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T H E PI RCH EI SH OSH AN I M ROADMAP T O PRAYER PROJECT
The Roadmap t o Prayer
Lesson 35
Pirchei Shoshanim 2006
This shiur may not be reproduced in any f orm without permission of the copyright holder
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Maariv
The Eveni ng Prayer
Chazal (Our Sages) instituted the evening prayer of M aari v to correspond to the
burning of the f ats and limbs of the Korbanos (sacrif ices) that were brought during the
day in the time of the Holy Temple (the Bei s H ami k dash). This f ollows the Jewish Law
(H al acha) that sacrif ices are only of fered during the daytime but their f ats and limbs
(H ak toras E i muri n) are permitted to be burnt on the Alter (M i zbeiach) throughout the
night. Unlike the Service of the blood (A vodas H adam) from the slaughtering until the
sprinkling onto the M i zbei ach (altar), the burning of the f ats and limbs (H aKetores
E i muri n) are not integral to the (K osher status) of the Korban (sacrif ice/ of f ering).
Even if one did not end up burning the f ats of a part icular Korban, the Korban is still
valid and Kosher. Likewise, the Prayer (Tefi lla) of M aari v was not originally intended to
be an obligatory prayer. N evertheless, through our own volition, M aari v has become
mandatory like the other two daily prayers, Shachari s and M i ncha.
1
Berachos 21a
Lesson
35
The Nature of the Present Day Obligation for Maariv
(An academic discussion)
The Rambam postulates as law that the Maariv Prayer is considered to be an optional
Tefilla. Generally, one who wishes to recite an additional Shemoneh Esrei at any time
of day, he may do so as an optional prayer that he wishes to donate (nedava). I f one
started reciting Shemoneh Esrei thinking that he had not yet recited the particular
prayer one is obligated in and then realizes that he already recited that prayer, one must
halt his Shemoneh Esrei immediately, because a Shemoneh Esrei cannot be part
obligation (chiyuv) and part donation (nedava). However, if this mistake occurred at
Maariv, the Rambam maintains that one should continue the prayer since Maariv is an
optional prayer anyway.
The Kessef Mishna explains that the Rambam follows the opinion of Rebbe Yochanan
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who finds it praiseworthy to daven any time of the day that one wishes to add a
voluntary (nedava) Shemoneh Esrei. However, one who wants to add an additional
prayer as a required prayer may only pray the three daily prayers since adding an
additional Shacharis prayer is like offering two Morning Korban Tamid offerings
which may not be brought.
The Ravad in his notes to the Rambams commentary disagrees and maintains that
Maariv is an obligatory prayer. Since we have already accepted upon ourselves to pray
(daven) this Tefilla every day, it has now become an obligation just as the prayers of
Shacharis and Mincha. Therefore he maintains that if one made a mistake and started
praying (davening) Maariv as an obligation, he must stop when he realizes his mistake
and he cannot convert that Shemoneh Esrei back into a voluntary donation (nedava)
prayer.
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L L E S S O N 3 5
522
Vehu Rachum Yechaper Avone
(But He t he Merci ful One i s forgi vi ng of Ini qui t y)
I t is customary to recite the pasuk (verse) V ehu Rachum Y echaper A vone
2
(the whol e pasuk
should be wri tten out and translated ei ther here or i n the footnotes) before starting M aari v. This
verse is said especially at M aari v because T efi llas Shachari s and M i ncha correspond to
the Korban T ami d of the morning and the evening. Those Korbanos (sacrifices) brought
us atonement when they were of f ered-up in the Bei s H amik dash. M aari v on the other
hand corresponds to the burning of the f at and limbs of the days Korbanos, which do
not bring atonement since the Korban is Kosher without them. Theref ore, we pref ace
M aari v with this verse which is a prayer beseeching H ashem f or f orgiveness and
atonement.
3
This verse has in it thirteen words which is recited when administering
Legislative Lashes. I t would be recited three times over, equaling thirty nine words
corresponding to the maximum thirty nine Legislative Lashes that one received f or
transgressing a Torah-based negative command in the days when corporal
punishment was administered by Beth D i n. Since it was customary f or people to
receive Legislative Lashes
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bet ween M i ncha and M aari v, we recite it at M aari v f or that
purpose too.
