashem hamevorach (Let us bl ess
Hashem Who i s bl essed) and t hey respond Baruch Hashem hamevorach
l eol am vaed and t he Chazzan repeat s Bar uch Hashem hamevorach
l eol am vaed
The Rama adds:
T he custom is for the Chazzan (shatz) to draw out the reci tal of Borchu and the
congregati on reci tes Y i sborach veyi shtabach etc. 3) whi l e hes drawi ng i t out.
1
Orach Chaim Simon 57
Lesson
11
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The Chazzan says:
Borchu es Hashem hamevorach -
|:ann uon n 5:a
The Congregation responds:
Baruch Hashem hamevorach leolam vaed
+y u:y: |:ann uon |:a
What it means t o Bless Hashem
Whenever we recite a bracha saying Baruch atta H ashem E l ok einu mel ech haol am (Blessed
are You H ashem K ing of the universe) are we really giving H ashem our blessing? How
are we meant to understand such a concept, when H ashem Himself is the source of all
blessing?
This question is discussed by the Ri shoni m. Rabbeinu Bachaye
2
discusses this topic
in depth. He explains that in truth, we are praising H ashem that He is the source of all
blessings. When we use this attribute in praising H ashem, we are attesting that H ashem
created the entire universe and that He continues to maintain it constantly. By
declaring this belief , we merit that H ashem bestows us with loving-kindness. This is
what our sages taught us, that H ashem desires the prayers of the righteous. When we
say a bracha, we increase the f low of good f ortune f rom H ashem unto this world. I n
f act, the word bracha connotes multiplying and increasing. Therefore, a bracha is
something that is completely f or our own benef it and in no way for H ashems benef it.
Someone that ref rains f rom saying a blessing is in a sense stealing f rom H ashem.
I nstead of recognizing that H ashem is the sole source of all blessing, and the provider
of our needs, he is attributing his successes to himself or some other medium.
Another aspect is
3
that the primary reason for creation was so that H ashem can
exercise His kindness towards us, H is creations. When we do something, whether its
performing a mi tzvah or partaking in a physical pleasure, we need to recognize that
this is an opportunity given to us by H ashem f or our own benef it. When saying a
bracha, we are recognizing the true purpose of creation that G-d should bestow
kindness to mankind.
2
Sefer Kad H ak emach, subtitle: Brocha, Sef er Devarim 8:10
3
Si ddur Otzar H atefil a H ak damasKol el es
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B Ba ac ck k g gr r o ou un nd d n : pn n : pn
We f ind a ref erence f or Borchu in the Talmud in the M i shna in Berachos
4
. The M i shna
states that they would recite the words Borchu es H ashem or Borchu es H ashem hamevorach
in the Synagogue (Bei t H ak nesses). The commentaries say that it was originally recited
in the Bei t H ak nesses by Kri as H atorah (the Torah Reading).
I n T anna D ebei E l i yahu
5
it brings a story with E li yahu H anavi (The Prophet Elijah) who
met a person who said to him that he had already died and the only way he would be
released f rom his verdict of Gehennom (Purgatory) was if his son would go to shul and
recite Borchu. There is a similar story with Rebbe Akiva who taught an orphan to pray
and recite the Grace af ter Meals (Bi rchas H amazone). Upon bringing this boy to shul
and reciting Borchu, the boys f ather was released f rom Gehennom (Purgatory)
6
.
Apparently, reciting Borchu with a M i nyan in shul is si milar to the custom of reciting
Kaddi sh f or a deceased parent or relative. I n these instances their power was so great
that they immediately released their f ather f rom Gehennom (Purgatory).
The additional word hamevorach was added so that the reader who is calling upon the
congregation to give praise to H ashem G-d, is also himself praising G-d
7
when
saying that G-d is mevorach blessed. Otherwise it may seem that he is just calling
others to praise H ashem but he himself is not joining them in this proclamation. Our
custom f ollows the opinion of adding the word hamevorach.
4
7: 3
5
T anna D ebei E l iyahu Z uta Chapter 17
6
Otzar Hatef ilos Tik k un T efill a on the prayer of Borchu page 257 citing several sources.
7
Shenos E li yahu
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L L a aw w s s u : + u : +
8 8
I t is customary to bow
9
when saying Borchu.
One should bow when saying the words Borchu es and he should straight en
up when saying the name of H ashem .
