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T H E YESH I VA PI RCH EI SH OSH AN I M PRESEN T S:
T H E ROADMAP T O PRAYER PROJECT
The Roadmap t o Prayer
Lesson 49
Yeshiva Pirchei Shoshanim 2006
This shiur may not be reproduced in any f orm without permission of the copyright holder
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755
The Cust om of Prost rat ing during Aleinu
a) A unique custom that we practice during Rosh H ashanah and Y om Ki ppur is
that we prostrate ourselves when the Chazzan recites A lei nu during Chazoras
H ashatz.
b) When the Chazzan recites the words V aanachnu Kori m U mi shtachavim L i fnei
M elech M alchei H aM elachi m H aKadosh Baruch H u (And we kneel and prostrate
ourselves bef ore the K ing of K ings, the Holy One Blessed be He),
everyone including the Chazzan kneels and bows down all the way to the
ground,
c) This is just as the Jews would do during the time of the Bei s H ami k dash
when they heard G-ds inef fable N ame uttered by the Kohen Gadol on Y om
Ki ppur.
The Prohi bi t i on of Prost rat i ng on a St one Fl oor
T H E T O R A H P R O H I B I T S U S F R O M P R O ST R A T I N G
O U R SE L V E S E V E N I N S U B M I SSI O N T O H A SH E M I F W E D O
T H I S O U T SI D E O F T H E B E I S H A M I K D A SH O N A ST O N E
F L O O R O R A D I R T F L O O R .
Likewise,
I T A P P L I E S T O C E R A M I C A N D S T O N E T I L E F L O O R S.
Therefore in these cases,
O N E M U ST B E C A R E F U L T O SP R E A D SO M E T H I N G I N
B E T W E E N H I M A N D T H E F L O O R .
Lesson
49
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
756
The M i shna Berura
1
writes,
E V E N O N A S T O N E F L O O R I F O N E D O E SN T P R O ST R A T E
H I M SE L F C O M P L E T E L Y O R I F O N E T I L T S T O T H E SI D E ,
O N E I S P E R M I T T E D T O D O SO .
1) I f the f loor has a covering like a carpet or linoleum f loor, the prohibition
doesnt apply.
2) Nevertheless, the Rabbis require putting something down on the f loor even
then.
3) When there is
a) No stone f loor and
b) One isnt prostrating oneself all the way to the ground,
Then there is no need to place anything between oneself and the f loor.
The Mateh Ephraim
2
writes:
1
:p nc n::a n:on : n ' - 5 :c 5 ' - a n:na an5 n:n+ n aun ::ano +5 n:xp nn+pn u+p * n5on * :
o :n+ n:y nnnon: u5x:a :nn ' an5 n n:n +n+ u:a nox: :y n5on a :y uno: nnnono5
n:n oo5 u 5 n:nn n :c + upcon ny:x: p+ u:a nox: :y ux u:x: u+ uooa nnnono5 :n+
u:a nox: :y :o u:x: u+ uooa n u u:x: u+ uoo :a nox:n :y o :y :o:o :n+ n+p |:+ :a
nox:n :y :o nnnon u n+p :x+ u:oc :a+n p: :c ) n: ( :a nox: u u |:+ :n+ n:yn: n:n nn
:y nxp nu:o :n+ n:nx n+p nn :o | u:a nox: :y n+p |:+ :o: nn u 5 :a: :x : u:a nox: :a n+p
x onn uoo n :+ +x :y nxp nu: nox:n :y :o u:x: u+ uooa nn u +x " :a+ :a: a: nny :nn 5
xn " n . 5 u+ :5: :c 5 ' : " :n aon u+a n5 : " o :c : ' n+p |:+ :o :c uo+ : 5n 5 n5on a :a
u:x: u+ uoo |:+ p+ p: :c 5n :
) n ( n5on a uo - u:a nox: . o u:a nox: uo o u ' :c n+p |:+ ] a upa+ :oo5 p+ yp:p ) u: (
o n:ona nno u :a ' :o nox: uo o [ u:a nox: +x: p+ ) n ( : n:a: an5 a+ n:c u:a: nox: :a
an5+5 n a nn a: n:a:n un: :
) an ( n5on a uo u - u:x: u+ uooa no 5 +x :y nun :nn : n5on a oo5 :a :
) xn ( un:o :y :o:o5 - : " u:o: uno5 : ) n ( uoo |:+ " un+x :y nun: u5:x nox:n :y :o : ) an ( nox: oo5 5
o ' un+x :y nun: 5:x n:ya n+p |:+ u:o: :
2
u:o nun :oc - 5:n nc : + - :n n c a : : a : a 5 " au a o_ y n uo o 5 : n : o n u +p :o 5 u a : y a n c : 5 _ n n a
n +a_ y _ a u n : o : _ y u : o: o o : n o x : : u : a p c o _ n : u a o_ y _ nu o : | : x . _ : o _ a u o * n 5 o _ n * u :y y _ p : _ p p_ : , | : x
p c o n . x_ n: u : c : u : a : : o p_ : u : a _ n_ o x : u o o no : + n n a n c : 5 n a : 5 a u a o_ y _ nu o : u . y x n : u
au a o_ y n a au + ny o o n c : 5 _ n u a o_ y n p : up n , y _ p : _ p_ : u n : o a u n : _ u o : _ 5 a p c o _ n : yn : u n : o . n : 5
u n : o : _ y u : o: o u y :5 n_ : o : a , : : y a o u y :5 n_ : o : a : a _ , ayn : : u a o_ y u 5 : x n : _ u . o: a u y :5 o n 5
n : o_ n , : : 5 u 5 : x o :
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
757
The custom was to spread grass over the wooden f loors on E rev Y om
Ki ppur of the custom to prostrate oneself when the Chazzan recites the
order of the Kohen Gadols Y om Ki ppur service.
