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T H E PI RCH EI SH OSH AN I M ROADMAP T O PRAYER PROJECT
The Roadmap t o Prayer
Lesson 36
Pirchei Shoshanim 2006
This shiur may not be reproduced in any f orm without permission of the copyright holder
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531
Maariv - Par t 2
The Thi rd Bl essi ng (bracha)
The bracha that f ollows immediately af ter the reading of Shema (Kri as Shema) begins
with the words V e`E munah Kol Z os (I t is authentic; this ent ire etc.) The bracha ends
with Baruch A tta H ashem Go`al Y israel (Blessed are You, H ashem Who redeemed
I srael). This bracha (blessing) is ref erred to as Ge`ulah, theblessing of Redemption,
which is to be recited right bef ore Shemoneh E srei - Tefi lla. This is what is meant by the
necessity of being Somech Ge`ulah L e`T efi lla (that the prayer for Redempt ion should
immediately be said prior to reciting the Shemoneh E srei).
Although this bracha (blessing) is recited after the reading of the Shema (Kri as Shema),
it doesnt begin with a f ormal Baruch A tta H ashem E lok einu M elech H a`olam (Blessed are
You H ashem, K ing of the Universe), since this too is considered a Bracha H asemucha
L e`chaverta (a blessing that f ollows in succession to another blessing). I t is considered
as a consecutive blessing with the bracha of A havas Olam and to the f irst bracha of
H aM aari v A ravi m, which is the f irst of the series of blessings and begins with Baruch
A tt a H ashem E lok ei nu M elech H a`olam.
Semi chas Geul ah LeTefi l l a - The Order of Prayer
Just as by Shachari s we are required to say the ending bracha of Bi rchos Kri as Shema the
bracha of Go`al Y i srael, (the blessing of the Redemption of I srael) and then begin
Shemoneh E srei without interruption. Similarly by the evening Prayer (T efi llas M aariv)
we are also required to do the same to a certain extent. The main diff erence is that by
M aari v we seemingly always interrupt it with many other things. However, we will see
that in truth we usually do f ulf ill the dictum of being Somech Ge`ulah L e`T efi lla by
M aari v as well.
Underst andi ng Semi chas Geul ah LeTefi l l a
I n the morning prayers (T efi llas Shachari s) we are always Somech Ge`ulah L e`T efi lla. We
f inish the f inal blessing of the reading of Shema (bracha of Kri as Shema) with Baruch
A tta H ashem Go`al Y israel and immediately we start Shemoneh E srei. The only thing that
is between the two is the verse H ashem Sefasaye T i ftach, (H ashem Please open my lips)
Lesson
36
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532
which the Gemara
1
deems not to be an interruption because the Shemoneh E srei begins
with that verse. Likewise by M aari v, our intent is to end with the bracha of Go`al Y i srael
and then immediately f ollowed by the Shemoneh E srei of M aari v. However, this is really
not the case. Af ter the bracha of Go`al Y i srael we still have to at least say the bracha of
H ashk i vei nu (Lay us down to sleep) and Chatzi -Kaddi sh (Half -K addish) while in Chutz
L a`A retz (Diaspora) we also have to say the bracha of Baruch H ashem L e`olam A men
ve`A men. The Gemara answers that since the Rabbanan instituted to recite the bracha of
H ashk i vei nu at M aari v, it is now considered as if it were part of the blessing of
Redemption (bracha of Ge`ulah). The Gemara ref ers to this as being Ge`ulah A ri chta -
one long Blessi ng of Redempti on. The extension of these blessings continues with the
bracha of Baruch H ashem L e`olam A men ve`A men
2
. The Chatzi -Kaddi sh (Half -K addish)
that comes af ter this bracha and bef ore the start of Shemoneh E srei should normally be
considered an interruption between Ge`ulah and T efi lla, except that we recite it there
f or another reason as we will soon explain
3
.
The Sefer H aE shk ol
4
writes the f ollowing explanation how the blessing of H ashk i vei nu
ties in with the topic of Redemption. He writes that when the Jewish people were on
the verge of leaving Egypt, they were commanded at f irst not to leave their houses
the entire night of the 15
th
of N i ssan (the Hebrew calendar date that Passover begins).