I f someone arrives in shul just as they f inished saying Borchu but the Chazzan
has not yet started Y ot zei r Ohr, the Chazzan may repeat Borchu again f or this
individual. (This Halacha is not commonly practiced)
I ts best to start Y otzei r Ohr immediately af ter saying Borchu. I ts unclear
though if this is suff icient reason to skip parts of Pesuk ei D eZ i mra.
The reason why it is pref erable to begin Y otzei r Ohr immediately af ter Borchu is
because Borchu serves as an introduction to Y otzei r Ohr. For this reason, someone who
responds Borchu is considered as being in the midst of Bi rchos Kri as Shema with
regard to the laws of interruption.
Rav Moshe Shternbuch
10
shl i ta suggests to skip part of Pesuk ei D eZ i mra in order to
say Borchu and begin Y otzei r Ohr immediately.
I n order to avoid this issue, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach
11
ztl suggests that one
should have in mind not to be mi tztarei f (joined) with the tzi bbur (congregation)
12
in
reciting the Bi rchos Kri as Shema. This will discharge him f rom having to recite the
Birchos K rias Shema at the moment.
8
The f ollowing H al achos are taken from the Sefer T efil a KH ilchasa 8
9
A ruch H ashul chan 57: 1 notes that the way we bow here is different than the way we bow by shemoneh esrey. I n this
instance, one bows without bending the knees.
10
T eshuvos veH anhogos volume 1:89
11
H alichos Shlomo perek 6 footnote 20. See al so M ishna Berura Simon 54 s k 13, 14.
12
What if there are only ten people with him? I t seems that the halacha should require him to join. However, since
its not critical to the mi nyan for him to daven along with them, he may not be obligated to skip. V etzarich iyun (it
requires f urther study)
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Borchu is a more signif icant praise than the A men said f or H ak ei l haKadosh or
f or Shomeah T efi l l a. Theref ore, if one needs to choose which to respond to,
one should answer Borchu rather than to the A mens
13
.
Places where one may not answer Borchu are when one is:
Between the brochos for Tefi lli n shel yad and T efi lli n shel rosh.
Between Goal Y i srael and Shemoneh E srei .
I n the middle of Shemoneh E srei .
I n all the above cases, one should listen to the Shali ach T zi bbur and have in mind to
be yotzei
14
(f ulfill their obligation) by listening (Shomeah k eoneh listening is
equivalent to reciting).
The Proper Way t o Recit e Borchu
The Tur mentions the following machl ok es (dispute) with regard to the proper way of
reciting Borchu:
The Maharam MRottenberg says its not necessary f or the Shal i ach
T zi bbur to repeat Baruch H ashem hamevorach leol am vaed, which is the same
ref rain as the tzi bbur (congregation).
Rav Yehudah Barceloni holds that the Shali ach T zi bbur should repeat
Baruch H ashem hamevorach l eol am vaed
15
.
The Bei s Y osef elaborates citing the Y erushalmi in Berachos
16
:
Shmuel said; I never disassociate myself f rom the assembly
13
Bi ur H alacha 109 h l i k edusha
14
Simon 25:10, 104: 7 and Mishna Berura s k 27
15
This is the Rambams opinion in perek 7:13 of H il chos T efila
16
Perek 7: 3
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They asked a question: What about someone who says Borchu when being called to
the Torah? I snt he disassociating himself f rom the assembly by not responding?
Said Rebbe Avin; Since he says hamevorach (the Blessed) he hasnt disassociated
himself f rom the assembly
The point of the Y erushal mi is that when the assembly is giving praise to H ashem it is
inappropriate to disassociate oneself f rom the assembly since it gives the impression
that he is not joining everyone in praising H ashem. Theref ore, he should be caref ul to
include himself in the praise. The Y erushalmi contends that since he says hamevorach, it
suf f iciently takes care of this concern. The Shali ach T zibbur calls to the congregation
Borchu es H ashem (Bless G-d) hamevorach (the One Who is blessed). By saying
hamevorach (Who is Blessed) hes also proclaiming that H ashem is praised. Theref ore
its not necessary for him to repeat Baruch H ashem hamevorach leolam vaed.
Nevertheless, Rav Yehudah Barceloni contends that this is comparable to one who
leads the bentchi ng (Grace af ter meals). Just as he repeats Baruch sheochal nu mishelo
(Blessed is He whose f ood we have eaten) by bentchi ng, which is the same ref rain the
others said; so too he repeats Baruch H ashem hamevorach leolam vaed, when reciting
Borchu. The Beis Yosef concludes that the Law (H al acha) f ollows the opinion of Rav
Yehudah Barceloni.