However,
For the bowing during the A lei nu prayer of Chazoras H ashatz, both on Rosh
H ashanah and Y om Ki ppur, it isnt necessary to spread anything between
them and the f loor because customarily one doesnt prostrate oneself
completely during that prayer.
Many communities place something between them and the f loor and prostrate
themselves on Rosh H ashanah and Y om Ki ppur by the A leinu prayer as well.
Mincha: Remembering, Eliyahu HaNavi
Af ter eating the Yom Tov meal, everyone returns to Shul (synagogue) f or the
af ternoon M i ncha prayer. This T efi lla is very signif icant according to our Sages as it is
during T efi llas M i ncha that E li yahu H aN avi (Elijah the Prophet) was answered in his
prayers to ref ute the idol-worshippers of Bal.
1) I n this f amous incident atop H ar H aCarmel, E li yahu H aN avi had gathered
all the Jews who worshipped this idol and challenged them openly to show
of f the idols powers.
2) He then went on to pray at M i ncha-time that H ashem should make sure that
they do not succeed in showing of f any miraculous powers through sorcery
or other means.
3) Then he went on to show of f G-ds power by placing the meat of a
sacrif ice on top of an altar that he erected and f looded it with water.
4) A Heavenly f ire came down upon the altar burning the sacrif ice and drying
up all the water and proving decisively that G-d is the One and Only
power.
5) From this incident the Gemara
3
proves that one should pray the M i ncha
prayer especially f ervently as we see it was so f or E li yahu H aN avi .
3
Berachos D af 6b
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
758
6) Furthermore, Y i tzchok A vi nu (the Patriarch, I saac) originally instituted this
prayer, and on this day we arouse his merit f or allowing himself to be
brought as a human sacrif ice by A k ei das Y i tzchok (the Binding of I saac).
Mi ncha begins wit h t he recit at ion of Ashrei and vah LeTzi yone Goei l which we
recit e on Shabbos and Yom Tov. The Chazzan recit es t his using t he regular
Shabbos t une. Chat zi -Kaddi sh is recit ed aft er t he Ami dah.
When Rosh Hashanah occurs on Shabbos
When Rosh H ashanah is on Shabbos, the weekly portion of H aazi nu is read f rom the Torah-
scroll just as at a regular Shabbos M i ncha.
Avi nu Mal kei nu
A vi nu M alk ei nu is recited af ter Chazoras H ashatz (the repetition of the A mi dah) unless
Rosh H ashanah is on Shabbos, according to those congregations that do not recite
A vi nu M alk ei nu on Shabbos.
4
Likewise, in those congregations they do not recite
T zi dk ascha T zedek , which is usually recited right af ter Chazoras H ashatz of a regular
M i ncha of Shabbos
5
.
The Second Day Rosh Hashanah - The Di fferences
The prayers f or the second day of Rosh H ashanah are basically the same as f or the
f irst day. There is however some minor dif f erences, which we will point out.
1) M aari v of the second day Rosh H ashanah shouldnt begin bef ore nightf all
similar to the second-day Y om T ov practiced outside of I srael.
2) This is despite the f act that it is considered like a long one-day Y om T ov with
regard to other H alachos.
3) Starting M aari v early on the second-day Y om Tov would signal a leniency to
consider Rosh H ashanah as a long one-day Y om T ov;
4) Thereby people would be misled to allow cooking and other f orms of Y om
T ov f ood preparation f rom one day to the next which is generally f orbidden
on any other two-day Y om Tov
6
.
4
M ateh E phrai m 598:2
5
See Orach Chai m Si mon 598, Tur and Shulchan Aruch f or the opinions on this matter
6
M ateh E phrai m 598:8 and 599:2
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
759
Vat odi enu The Endi ng of Shabbos
I n the event that the f irst day of Rosh H ashanah f alls on Shabbos, then the prayer of
V atodienu is inserted into the middle Brocha of the A midah of M aari v. Although in
the standard nusach (version) of this prayer, which is also used on a Y om T ov that
f ollows the Shabbos, it states the words V a' Chagigas Regel (the Festival Sacrif ice)
which doesnt apply to Rosh H ashanah which is not one of the Shelosha Regalim
(Three Festivals - Pesach, Shavuos and Suk k os), it is said anyway because it is
considered a general declaration
7
.
An Halachic Discussion Regarding one who
Forgot t o recite Vat odienu
When Yom Tov falls on Motzoei Shabbos, we add in the Amidah pr ayer dur ing Maar iv the
par agr aph of Vatodienu. This par agr aph speaks of the distinction G-d dr aws Bein
Kodesh Lekodesh - bet ween differ ent degr ees of sanctity. The occur r ence of Yom Tov on
Motzoei Shabbos highlights the differ ence bet ween the sanctity of Shabbos and the
sanctity of Yom Tov, and in Vatodienu we give pr aise to G-d for making this distinction.