This was to protect them f rom pestilence and plague that were rampant in Egypt on
that night which started with the Smiting of the f irst-born Egyptians. At that time the
Bnei Y i srael were f ervently praying a prayer f or Divine protection. Theref ore, such a
prayer is said each night to protect the children of I srael f rom any danger and evil
that is more prevalent at night.
Amen aft er t he Bracha of Hashki vei nu
The M echaber
5
rules that one should answer A men after the bracha of H ashk i vei nu; even
af ter ones own bracha since this comes at the end of a series of brochos. The opinion
of the Rama is not to recite A men af ter ones own bracha except for the bracha of Bonei
be`rachmov Y erushalayi m A men, by Bi rchas H amazon (the Grace af ter a meal of bread).
1
Berachos 4b and 9b
2
This blessing is not mentioned by the Talmud as it was only said later on in time
3
See Gemara Bearchos daf 4b, Tosefos, Rosh Simon 5 and Students of Rabbeinu Y onah on the Ri f for various opinions
regarding the reason f or the institution of the Baruch H ashem L e`ol am prayer.
4
Prayer Chapter 9; M ishna Berura 236:3 in the name of the Students of Rabbeinu Y onah.
5
236:4
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Amen aft er t he Bracha of Baruch Hashem Leol am
The opinion of the M echaber
6
is that where the custom is to recite the blessing Baruch
H ashem L e`olam one shouldnt answer A men at the end of ones own bracha even
though it is the last of a series of brochos (blessings) since it is really independent f rom
the blessings of the reading of Shema (Bi rchos Kri as Shema).
When saying the closing of this blessing Baruch A tta H ashem H amelech bichvodo tami d
Y imloch alei nu le`olam va`ed etc. (Blessed are You, H ashem, the K ing in His glory, He shall
constantly reign over us f orever and ever etc.) one should not say this as a prayer that
H ashem should reign over us f orever, because closings of blessings are not meant to
be prayers; its only a praise that H ashem reigns forever and ever
7
.
Ot her Int errupt i ons t hat are Al l owed
Even though we are caref ul to be Somech Ge`ulah L e`T efi lla by M aari v, nevertheless the
Gabbai (the sexton) is permitted to announce the necessary additions that one needs
to insert into the M aari v Shemoneh E srei of Rosh Chodesh (Y a`aleh V eyavoh Bring up
and bring f orth). Likewise, he may make an announcement to begin saying V e`sei n T al
v`M atar
8
(Give us dew and rain) which is a necessary insertion thats integral to
Shemoneh E srei during that time of year. The M i shna Berura
9
adds that he may even
announce the additions f or Chanuk ah and Puri m (A l H ani ssi m) even though they are
not integral to Shemoneh E srei they are still important parts of Shemoneh E srei. Both
these announcements are not considered interrupt ions between Ge`ulah and Tefi lla,
because they are f or the purpose of praying (daveni ng) Shemoneh E srei properly and are
related to Shemoneh E srei .
Although we allow the Gabbai
10
to announce the above-mentioned additions to
Shemoneh E srei , he may only do so when he himself reached up to Shemoneh E srei .
However, he may not make these announcements if he himself is still in the middle
of Bi rchas Kri as Shema where such interruptions are not allowed.
6
I bid.
7
M agen A vraham 236:4
8
Vssein Tal u Matar L Bracha Give Dew and Rain f or a Blessing - This Prayer is begins to be said f rom Maariv
on December 4
th
or the 5
th
until the holiday of Pesach.
9
236 k 7
10
Gabbai Director of Congregational af f airs and Services
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The M echaber
11
adds that the Chazzan may even recite Borchu again bef ore starting
Shemoneh E srei f or people who came late to services. This was once the custom but it
is no longer in practice. Nowadays, Borchu is usually repeated bef ore or af ter A lei nu
f or the sake of those who missed it at the beginning of M aari v.
Int errupt i on Poi nt s
There are two general levels f or points of interruptions by T efi llas M aariv; one is Bei n
H aperak i m (between the sections) and one is Be`E mtza H aperek (in the middle of the
sections). Bei n H aperak i m is the more lenient of the two since it is at the end of a
section.