T olaas Y aak ov writes that we begin M aari v with this verse because nighttime is a time
of spiritual darkness and stricter judgment with more prosecution by the prosecuting
angels. This then could lead to dif f icult decrees against individuals and communities,
H eaven forbid. We therefore pref ace the evening prayers with these words that H ashem
should f orgive our sins which will in turn save us against strict judgment s, H eaven
F orbi d. The thirteen words in this verse are meant to arouse the Thirteen Attributes of
Mercy to come to our def ense. The attribute of mercy is symbolized in this verse in
its ref erence to H ashem as Rachum, the Mercif ul One, Who forgives in some measure
even when repentance is incomplete.
Shi r Hamaal os
Amongst Sephardi m and N usach Sefard, the custom is to start M aari v with Shi r
H amaalos
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bef ore reciting the verse of V eH u rachum etc. then Chatzi -Kaddi sh and then
V eH u rachum etc. The reason for this custom is to pref ace Kri as Shema with words
2
Tehill im 78:38
3
Tur Simon 237
4
See A budraham on T efi llas M aariv
5
Tehill im 134 (first 3 pesuk im). The rest are a collection of pesuk im (verses) from dif f erent parts of T ehi lli m. They all are
about doing service to H ashem at night.
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L L E S S O N 3 5
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f rom the Torah. The Gemara in Berachos
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teaches us that when a person comes home
in the evening af ter a hard day at work, instead of eating and going to sleep, one
should f irst enter a place of learning or a Synagogue (shul ). I f he is unable to learn he
should recite the reading of the Shema (Kri as Shema) and pray (daven) Shemoneh E srei ,
then go home and eat bread and then say the Grace after Meals - Bentchi ng. This way,
one f ills his nights with Torah and M i tzvos.
The reason f or choosing this part icular Shi r H amaal os is because in this chapter K ing
David (D ovid H amel ech) mentions those who stand i n the house of G-d at night. Likewise,
we who are about to begin prayer i n the house of G-d at night pref ace our evening
prayers with these Torah verses. Additionally, this chapt er of Psalms (T ehi lli m)
continues with the verse, Seu yedei chem k odeh uVorchu (like Borchu) es H ashem, (Li ft
your hands i n the holy place and bless the Lord) which is an appropriate lead
into Borchu
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.
Af ter reciting these words of Torah, the Chazzan says half -K addish (Chatzi -Kaddi sh),
then V ehu Rachum and Borchu.
Borchu es Hashem Hamevorach (Bl ess G-d, t he bl essed One)
Bef ore beginning M aari v the Chazzan calls out Borchu as an invitation to everyone to
join in the prayers of Bi rchos Kri as Shema and Kri as Shema. The congregation responds
Baruch H ashem H amevorach l eol am vaed (Blessed is G-d, the blessed One, f or all
eternity). The Chazzan then repeats the same response as the congregation to include
himself in praising G-d with the congregation. The same thing is done in the
morning at Shachari s bef ore Kri as Shema and its brochos. Originally when they would
recite Kri as Shema and its brochos the Chazzan would say all the blessings (Brochos) out
loud to f ulf ill the obligations (motzee) everyone else in the congregation. I n order to
get everyone to f ocus on what he was about to say, he would f irst say Borchu.
Another reason we start the blessings of the reading of the Shema (Bi rchos Kri as)
Shema in the morning and in the evening with Borchu is because of its similarity to the
reading of the Shema (Kri as H aT orah). Since the Chazzan originally used to say these
brochos out loud to be f ulfill the requirements (motzee) of the congregation (tzi bbur) like
by the reading of the Shema (Kri as H aT orah) he would pref ace it with Borchu giving
praise to H ashem as the pasuk (verse) states Ki shei m H ashem ek ra havu godel leE lok ei nu
(when I call H ashems N ame(i.e. words of Torah), give praise to our G-d)
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.
6
D af 4b
7
M ishna Berura 237:2
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Si ach T efilla - T efillas M aariv
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L L E S S O N 3 5
524
RESPONDING TO BORCHU
Af ter responding to Borchu one is considered to be in the middle of Bi rchos Kri as
Shema. Therefore, if someone responded to the Chazzans Borchu bef ore reciting
V ehu Rachum, he must wait until af ter M aari v to say it.