Vatodienu differ s fr om the par agr aph r ecited on a r egular Motzoei Shabbos, Atta
Chonantanu, which speaks of the distinction G-d dr aws Bein Kodesh Lechol - bet ween the
sacr ed day of Shabbos and the weekdays.
If on a r egular Mot zoei Shabbos a per son f or got to r ecit e At ta Chonantanu dur ing
Maar iv, he does not, gener ally speaking, r epeat the Amidah. If, however , one for got to
r ecite Atta Chonantanu and he ate something befor e r eciting Havdallah (in violation of
the Halacha that for bids eating befor e Havdalah), the Sages imposed a penalty r equir ing
him to r epeat t he Amidah (Shulchan Ar uch, 294). The question ar ises as to whet her t his
applies as well to the Vatodienu par agr aph when Motzoei Shabbos coincides with Yom
Tov. Meaning, if a per son f or got to r ecit e Vatodienu dur ing Maar iv when Yom Tov f alls
on Motzoei Shabbos, and then he eats befor e r eciting Havdallah (which we incor por ate as
par t of the Yom Tov Kiddush), must he r epeat the Amidah?
The Pr i Megadim (Rabbi Yosef Teomim, Poland-Ger many, 1727-1792) r ules that such a
per son must, in fact, r epeat the Amidah, j ust as in the case of Atta Chonantanu.
However , Chacham Ben Tziyone Abba Shaul (Jer usalem, 1924-1998), in his wor k Or
Letziyone (vol. 3, 18:5), disagr eed, and distinguished in this r egar d bet ween Atta
Chonantanu and Vatodienu. The par agr aph of Atta Chonantanu was composed by the
Anshei Knesset Hagedolah (Men of the Gr eat Assembly, who instituted and composed the
daily pr ayer ser vices), and thus its omission is looked upon wit h sever ity. Vatodienu, by
7
The World of Prayer, Volume 2, page 215
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
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contr ast, was wr itten later , dur ing the times of the Talmud, by Rav and Shmuel, and hence
it is of a lower Halachic st at ur e. Ther ef or e, one who f or gets to r ecite Vatodienu does not
face the same consequences as one who mistakenly omits Atta Chonantanu, and thus
even if he ate befor e r eciting Havdalla, he does not r epeat the Amidah. However , Chacham
Ovadiah Yosef in Chazon Ovadiah Yamim Nor aim, r ules that one indeed must r epeat the
Amidah
8
.
Summar y: When Yom Tov falls on Motzoei Shabbos, one adds the par agr aph of
Vatodienu into the Maar iv Amidah. One who for gets to add this par agr aph does not
r epeat the Amidah accor ding to the Poskim
9
. If one mistakenly ate befor e r eciting
Havdalla, it is necessar y then to r ecite the Amidah with Vatodieinu. The Halacha is the
same on r egular Motzoei Shabbos.
Shehechiyanu
As f or the propriety of reciting the blessing Shehechiyanu on the second day f or
T ek i as Shofar, there are various opinions amongst the Posk im on this matter, since
the two days of Rosh H ashanah are considered as one long day as explained in an
earlier lesson
10
.
a) Others maintain that Shehechi yanu is recited anyway.
b) The custom in many synagogues is that the individual who recites the
blessing of Shehechi yanu should wear a new garment or have a new f ruit
nearby while having them also in mind f or the Shehechi yanu.
11
c) I f the f irst day of Rosh H ashanah was on Shabbos, then Shehechi yanu is
def initely required f or Tek i as Shofar since it is now being sounded f or the
f irst time this Y om Tov since it wasnt sounded on Shabbos
12
.
8
The D aily H alacha by Rabbi El i Mansour
9
See al so I shei Y i srael (41:21 and f ootnote 45) t hat according t o t he M ateh E phr ai m, once the paragraph of
V ati ten L anu was started af ter omitting V atodi enu, one doesnt return to V atodi enu. Rav Shl omo Z al man
A uerbach and the M i nchas Y i t zchok concur with this novel opinion.
10
Roadmap to Prayer Lesson 45, pages 696-697
11
The f ruit is only eaten later on at the Y om T ov meal, M i shna Berura 600:7
12
I bid. k 6
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
761
Tashlich A Prayer t o Rid us of Sins
Af t er Tef i l l as Mi ncha (Af t ernoon Prayer) peopl e go out of
t he ci t y t o a nearby ri ver t o reci t e t he Tashl i ch prayer
13
.
I f one is unable to recite T ashli ch af ter M i ncha, one may recite it bef orehand.
1) Thus, if the body of water is situated outside of the city and access to there
will be restricted towards nightf all, then one should recite T ashli ch earlier in
the day.
2) Likewise, if f or any other reason one will be unable to go to T ashl ich af ter
M i ncha, one should go there bef orehand.
Mi Kei l Kamocha - Wh o i s l i k e Y o u , G - d !
The main part of this prayer consists of the Pesuk im (verses) of M i Kei l Kamocha that
correspond with the T hi rteen A ttri butes of M ercy as explained in an earlier lesson
14
.
These selected verses are repeated three times. Then, there are other sections of this
prayer that talk about human f allacy and the need to repent and mend ones ways.
The Basic text of Tashlich
Af ter reciting the
prayer, the custom is to
shake the corners of
ones clothing invoking
that H ashem should
take all our sins and
toss them away into
the waters as the Pasuk
(verse) states V eSashli ch
Bemetzulos Y am Kol
Chatosam (And You
shall toss into the
depths of the sea all their sins). According to Kabbali sti c interpretation, this ref ers to
H ashem helping us remove the Y etzer H ora f rom within us. M etzul os Y am, whi ch
literally means the depths of the sea is not meant to be taken literally, rather it is a
ref erence to a spiritual place to where the Y etzer H ora will be removed.