Although Rav Yehudah Barceloni brings a good proof f or the Chazzan to repeat what
everyone else says, i.e. Baruch H ashem hamevorach leol am vaed, it still contradicts the
Y erushal mi that says its not necessary to repeat what everyone said since by saying
hamevorach he includes himself in praising H ashem .
Theres a dif f iculty with the opinion of the Maharam MRottenberg. Why is it that by
bentchi ng one repeats the same response that everyone said?
The Bach, commenting on the opinion of the Maharam MRottenberg explains
that there is a diff erence between this case and the case of bentchi ng. By bentchi ng the
leader of the mezuman (quorum) is not mentioning any praise of H ashem at all. Hes
just stating as a matter of f act the people who ate should bless H ashem f or giving
them f ood. Conversely, by Borchu he already said hamevorach which is a distinct
praise of H ashem.
Still, Rav Yehudah Barceloni disagrees with this, because saying hamevorach
doesnt necessarily mean praise. I t can be interpreted just that H ashem is praised by
others, but not that he himself is giving praise to H ashem, in disagreement with the
Y erushal mi .
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Ot her Opi ni ons
The Levush concludes that the one leading the prayers (Shali ach T zi bbur) should
repeat Baruch H ashem hamevorach l eol am vaed quietly.
He says the same in the previous Simon that the Shali ach T zi bbur should say Y ehei
shemey rabba quietly and then raise his voice by Y i sborach.
The Elya Zuta
17
explains that we understand that the Shali ach T zi bbur says
hamevorach (Who is blessed) to include himself in praising H ashem. However, why
does the congregation need to say the word hamevorach in their refrain of Baruch
H ashem hamevorach leolam vaed? Why not say just Baruch H ashem leolam vaed?
The Elya Zuta gives an interesting answer.
The Gemora in Chulli n
18
says:
Kl al Y i srael is considered to be on a greater spiritual level than M alachi m
(Heavenly angels) since M alachi m are only granted permission to say H ashem s
Name af ter three words; Kadosh k adosh k adosh Hashem, while Kl al Y israel says
it af ter just two; Shema Y israel Hashem.
The Gemora asks:
What about the verse (pasuk ) of Baruch k evod Hashem mi mk omo where the
M alachi m mention H ashems Name just af ter two words?
The Gemora answers
19
:
Once H ashems Name was said af ter three words, they may then subsequent ly
say it af ter just two words.
Similarly, we respond Baruch Hashem hamevorach l eol am vaed, saying H ashems Name
af ter just one word, since the Chazzan already said it previously af ter two words,
Borchu es Hashemhamevorach. This answers why we repeat the word hamevorach, which
in this context means Who was already blessed - i.e. since the Shali ach T zi bbur
17
Commentary to the sefer Elya Rabba
18
Daf 91b f ive lines f rom bottom
19
Second answer at top of daf 92a, veeeboiss eima
The Levush
El ya Zut a
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blessed H ashems N ame after just two words, we can now already bless H ashem af ter
just one word. Thats why the congregation inserts the word hamevorach .
Responding t o Borchu When
One Didnt Hear t he Chazzan
I f there is someone who didnt hear the Chazzan saying Borchu and he only heard the
tzi bburs (congregation) ref rain, the Magen Avraham
20
suggests not responding
Baruch H ashem etc. rather he should just answer A men. The Shulchan Aruch Horav
21
brings f rom other Posk i m that even if he didnt hear the Chazzan he can still respond
with everyone else since he is responding with the mi nyan. The reason is because one
doesnt have to hear the Chazzan himself as we see f rom the case of the large Bei s
H ak nesses in Alexandria, Egypt, where there was someone waving a f lag to signal to
people to answer A men. I f he only heard the Chazzans response of Baruch H ashem
hamevorach etc. then everyone agrees that he should only respond A men
22
.
The M i shna Berura
23
brings f rom the Shaarei E phrai m that its a mistake for the
Chazzan to say A men af ter the congregations (tzi bburs) response since he himself will
momentarily recite Baruch H ashem hamevorach. He also brings f rom many Posk i m
(authorities on Jewish Law) who say that its unnecessary f or the congregation
(tzi bbur) to respond A men to the Chazzan (shatz) since they already said Baruch H ashem
hamevorach. Since A men just conf irms the praise that was said, it totally unnecessary
where the Chazzan actually says the praise himself . However, its permissible to
answer A men anyway and its not considered a hefsek (interruption).