11
Simon 236
Bein Haperakim (between the sections) and
Beemtza Haperek (in the middle of a section) of Maariv
After Borchu is already considered Beemtza Haperek
After the Bracha of HaMaariv Aravim and before the second bracha
of Ahavas Olam is Bein Haperakim
After the Bracha of Ohev Ammo Yisrael and before Shema Yisrael is
Bein Haperakim
After the final pasuk (verse) of the first section of Krias Shema
(which starts with Veahavtah eis Hashem) right before Vehayah I m
Shamoah is Bein Haperakim
After the final pasuk (verse) of the second section of Krias Shema
(which starts with Vehayah I m Shamoah) right before Vayomer
Hashem is Bein Haperakim
After the final pasuk (verse) of Vayomer Hashem and before Emmes
and Emunah is considered Beemtza Haperek
After the Bracha of Goal Yisrael and before Hashkiveinu is Bein
Haperakim
After the Bracha Hashkiveinu until Shemoneh Esrei (including
Baruch Hashem Leolam Amen VeAmen for those who recite it) is
Bein Haperakim
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Maariv
I nterruptions
Krias Shema and
its Blessings
Kedusha
(only the
verses
Kadosh
Kadosh etc.
and Baruch
Kevodeetc.
12
Kaddish
(only A men of
Y ehei Shemei
Rabba and after
D amiran Be`alma
according to
A shk enazi
custom and to all
5 A mens
according to
Sephardim)
Borchu
Amen of
HaKeil
Hakadosh
and
Shomeah
Tefilla
10
Amen to all
other
Brachas
(Blessings)
Baruch
Hu
UVaruch
Shemo,
Brich Hu
Bein Haperakim Y es Y es Y es Y es
Y es according
to A shk enazi
custom
N o
Beemtza
Haperek
Y es Y es Y es Y es N o N o
After the bracha
Shomer Ammo
Yisrael Load
until Shemoneh
Esrei
Y es Y es Y es Y es
Y es according
to A shk enazi
custom
N o
Reci t i ng Kri as Shema of Maari v aft er Ni ght fal l
Rabbei nu H ai Ga`on maintains that one cannot recite the Reading of the Shema (Kri as
Shema) with its blessings (brochos) bef ore the evening stars comes out (T zei s
H ak ochavim)
13
. With this in mind, he was asked whether it is better f or someone to
pray (daven) Shemoneh E srei of M aari v with the T zi bbur (congregation) f irst, and then at
T zei s H ak ochavim recite Kri as Shema with its brochos even though Ge`ulah is not put
together with Tefi lla. Or maybe it is better for one to wait to pray (daven) privately
af ter T zei s H ak ochavim in order to place the blessing of Geulah together with Shemoneh
E srei (T efi lla)?
12
This is possible to happen when the congregation is praying (davening) M i ncha after Pl ag H aM incha and before
sunset and the individual is reciting M aariv bef ore sunset af ter Pl ag H aM incha
13
Tzeis Hakochavim This term is the determining f actor in ref erring to when nightf all is according to Jewish Law.
Jewish Law tells us that the previous night is ref erred to as the next day as opposed to Secular Law where the next
day commences at midnight. Under Jewish Law the next day could start as early as 6. P.M. (in the winter) of the
previous night. For example the laws of the Sabbath would in the winter be binding on a person as early as 6 p.m.
on Friday night. The times when Tzeis Hakochavim actually goes into effect varies according to ones custom.
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Rav H ai answered that anytime from Pl ag H aM incha
14
and on, one should pray (daven)
Shemoneh E srei of M aari v with the T zi bbur (congregation) f irst, and then wait until
nightf all (T zei s H ak ochavi m) to recite Kri as Shema with its brochos.
What we see f rom Rav H ai Gaon is that although generally the order for the evening
Prayer (Tefi llas M aariv) is f irst the Reading of the Shema (Kri as Shema) including its
blessings (brochos), then f ollowed by Shemoneh E srei ; which is like the opinion of Rebbe
Y ochanan, its only so when we can also successf ully place the blessing of Geulah with
T efi lla Shemoneh E srei together. However, since in our case one needs to f irst pray
(daven) Shemoneh E srei with a M i nyan, we theref ore f orgo the regular order of M aari v
and reverse it f or the sake of praying (daveni ng) Shemoneh E srei with a congregation
(M i nyan)
15
and then say the Reading of the Shema with its accompanying blessings.