13
The reason f or this is per haps because of T ashl i chs connection with the A k ei dah and T efi l l as M i ncha; as
explained f urther into the shiur
14
Roadmap to Prayer Lesson 42 page 649
Wh o i s l i k e Y o u , G - d , W ho removes i ni quity and overlook s
transgressi on of theremai nder of H i s i nheri tance. H edoesn' t remai n angry forever
because H e desires k i ndness. H e will return and H e will be merciful to us, and
H ewill conquer our ini quities, and H ewill cast them into thedepths of theseas.
Give truth to Jacob, k indness to A braham l ik e that you swore to our ancestors
from l ongago.
From the strai ts I called upon G-d, G-d answered me wi th ex pansi veness. G-d i s
with me, I will not beafraid, what can man do to me? G-d is with meto help me,
and I wi ll seemy foes (anni hi lated). I t i s bett er to tak e refugei n G-d than to trust
in man. I t is better to tak erefugein G-d, that to rel y on nobles.
M any peopl eal so read Psal ms 33 and 130.
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
762
The Symbol i sm of a Ri ver
What is the signif icance of the T ashli ch prayer at a river? Also, it is brought that the
river should have f ish. What is the importance of f ish?
I n the Si ddur (Prayer Book) Otzar H atefi llos, it explains that on Rosh H ashanah, we
f ocus on accepting H ashems sovereignty upon us by proclaiming Him as K ing and
recognizing Him as the Supreme One. Theref ore, we travel out to say this prayer at
the river for this was the setting f or anointing kings in Biblical times.
& K ings used to be anointed and inducted of f icially into the position of
the king, at a riverbank.
& I t was done primarily as a gesture that the kings reign should continue
to f low uninterrupted like the river.
& We too stand at the banks of a river reminding ourselves of H ashem,
Whom we coronate as K ing of the universe.
& I t reminds us to repent and discard our sins and to dutif ully f ollow
H ashems commandments.
A Ri ver wi t h Fish
The reason for goi ng t o a ri ver wi t h fi sh i s:
1) Because f ish always have their eyes open. We too ask Hashem to keep a
good watch over us to protect us f rom any harm.
2) Another concept we should think about is how f ish get so easily trapped in
net s without even realizing what they are getting into.
3) Just as f ish are suddenly caught in nets, so too we are caught in the net of
judgment f or lif e or death. Such thoughts should arouse a person to
repentance.
4) So too we must keep our guard against the evil cunnings of the Yetzer
Hora (Evil I nclination) and avoid getting trapped into his net .
5) K oheles15 (Ecclesiastes) writes Since also man does not know his time;
like f ish that get trapped in f eeble traps.
6) I t symbolizes our hope to be f ruitf ul and multiply like f ish.
15
9:12
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R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
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7) I t also symbolizes that the Evil Eye (A yi n H ora) shall have no ef f ect upon
us, just as it cannot af f ect the f ish that are hidden under the water.
I f t her e i s no body of w at er w i t h f i sh, Tashl i c h may be r ec i t ed by a
w el l spr i ng or anot her body of w at er .
A Remi nder of Akei das Yi t zchok
Anot her r eason we go out t o a r i ver f or t hi s pr ayer i s because t he Medrash t el l s t hat
when Avraham Avinu was on hi s way t o Akeidas Yit zchok (t he Bi ndi ng of Isaac); Sat an
t r i ed t o i mpede Avraham and di ssuade hi m f r om car r yi ng out G-ds wi sh.
1) The Satan theref ore placed a body of water into Avraham Avinus path to
make it dif f icult f or him to cross.
2) Avraham Avinu didnt waver and went into the water until he was neck-
deep into it. Seeing Avraham Avinus perseverance, Hashem caused the
water to disappear and Avraham continued on his way.
3) Since on Rosh Hashanah we emphasize the merit of Avraham Avinu and
the Akeidah, we perf orm the Tashlich prayer in this manner to bring up
Avraham Avinus merit once again.
4) Another thought can be added, that we travel outside of the city to a river,
commemorating A vraham A vi nus perseverance in his A vodas H ashem (service
of G-d). From A vraham A vi nus example we learn what our level of
commitment should be in A vodas H ashem.
Even when we f ind ourselves outside of the comf ort of our city and even in the
f ace of challenge, we will always abandon any thoughts of sinning, and f ollow
H ashem with complete devotion.
Shaki ng t he corner of our garment s
T H E R E A S O N W E SH A K E T H E C O R N E R S O F O U R G A R M E N T A F T E R
T A SH L I C H I S T O SY M B O L I C A L L Y R I D O U R SE L V E S F R O M T H E B A D
I N F L U E N C E S O F O U R S I N S.
Although we repent f or our sins, we are still af f ected by them both spi ri tually
and emoti onally.
For example, if we were accustomed to habitually belittle others in the
manner of our speech, we may still have a strong tendency to look down
upon others, hindering our ef f orts in attaining a f ull T eshuvah.
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
764
We must theref ore focus on not only changing our actions, but also on
changing our attitude and bad habits.