The Order of Maari v and t he Correct Ti me for reci t i ng Kri as
Shema i n t he Eveni ng
The Tur
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writes that the proper place f or Shemoneh E srei of M aari v is af ter Kri as Shema
and its brochos. This is actually an argument (machlok es) in the Gemara whether the
Bi rchas Kri as Shema of M aari v precede Shemoneh E srei the way we are accustomed or
whether we f irst recite Shemoneh E srei of M aari v and then recite Kri as Shema and its
brochos, making the Shemoneh E srei of Shachari s and the Shemoneh E srei of M aari v
sandwiched between the Bi rchos Kri as Shema. The latter opinion is the opinion of
Rebbe Y ehoshua ben L evi and the f ormer is the opinion of Rebbe Y ochanan. We pask en
(rule) like the opinion of Rebbe Y ochanan that one should recite Kri as Shema with its
brochos f irst in order to join Geulah with Tefi lla by M aari v just as we do by Shachari s.
Tur The Correct Ti me for Sayi ng t he Shema
Accordingly, the Tur writes that the correct time f or praying (daveni ng) is af ter Kri as
Shema which is supposed to be recited af ter T zei s H ak ochavi m (the emerging of the
stars)
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. Rav Pal toye Gaon maintains that if one deliberately prays (davens) M aari v
bef ore nightf all of T zei s H ak ochavi m, he must repeat Kri as Shema on time and repeat
Shemoneh E srei of M aari v as well. Rav A mram Gaon maintains this is even if one prays
(davens) during twilight - Bei n H ashemashos. However, the prevalent custom is to pray
(daven) M aari v even during daylight as early as f rom Plag H aM i ncha and on. This
custom is mentioned by Rashi in his commentary to the f irst daf (f olio) in Berachos.
Ful fi l l i ng t he Commandment of t he Readi ng of t he Shema
He agrees that the M i tzvah of reciting Kri as Shema in the evening is only f ulf illed when
it recited f rom T zei s H ak ochavim (the emerging of the stars); nevertheless, the custom
is still to pray (daven) M aari v bef ore nightf all. I n order to f ulf ill the M i tzvah of reciting
Kri as Shema at night, one would recite it again bef ore retiring f or the night when
reciting the bedtime Kri as Shema (Kri as Shema al H ami tah).
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Simon 235
10
This is the opinion of the Ri f
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L L E S S O N 3 5
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How earl y one can Read t he Shema
The Tur then continues with a discussion about the earliest possible time f or M aari v
with Kri as Shema, whether it begins any time af ter the end of the time f or M i ncha or it
depends f ully on the correct time for reciting the evening Kri as Shema. Rabbei nu am
maintains that one my pray (daven) and recite Kri as Shema with its brochos af ter Pl ag
H aM i ncha which according to Rebbe Y ehudah is the latest time f or M i ncha.
Ful fi l l i ng t he Commandment before Ni ght fal l
The Ri maintains that one cannot f ulf ill the M i tzvah of nighttime Kri as Shema bef ore it
gets dark, except that the custom of praying (daveni ng) early tends to follow some
more lenient opinions amongst the T annai m who maintain that the time f or Kri as
Shema at night is bef ore T zei s H ak ochavi m as mentioned by the Gemara in the
beginning of Berachos. The reason the custom is to be lenient in this regard is because
otherwise people would go home and not return to pray (daven) M aari v with a M i nyan.
Accordingly, M aari v should be prayed closer to nighttime; when it starts getting dark.
The Preferred Ti me for Prayi ng/Daveni ng Maari v
According to the f inal ruling the best time to pray (daven) M aari v is af ter T zei s
H ak ochavim when one can f ulf ill the M i tzvah of nighttime Kri as Shema. This way, one
recites the Bi rchos Kri as Shema at the time one f ulfills the M i tzvah of reciting Kri as
Shema. The same H al acha applies in the morning when praying (daveni ng) Shachari s;
one should pref erably pray (daven) at a time one f ulf ills the M i tzvah of Kri as Shema.
One who has to recite Kri as Shema before praying (daveni ng) loses the benef it of
reciting Bi rchos Kri as Shema at the time he f ulf ills the M i tzvah of Kri as Shema.
Nevertheless, one can f ulf ill the M i tzvah of praying (daveni ng) M aari v even bef ore the
time of night that one could f ulfill the M i tzvah of Kri as Shema. However, one who
does this must repeat Kri as Shema when it is T zei s H ak ochavi m. This is especially true if
one wants to eat a meal or start an activity which may take him a long time.