The Shulchan A ruch in Si mon 236 Se`i f 3 rules according to this opinion that one who
comes to shul (synagogue) f or M aari v and f inds that the M i nyan is about to start
Shemoneh E srei he should f irst pray (daven) Shemoneh E srei along with them and then
read the Shema (daven Kri as Shema) with its brochos af terwards. The M i shna Berura
16
notes that one may pray (daven) Shemoneh E srei f rom Plag H aM i ncha and on and that
one is only allowed to take this course of action when he will not f ind another M i nyan
later on. Otherwise, one should rather wait to pray (daven) with a M i nyan later on in its
proper order, being Somech Ge`ulah L e`T efi lla, saying Kri as Shema with its blessings and
praying Shemoneh E srei both in their proper order.
I n such a case, according to the opinion of Rav Shlomo Z alman A uerbach ztl, if one is
davening in a place where they recite Borchu before the A lei nu prayer (as is the custom
in E retz Y israel ), one should immediately start Kri as Shema with its brochos
17
and say
A lei nu only later on af ter f inishing praying M aari v (i.e. Kri as Shema with its brochos).
However, in a place where Borchu is not said af ter Shemoneh E srei of M aari v, one
should f irst say A lei nu with the Congregation (T zi bbur) and wait f or the f inal Kaddi sh
bef ore proceeding to say Kri as Shema and its brochos. I t is pref erred that one prays
(davens) the rest of M aari v as soon as possible so that he doesnt come to f orget it
14
Pl ag H aM incha literally means half of M incha. This means that when we calculate the time from M incha Ketanah
until sundown we have two and a half Halachic Hours. That is f rom nine and a half hours which is M incha Ketanah
until sundown which is the end of the twelf th hour of the day. When we take this amount of time and divide it into
half , one and a quarter Halachic Hours, it gives us the time f or Plag H aM incha.
15
Rama 69:1 writes that this is because M aariv is essentially an optional prayer. See Rama 236:2 ref erences Simon 69.
M agen A vraham 236:1. Sha`ar H atziyun 236:8 states clearly that by Shacharis we never reverse the order.
16
k 12
17
I f its af ter Tzei s H ak ochavim
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altogether
18
. There is however no prohibition to interrupt bet ween Shemoneh E srei of
M aari v and the rest of the M aari v prayer (i.e. Kri as Shema with its brochos).
Based on the above, it is pref erable to f orgo praying M aari v in its regular order and
being Somech Ge`ulah L e`T efi lla (saying the reading of Shema with its blessings next to
Shemoneh E srei ) f or the sake of praying (daveni ng) with a M i nyan. However, according to
Kabbalisti c tradi ti on, one should always be Somech Ge`ulah L e`T efi lla, even if it means
missing praying with a Congregation (Tefi ll a Be`tzi bbur).
We f ind a similar case by Shachari s. According to H alacha (Jewish Law), when one is
praying Pesuk ei D e`zi mra of Shachari s one may skip certain parts of Pesuk ei D e`zi mra of
Shachari s (the morning prayers) f or the sake of reaching Shemoneh E srei with the tzi bbur
(congregation). According to Kabala one should never skip any part of Pesuk ei
D e`zi mra. Therefore, we conclude that one should avoid skipping on a regular basis
and in a habitual way; one should only do so f rom time to time when necessary. The
same applies to M aari v as well. I f one only skips being Somech Geulah L e`T efi lla f rom
time to time, it would be acceptable to do so. However, if one were to do this on a
regular basis, it would be unacceptable since according to our Kabalist`s T raditi on (as
explained bef ore) one should always be Somech Ge`ulah L e`T efi lla even by M aari v
19
.
One Who Needs t o Pray Mi ncha and finds t he Congregat i on Prayi ng
Maariv
I f someone came to the synagogue to pray (daven) M i ncha and f inds that the
congregation started praying (daveni ng) M aari v
20
, he should f irst pray (daven) Shemoneh
E srei of M i ncha while everyone is reciting the blessings of the Shema (Bi rchos Kri as
Shema) and then pray (daven) the Shemoneh E srei f or M aari v together with the
congregation. I f one will have a congregation of 10 Men (M i nyan) f or M aari v later on
then he should rather wait to pray (daven) Shemoneh E srei of M i ncha when the
congregation is praying Shemoneh E srei of M aari v.
One should not opt to pray (daven) M i ncha while the congregation is praying (daveni ng)
M aari v if one will not f ind a M i nyan f or M aari v later on since doing so doesnt
18
H alichos Shl omo 13:13
19
Si `ach Tefill a
20
This is possible to happen when the congregation is praying (davening) M aariv af ter Pl ag H aM incha and before
sunset and the individual is reciting M incha before sunset after Plag H aM i ncha
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constitute praying (daveni ng) with a M i nyan; its only considered on the level of praying
when there is a M i nyan praying
21
.