At T ashli ch we begin concret izing this concept by shaking the fringes of our
garments and by spiritually removing the bad inf luences of our sins.
Tashl i ch on Shabbos
There is discussion amongst the Posk i m (authorities on Jewish law) whether to recite
T ashli ch when the f irst day Rosh H ashanah is on Shabbos.
1) Some say that it should be recited on the f irst day of Rosh H ashanah even on
Shabbos as long as no prayer books are carried outside of the city and that it
is not beyond the T echum (the amount one is allowed to travel outside of
the city on Shabbos and Yom Tov).
2) Others maintain that specif ically because of the issue of people carrying
prayer books to T ashl ich we ref rain f rom reciting this prayer on Shabbos.
Throwi ng Bread out t o t he Fi sh
The M ahari l writes,
O N E SH O U L D R E F R A I N F R O M T H R O W I N G B R E A D O U T T O T H E F I SH
O N S H A B B O S O R Y O M T O V D U R I N G T A SH L I C H .
1) The reason f or this is because there is a Rabbinic law that on Shabbos or
Y om T ov, one must not f eed animals that do not rely on you to feed them
16
.
2) Theref ore, it would be incorrect to go to T ashli ch to ask f or H ashems
f orgiveness and transgress this H alacha.
3) We also f ind that the Rabbis
17
even pref erred delaying T ashli ch as late as
H ashanah Rabba if necessary, when otherwise T ashli ch would lead to the
socializing of men and women together.
Reci t i ng Tehi l l i m
The rest of the day of Rosh H ashanah should be spent in Shul (synagogue) either
learning or reciting T ehi lli m. Those who are able to learn should learn, and those
who cannot , should spend the rest of the day reciting Tehi lli m.
16
Orach Chai m Si mon 497
17
A ruch H ashul chan Si mon 583
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
765
A Day i n Court
A story is told that Rav Y i tzchok Z ev Solovei tchi k (also known as the Bri sk er Rav ) ztl
would spend a lot of time on Rosh H ashanah reciting T ehi lli m, divergent f rom his
usual diligence in Gemara study. When asked about his behavior in this matter he
replied that:
1) I t is imperative to pray f or ones welf are on Rosh H ashanah.
2) How can one not recite Tehi lli m at such a time of need?!
3) Every Jews natural instinct is to recite Tehi lli m when f aced with danger.
4) The natural f ear of being investigated and judged by H ashem Himself
permeated the Bri sk er Ravs mind; to which he reacted naturally by reciting
T ehi lli m.
Tzom Gedal iah: The Day Aft er
The day that f ollows Rosh H ashanah is the f ast day of T zom Gedali ah.
1) Unlike a regular f ast day where we recite Seli chos af ter Shemoneh E srei, today
we recite Sel i chos f irst bef ore Shachari s just like any other Seli chos day.
2) On this f ast day, the order of the M orning T efi llos (Prayers) f ollows the order
of the T efi llos (Prayers) of other f ast days.
3) The Sefer T orah is removed f rom the A ron Kodesh (the Holy Ark) after A vi nu
M alk ei nu and T achanun. For M i ncha, the Sefer Torah is read again.
4) There is a custom to recite A vi nu M alk ei nu by Shachari s and again by M i ncha
during the weekday portion of A seres Yemei T eshuvah (Ten days of Repentance).
Some have the custom not to recite A vi nu M alk ei nu on Shabbos as well as on
Friday af ternoon at M i ncha.
5) The custom in many congregations is to recite the T hi rteen A ttri butes of
M ercy each time the Sefer T orah is removed f or the Torah Reading (Kri as
H aT orah) during the weekday portion of A seres Y emei T eshuvah.
Tzom Gedaliah: Background
When N ebuchadnezzar the king of Bavel (Babylonia) conquered Jerusalem, he
deported the poor inhabitants and lef t a righteous man, Gedali ah, son of A chi k am, in
charge of the new-Babyloni an province. Many Jews who had previously f led to M oab,
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
766
A mmon, E dom, and other neighboring lands returned to the land of Judah. They
spent time tending to the vineyards given to them by the king, and enjoyed their
respite af ter suff ering through the earlier oppression.
The K ing of A mmon who was hostile and envious of the Judean remnant - sent a
Jew, Y i shmael Ben N etaniah, to assassinate Gedali ah. I n the seventh month on the
Jewish calendar (T i shrei).
The verses in Yirmiyahu (40:13-16) relate how Yochanan ben Kareach informs
Gedaliah that Yishmael ben Netaniah is on his way to kill him. Gedaliah refuses
to accept the Lashon Hora slander, concerning a G-d fearing Jew.
Y i shmael came to Gedali ah in the town of M i tzpah, and was received
cordially.Y ishmael , tak ing advantage of hi s cordial recepti on, assassinates Gedal iah on the T hird
of T i shrei . T ogether wi th a band of ten men, he murders a number of other Jews, along wi th the
Chal deans who have been l eft behi nd to k eep their eyes on the Jews. T he rest of the community f led
to Egypt, f earing the vengeance of N ebuchadnezzar f or the assassination of his
chosen ruler, Gedali ah. They f led out of f ear, def ying the prophetic warning of
Y i rmi yahu to remain in I srael despite the assassination.
These events are recorded I I M elachi m (K ings) 25:25-26. I t states the f ollowing:
But it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Netaniah, the
son of Elishama, of the seed royal, came, and ten men with him, and smote
Gedaliah, that he died, and the Jews and the Chaldeans that were with him at
Mitzpah.