The Levushei Serad also notes that there is a dif f erence if one just hears an
individual or if he hears a congregation (tzi bbur) saying it. I n the latter case it would be
f ine to respond. He therefore has a dif f iculty why the Magen Avrahams rules in this
Simon that he may not respond.
20
Ski 1
21
57: 2
22 Mishna Berura s k 2
23
S k 4
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The Y erushalmi is bothered why by a Z i mun, when a group of adult males ranging in
numbers between 3 to 10 or more, washed, sat down and ate a meal of bread together, the
leader of the Z i mun
24
says nevareich (let us bentch
25
), which means that we should
bless H ashem together, including himself , while by Borchu he is strictly calling to the
others to bless H ashem, in a manner of speech that excludes himself ?
The Y erushal mi answers that by saying Borchu es H ashem hamevorach, the word
hamevorach means - H ashem Who is blessed. Thereby, he has included himself in
praising H ashem.
The Di f f erenc e bet ween Borc hu and Zi mun
The Magen Gibborim asks:
Why, according to the Maharam MRottenberg, doesnt the Chazzan repeat
Baruch H ashem hamevorach (Blessed is H ashem Who is blessed), while by a
Z i mun, the leader of the Z i mun repeats the phrase Baruch sheochalnu mishelo
(Blessed is He f rom Whose f ood we have eaten)?
The Pri Chadash answers that in f act by Z i mun also it is not repeated
according to this opinion.
However, this answer is dif f icult to comprehend since the Tur in his Shulchan A ruch
brings the opinion of the Maharam MRottenberg and yet by Z i mun he only
mentions the opinion that the leader of the Z i mun repeats Baruch sheochal nu mishelo
The Magen Gibborimsuggests two possible answers why Z i mun is dif ferent.
1. Either because the expression of the leader by Z i mun is nevarei ch (let us
bless), which would make it quite conspicuous that if he doesnt repeat the
blessing; hes obviously not including himself in the Z i mun. But when he says
Borchu, hes just asking others to bless H ashem; therefore its not necessary to
repeat the blessing.
2. Another possible answer is according to the explanation brought by the
Raavan
9
in the name of Rebbe Chizkiyahu
26
that when saying Borchu its
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I .e. The one who leads the group in bentchi ng
25
Grace af ter Meals
26
A Ri shon
The Bi rchei Yosef
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Y isborach,
V eyisht abach,
V eyispaar V eyisromam
un:n :on nano |:an
the same as when saying it by when someone is called up to make a blessing
when the Torah is being read in the Synagogue (k ri as haT orah). He asks why
we cant begin Kri as H atorah just by saying the Bi rchas H atorah without Borchu.
His answer is that since Kri as H atorah is an obligation of the tzi bbur
(congregation) and not just the person who is called to the Torah, he says
Borchu to call to their attention that the Kri as H atorah is also f or them to be
yotzei by listening to his reading. Since this is the reason f or the recitation of
Borchu theres really no reason f or him to respond to this call since its sole
purpose is to f ocus their attention to his reading. This idea could also be
applied to Borchu bef ore Y otzei r Ohr as well as to Borchu bef ore M aari v, which
is also f or the Chazzan to f ulf ill the obligation of the congregation
27
.
The Magen Avraham
28
quotes f rom the A gudah that if there are only ten people in the
mi nyan including the Chazzan, then the Chazzan must respond together with everyone
else when hes part of the mi nyan.
The M i shna Berura
29
asks on the Magen Avraham, that this shouldnt be necessary
since we have nine people responding, and the Chazzan (shatz) who is present is the
tenth. Even if he does not respond its not worse than someone whos sleeping.
However, the Pri Megadim explains that the reason he needs to do this is because
when the Chazzan says Borchu hes inviting ten people to say the praise, including
himself when hes the tenth man.
The Prayer (Tefi l l a) of Yi sborach
30
Blessed, praised, glorified, exalted and upraised is the Name of
the King Who rules over kings - the Holy One, Blessed is He.
For He is the First and He is the Last and aside from Him there
is no god. Extol Him - Who rides the highest heavens - with
His Name Koh and exult before Him. His Name is beyond
every blessing and praise. Blessed is the Name of His glorious
kingdom for all of eternity. Blessed be the Name of Hashem from
this time and forever.