Baruch Hashem LeOl am
B B a a c c k k g g r r o o u u n n d d
The Tur
22
writes that this bracha was originally instituted because synagogues (shuls)
used to be situated outside the conf ines of the city in secluded areas and people were
af raid to stay late to pray (daven) M aari v with the congregation (tzi bbur). Theref ore,
they instituted the prayer Baruch H ashem L e`olam A men V e`A men, which contains
H ashem`s N ame eighteen times, corresponding to the eighteen blessings of Shemoneh
E srei of M aari v.
Unlike by Shachari s, by M aari v the Chazzan recites Chatzi -Kaddi sh just before starting
Shemoneh E srei . This custom originally began when Baruch H ashem L e`olam was said
instead of Shemoneh E srei ; af ter which they would leave f or home. Even though
nowadays our synagogues (shuls) are no longer situated outside of the city and
everyone remains in shul to pray (daven) Shemoneh E srei of M aari v; we still continue to
say Baruch H ashem L e`ol am and Kaddi sh continuing the tradition as it was done
originally.
The prevalent custom is to recite this bracha outside of E retz Y israel (the Land of
I srael). According to the custom of Sephardi m and also according to the Gra
23
and
N usach A ri (Chabad), one doesnt recite this bracha even in Chutz L a`A retz (outside of
I srael). However, in E retz Y i srael (the Land of I srael), it is not said at all.
Rav M oshe F ei nstei n ztl
24
suggests that the reason that Baruch H ashem L e`olam is not
recited in E retz Y i srael is most likely because it was originally most recently settled by
the students of the Gra and of Rav Shneur Z alman
25
of Liadi, the author of the Shulchan
21
M agen A vraham 236:3, M ishna Berura .k 11
22
Simon 236
23
R Eliyahu Ben Shlomo Zalman of Vilna The Vilna Gaon, Gaon Rabbeinu Eliyahu/ Gra: Born: Vilna, Lithuania,
1720. Died: Vilna, Lithuania, 1797.Notes: Of the greatest Torah scholar of the past two centuries and one of the
most marking figures in halachic Judaism since the Beis Yosef he is revered throughout the Jewish world for his vast
knowledge and saintly character. He devoted every minute of his life to Torah study never having slept more than
two hour a day. He never took any position as a Rav or Rosh Yeshiva. He is the author of countless seforim, many
recorded and published by his students
24
I ggros M osheVol. 2:102
25
R Shneur Zalman of Liadi Graz - Born: Liazna, Russia, 1745. Died: Kursk, Russia, 1813. Notes: Founder of
Chabad, also known as the Alter Rebbe of Lubavitch and as the Baal HaTanya. Author among other works of the
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A ruch H arav, who were both of the opinion that one does not recite the blessing of
Baruch H ashem L e`olam at M aari v.
Although the opinion of the Gra himself is not to recite this bracha, it is said that the
custom of the congregation where the Gra prayed (davened) was to recite the bracha
26
.
Di fferent opi ni ons amongst t he Ri shoni m
27
regardi ng t he
cust om of reci t i ng Baruch Hashem Leol am
T osefos in Berachos write that Baruch H ashem L e`olam was instituted to be recited by the
congregants so that the latecomers would have time to catch up and recite Shemoneh
E srei along with everyone else.
The Rosh stresses that it was started because people were af raid to stay in shul at night
since their shuls were situated in secluded areas outside of the cities.
The Students of Rabbei nu Y onah write that it was instituted because T efi llas M aariv (the
Evening Prayer) was an optional prayer so they recited this prayer instead of reciting
Shemoneh E srei .
These three opinions seem to be disparate and diff erent. The A ruch H ashulchan
28
suggests that in f act the three explanations are really three aspects of the same reason.
He writes that what happened was that since M aari v was an optional prayer and
people came late and were davening in shuls outside of their cities, they substituted (or
according to T osefos they added) a prayer that had H ashem`s N ame mentioned in it
eighteen times corresponding to the original eighteen blessings of Shemoneh E srei .
According to the Rosh the main reason f or instituting this bracha was because people
were af raid to stay in shul. According to the Students of Rabbei nu Y onah it was allowed
to be instituted because M aari v was anyway just an optional prayer. According to
T osefos it was added f or those who came late.