The Rambam
18
writes:
... and with this act the last burning coal of Israel, was extinguished, sealing the
fate of the Jews in Exile.
The af orementioned assassination occurred on the third day of T i shrei. Some
suggest that Gedali ah was slain on the f irst day of T i shrei, except that the f ast was
postponed until af ter Rosh H ashanah, since f asting is prohibited during a f estival.
Since the verse puts this f ast day together with Shi vah A ssar BeT ammuz, T i sha BA v
and A ssara BeT eves, the Rabbis explain that it is lumped together to teach us that the
death of the righteous is likened to the burning of the house of G-d. Just as they
ordained a f ast upon the destruction of the Jewish Temple, likewise they ordained a
f ast upon the death of Gedali ah. Although we never commemorate other deaths of
18
H i l chos T aani os 5:2
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
767
T zaddi k i m with a f ast day, this particular death is commemorated since it is
associated with another tragedy on a national scale. Since they def ied Y i rmi yahu
H aN avi who prophesized that they were obligated to stay in the Land of I srael, this
tragedy bears a resemblance to the destruction of the Bei s H amik dash f or just as the
Bei s H ami k dash prot ected its inhabitants so too the T zaddi k protected the
inhabitants
19
.
Aseres Yemei Teshuvah
The Ten Days of Repent ance
Dur i ng t he Aseres Yemei Teshuvah i t i s i ncumbent upon us t o r eci t e each of
t he dai l y pr ayer s wi t h f ul l concent r at i on. Our Sages t each t hat :
a) Each day of the seven days between Rosh H ashanah and Y om Ki ppur
corresponds to another day of the week.
b) I t is recorded in Sefari m that each day has within it the unique ability to
atone f or any of ones shortcomings for that day.
c) Theref ore, pouring ones heart out to H ashem during prayers of any of these
days is benef icial in bringing rectif ication to all of ones errant Tefi llos.
d) Even those prayers that were not said with proper concentration and intent
could become inf used with new lif e through the rectif ication of the
corresponding Tefi llos of A seres Yemei T eshuvah.
Erev Yom Kippur
Kapparos: The Cust om of Redeemi ng ones Soul
There is an ancient custom of taking an item and swinging it over ones head while
reciting the prayer Z eh Chali fassi , Z eh T emurassi , Z eh
Rashi brings from the Geoni m,
There used to be a custom to plant seeds in a f lower pot for every child in
the f amily a f ew weeks bef ore Rosh H ashanah. Af ter a f ew weeks when the
seeds start ed to sprout each child would swing the f lower pot around their
19
See Gemara Rosh H ashanah 18b and M aharsha
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
768
heads saying Z eh T achas Z eh, Z eh Chali fassi , Z eh Temurassi and then toss it into
the river
20
.
Nowadays, the custom is to do this on E rev Y om Ki ppur, or some time between Rosh
H ashanah and Y om Ki ppur. Many people have a custom to perf orm this ritual with a
chicken, taking a rooster f or males and a hen f or f emales.
Af ter swinging it over their heads and reciting Z eh T achas Z eh (this in place of this),
Z eh Chalifassi (this is my exchange), Z eh Temurassi (this is my substitute) etc.
a) The chicken is Shechted (ritually slaught ered) and distributed to the poor.
b) Others pref er to take the value of the chicken and distribute it to the poor
and keep the chickens f or themselves.
c) This was done in order not to of f end the poor people by sending them the
chickens themselves that seemingly carry their sins
21
.
d) However, if one knows that it would be more convenient f or the poor
person to receive the chicken itself and that he wouldnt be embarrassed by
it, then it would be better to send him the chicken itself
22
.
The Same Lesson as a Sac ri f i c e
Just as with a Korban in the time of the Bei s H ami k dash, someone who
would bring a sacrif ice to atone f or a sin would view everything done to the
Korban; the slaughtering, sprinkling of the blood, and the burning of its f ats
and limbs as if it were being done to him, so too with the slaughtering of
the chicken af ter reciting the reading of Z eh T achas Z eh, Z eh Chalifassi , Z eh
T emurassi etc.
Ther e are a number of reasons for usi ng Chi ckens:
1) A chicken was the most common and inexpensive animal available f or this
ritual.
2) The A ramai c term for rooster is Gever. Gever in Hebrew means man.
Theref ore, using a chicken f or this ritual sends a message that what is
happening to the chicken should really be happening to us.
20
See Rashi i n Shabbos D af 81b
21
M i shna Berura 605:5 and other Posk i m
22
I bid.
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
769
3) This ritual is done as a commemoration for the Sai r L A zazel (the goat that
was sent of f over a clif f during the Y om Ki ppur services in the time the Bei s
H ami k dash was standing). I n this service, a goat was paired up with another
identical one and one was brought as a sacrif ice inside the Beis H ami k dash
and the second one was shipped of f A zazel, a mountainous region where
the goat was thrown of f the clif f and was instantaneously torn to pieces,
carrying along with it the sins of Bnei Y i srael . Since there is a prohibition to
bring sacrif ices outside of the Bei s H ami k dash, the custom was to use a
chicken that was a type of a kosher bird that was never itself brought as an
of f ering.