Some people rely on reciting the three portions of Kri as Shema bef ore retiring f or the
night when reciting Kri as Shema al H aM i tah (Bedtime Shema). The Halachic
Authorities (Posk i m) are not pleased with this arrangement as one is usually tired at
that time and may not remember to concentrate that he is f ulf illing the Torah M i tzvah
of Kri as Shema at that time. Another concern is that Kri as Shema al H aM i tah (Bedtime
Shema) is primarily recited f or protection and not f or the M i tzvah of Kri as Shema. Yet
another concern is that one who goes to sleep af ter H alachi c midnight (Chatzos) is not
reciting Kri as Shema in its proper time, since Chazal (the Sages) instituted that one
should recite the nighttime Kri as Shema bef ore Chatzos to ensure that one doesnt
f orget to recite Kri as Shema before going to sleep. One who didnt recite Kri as Shema
bef ore Chatzos can still f ulf ill the M i tzvah up until sunrise of the next morning.
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L L E S S O N 3 5
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For all the above reasons, one should recite Kri as Shema at T zei s H ak ochavi m rather
than relying on Kri as Shema al H aM i tah (Bedtime Shema).
The Fi rst Bracha of Maari v
T efi llas A rvi s (The Evening Prayer or M aari v) begins with the bracha of Baruch A tta
H ashem A sher bi dvaro maari v A ravi m et c. Then it continues with the theme that
H ashem takes the light and rolls it away as darkness sets in. Likewise, H ashem takes the
dark and rolls it away f or the upcoming light of day. Not only do we mention the
creation of darkness, but we also mention the creation of light. This arrangement
f ollows the tenet of the Gemara
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which states that one must always mention the
attribute of day at night as well as the attribute of night by day. The f ormer is f ulf illed
by M aari v when we say this specif ic text while the latter is f ulf illed in the bracha of
Y otzei r Ohr which we recite in the morning, the f irst of the Bi rchos Kri as Shema.
The T almi dei (student s of ) Rabbei nu Y onah explain that we mention both the attributes
of day and night by Shachari s as well as by M aari v to show that we believe that both
are creations of H ashem; not like those who say that these two opposites could not be
created by a single creator.
Another explanation is given by M ahari A buhav, that if we would not mention the
attribute of night by Shachari s one could be led to believe that when H ashem created
night he created something bad as it represents darkness and evil. Theref ore, we
mention to say that it is a usef ul creation like everything else that was created by
H ashem in creation.
I f someone skipped the f irst bracha of M aari v, he should recite it even af ter
M aari v, even as late as N ei tz H achamah (sunrise)
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.
I f one reminds himself bef ore Kri as Shema that he f orgot the f irst bracha he
should say it af ter A havas Olam. However, he shouldnt say it between Kri as
Shema and Shemoneh E srei as it may be considered an interruption between geulah
and T efi lla.
The Second Bracha Ahavas Ol am - An Et ernal Love
The second bracha at night begins with the words A havas Olam, an eternal love. The
source for this is the verse in Y i rmi yahu
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V aahavas Olam A havti ch etc. u:y nan
11
Berachos D af 11b
12
I ggros Moshe 1:89
13
31:2
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L L E S S O N 3 5
527
+cn |n5on 5 :y |nan (I loved you eternally, theref ore I graced you with loving-
kindness). Unlike Shachari s where there is a machlok es (dispute) amongst the Ri shoni m
whether one says the version of A havas Olam (an eternal love) or A havah Rabbah (a
great love); by M aari v all agree that the text reads A havas Olam. The Gemara
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has a
machlok es (dispute) whether one should say A havas Olam or A havah Rabba in the bracha
that precedes Kri as Shema in the morning. T osefos concludes that one should say
A havah Rabba in the morning and A havas Olam in the evening to satisf y the two
opinions. Theref ore, one should rather say A havah Rabba in the morning since that is
an expression of great love, which is appropriate in a time that H ashem is pleased with
us. D aytime corresponds to the time of redemption so we say the expression of
A havah Rabba. I n the evening which represents the darkness of exile when H ashem is
displeased with His nation, we say A havas Olam, an eternal love which H ashem has f or
His nation even though at the moment they are not deserving of His love, yet He still
has an eternal love f or us.