Theres really another strong point that the A ruch H ashulchan point s out which
resolves another dif f iculty with the custom of those who do not recite Baruch H ashem
L e`ol am, yet they still interrupt M aari v right before Shemoneh E srei with Chatzi -Kaddi sh
(Half -K addish) which we do not do at Shachari s. He writes that the Baruch H ashem
Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a major code of law f ollowing the f ramework of the Shulchan Aruch and incorporating
later authorities, of Tanya, a major treatise of kabbalah and Chassidic philosophy, and of Torah Or, a collection of
Chassidic discourses on the weekly parshas and Festivals, published by his grandson, the Tzemach Tzedek.
26
(M aaseh Rav 66, Tefill a Kehil chasa page 345 (48)
27
Early commentaries of the Gemara
28
Simon 236:6-8
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
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L e`ol am prayer consists of verses (pesuk i m) pertaining to Ge`ulah (Redemption). These
were chosen to continue with the theme of Ge`ulah so it should not be considered an
interruption between Ge`ulah le`Tefi lla. Kaddish has the theme of Ge`ulah according to
those who insert a prayer f or the Messiah by adding V e`yatzmach Purk onei V i`k arei v
M eshi chei (His salvation shall sprout bringing the Messiah closer). Even according to
those who do not recite this, the entire thrust of the Kaddi sh prayer is f or salvation
when H ashem will rule with sovereignty over all mankind. Although Kaddi sh was only
recited when Baruch H ashem L e`olam was recited, it remained part of the M aari v prayer
even by those who do not recite Baruch H ashem L e`olam any longer since it is such an
important and signif icant prayer.
Rav N atri na`ee Ga`on writes that the reason f or instituting saying Baruch H ashem L e`ol am
etc. with Kaddi sh was because M aari v was only an opt ional prayer (tefi lla), which they
omitted because they were af raid to stay in their synagogues. They therefore recited
Kaddi sh af ter Baruch H ashem L e`olam to conclude davening and allow people to go
home.
Although it would seem appropriate to recite the f ull T i sk abal
29
Kaddi sh according to
the original custom of those who ended the M aari v prayer with Baruch H ashem
L e`ol am, we rather recite just Chatzi -Kaddi sh at this point since we continue on with
Shemoneh E srei and we will then recite Kaddi sh with T i sk abal which will then also
include that our Shemoneh E srei prayer be readily accepted by H ashem.
Thus we see that the original custom of those who prayed (davened) in shuls that were
situated remote areas outside of their cities is still present to some extent according to
all customs and by people of all backgrounds.
To St and or t o Si t when reci t i ng Baruch Hashem Leol am?
The Rama writes that it is pref erable that one should stand while reciting Baruch
H ashem L e`olam since it was originally instituted as a substitute f or Shemoneh E srei of
M aari v. On the other hand, The M i shna Berura
30
writes that many Posk im (Rabbi ni cal
Authorities) maintain that one should better sit when saying this blessing to show
that one does not want this to take the place of the regular Shemoneh E srei . The M i shna
Berura adds that when one recites this blessing af ter Shemoneh E srei as in the case
where one prays (davens) Kri as Shema and its blessings af ter Shemoneh E srei of M aari v,
then one may def initely stand while reciting this blessing.
29
The verse Tisk abal Tzel os`hone (accept their prayers) or T i sk abal T zelosana (accept our prayers) is inserted towards
the end of Kaddish after each Shemoneh E srei prayer asking H ashem to accept and respond to our prayers. By Shacharis
we delay saying this until af ter |`vah L e`TziyoneGo`eil.
30
Simon 236:10
T H E P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
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When t o ski p Baruch Hashem LeOl am
I f one sees that the Congregation (T zi bbur) is starting Shemoneh E srei soon and he will
not be able to start Shemoneh E srei along with the T zi bbur unless he skips the bracha of
Baruch H ashem L e`olam, one may do so
31
.
However, one should not skip the blessing of H ashk i vei nu or any of the other
blessings
32
in order to do the same. I f one omitted the bracha of H ashk i vei nu in error,
then he should recite it af ter Shemoneh E srei even as late as dawn (A l os H ashachar)
33
. I n
the case where one omits the bracha of Baruch H ashem L e`olam there is a question
whether one should recite this bracha by itself af ter Shemoneh E srei. The M i shna Berura
34
suggests that to be on the safe side, one should recite the verses (pesuk i m) of Baruch
H ashem L e`olam and f inish the blessing but without saying the N ame H ashem to avoid
reciting a blessing in vain.