Money inst ead of Chi ckens:
Since there are so many chickens that need to be Shechted (ritually slaughtered) in
such a relatively short amount of time, the Rabbis had great concern that the
chickens may not be slaught ered properly. Therefore, it became customary to
extend the time for Kapparos from Erev Yom Kippur to any day during
Aseres Yemei Teshuvah, giving the Shochtim (Rabbis trained in ritual
slaughtering) who slaughter the chickens ample time to assure that the
chickens are slaughtered properly according to strict Halachic requirements
without compromise.
There are others who pref er to use money instead of chickens. After swinging the
money around ones head and reciting Z eh T achas Z eh, Z eh Chalifassi , Z eh T emurassi
etc. it is then distributed to the poor.
The Tex t of t he Or der of Kappar os
The f ull text of the order of Kapparos begins with the stanza of Bnei A dam.
Chi ldren of M an, who sat i n dark ness and the shadow of death shack led i n affli cti on and
i ron. H e removed them from the dark ness and the shadow of death and brok e open thei r
shack les. The fools - because of thei r si nful past and thei r i niqui ti es they were affli cted.
T hei r soul s abhorred al l food - and they reached the portal s of death. T hey cri ed out to
H ashem in thei r distress; from thei r woes H e spared them. H e dispatched H i s word and
cured them and let them escape thei r destructi on. L et them thank H ashem for H i s
k i ndness and H i s wonders to mank ind
23
.
23
Selected verses f rom Psal ms chapter 107
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
770
I f there wi ll be for someone but a si ngle defending angel out of a thousand to declare a
mans upri ghtness on hi s behalf then H e wi ll be graci ous to hi m and say Redeem hi m
from descendi ng to thePi t; I have found atonement.
24
Af ter these verses, the declaration of Z eh Chali fassi (this is my exchange), Z eh
T emurassi (this is my substitute) etc. is recited as printed in Si dduri m (prayer books)
and M achzori m (f estival prayer books).
The Deeper Meani ng Bec omi ng Ri ght eous
From the verses that were selected for this ritual, it is evident that they were
chosen to depict the gravity of someone trapped in the web of sin and
iniquity. As with Korbanos in general and with the Sai r L A zazel in
part icular, the T orah f inds it necessary f or someone seeking to change his
ways f rom being a sinner to becoming a righteous individual, that he must
do something concrete to demonstrate the seriousness of sin and thereby
f ind his way towards a lif e of f ollowing the path of Torah.
Change r equi r es Doi ng
Without such a demonstration, it is very diff icult f or a human being to be
moved in a meaningf ul manner to becoming a diff erent person. The
Rambam in H i lchos T eshuvah explains the way T eshuvah works. A person must
change his essence and is now essentially a dif f erent person.
Sheddi ng Compl ac enc y
The ritual of taking the lif e of a living creature and slaughtering it instead of
ourselves has the unique ability to awaken us f rom our complacency and to
become more concerned with our actions and deeds and how we conduct
our lives. Let us imagine ourselves in the shadow of death; f or sin is death and
self destruction. Let us know that H ashem can save us f rom this abyss; all
we have to do is cry out to Him.
Mak i ng t hat Fi r st St ep
The verse f rom I yov tells us that even if we only start our journey back with
one accomplishment, even if that itself is not a perfect one, we will have
H ashem seeking out that one si ngl e defendi ng angel out of a thousand and take him
graciously to redeem us f rom descending to the Pit; f or we have f ound
atonement.
24
I yov 33:23, 24
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
771
Ac t Now Bef or e i t i s TOO LATE
However, it is imperative that we act on this now, bef ore Y om Ki ppur,
bef ore the A seres Y emei T eshuvah (the ten days of Repentance) has passed
and it is too late. Lets seize this opportunity of perf orming this ritual to its
f ullest benef it so that indeed we will f ind true atonement.
Kapparos: A Lesson i n Forgi vi ng
I t is common for people to say when something breaks or goes wrong I t should be for
a Kapparah (it should serve as atonement). This adage is truly one of the more
meaningf ul sayings that Jews commonly exclaim unwittingly. Let us examine the
f ollowing and learn to appreciate our own simple talk.
Rabbi A vraham T wersk y in Twersk y on Prayer
25
sees another lesson in this ritual of
Kapparos. He does this through the f ollowing story:
One of the disci pl es of the hol y Chassi di c M aster, Rebbe E l imel ech of L i zhensk once
ask ed for the concealed meaning of the Kapparah ri tual. W hat was the meaning of thi s
ex changeand substi tuti on?
T he Rebbe i nstructed hi s disci ple to observe a speci fic i nnk eeper from whom he wi ll learn
the meaning of thi s ex change process.
T he disci ple set out to the town where this i nnk eeper l ived and took up l odgi ng i n hi s i nn.
T o hi s di sappoi ntment, the i nnk eeper seemed to be a very si mple i ndi vi dual, who rushed
through hi s prayers and spent the rest of the day servi ng hi s customers and engagi ng i n
petty talk . A fter spendi ng some ti me observing thi s i nnk eeper, hegrew quite i mpati ent, for
the holy day of Yom Ki ppur was quick ly approachi ng and he sti ll k new nothi ng more
about the meaning of Kapparos. On the night before the eve of Y om Ki ppur the disci ple
noti ced that after cl osi ng up for the night, the i nnk eeper took out two l arge l edgers. H e
started reading from the first l edger things that he had done wrong during the course of the
year. E ach ti me he menti oned some misdeed that he commi tted, he l et out a huge si gh of
remorse. A fter doi ng thi s for a couple of hours, he began reading from the second ledger.