Bracha Hasemucha LeChavert a
(Reci t i ng Consecut i ve Bl essi ngs)
Generally, a bracha is only valid if it is comprised of the opening blessing starting with
Baruch A tta H ashem (Blessed are You, H ashem) with the mention of H ashem as M el ech
H aOlam (K ing of the Universe). This is called the requirement of Shem U M alchus
(the Name and K ingship). This rule applies primarily to opening brochos (blessings)
which either stand alone or at the beginning of a series of brochos (blessings). For
example, a blessing f or eating a f ruit is Baruch A tta H ashem E l ok ei nu M el ech H aOl am
borei pri H aE i tz (Blessed are You, H ashem our G-d K ing of the Universe the creator of
f ruit of trees). Or when a blessing starts a series of blessings like at the beginning of
Bi rchas H amazone (Grace af ter meals of bread) the f irst blessing begins Baruch A tt a
H ashem E l ok ei nu M el ech H aOl am H azon es haol am etc. (Blessed are You, H ashem our G-
d K ing of the Universe who sustains the world etc.). However, subsequent blessings
like the second bracha of Birchas H amazone (Grace af ter meals of bread) begin without
the above- mentioned f ormat as it begins with N odeh L echa (We thank you). Likewise
here by M aari v the second bracha begins A havas Olam (an eternal love) with the
opening Baruch A tta H ashem E lok ei nu M elech H aOlam. The reason for this is because
all the subsequent brochos of Bi rchas H amazone or of Bi rchos Kri as Shema are connected.
Once the f irst bracha (blessing) of the series begins with the proper format, that
f ormat carries through for all the subsequent brochos (blessings). Since the f irst bracha
of Bi rchas H amazone and of Bi rchos Kri as Shema begin with Shem U M alchus, the rest just
f ollow without their own specif ic Shem U M alchus.
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Berachos 11b
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L L E S S O N 3 5
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Kri as Shema
At night, the M i tzvah of Kri as Shema as we know it consists of the three portions that
we also recite in the morning by Shachari s. The f irst portion is Shema Y i srael and
V eA havta ei s H ashem E l ok echa etc. The second Portion is V ehaya i m shamoah etc. the
f inal portion is V ayomer H ashem etc. D abber el Bnei Y israel veamarta alei hem veassu lahem
T zi tzi s (speak to the Children of I srael and tell them they should make T zitzi s (f ringes)
etc. The f inal portion ends with A ni H ashem E lok ei chem A sher hotzei si eschem meE retz
M i tzrayi m etc. A ni H ashem E lok ei chem E mmes (I am H ashem your G-d Who took you
out of the Land of Egypt etc. I am H ashem Your G-d I t is true).
The f irst two portions represent accepting H ashem as our K ing and accepting upon
ourselves the Yoke of His commandments to f ulf ill His M itzvos. The third portion
which mainly speaks about the M i tzvah of tzitzi s is really not required to be recited at
night since the M i tzvah of T zi tzi s is not a nighttime M i tzvah
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. However the f inal verse
at the end of this portion is a special M i tzvah which we f ulf ill twice a day like Kri as
Shema. I t is the M i tzvah of remembering the Exodus f rom Egypt (Y etzi as M i tzrayi m).
Since this portion of the Morning Shema includes the verse that contains this M i tzvah,
we recite the entire portion which comprises the M i tzvah of T zi tzi s even though that
part icular M i tzvah doesnt apply at night.
One should try to remember bef ore saying the f inal verse of A ni H ashem E l ok ei chem
asher hotzei si eschem meE retz M itzrayi m etc. that he wishes to f ulfill through this the
M i tzvah of Z echi ras Y etzi as M i tzrayi m (remembering the Exodus f rom Egypt), since
M i tzvos T zri chos Kavanah (One is required to have intent to f ulf ill the obligation of a
M i tzvah).
Although it is customary to hold onto ones T zi tzi s and kiss them when reciting the
f inal portion of Kri as Shema of Shachari s; at night one doesnt do this since nighttime
is not the time for the M i tzvah of T zi tzi s.
Af ter everyone has f inished reciting Kri as Shema the Chazzan repeats the words
H ashem E l ok ei chem E mmes out loud just as he does by Shachari s to complete the
number of words in Kri as Shema to 248; equal to the amount of limbs in a persons
body and to the amount of positive commandments in the Torah.