One who St art ed Shemoneh Esrei of Maari v a Second t i me
Rav Ovadiah Yosef shl i ta rules that if one started Shemoneh E srei of M aari v by
mistake, thinking that he had not prayed (davened) yet, he may continue praying
(daveni ng) as a N edava donation prayer since Tefi llas M aariv is essentially an optional
prayer. This is not the case by Shemoneh E srei of Shachari s or M i ncha since they are
obligatory prayers, and the H alacha is that if one started Shemoneh E srei as a Chovah
(obligation) one cannot switch it to be a N edava prayer
35
.
What t o do when t here i s only one Mi nyan for Maari v
I f the only M i nyan f or M aari v is bef ore nightf all (T zei s H ak ochavi m) then one should do
one of the f ollowing:
One should pray (daven) with the congregation (tzi bbur) the entire M aari v
prayer. When T zei s H ak ochavi m arrives one should repeat just Kri as Shema
alone in order to f ulf ill the M itzvah of reading Shema at night.
One should pray just Shemoneh E srei with the congregation (tzi bbur). When
nightf all (T zei s H ak ochavim) arrives one should then recite Kri as Shema with
its brochos (including Baruch H ashem L e`olam)
36
.
31
M ishna Berura 236:11
32
Tefill a Kehil chasa 19:22
33
I ggros M osheVolume 1:89
34
236:11
35
See Rambam Lesson 35 page 521
36
M ishna Berura 236:12, Chafetz Chaim would personally do this when necessary as recorded by his son in Si chos
Chafetz Chaim. See also Shul chan A ruch H orav 267:2
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According to the Gra in sefer M aaseh Rav, one should rather not even pray
(daven) Shemoneh E srei with the Congregation (tzi bbur) bef ore T zei s H ak ochavi m.
Rather, one should wait until T zei s H ak ochavi m to pray (daven) the entire M aari v
individually then. One should only f ollow this custom if one always f ollows
his customs
37
.
One who prayed (davened) M i ncha on that day af ter Plag H aM i ncha cannot pray
(daven) M aari v bef ore sunset (shek i ah) and theref ore he cannot join the
Congregation (tzi bbur) to pray (daven) M aari v bef ore then.
Si m Shal om/Shal om Rav
According to Sephardim one should recite Sim Shalom. According to A shk enaz and N usach
Sefard, Shalom Rav is recited. I f one mistakenly started to say Sim Shalom instead of Shalom
Rav, one need not correct himself to say Shalom Rav
38
.
Kaddi sh Ti skabal
Af ter praying (daveni ng) Shemoneh E srei of M aari v the Chazzan recites Kaddi sh T i sk abal.
The Chazzan should pref erably wait f or at least nine people to f inish Shemoneh E srei so
that they can answer to his Kaddi sh. Some opinions maintain that if there are a
minimum of six people that f inished Shemoneh E srei , the Chazzan may recite Kaddi sh
39
.
Tachanun
Af ter Kaddi sh T i sk abal we proceed to recite A lei nu. T achanun is not said by M aari v,
although according to some early opinions T achanun is recited af ter M aari v as well.
Not only do we not recite T achanun af ter dark, but even when one were to pray
(daven) M aari v af ter Plag H aM i ncha when it is still daylight, one wouldnt recite
T achanun af ter declaring it to be nightt ime through his prayer (tefi lla) of M aari v.
Furthermore, even if one forgot to pray (daven) M i ncha and is praying (daveni ng) two
Shemoneh E srei s back to back; the f irst f or M aari v and the second for M i ncha, one
doesnt recite T achanun af ter the Shemoneh E srei f or M i ncha
40
.
The Sephardi c Cust om
According to the Sephardi c custom, Psalm 121 is recited on weekdays with Kaddi sh
Y ehei Shelama
41
f ollowing it. Borchu is then recited again followed by A lei nu. Kaddi sh is
not recited af ter A lei nu since it was already said af ter Psalm 121.