The Rama mentions the mi nhag (custom) to recite Y i sborach
31
, which is printed in
many Si dduri m (prayer books) although we hardly ever say it.
27
As it was intended f or those who couldnt daven on their own
28
57: 2
29
57: 3
30
The version of this tefilla is: Y i sborach veyi shtabach veyi spoar veyi sromam (this is usually printed in Siddurim in a
box next to Borchu). See Artscroll Siddur page 89 for a translation.
The Magen
Avraham
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The Tur mentions that his f ather, the Rosh would say the Y i sborach tefi lla while the
Chazzan (shatz) would stretch out the tune (ni ggun) f or Borchu. The leader of the prayer
would specif ically do this in order that the congregation would have time to say it just
like by M odi m when the Shali ach T zi bbur repeats the Shemoneh E srei would give the
congregation (tzi bbur) enough time for M odi m deRabbanan.
I f the Chazzan doesnt stretch out a tune but he draws out the words themselves with
a tune then it is better that it not be recited since the congregation needs to listen to
the prayer of Borchu. This is usually the case in our synagogues and it theref ore has lef t
this prayer in disuse
32
.
In Closing
(1)Pesukei DeZimra
(2)Yi sht abach
(3)Kaddi sh
(4)Borchu
(5)Yot zei r Ohr (Bi rchos Kr ias Shema)
The Birchei Yosef quotes the opinion of Rav Amram Gaon that:
The prohibition to speak bet ween Y i shtabach (2) and Y otzeir Ohr (5) is only if
its not related to communal needs. Otherwise, its permitted. However, after
such an interruption, its necessary to f irst say Kaddi sh (3) and then Borchu (5).
I n the Y eshi va (Central Torah Academy) where its uncommon to have
such interruptions, the Chazzan just says Borchu without saying Kaddish.
The Birchei Yosef explains that we learn a chi ddush (a novel idea) f rom this that the
Kaddi sh (3) af ter Pesuk ei D eZ i mra (1) (2) is not reverting back onto Pesuk ei D eZ i mra (1)
(2) that were just completed. Rather its was mainly f or the synagogues that usually
had interruptions bef ore Borchu (4) with communal announcements. Theref ore, it is
there that they instituted to say Kaddi sh (3) as a pref ace to Borchu (4). For this reason, it
is not necessary to repeat any verses (Pesuk i m) bef ore saying Kaddi sh
This diff ers with the opinion of the Rama in his sefer Darchei Moshe HaAruch
Si mon 54 where he writes that at f irst he changed the custom from interrupt ing
31
Sephardim have a dif f erent version of this prayer. The Sephardic version of this prayer begins Y ishtaba' h veY i spaar
shemo etc.
32
Aruch Hashulchan 57: 1
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bet ween Y i shtabach(2) and Kaddi sh(3) to interrupting between Kaddi sh(3) and Borchu(4)
in order not to separate Kaddi sh f rom Pesuk ei D eZ i mr a. Then he changed his mind
since theres no interrupting between Borchu and Y otzei r Ohr according to the
Geonim as well as according to Kabbalah. He theref ore revert ed back to the custom
(mi nhag) of interrupt ing after Y i shtabach. Then it is absolutely necessary f or the Chazzan
to repeat some verses (Pesuk i m) f rom Pesuk ei D eZ i mra (1) bef ore saying Kaddi sh (3).
The Aruch Hashulchan
33
pask ens (rules) that it is strictly f orbidden to interrupt
bet ween Kaddi sh (3) and Borchu (2) or between Borchu (2) and Y otzei r Ohr (5). I f an
important announcement must be made, it should be done bef ore Kaddi sh (3). He
continues that even there, its no longer the custom to interrupt.