When one prays (davens) individually and recites Kri as Shema by T efi llas M aariv, he
should also make sure to complete the amount of 248 words. According to
A shk enaz and N usach Sefard one should say the three words Kei l M elech N eeman
bef ore reciting the verse Shema Y i srael. According to Sephardi m, one is supposed
to repeat the last three words of Kri as Shema - H ashem E lok ei chem E mmes - like the
Chazzan does.
WE WI LL CONTI NUE THE EXPLANATI ON OF THE MAARI V PRAYER I N THE NEXT LESSON
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To understand this H alacha see Shulchan A ruch Orach Chaim Simon 18:1
P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L Q U E S T I O N S
529
Quest ions:
1) What service of a Korban needs to be perf ormed in the daytime only?
2) What service of a Korban can be perf ormed even at night?
3) Why must someone who started Shemoneh E srei by mistake thinking that he had
not yet recited that Shemoneh E srei stop when he realizes his mistake?
4) What is the machlok es (dispute) between the Rambam and the Raavad regarding
M aari v and what practical dif f erence is there between the two opinions?
5) What part of the Korban does M aari v represent and how is this related to the
reason we begin M aari v with V ehu Rachum?
6) When is the most optimal time f or Tefi llas M aari v? Why?
7) Why does Rebbe Y ochanan maintain that it is pref erred to daven Kri as Shema with
its brochos bef ore Shemoneh E srei of M aari v?
8) What are the drawbacks relying on Kri as Shema al H aM i tah f or the sake of being
yotzei (f ulf illing) the M i tzvah of Kri as Shema? 2/ 3
9) What important lesson of creation do we derive f rom the f irst Bracha of Kri as
Shema?
10) What is the version f or the beginning of the second bracha. Why is this version
unanimous by M aari v but not by Shachari s?
11) What is a Bracha H asemucha L eChaverta? (Use M aari v as an example).
12) Which of the three portions of Kri as Shema is least applicable to nighttime Kri as
Shema? Why?
P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
A N A T T A C H M E N T O F T H E S O U L A N S W E R S
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Answers:
1) The A vodas H aD am, the service done with the blood of a Korban (sacrif ice)
starting with the catching of the blood until its sprinkling on the M i zbei ach
(altar).
2) The burning of the f ats and the limbs on the M i zbei ach (altar).
3) This is because each Shemoneh Esrei can only be either an obligatory prayer
(chovah) or a voluntary (nedava) prayer.
4) The Rambam maintains that M aari v is considered to be a voluntary nedava
prayer. The Raavad maintains it to be obligatory now that we all have accepted
it upon ourselves. According to the Rambam one who mistakenly started Mari v
as an obligation cannot continue reciting it as a nedava.
5) I t represents the H aKetores E i muri n of a Korban the burning of the Korbans f ats
on the M i zbei ach (altar), which is not obligatory.
6) The best time to recite M aari v is at night when one can f ulf ill the M i tzvah of
nightt ime Kri as Shema together with its brochos and then f ollow it with Shemoneh
E srei .
7) One should recite the Bi rchas Kri as Shema bef ore Shemoneh E srei in order to be
Somech Geulah leT efilla.
8) 1) That one is tired and may not have proper k avanah to be yotzei (f ulf ill) the
M i tzvah. 2) That Kri as Shema al H aM i tah (Bedtime Shema) is primarily recited
f or protection and not f or the M i tzvah of Kri as Shema. 3) One may f orget to
recite it bef ore Chatzos.
9) An important lesson is expressing our belief in one Creator who creates
opposites like daytime and nighttime.
10) I t begins with the words A havas Olam. Since we already said A havah Rabba by
Shachari s we recite the other expression at night. According to those who recite
A havas Olam both by Shachari s and M aari v that is because they maintain that the
H al acha f ollows the opinion of the Rabannan in Berachos 11b.
11) A havas Olam doesnt have to begin with the standard opening of Baruch A tta
H ashem E l ok ei nu M el ech H aol am etc. since it f ollows immediately af ter a bracha
that does. Any subsequent bracha is also considered to be a Bracha H asemucha
L echaverta.
12) The third portion of V ayomer which talks mainly about the M i tzvah of T zi tzi s
which is daytime M i tzvah.