37
I ggros M osheVol. 2:60
38
Tefill a Ke`H ilchasa 19:23, I ggros M oshe4:18, Biur H alacha 127 Dh A val
39
See Tefill a Ke`H ilchasa 19:25 for sources
40
M ishna Berura 237:2
41
Also known as Kaddish Y asome(the Mourners Kaddish)
P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
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Quest ions:
1) Why doesnt the bracha of V e`emunah Kol Z os (I t is authentic; this entire etc.)
begin with Baruch A tta H ashem E lok ei nu M elch H a`olam?
2) What does it mean that by M aari v one must be Somech Ge`ulah le`T efilla?
3) How does the bracha of H ashk i vei nu tie in with the topic of redemption?
4) Should one answer A men to ones own bracha of H ashk i vei nu or to ones own
bracha of Baruch H ashem L e`olam?
5) What announcements may the Gabbai announce bef ore Shemoneh E srei of
M aari v?
6) Which of the f ollowing points of M aari v are considered as Bei n H aperak i m or
Be`emtza H aperek ?
1) Af ter Borchu but bef ore Baruch A tta . A sher Bi dvaro M aariv A ravi m
2) Between the end of V ehayah I m Shamo`ah and V ayomer H ashem
3) Af ter the bracha of H ashk i vei nu and bef ore Shemoneh E srei
4) I n the middle of the bracha of Baruch H ashem L e`olam
7) When is one permitted to reverse the order of the blessings of Kri as Shema and
the Shemoneh E srei of M aari v?
8) I f someone who needs to pray (daven) M i ncha f inds that the congregation started
to pray the M aari v prayer bef ore sunset, what should he do if there will be no
other M i nyan f or M aari v later?
9) What should one do in the above situation if there will be another M i nyan f or
M aari v later?
10) Why was the prayer Baruch H ashem L e`olam instituted (Rosh, T ur)?
11) What is the issue regarding sitting or standing f or the blessing of Baruch H ashem
L e`ol am?
12) Why do we not recite T achanun when praying (daveni ng) M aari v bef ore sunset?
13) I f one is trailing in T efi llas M aariv and wants to catch up to pray (daven) T efi lla
Be`tzi bbur, what part of M aari v can one skip?
14) What should one do if the only M i nyan f or M aari v is bef ore sunset?
P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
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Answers:
1) I t is considered a Bracha H a`semucha L e`chaverta which is a blessing that comes in
succession to other blessings withy the f irst one beginning with Baruch A tta
H ashem E lok ei nu M elech H a`olam.
2) We need to place the bracha of Go`al Y i srael together with Shemoneh E srei .
3) This was a prayer recited by the Jews in Egypt when H ashem killed all the f irst-
born of Egypt on the night of the Exodus.
4) According to the Mechaber, one answers A men to ones own bracha of
H ashk i vei nu but not to ones own bracha of Baruch H ashem L e`ol am. According to
the Rama one doesnt answer A men to either bracha.
5) He may announce Y a`aleh V eyavoh, A l H ani ssi m and V e`sei n T al u`M atar.
6) 1) Be`emtza H aperek 2) Bei n H aperak i m 3) Bei n H aperak i m 4) Bei n H aperak i m
7) I f one needs to pray Shemoneh E srei with the congregation where there will not
be any other M i nyan f or M aari v and he did not yet recite Kri as Shema and its
blessings.
8) He should pray (daven) Shemoneh E srei of M i ncha while the congregation is
reciting Kri as Shema and its blessings and then he should pray (daven) Shemoneh
E srei of M aari v along with the congregation. Then he should recite Kri as Shema
and its blessings when it is nighttime.
9) I n this case he should pray (daven) his Shemoneh E srei of M i ncha when the
congregation is reciting Shemoneh E srei of M aari v.
10) I t was instituted f or those who were af raid to stay late in the shuls outside of the
cities.
11) Either it is better to stand because Baruch H ashem L e`olam is a prayer that
corresponds to the eighteen blessings of Shemoneh E srei . Or, it is better to sit
since nowadays we pray Shemoneh E srei in f ull and we recite Baruch H ashem
L e`ol am just as a custom.
12) Since we do not recite T achanun at nighttime, once we pray (daven) M aari v we
consider it like it is nighttime already.
13) One may skip Baruch H ashem L e`olam but not any other blessing.
14) One can either pray (daven) with the congregation from the beginning or one
may choose to pray (daven) Shemoneh E srei withy the congregation and then Kri as
Shema and its blessings by nightf all.