H e read how on thi s day a hai l storm tore off a large part of hi s roof causi ng much
damage. On another day hi s horse died suddenly and how on another day hi s wi fe fell and
brok e her foot. F i nally after reading thi s ledger for a long ti me he shut both book s and
sai d: M aster of the U niverse! I k now I have done many thi ngs wrong thi s year, but Y ou
have also done many thi ngs that have hurt me. I nasmuch as tomorrow night i s Y om
Ki ppur l et us mak e an ex change. Y ou wi l l forgi ve me for the things I have done wrong
25
Mesorah Publi cations
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R L E S S O N 4 9
772
and I wi ll forgi ve Y ou for those thi ngs Y ou have done to me. A t thi s poi nt the disci ple
returned to hi s Rebbe (teacher).
Rebbe E limelech sai d to hi s disci ple A person must learn to forgi ve G-d. M any ti mes
people harbor resentment agai nst G-d even though they may not ex press i t or even be
aware of i t. W e oftenti mes questi on: W hy did G-d do thi s to me? W hat did I do to
deserve thi s? I n truth, this i s actually a lack of faith i n D i vi ne just i ce. I f we would only
achieve true faith i n D ivine justi ce and i n G-ds absol ute benevolence we wi l l have learned
the lesson of Kapparos, to forgi ve G-d for all that H e has doneto us, for ulti mately H i s
judgment i s perfect.
I f we learn just this one lesson f rom Kapparos, that everything that comes our way,
even if its not pleasant, is a result of G-ds perf ect D ivine justice, it is a worthwhile
ritual. Let us hope, as people say, that it should be f or a Kapparah (it should serve
as atonement).
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R Q U E S T I O N S
773
Quest ions:
1) Why is Sel i chos shorter on Erev Yom K ippur in many communities?
2) What are the various customs regarding reciting T achanun on E rev Y om Ki ppur?
3) What are the customs regarding reciting M i zmor L eSodah on E rev Y om Ki ppur?
4) What about reciting A vi nu M alk ei nu on E rev Y om Ki ppur? What about on E rev
Y om Ki ppur that is on a Friday?
5) What do we add to the Shemoneh E srei of M i ncha on E rev Y om Ki ppur? Why?
6) What verses are invoked equally f or boys and for girls when blessing our
children? Why are we permitted to utilize them?
7) About how long ago did Kol N i drei become incorporated into the Y om Ki ppur
liturgy?
8) Why do we make a point of including transgressors of Torah Law specif ically
on Y om Ki ppur?
9) Why do we perf orm the declaration of Kol N i drei (annulment of vows)
specif ically bef ore Y om Ki ppur?
10) What does Kol N i drei symbolize according to Kabbalah?
11) List two laws regarding the manner in which we recite of Kol N i drei .
12) What is the optimum time for reciting Kol N i drei ?
13) What is the reason f or wearing a Ki ttel on Y om Ki ppur?
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R A N S W E R S
774
Answers:
1) We shorten the Sel i chos because E rev Y om Ki ppur is considered like a Y om T ov.
We also shorten some of the standard text of Seli chos since we will say Sel i chos at
M aari v.
2) Sephardim recite T achanun by Seli chos as well as by Shachari s but not at M i ncha.
Ashkenaz and N usach Sefard recite it at Sel i chos but not the rest of the day.
3) Sephardim recite M i zmor L eSodah on E rev Y om Ki ppur. Ashkenaz and N usach
Sefard do not.
4) Sephardim recite A vi nu M alk ei nu on E rev Y om Ki ppur. Ashkenaz and N usach
Sefard do not. When erev Y om Ki ppur is on Friday, everyone agrees to recite
A vi nu M alk ei nu by Shachari s.
5) We add V i duy and A l Chei t. We do this because the Sages were concerned that
one should at least recite V i duy once before Y om Ki ppur as a precaution if one
would choke on his f ood at the meal bef ore Y om Ki ppur.
6) We say the Pesuk i m (verses) used for Bi rchos Kohanim (the Priestly Blessings). We
are permitted to say them because: We dont raise our hands in the manner
that Kohani m do. I t is not during Tefi lla. We do not have intent to do this f or the
purpose of f ulf illing the M i tzvah of Bi rchos Kohani m.
7) I t goes back all the way to the 8
th
and 9
th
cent uries and possibly even earlier
than that.
8) Because the Gemara stresses the importance of including all Jews in the public
f ast even those who have strayed f rom Judaism. This is learned f rom the
eleventh ingredient in the Ketores, which was Chel bana, a spice with a bad order.
9) A reason f or annulling our vows at Kol N i drei is because any transgression
related to a violation of our vows cannot be atoned through the sanctity of
Y om Ki ppur alone.
10) I t symbolizes an oath that H ashem made to send the Jews to exile without
return.
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M R O A D M A P T O P R A Y E R P R O J E C T
R O S H H A S H A N A H / Y O M K I P P U R A N S W E R S
775
11) We recite it quietly along with the Chazzan if we have not yet perf ormed
H atoras N edarim bef orehand. The Chazzan recites it three times, saying it louder
and louder each time.
12) We should pref erably recite it before nightf all.
13) We wear it on Y om Ki ppur when we are f asting and similar to M alachi m.
Additionally it reminds us of the shrouds with which we dress the deceased, in
order to remind us of death to move us to repent.