Back in Simon 54:4 the Aruch Hashulchan explains that the best place to interrupt
would be af ter Kaddi sh (3) and bef ore Borchu (2). This is because its between two
distinct parts of davening. The Kaddi sh is going back on the Pesuk ei D eZ i mra, while
Borchu is the beginning of Y otzei r Ohr. However, in practice this is not done because
according to Kabala (mystical writings) no interruption is allowed bet ween Kaddi sh and
Borchu. Theref ore the interrupt ions were made bef ore Kaddi sh. Except, when doing
so, the Chazzan would have to repeat some verses (Pesuk i m) f rom Pesuk ei D eZ imra in
order to recite Kaddi sh. The H al acha that if one receives his T alli s and T efi lli n in the
middle of Pesuk ei D eZ i mra he should don them af ter Y i shtabach before Kaddi sh, applies
only to individuals that they are not reciting Kaddi sh themselves. However, the
Chazzan himself should don them bef ore Y i shtabach. The prevalent custom nowadays
is not to allow any interrupt ion. I f there is an important announcement to be made,
its should be done bef ore the Torah reading (Kri as H aT orah.)
Prayers (Tefillos) Insert ed Aft er Borchu
The Aruch Hashulchan
34
doesnt understand why the Magen Avraham
35
takes a strict
stance with regard to the custom of reciting the perek of Tehillim Shi r hamaal os
bef ore Borchu during the A sseres yemei T eshuva (The 10 days of Repentance
36
). He says
that there really shouldnt be any problem to say it, according to the parameters of
33
57: 2
34
54: 2
35
54: 1
36
Starting with Rosh Hashanah through Yom Kippur
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this Law (H al acha), which only prohibits idle talk. Also according to the custom of the
Rambam, Oz Y ashi r is always recited af ter Borchu
37
.
37
Rambam H ilchos T efil a 7: 13. See Aruch Hashulchan 52: 1
P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
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Quest ions:
1. What does the word Borchu mean in the context of blessings to H ashem ?
2. Why does the Chazzan say the word hamevorach?
3. How should one bow and straighten up when reciting Borchu?
4. I f someone f inds himself at a point where he may not interrupt to
respond to Borchu, what should he do?
5. Why does the Chazzan repeat the congregations ref rain f or Borchu?
6. Which two responses should the Shali ach T zi bbur respond in a quiet tone
(L evush)?
7. What is the meaning of hamevorach in the congregations ref rain of Borchu?
Why is it not suf f icient f or the congregation to say Baruch H ashem l eol am
vaed?
8. I f someone enters a shul and hears the congregation saying Baruch H ashem
hamevorach leol am vaed but he didnt hear the Chazzan s Borchu, what should
he do?
9. What is the diff erence according to the Magen Avraham if there are
exactly 10 people or if there are more with regard to the Chazzans
response of Baruch H ashem hamevorach leolam vaed?
10. At what point of prayer is the blessing that begins Y i sborach veyi shtabach etc.
said?
11. What is the main purpose of the Kaddi sh which is recited af ter Y i shtabach
according to the Bi rchei Y osef?
12. What is the main purpose of the Kaddi sh which is recited af ter Y i shtabach
according to the Rama?
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Answers:
1. I t means that the Chazzan is calling upon the congregation to give praise
to H ashem with the Praise of Baruch. The praise Baruch represents that
H ashem is the true source of all blessings.
2. When the Chazzan says hamevorach, he is giving praise by recognizing that
H ashem is blessed (i.e. the source of all blessing).
3. When starting the word Borchu or Baruch one should bow and then
straighten back up bef ore saying H ashem.
4. He should remain silent and think in his mind the ref rain that the
congregation says to Borchu.
5. So that he too joins the congregation in praising H ashem.
6. When saying Baruch H ashem hamevorach l eol am vaed wit h the congregation
and when saying yehei shemei rabba mevorach
7. Since the congregation is saying H ashems Name just af ter one word it is
only because the Chazzan already said H ashems Name in praise af ter two
words, Borchu es H ashem I n this context hamevorach means Who was
blessed already by the Chazzans praise of Borchu.
8. The Magen Avraham suggests he should just answer A men. The
Shulchan Aruch Horav brings f rom other Posk i m that even if one didnt
hear the Chazzan he can still respond with everyone else since he is
responding with a mi nyan.
9. The Magen Avraham quotes f rom the Agudah that if there are only ten
people in the mi nyan including the Chazzan, then the Chazzan must
respond together with everyone else since hes part of the mi nyan.
10. At Borchu if the Chazzan draws it out with a tune.
11. The Kaddi sh af ter Pesuk ei D eZ i mra is not reverting back onto Pesuk ei
D eZ i mra that was just completed. Rather its pref acing the Bi rchos Kri as
Shema where there was an int erruption af ter Pesuk ei D eZ i mra.
12. I ts main purpose is to complete the section of Pesuk ei D eZ i mra with a
Kaddi sh.